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Need help with a psychology assignment on single subject methods

Need help with a psychology assignment on single subject methods.

How are the single-subject methods unique
to experimental research? Think of a problem behavior that you
might want to improve upon in one of your future clients, and devise a
single-subject design to study the effectiveness of your new intervention (nail biting)Which single-subject approach would you
use here (baseline, discrete trials, dynamic), and why?

Need help with a psychology assignment on single subject methods

Question A: Calculate for SYS plc all the ratios for which there is an industrial average ratio. 1. Return on Capital Employed (R.O.C.E): R.O.C.E = Net Profit / Capital Employed x 100 22000 / 77000 = 28.57% 2. Net Profit Percentage: Net Profit / Sales x 100 22000 / 60000 x 100 = 37% 3. Gross Profit Percentage: Gross Profit / Sales x 100 36000 / 60000 x 100 = 60% 4. Asset Turnover: Sales / Capital Employed 60000 / 77000 = 0.78 times 5. Fixed Asset Turnover: Sales Revenue / Fixed Assets 60000 / 68000 = 0.89 times 6. Stock Turnover Period: Average Stock / Cost of Sales x 365 7 / 24 x 365 = 106 days 7. Debtors’ Collection Period: Debtors / Sales x 365 10 / 60 x 365 = 61 days 8. Creditors’ Payment Period: Creditors / Purchases x 365 7 / 26 x 365 = 98 days 9. Current Ratio: Current Assets / Current Liabilities 22 / 13 = 1.69:1 10. Liquidity Ratio: Current Assets – Stock / Current Liabilities 14 / 13 = 1.08:1 11. Gearing: Fixed Interest Capital / Equity Fixed Interest Capital x 100 20 / 77 = 26% 12. Interest Cover: Profit before Interest / Interest for Period 21 1 / 1 = 22 times 13. Earnings per share: Profit after Preference Dividend / Number of Ordinary Share Issued 17 / 8 = £2.13 14. Dividend Yield: Dividend per Share / Market Price of One Share x 100 0.25 / 8 x 100 = 3.13% 15. Dividend Cover: Profit after Preference Dividend / Total Ordinary Share Dividend 17 / 2 = 8.5 times 16. Price Earnings Ratio: Market Price of One Share / Earnings per Share 8 / 2.125 = 3.76:1 17. Return on Equity: Profit after Preference Dividend / Equity Capital x 100 17 / 57 x 100 = 29.82% Question B: Drawing on the ratio’s calculated in ‘Question A’ and comparisons with the industrial averages; discuss the position and performance of SYS plc. Ration comparison: Industrial Average Ratio SYS plc Ratio Ratio Difference Return on Capital Employed 25% 28.57% 3.57% Net Profit Percentage 35% 37% 2% Gross Profit Percentage 65% 60% -5% Asset Turnover 0.7 times 0.78 times 0.08 times Fixed Asset Turnover 0.8 times 0.89 times 0.09 times Stock Turnover Period 50 days 106 days 56 days Debtors’ Collection Period 35 days 61 days 26 days Creditors’ Collection Period 40 days 98 days 58 days Current Ratio 1.4:1 1.69:1 0.29:1 Liquidity Ratio 01:01 1.08:1 0.08:1 Gearing 35% 26% -9% Interest Cover 10 times 22 times 12 times Earnings per Share £4 £2.13 -£1.87 Dividend Yield 5% 3.12% -1.88% Dividend Cover 5 times 8.5 times 3.5 times Price Earnings Ratio 8:1 3.76:1 -4.24:1 Return on Equity 40% 29.82% -10.18% R.O.C.E R.O.C.E is frequently used to express the annual percentage return that an investor would receive on their capital input in a particular company; as well as how efficiently that company is at utilising its total capital invested within all areas. For SYS plc it is evident that from the ratio result for every £1 of capital invested in the company, the annual return to an investor would be 28.57p. As a result an investor would prefer to receive as high a R.O.C.E as possible. The R.O.C.E may be an excellent ratio to investigate in terms of profitability as it gives an indication as to the R.O.C.E. whilst also taking into consideration the amount of capital utilised within the company at the same time. In consequence the elevated R.O.C.E in comparison to the industrial average is a positive point to future investors of SYS plc as it suggests that a greater amount of profit can be re invested into the company for the benefit of its shareholders. This increased R.O.C.E will definitely be an attractive financial characteristic to future investors. In turn more investment will be generated enabling SYS plc to generate more capital that can then be further employed into their expansion plans. Net Profit Percentage Net Profit Percentage is frequently used to indicate how much of a company’s total sales are actually retained as earnings. For instance, in the case of SYS plc who has a Net Profit Percentage of 37%. This would mean that SYS plc preserve 37p for every one pound of sales generated after all direct and indirect expenses have been deducted. The Net Profit Percentage ratio also signifies a company’s ability to adapt to adverse and unfavorable economic events and conditions, such as low demand for products and/or services as well as increased price competition. Net Profit Percentage is especially functional when comparing companies that operate within similar industries. For this reason this may be one of the more useful ratios to compare when looking to invest in a similar company. For example with relation to SYS plc who are currently looking to expand, investors would prefer to see a superior Net Profit Percentage over other companies within the same market sector and/or industry as the 2% increase on the industrial average indicates a more lucrative and profitable company that has enhanced control and organisation over its costs in comparison to competitors. Similarly, with SYS plc having a higher Net Profit Percentage than the industry average will allow the company to invest more capital on product improvements and expansion plans, such as the implementation of new up to date factories. Other benefits of analysing Net Profit Percentage also allow the investor to assess the profitability of the company focusing on all influencing factors regardless of management jurisdiction and control. Gross Profit Percentage A company’s Gross Profit Percentage is an indication of their generated profit after subtracting any variable costs. In terms of SYS plc this ratio will allow investors to monitor how effectively the company manages and manipulates their costs of production. The value of the Gross Profit Percentage is calculated with regards to the cost of production and the cost of sales. For example for a retail company, such as Toys R Us it would be the difference between the cost of buying a toy and the cost of a selling a toy in store. Investors are likely to use this ratio to explore the competitive strength of a company. However, in terms of SYS plc there is a negative difference of 5% compared to the industry average. This declined Gross Profit Percentage will certainly not be looked at favorably by potential investors. This 5% difference in comparison to the industry average may imply that SYS plc are paying more than their competitors for their raw materials and parts. In addition to this it may also mean that SYS plc are generating less income with regards to product selling than competitors. As a result this will see a much greater increase in SYS plc’s cost of sales. In order for SYS plc to increase their Gross Profit Percentage they should think about re designing their business strategies in order to gain pricing power within their market segment so they can regain control of their industry market segment. As a result this will enable SYS plc to spend more capital on developing new product ranges and advanced marketing so that in turn they can gain enough further capital to expand their company as they aspire to do so. Asset Turnover An increase of 0.08 times the industrial average with regards to Asset Turnover for SYS plc would be looked at favorably by investors. In simple terms Asset Turnover measures how efficiently a company can utilise its assets to generate profits and sales. The Asset Turnover Ratio is often industry specific as it enables an investor to reflect on a variety of turnover values coherent within similar industry sectors. For SYS plc to have an above the industrial average Asset Turnover is highly beneficial and often regarded as a competitive advantage. This will strongly indicate to investors that the company has a completive and successful pricing strategy. In addition to this a high Total Asset Turnover relative to the industrial average may possibly be the consequence of the utilisation of archaic, obsolete, and extremely dated and depreciated assets which is not capable of does not increasing production rate, and in turn generating sales. Fixed Asset Turnover Fixed Asset Turnover is very comparable to Asset Turnover. Fixed Asset Turnover is simply a narrower measure of Asset Turnover; it can also calculate how successfully sales are generated by fixed asset investments; these fixed assets are commonly attributes such as, equipment and property however it does not include current assets. In terms of investment; when company’s make considerable purchases sensible and interested investors will analyse this ratio for the next few years in order to compare and visualise how effective the purchase of the fixed asset has been for the company. For SYS plc their Fixed Asset Turn over is 0.09 times greater than the industry average, this increase highlights how the company are more effective and have greater ability in generating net sales from fixed asset investment. This type of efficiency illustrates how lucrative investments are. Accordingly an increased Fixed Asset Turnover would definitely be attractive to potential investors, specifically in the case of SYS plc looking to expand the proof of their above industry average Fixed Asset Turnover already depicts how efficient they are at generating sales through the effective use of such aspirations. Stock Turnover Period The concept of the Stock Turnover Period ratio is an excellent measure of efficiency. This ratio allows the investor to explore the relationship between the cost of sales and the average cost of stock within a set period of time. Seemingly this ratio denotes that the number of time the stock has been turned over during the given time period and then assess the efficiency with which the company is able to manage its stock levels. For SYS plc they have a Stock Turner Period of 56 more days than the industry average. This Stock Turnover Period is high in comparison to the industry average; which is definitely seen as good thing to investors and the company alike. It highlights that SYS plc are very efficient in stock investment. For SYS plc this high inventory Stock Turnover Period implies efficient management of stock, this is due to the stocks being sold more frequently, meaning less capital is required to finance and purchase more stock. Furthermore, in terms of expansion aspirations this high stock turnover period suggests that with extra facilities and property SYS plc maybe able to further increase their Stock Turnover Period in order to generate increased profits and market share. Similarly, the expansion may enable the company to produce different products within the same market segments in order to further increase profitability. Debtors’ Collection Period The Debtors’ Collection Period is commonly known as the average amount of time a company takes to collect money owed to them by its trade debtors. As a result this ratio allows investors to measure the quality of its debtors. In terms of SYS plc The Debtors’ Collection Period is a hefty 26 days more than the industry average. This Debtors’ Collection Period is not appealing to investors and will not aid in the company’s plans for expansion. This lengthy Debtors’ Collection Period may suggest that SYS plc is being too tolerant and inefficient in their methods and periods of collection. If the company wishes to expand and become more functional they must seek to reduce their Debtors’ Collection Period which in turn would influence prompt payment by debtors, and reduce the possibility of occurring ‘bad debts’. Creditors’ Payment Period The Creditors’ Payment Period indicates the amount of time that a company has before they have to pay their creditors’. For SYS plc this Creditors’ Payment Period is 98 days, which is 58 days longer than the industry average. This is a positive point for the company as it means they have more time to pay back money they owe to creditors’. This high Creditors’ Payment Period suggests that the creditors are being paid punctually by SYS plc. In addition to the amount of time SYS plc have to pay back their creditors’ it also gives the impression of been able to have enhanced credit value, which in the long term will encourage creditors’ to provide you with more raw materials and stock etc, as well as being confident in the fact that they will receive their payments on time. This kind of performance is again highly appealing to investors which in turn may encourage them to invest more money which will enable the company to expand as it aims to do so. Current Ratio The Current ratio is a simple means of assimilating how liquid a company is, and what their ability will be like in order for paying its current creditors’ on time. For SYS plc they appear to be 0.29:1 times more liquid than the industry average. This is highly plausible and attractive to investors. This cushion represents a margin of safety that is available to SYS plc to the creditors, and provides an accurate position of the strength of working capital within the company. As a result of appearing to be more liquid than the average industry. Creditors’ are more likely to lend the company money in order to fulfill their aims of expansion. Liquidity Ratio The Liquidity Ratio is much more thorough than the Current Ratio; it removes stock and prepaid expenses as an element of current assets. The Liquidity Ratio measures a company’s ability to pay off current debts immediately. SYS plc appears to be 0.08:1 times more liquid than the industry average, for this reason it may be assumed that the company is liquid, and has the ability to meet its liquid liabilities on time. As a rule of thumb it is often thought by many investors that a Liquidity Ratio of 1:1 is satisfactory, therefore a Liquidity Ratio for SYS plc of 1.08:1 is more than acceptable, which again is encouraging to potential investors, which may as result mean enough funding is gathered to fund the desired company expansion. Gearing The Gearing Ratio illustrates how well a company can capitalise of investment. For this reason is of great significance to SYS plc and its potential investors. Gearing must be very strategically thought out as it affects the company’s ability to uphold a consistent dividend policy during less profitable and demanding trading periods. It is often assumed that the higher the level of gearing within a company, then the more elevated the level of financial risk will be due to the amplified volatility of profit levels. Gearing submits to the relationship comparison between a company’s share capital and other fixed interest holding loans or types of company funding. SYS plc appears to be 9% under the industry average in regards to their Gearing; this portrays a positive image of the company and suggests that they are Low Geared which as a result means they are able to issue high equity share capital to its investors. Consequently this again will be beneficial to SYS plc as it will encourage investors to fund the company which in turn will provide them with more capital enabling them to focus their plans on expanding the company as they aim to do. Interest Cover Ratio TheInterest Cover Ratio can be employed to discover how easily a company can pay their interest expenses on already owed debt. For SYS plc they are 12 times less than the industrial average for their Interest Cover ratio result. This highlights the fact that the company is less fraught and troubled with bad debt and expenses. This again will give investors a positive insight and may encourage them to invest in SYS plc, feeling that their funding is safe and secure. Earnings per share The Earnings per share ratio can give an insight as to a company’s profitability. As a result the ratio can indicate the quantity of a company’s profit assigned to each shareholder after tax. For SYS plc their Earnings per share are £1.87 less than the industrial average, this may indicate that £8 @ Beginning of 31st March and now really low why? And in relation to industry average?! Earnings per share will allow investors to evaluate different company’s power to make money in their industry…. Talk about more orinary shares / preference shares as it says in Q!? Dividend Yield For SYS plc their Dividend Yield is 1.88% less than the industry average, this could be seen as beneficial to an investor looking to supplement his/her returns. This ratio illustrates how much a company will issue in dividends each year in relation to its share price. It could be argued that SYS plc is an established developing and success oriented company functioning better than some of the other companies operating in the same industry sector due to their lower Dividend Yield rates. Talk about more orinary shares / preference shares as it says in Q!? Dividend Cover For SYS pld their Dividend Cover is a measure of their focus and capability to maintain the level of dividend paid out to its shareholders. For SYS plc their Dividend Cover is 3.5 times greater than the industry average this means that the company has much greater ability of maintaining dividend payouts if profits decrease. Price Earnings Ratio For SYS plc the Price Earnings ratio gives investors an indication as to the level of confidence that investors have in the future wealth, affluence and ability of the company. Unfortunately for SYS plc their Price earnings ratio is less than the industry average therefore it could be argued that the company’s future is not bring or profitable to investors. Say why? Not sure… mention orinary shares / preference shares as it says in Q!? expansion and anything else? Return on Equity For SYS plc their return on equity is 10.18% less than the industry average this is not appealing to investors and is not likely to help the company’s expansion plans, as this level of Return on Equity may indicate that the company is not using their available resources effectively. This ratio indicates the amount of net income restoredas a percentagepayout of shareholders equity. In consequence this is a quantifiable level of a company’s profitability, through the analysis of profit generated through investors.

Biomedical and Traditional Chinese Medicine Views on Lower Back Pain

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Why this topic is chosen Lower back pain affects almost everyone at some point at a time. It can be destabilising and severely affect one’s quality of life and mobility. It not only impacts one’s physical and mental well being, it also affects one’s financial and results in extensive social costs for the patients, family members and the economy as a whole. (Dawn W, et al 2018). It is also one of the most common and costly medical conditions (Castillo Et al 2015). According to Castillo Et al 2015, lower back pain is attributed to the lumbar to sacral spine. There are many factors that can cause back pain but the problem originates from lumbar to scarum. According to (Otis, 2007), 15% to 45% of adults suffer from lower back pain annually with more than 70% in their life. In my clinical practice, we see patients from all walks of life with low to severe back pain resulting from slight sprain to prolapsed disc who has suffered chronic pain ranging from 6 months to 25 years. Difference perspective from biomedicine and Traditional Chinese Medicine From a biomedicine point of view Prolapsed disc occurs when a disc bulge compresses against a a nerve root or spinal ligament or which will cause a lot of pain. It usually affects lumbar 5 to sacrum 1 because there are the main movement occurring in the lumbar. Although it primary affect Lumbar 4 to Lumbar 5, it can also occasionally affect the lower cervical 6 and 7 and to the rest of the lumbar and rarely also affect the thoracic. This usually occurs backwards or sideways with the symptoms arising from the irritation of the nerves. After a few days, the inflammation will spread to other areas causing back pain or sciatica nerve pain. Prolapsed disc usually occurs sideways or backwards. This can cause the affected vertebrate to be irritated and result in inflammation. After a few days, it will spread to surrounding tissues nearby thus causing pain in the lumbar, sciatic or piriformis area or all of them. (Choice Books, 1994]. According to (Choice Books, 1994]. Prolapsed discs can result from trauma, heavy exercises, twisting and, heavy lifting. Flexion of the trunk cause the nucleus at the anterior side to be compressed which cause the anterior space to be affected. Therefore any twisting motion carrying a heavy object in an erect position will compress the nucleus pulpous into the posterior space. The end result will be disc bulges against the weakest area in the posterior annulus. Similarly, the other trauma can include slipping and falling on the buttock with great force usually cause around 50% of disc hernia. Normally, by twenty five years old, the annulus fibrosis starts to degenerate although it can still withstand several micro traumas. This marks the beginning of degenerative disc conditions. By middle age, the nucleus pulposus tends to dry up gradually and shrink slowly. (Choice Books, 1944,). From middle age, the nucleus in their discs will lose much of its moisture and start to shrink considerably. However, the bulge may spread out, but they are less apt to leak out of the casting. This will however result in a loss in the ability to distribute the shock and pressure. (Choice Books, 1944). From a Traditional Chinese Medicine point of view According to (Sherwin, 1992), Yin and Yang form the basic and fundamental beginning of all life and is a very vital principle in based in TCM short for Traditional Chinese Medicine. TCM is still widely used in treating all kind of diseases in South East Asia for over 2000 years. In (胡 et al, 2008), lower back pain is related to the kidney qi deficiency, blood stagnation and other Bi syndrome (obstruction by pathogenic coldness or dampness) of which refers to the syndrome presented with unilateral or bilateral back governed by the kidneys According to (Goto et al, 23014), blood stasis is not only related to circulation disorders, it can also give rise to other diseases as well. In a study using the Terasawa’s Blood Stasis Score, it was discovered that blood stasis can show hem rheological abnormalities, which can also cause back pain. According to (Xiong et al 2011), in a study conducted in four hospital with Yunnan university in Chinese medicine, 4 main syndromes were identified and associated with chronic lower back pain. Firstly: Qi and or with blood stagnation with symptoms such as sharp pain, limited lumbar movements with purple coating at the tongue. Secondly: In a study by Wang et al (2012), damp heat syndrome show a high correlation for severe pain due to inflammation in the joints. The primary symptoms are redness at the localised area with swelling and redness: the local area has a heavy sensation. The secondary symptoms can include thirst or fever. The urine will be yellow in colour. Tongue texture will be red with yellow and greasy.Pulse will be quick and slippery. Thirdly: Cold Damp is more of a chronic condition. According to Wang et al (2012), cold-damp displayed coldness and pain with heaviness in the joint. Secondary symptoms include constant pain which worsen at night especially during cold or rainy weather. Tongue diagnosis will display: swollen and a pale texture with white greasy tongue coating. Pulse will be stagnant or slow. Fourthly: Kidney Deficiency The key signs or symptoms of Kidney Qi Xu pattern include lumbar pain, weak knees with fatigue after any activities, painful heel, industrial deafness, premature ejaculation with fine, weak pulse in the Chi region. A pale and enlarged tongue indicates poor promotion and filling of blood/ qi circulation. As Kidney qi is weakened and its declining functions resulting in poor promotion of qi and blood circulation which make it harder to nourish the body resulting in lumbar pain and weak knee with tiredness. Kidney is associated to bone health , impairment in the Kidney could lead to bone problem. As the kidney is opened to the ears, any malfunction of kidney could relate to hearing dysfunction or industrial deafness. Deficient Kidney qi and the uncontrolled jing chamber also lead to sexual dysfunction; the decline of Life Gate fire leads to poor consolidation of semen thus resulting in premature ejaculation. Discussions In a study by Lam (2001) in Hong Kong , it was concluded that Chinese medicine work slower but eliminate the root cause compared to western medicine which clear the signs and symptoms faster. It was also believed and known that western medicine comes with undesirable side effects such as gastrointestinal issues. One of the problem arising from the interaction between Chinese medicine and biomedicine is the unfavourable result from these two interactions be it acupuncture or herbs or remedial techniques. The majority of patients living in western countries consume pharmaceutical drugs, undertake western remedial treatment such as chiropractic or physiotherapy. To complement western treatment with Chinese medicine treatment such as acupuncture, herbs, tuina or bone setting techniques, this would entail an understanding of what has been done by western doctors to avoid double work and minimise any harm According to Wong (2005), Traditional Chinese Medicine has been around for over three thousand years, there must be some credibility in it to last that long, it is still been practised widely and gaining prominence in western countries as a alternative or complementary to western medicine. There was discussion that with collaboration between Chinese medicine and biomedicine, there exist a need to establish a reliable clinical research on the safety of Chinese medicine to offer better cost effective and holistic treatments to patients resulting in better health. Conclusion There has been several sufficient clinical research and evidence of successful integration of TCM with western medicine. I gathered that the difficulties faced would be overcoming the mental obstacle faced by people with cultural differences. Westerners have been brought up with biomedicine and are more comfortable with biomedicine despite its risk compared to Chinese medicine unknown to them. Based on the above evidence, it is clear that chinese medicine can play a dominant or complementary role in assisting patient during their rehabilitation. The increasing popular use of TCM cannot be ignored considering a $4billion market share in alternative medicine with an annual growth of 1.4% in Australia. ( The signed agreement between china in joint cooperation of clinical research and chinese medicine at the University of Western Sydney-UWS, aims at creating better education amongst westerners to benefit the Australian public.. ( I would recommend patients undergoing rehabilitation to include Traditional Chinese Medicine as part of their complementary treatment to hasten their recovery so as to get back to their normal life as soon as possible. References: Castillo, E. R.,

BUS 475 Strayer University Sustainable Business Practices Discussion

programming assignment help BUS 475 Strayer University Sustainable Business Practices Discussion.

Week 5 DiscussionBeing a sustainable and environmentally conscious company is not only good for the planet, it is also a great way for companies to be more efficient, save money, and get an edge on the competition. There are many issues to consider when planning for sustainability, especially in a global environment where countries have vastly different laws as well as ecological concerns.Discuss some environmental or sustainable practices you can adopt, or maybe you have already adopted (like carrying your own recyclable bags to the store or trying not to use disposable containers for food storage). Do you think these practices are worth the cost savings? Why or why not?Below is peer’s discussion in which I’ll have to provide a response too.Crystal Blaylock RE: Week 5 DiscussionSustainability can be the responsibility for all companies small and large. Clean air and natural resources helps a home practice recycling. People use natural light to save on electrical cost. I reuse bags after i have been shopping, the reason why I do is because I use the bags for trash bags in the bathroom and/or to store certain things. However, these practices can help save money and energy.
BUS 475 Strayer University Sustainable Business Practices Discussion

Impact of the Cardiac MRI on the Diagnosis of Heart Failure

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Discuss how cardiac MRI has revolutionised the diagnosis of human heart failure. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques endure as an evolving clinical tool, providing intricate and comprehensive assessments of anatomical and functional variations in the diagnosis of various injuries and ailments. Particularly, cardiac MRIs have evolved as a revolutionary imaging modality in providing non-invasive, high quality, cross sectional images that enable for precise anatomical delineation in the diagnosis and monitoring of human heart failure (Peterzan et al., 2016; Karamitsos et al., 2009). In considering family history and the onset of any exercise induced symptoms mimicking heart failure, cardiac MRIs are performed as a frontline gold standard method to collate numerical measurements relating to ejection fraction, heart muscle thickness and overall heart size (Kanagala et al., 2018; Stokes et al., 2016). These can in turn identify coronary heart disease, heart attacks, cardiomyopathy, congenital heart disease, diabetes, hypertension, arrythmia, renal disease and obesity as implicated in heart disease. In doing so, cardiac MRIs assess the central changes evidenced in patients with heart failure and provide a revolutionary diagnostic ability. In providing a non-invasive internal view of precise anatomical and functional delineations, cardiac MRIs allow for a revolutionary characterisation and diagnosis of heart failure that other imaging modalities lack. The strengths and limitations of cardiac MRIs will initially be discussed in underpinning the revolutionary role of various cardiac MRI techniques in the diagnosis of human heart failure. Subsequently, case studies will be utilised to explore the additive nature of cardiac MRIs in clinical settings to imaging modalities such as cardiac CT scans, echocardiography and X-rays. The sole use of cardiac MRIs will also be analysed in the diagnosis of heart failure. Finally, the move from obtaining qualitative diagnostic information towards more refined quantitative assessment methods of imaging will be explored in further emphasising the central role of cardiac MRIs in the diagnosis of heart failure. The revolutionary role of cardiac MRIs is most significantly attributed to the precise delineation of anatomical structures which accordingly allows for various qualitative and quantitative assessments to be performed. With precise delineation of anatomical structures, it is possible to render myocardial tissue characterisation and reproduce measurements of blood flow and volume (Peterzan et al., 2016). In doing so, regions of abnormal changes are highlighted and become easily distinguishable as symptomatic of heart failure (Fig 1). This is pivotal in underpinning characteristic tissue changes that are recognised with the onset of heart failure without pursuing invasive investigation. Additionally, the contrast mediums used in cardiac MRI exams, primarily gadolinium, are less likely to be contraindicated in allergic reactions than iodine-based radioactive contrast materials utilised in conventional X-ray and cardiac CT scans (Kanagala et al., 2018). While disadvantages persist in determining the suitability of cardiac MRIs for claustrophobic patients and for patients with metallic implants (neurostimulators and pacemakers), the advantages by far outweigh the results that are attained in proceeding with cardiac MRI scans. Perhaps more significantly and on a more global scale, accessibility to MRI scanners resides as an issue for individuals from remote areas and lower GDI nations (Peterzan et al., 2016). In such cases, resorting to less costly imaging modalities such as cardiac CT scans or echocardiography is apprehensible. However, while these factors do prevail, they do not withdraw from the revolutionary role of cardiac MRIs in heart failure diagnosis. These limitations only ground areas of development in forming universally accessible MRI type imaging techniques. Figure 1. (A): patchy mid-wall late gadolinium enhancement. Arrows elucidate septal mid-wall and inferolateral wall fibrosis (B): autopsy sample from patient depicting the same pattern of fibrosis. This is indicative of the crucial role played by cardiac MRIs in capturing signs of early heart failure progression without the need for invasive investigation. (Taken from Assomull, 2007) As an additive imaging modality, MRIs are able to be used in conjunction with x-rays, cardiac CT scans and echocardiographs to develop a holistic understanding of heart failure classification and strategies for therapy. Generally, chest x-rays are used to analyse the presence of an enlarged cardiac silhouette, pleural effusion and Kerley B lines to inspect heart failure likeliness (Peterzan et al., 2016; Stokes et al., 2016). In particular, pulmonary oedema is attributed to congestive heart failure. Following pressure increases in blood vessels, fluid is pushed against the alveoli in the lungs. These reflect chronic elevation of left atrial pressure and the thickening of the intralobular septa as a consequence of oedema (Fig 2) (Chalian et al., 2016). Therefore, x-rays allow for initial examination and prognosis of referred patients. However, it is the role of MRIs to correlate these issues recognised in X-rays to functional deficits of the heart in providing a diagnosis (Kanagala et al., 2018). Cardiac MRIs will provide accurate images of cardiac structures in evaluating myocardial disease. Most significantly, cardiac MRIs will detect focal and diffuse myocardial fibrosis and will evidence signs of cardiac amyloidosis, sarcoidosis, hemochromatosis and myocarditis in patients to diagnose heart failure (Karamitsos et al., 2009) (Fig 2). Hence, cardiac MRIs underpin the definitive diagnosis of patients and work superiorly to X-rays in detecting and determining the functional causes of initially abnormal X-ray observations. Figure 2. Top Left: Bilateral pleural effusion indicated by arrows. Top Right: horizontal lines extending to periphery denote thickened oedematous interlobular septa following heart failure. Bottom left: short axis cardiac MRI in patient shows mid-myocardial enhancement in mid lateral and inferior segments indicated by arrows. Bottom Right: Fused PET/MR image after glucose diet elucidates patchy areas of intense uptake in lateral and inferior wall. Images highlight sequential method used in localising heart failure diagnosis and classification in patients (Taken from Fishman, 2017; Chalian, 2016). Similarly, cardiac CT (FDG-PET/CT) scans are used in localising the presence of abnormal activity in the heart. FDG-PET/CT scans evidence abnormalities through high uptake and unusual FDG activity. When using PET with low dose CT scans, it is generally too difficult to localise lesions or to quantify thickened muscular walls in the heart. Therefore, MRIs are used to provide additional information in localising and characterising masses and abnormalities in patient scans (Adigopula

University of Phoenix Walmart Signature Assignment Financial Plan Paper

University of Phoenix Walmart Signature Assignment Financial Plan Paper.

No plagarism! Prepare a financial plan for the company you select for your business plan. This financial plan will be included in your final business plan in your capstone course.Describe the business, including the type of business.Create the business case.Determine why funding is needed for the company.Determine the sources of funding. Considerself-funding, borrowing, equity, venture capital, etc.Evaluate the requirements of each funding source you determined appropriate.Analyze the associated risks of each funding source.Decide which sources are the best fit for your company based on the requirements of each. Justify your decision.Estimate the cost of capital for both short-term and long-term funding sources. Research current estimated APRs for your selected sources of funding. Consider creating a table or chart to display this information.Create a profit-and-loss statement for a 3-year period. Project revenue, stating realistic assumptions, such as growth per year, in your projections.Estimate direct costs, including capital, marketing, labor, and supply costs.Cite references to support your assignment.Format your citations according to APA guidelines.
University of Phoenix Walmart Signature Assignment Financial Plan Paper