How are the single-subject methods unique
to experimental research? Think of a problem behavior that you
might want to improve upon in one of your future clients, and devise a
single-subject design to study the effectiveness of your new intervention (nail biting)Which single-subject approach would you
use here (baseline, discrete trials, dynamic), and why?
Need help with a psychology assignment on single subject methods
Biomedical and Traditional Chinese Medicine Views on Lower Back Pain
Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Why this topic is chosen Lower back pain affects almost everyone at some point at a time. It can be destabilising and severely affect one’s quality of life and mobility. It not only impacts one’s physical and mental well being, it also affects one’s financial and results in extensive social costs for the patients, family members and the economy as a whole. (Dawn W, et al 2018). It is also one of the most common and costly medical conditions (Castillo Et al 2015). According to Castillo Et al 2015, lower back pain is attributed to the lumbar to sacral spine. There are many factors that can cause back pain but the problem originates from lumbar to scarum. According to (Otis, 2007), 15% to 45% of adults suffer from lower back pain annually with more than 70% in their life. In my clinical practice, we see patients from all walks of life with low to severe back pain resulting from slight sprain to prolapsed disc who has suffered chronic pain ranging from 6 months to 25 years. Difference perspective from biomedicine and Traditional Chinese Medicine From a biomedicine point of view Prolapsed disc occurs when a disc bulge compresses against a a nerve root or spinal ligament or which will cause a lot of pain. It usually affects lumbar 5 to sacrum 1 because there are the main movement occurring in the lumbar. Although it primary affect Lumbar 4 to Lumbar 5, it can also occasionally affect the lower cervical 6 and 7 and to the rest of the lumbar and rarely also affect the thoracic. This usually occurs backwards or sideways with the symptoms arising from the irritation of the nerves. After a few days, the inflammation will spread to other areas causing back pain or sciatica nerve pain. Prolapsed disc usually occurs sideways or backwards. This can cause the affected vertebrate to be irritated and result in inflammation. After a few days, it will spread to surrounding tissues nearby thus causing pain in the lumbar, sciatic or piriformis area or all of them. (Choice Books, 1994]. According to (Choice Books, 1994]. Prolapsed discs can result from trauma, heavy exercises, twisting and, heavy lifting. Flexion of the trunk cause the nucleus at the anterior side to be compressed which cause the anterior space to be affected. Therefore any twisting motion carrying a heavy object in an erect position will compress the nucleus pulpous into the posterior space. The end result will be disc bulges against the weakest area in the posterior annulus. Similarly, the other trauma can include slipping and falling on the buttock with great force usually cause around 50% of disc hernia. Normally, by twenty five years old, the annulus fibrosis starts to degenerate although it can still withstand several micro traumas. This marks the beginning of degenerative disc conditions. By middle age, the nucleus pulposus tends to dry up gradually and shrink slowly. (Choice Books, 1944,). From middle age, the nucleus in their discs will lose much of its moisture and start to shrink considerably. However, the bulge may spread out, but they are less apt to leak out of the casting. This will however result in a loss in the ability to distribute the shock and pressure. (Choice Books, 1944). From a Traditional Chinese Medicine point of view According to (Sherwin, 1992), Yin and Yang form the basic and fundamental beginning of all life and is a very vital principle in based in TCM short for Traditional Chinese Medicine. TCM is still widely used in treating all kind of diseases in South East Asia for over 2000 years. In (胡 et al, 2008), lower back pain is related to the kidney qi deficiency, blood stagnation and other Bi syndrome (obstruction by pathogenic coldness or dampness) of which refers to the syndrome presented with unilateral or bilateral back governed by the kidneys According to (Goto et al, 23014), blood stasis is not only related to circulation disorders, it can also give rise to other diseases as well. In a study using the Terasawa’s Blood Stasis Score, it was discovered that blood stasis can show hem rheological abnormalities, which can also cause back pain. According to (Xiong et al 2011), in a study conducted in four hospital with Yunnan university in Chinese medicine, 4 main syndromes were identified and associated with chronic lower back pain. Firstly: Qi and or with blood stagnation with symptoms such as sharp pain, limited lumbar movements with purple coating at the tongue. Secondly: In a study by Wang et al (2012), damp heat syndrome show a high correlation for severe pain due to inflammation in the joints. The primary symptoms are redness at the localised area with swelling and redness: the local area has a heavy sensation. The secondary symptoms can include thirst or fever. The urine will be yellow in colour. Tongue texture will be red with yellow and greasy.Pulse will be quick and slippery. Thirdly: Cold Damp is more of a chronic condition. According to Wang et al (2012), cold-damp displayed coldness and pain with heaviness in the joint. Secondary symptoms include constant pain which worsen at night especially during cold or rainy weather. Tongue diagnosis will display: swollen and a pale texture with white greasy tongue coating. Pulse will be stagnant or slow. Fourthly: Kidney Deficiency The key signs or symptoms of Kidney Qi Xu pattern include lumbar pain, weak knees with fatigue after any activities, painful heel, industrial deafness, premature ejaculation with fine, weak pulse in the Chi region. A pale and enlarged tongue indicates poor promotion and filling of blood/ qi circulation. As Kidney qi is weakened and its declining functions resulting in poor promotion of qi and blood circulation which make it harder to nourish the body resulting in lumbar pain and weak knee with tiredness. Kidney is associated to bone health , impairment in the Kidney could lead to bone problem. As the kidney is opened to the ears, any malfunction of kidney could relate to hearing dysfunction or industrial deafness. Deficient Kidney qi and the uncontrolled jing chamber also lead to sexual dysfunction; the decline of Life Gate fire leads to poor consolidation of semen thus resulting in premature ejaculation. Discussions In a study by Lam (2001) in Hong Kong , it was concluded that Chinese medicine work slower but eliminate the root cause compared to western medicine which clear the signs and symptoms faster. It was also believed and known that western medicine comes with undesirable side effects such as gastrointestinal issues. One of the problem arising from the interaction between Chinese medicine and biomedicine is the unfavourable result from these two interactions be it acupuncture or herbs or remedial techniques. The majority of patients living in western countries consume pharmaceutical drugs, undertake western remedial treatment such as chiropractic or physiotherapy. To complement western treatment with Chinese medicine treatment such as acupuncture, herbs, tuina or bone setting techniques, this would entail an understanding of what has been done by western doctors to avoid double work and minimise any harm According to Wong (2005), Traditional Chinese Medicine has been around for over three thousand years, there must be some credibility in it to last that long, it is still been practised widely and gaining prominence in western countries as a alternative or complementary to western medicine. There was discussion that with collaboration between Chinese medicine and biomedicine, there exist a need to establish a reliable clinical research on the safety of Chinese medicine to offer better cost effective and holistic treatments to patients resulting in better health. Conclusion There has been several sufficient clinical research and evidence of successful integration of TCM with western medicine. I gathered that the difficulties faced would be overcoming the mental obstacle faced by people with cultural differences. Westerners have been brought up with biomedicine and are more comfortable with biomedicine despite its risk compared to Chinese medicine unknown to them. Based on the above evidence, it is clear that chinese medicine can play a dominant or complementary role in assisting patient during their rehabilitation. The increasing popular use of TCM cannot be ignored considering a $4billion market share in alternative medicine with an annual growth of 1.4% in Australia. (http://www.ibisworld.com.au/industry/default.aspx?indid=1914). The signed agreement between china in joint cooperation of clinical research and chinese medicine at the University of Western Sydney-UWS, aims at creating better education amongst westerners to benefit the Australian public.. (http://www.labonline.com.au/news/70993-UWS-and-Beijing-University-of-Chinese-Medicine-sign-MoU) I would recommend patients undergoing rehabilitation to include Traditional Chinese Medicine as part of their complementary treatment to hasten their recovery so as to get back to their normal life as soon as possible. References: Castillo, E. R.,
BUS 475 Strayer University Sustainable Business Practices Discussion
programming assignment help BUS 475 Strayer University Sustainable Business Practices Discussion.
Week 5 DiscussionBeing a sustainable and environmentally conscious company is not only good for the planet, it is also a great way for companies to be more efficient, save money, and get an edge on the competition. There are many issues to consider when planning for sustainability, especially in a global environment where countries have vastly different laws as well as ecological concerns.Discuss some environmental or sustainable practices you can adopt, or maybe you have already adopted (like carrying your own recyclable bags to the store or trying not to use disposable containers for food storage). Do you think these practices are worth the cost savings? Why or why not?Below is peer’s discussion in which I’ll have to provide a response too.Crystal Blaylock RE: Week 5 DiscussionSustainability can be the responsibility for all companies small and large. Clean air and natural resources helps a home practice recycling. People use natural light to save on electrical cost. I reuse bags after i have been shopping, the reason why I do is because I use the bags for trash bags in the bathroom and/or to store certain things. However, these practices can help save money and energy.
BUS 475 Strayer University Sustainable Business Practices Discussion
Impact of the Cardiac MRI on the Diagnosis of Heart Failure
Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Discuss how cardiac MRI has revolutionised the diagnosis of human heart failure. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques endure as an evolving clinical tool, providing intricate and comprehensive assessments of anatomical and functional variations in the diagnosis of various injuries and ailments. Particularly, cardiac MRIs have evolved as a revolutionary imaging modality in providing non-invasive, high quality, cross sectional images that enable for precise anatomical delineation in the diagnosis and monitoring of human heart failure (Peterzan et al., 2016; Karamitsos et al., 2009). In considering family history and the onset of any exercise induced symptoms mimicking heart failure, cardiac MRIs are performed as a frontline gold standard method to collate numerical measurements relating to ejection fraction, heart muscle thickness and overall heart size (Kanagala et al., 2018; Stokes et al., 2016). These can in turn identify coronary heart disease, heart attacks, cardiomyopathy, congenital heart disease, diabetes, hypertension, arrythmia, renal disease and obesity as implicated in heart disease. In doing so, cardiac MRIs assess the central changes evidenced in patients with heart failure and provide a revolutionary diagnostic ability. In providing a non-invasive internal view of precise anatomical and functional delineations, cardiac MRIs allow for a revolutionary characterisation and diagnosis of heart failure that other imaging modalities lack. The strengths and limitations of cardiac MRIs will initially be discussed in underpinning the revolutionary role of various cardiac MRI techniques in the diagnosis of human heart failure. Subsequently, case studies will be utilised to explore the additive nature of cardiac MRIs in clinical settings to imaging modalities such as cardiac CT scans, echocardiography and X-rays. The sole use of cardiac MRIs will also be analysed in the diagnosis of heart failure. Finally, the move from obtaining qualitative diagnostic information towards more refined quantitative assessment methods of imaging will be explored in further emphasising the central role of cardiac MRIs in the diagnosis of heart failure. The revolutionary role of cardiac MRIs is most significantly attributed to the precise delineation of anatomical structures which accordingly allows for various qualitative and quantitative assessments to be performed. With precise delineation of anatomical structures, it is possible to render myocardial tissue characterisation and reproduce measurements of blood flow and volume (Peterzan et al., 2016). In doing so, regions of abnormal changes are highlighted and become easily distinguishable as symptomatic of heart failure (Fig 1). This is pivotal in underpinning characteristic tissue changes that are recognised with the onset of heart failure without pursuing invasive investigation. Additionally, the contrast mediums used in cardiac MRI exams, primarily gadolinium, are less likely to be contraindicated in allergic reactions than iodine-based radioactive contrast materials utilised in conventional X-ray and cardiac CT scans (Kanagala et al., 2018). While disadvantages persist in determining the suitability of cardiac MRIs for claustrophobic patients and for patients with metallic implants (neurostimulators and pacemakers), the advantages by far outweigh the results that are attained in proceeding with cardiac MRI scans. Perhaps more significantly and on a more global scale, accessibility to MRI scanners resides as an issue for individuals from remote areas and lower GDI nations (Peterzan et al., 2016). In such cases, resorting to less costly imaging modalities such as cardiac CT scans or echocardiography is apprehensible. However, while these factors do prevail, they do not withdraw from the revolutionary role of cardiac MRIs in heart failure diagnosis. These limitations only ground areas of development in forming universally accessible MRI type imaging techniques. Figure 1. (A): patchy mid-wall late gadolinium enhancement. Arrows elucidate septal mid-wall and inferolateral wall fibrosis (B): autopsy sample from patient depicting the same pattern of fibrosis. This is indicative of the crucial role played by cardiac MRIs in capturing signs of early heart failure progression without the need for invasive investigation. (Taken from Assomull, 2007) As an additive imaging modality, MRIs are able to be used in conjunction with x-rays, cardiac CT scans and echocardiographs to develop a holistic understanding of heart failure classification and strategies for therapy. Generally, chest x-rays are used to analyse the presence of an enlarged cardiac silhouette, pleural effusion and Kerley B lines to inspect heart failure likeliness (Peterzan et al., 2016; Stokes et al., 2016). In particular, pulmonary oedema is attributed to congestive heart failure. Following pressure increases in blood vessels, fluid is pushed against the alveoli in the lungs. These reflect chronic elevation of left atrial pressure and the thickening of the intralobular septa as a consequence of oedema (Fig 2) (Chalian et al., 2016). Therefore, x-rays allow for initial examination and prognosis of referred patients. However, it is the role of MRIs to correlate these issues recognised in X-rays to functional deficits of the heart in providing a diagnosis (Kanagala et al., 2018). Cardiac MRIs will provide accurate images of cardiac structures in evaluating myocardial disease. Most significantly, cardiac MRIs will detect focal and diffuse myocardial fibrosis and will evidence signs of cardiac amyloidosis, sarcoidosis, hemochromatosis and myocarditis in patients to diagnose heart failure (Karamitsos et al., 2009) (Fig 2). Hence, cardiac MRIs underpin the definitive diagnosis of patients and work superiorly to X-rays in detecting and determining the functional causes of initially abnormal X-ray observations. Figure 2. Top Left: Bilateral pleural effusion indicated by arrows. Top Right: horizontal lines extending to periphery denote thickened oedematous interlobular septa following heart failure. Bottom left: short axis cardiac MRI in patient shows mid-myocardial enhancement in mid lateral and inferior segments indicated by arrows. Bottom Right: Fused PET/MR image after glucose diet elucidates patchy areas of intense uptake in lateral and inferior wall. Images highlight sequential method used in localising heart failure diagnosis and classification in patients (Taken from Fishman, 2017; Chalian, 2016). Similarly, cardiac CT (FDG-PET/CT) scans are used in localising the presence of abnormal activity in the heart. FDG-PET/CT scans evidence abnormalities through high uptake and unusual FDG activity. When using PET with low dose CT scans, it is generally too difficult to localise lesions or to quantify thickened muscular walls in the heart. Therefore, MRIs are used to provide additional information in localising and characterising masses and abnormalities in patient scans (Adigopula
University of Phoenix Walmart Signature Assignment Financial Plan Paper
University of Phoenix Walmart Signature Assignment Financial Plan Paper.
No plagarism! Prepare a financial plan for the company you select for your business plan. This financial plan will be included in your final business plan in your capstone course.Describe the business, including the type of business.Create the business case.Determine why funding is needed for the company.Determine the sources of funding. Considerself-funding, borrowing, equity, venture capital, etc.Evaluate the requirements of each funding source you determined appropriate.Analyze the associated risks of each funding source.Decide which sources are the best fit for your company based on the requirements of each. Justify your decision.Estimate the cost of capital for both short-term and long-term funding sources. Research current estimated APRs for your selected sources of funding. Consider creating a table or chart to display this information.Create a profit-and-loss statement for a 3-year period. Project revenue, stating realistic assumptions, such as growth per year, in your projections.Estimate direct costs, including capital, marketing, labor, and supply costs.Cite references to support your assignment.Format your citations according to APA guidelines.
University of Phoenix Walmart Signature Assignment Financial Plan Paper