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In 750-1,000 words, discuss the following:

Identify the different forms for the insanity defense.
Identify the most common insanity defense applied by the States.
Describe how often the insanity defense raised.
Discuss how a criminal defendant assessed for insanity.
Describe how a psychologist would be utilized as an expert witness to prove or disprove an insanity defense.

Use three to five scholarly resources to support your explanations.
Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.
This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion
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Instructions Perform a web search to find and review EHRs. Select three (3) preferred EHRs. Compare each of the selected. Instructions Perform a web search to find and review EHRs. Select three (3) preferred EHRs. Compare each of the selected EHRs, using the attached assessment form. Fill in the right-hand column with your observations/assessment on why your EHR meets/does not meet each standard. Based on the depth of the information provided, you may have to use the knowledge you’ve gained thus far to make assumptions about the EHR functions. (Tip – Add three columns to the far right of the assessment form, one for each selected vendor) Write a 1-page summary to accompany your assessment form. The summary should include a comparison of the key functions and factors for the EHR. Your assessment form should be in Microsoft Word or Microsoft Excel format. Your summary should be in Microsoft Word format. Cite all sources in APA format. Submit your assessment form and summary for grading. Reminder: You must upload your completed documents using Browse My Computer. Then, hit the Submit button to successfully complete the assignment submission process. Do not copy and paste text into the text box.Instructions Perform a web search to find and review EHRs. Select three (3) preferred EHRs. Compare each of the selected
Medicine is a huge part of our society. Millions of people become ill every year and become in need of medical attention. Every day hospitals fill with sick patients and they turn to medicine to heal them and to decrease their problems that they are having. So when did medicine all start? Disease was a huge and destructible problem for the Greeks. In the time of the Greeks disease were strong and overwhelmed many cities with death and destruction because of all the unsanitary conditions they were living in. The Greeks didn’t bathe a lot and germs would just overwhelm them. Medical problems that people come I with today would of instantly killed the Greeks because they did not have any kind of health care system. In the Greek world one out of three babies died before they could even reach the age of one and half of all children died before they reached the young age of ten. Overall though most Greeks died when they were only in their thirties of forties so the Greeks needed a better health care system that would stop all their people from dying ( In 900 BC in Greece medicine was only a rumor but then took off into this great idea appreciated by everyone. The process went from a crazy idea to observation and reason. Before Greek medicine was discovered the world had never seen anything like it. The methods helped the lives of thousands and saved thousands of people as well. The Greeks were very interested in using scientific observation and logic to figure out what caused the diseases that were infecting their people and how they could prevent them in the future. These ideas of this new system of healing spread quickly throughout the Mediterranean and as far East as India and still to this day the methods stay strong in the West. These methods would later create what medicine is today and further the lives of thousands. Ancient Greece medicine was considered to be an idea from the Gods because it was so special and unique. Greek mythology is full of legends and many different symbols explaining the origins and the methods of using medicine to heal people. In the myths the gods and goddesses who take part in them are fascinated by the art of healing. They consider it one of the most precious rituals performed since it really all has to do with life and death. Greeks also believed that the Goddess Gaia had a lot to do with the coming of Greek Medicine since she was considered to be the creator of the earth. “The way of Mother Gaia is the passive, feminine, Yin way of healing. All we need to do to regain our health is to return to the bosom of Mother Nature and live in accordance with her laws” (Greek Medicine. Net). The Greeks thought that medicine came from her because she created everything else so this must be another method devised by her. The Greeks actually did not discover the art of medicine but rather refined it and improved it from its original form. They had a large amount of prior knowledge to build on and create their own system of medicine. Scientists and archeologists say that medicines original roots came from Egypt which was already a well established civilization right before Greece started its own civilization. Although scientists and archeologists still debate on how Egypt’s roots of medicine translated over to Greece. Many medical scholars debate and truly believe that the Minoan civilization on Crete served as the transmitter from Egypt’s medical system to Greece. Crete was an Egyptian who practiced medicine but was set to be executed in Egypt for challenging Egypt’s government. Crete ran away before his execution and resided in Greece where he was said to spread his ideas he learned in Egypt about medicine. Thayles was also said to be the transmitter to Greece about Egypt’s system since Thayles actually traveled to Egypt and back to Greece bringing the methods learned back to Greece to be adapted and improved there (Kee 22). The Egyptians wrote on papyri and recorded their medical findings so they could pass these notes down to future generations. Most consisted of medical recipes from their main god that they believed in named Imhotep. There was also recording of effects of some drugs if taken and the symptoms of certain diseases. The Egyptians were also very clean. They bathed twice a day which was unusual in this time period because usually men and women only bathed once a month and boiled water before drinking it to cleanse it from all the bacteria retained in it. They also never ate pork because they said it was “unclean.” Not eating pork which is a red meat could have defiantly lowered their cholesterol and improved their health considerably. They also had specialists which were a bunch of different people who were in charge of healing certain body parts. Each person would have their own specialty in a certain part of the body that way they could focus on a small part and learn a lot more about the cures and symptoms of the disease from that body part instead of having to learn about the entire body as a whole ( In Greek medicine there were many different influential contributors that made Greek Medicine possible. One huge contributor was Hippocrates. Hippocrates was considered to be the founder of Greek Medicine and was the one that made this science rational. He brought the science from being superstition and magic to actual facts and descriptions. Hippocrates took Greek Medicine and put reasoning behind it and could easily explain why things happen to the body the way that they do. Hippocrates conducted many experiments and collected a lot of important data that was found and concurred by the data that disease was a natural process. In the data that was found, he found that the diseased bodies had symptoms that were caused by the disease and could be read. By creating and discovering data it really furthered Greek medicine from what it was previously ( When Hippocrates first started to practice medicine the only real established school to study medicine was at the Cnidian School. The only problem was that this school’s approach to medicine had a lot of inconsistent data and many flaws that held the school back from really understanding what medicine was. The students that attended also graduated not really having a clear idea about medicine and the flaws in the study that were taught to them. “The Cnidian School considered the body to be merely a collection of isolated parts, and saw diseases manifesting in a particular organ or body part as affecting that part only, which alone was treated. Their system of diagnosis was also faulty, relying exclusively on the subjective symptoms related by the patient, while totally ignoring the objective signs of the disease” (Greek Medicine.Net). Hippocrates greatly disagreed with this statement along with many other ideas that the school recently had. Hippocrates believed that the human body functioned as a whole with every part working together to accomplish a common goal. He did not believe that every part works differently and has a different goal then the other. Both theories were very different and a method needed to be cleared so the study of medicine for the Greeks could continue and proceed forward (Schiefsky 27). Hippocrates truly believed in strengthening and building up the body’s resistance to disease, basically a human’s immune system. Since in this time in history the most up to date sanitary precautions and vaccines were not available to Hippocrates knew that the Greeks needed to build up a better immune system to fight off these diseases so it would be easier to fight them when they eventually got sick. When encouraging this Hippocrates prescribed diet, gymnastics, exercise, massage, hydrotherapy and sea bathing as all ways of helping prevent disease and the spread of disease. Even something as simple as sea bathing in which he prescribed really could help a person fight disease because of the amount of salt in the water which will kill the bacteria on a person’s body. Hippocrates was a strong believer and activist in eating healthy while someone was sick. With this in mind he came up with many ideas of diets for each kind of disease that a patient had. He prescribed a light diet during the climax stage of a small illness which is when the illness is the worst, and a liquid diet if the patient was diagnosed with a fever. He prescribed a liquid diet because then the patient had a faster recovery kind because the liquids were constantly going through body collecting germs and turning them into waste, basically flushing out the fever from the body (Schiefsky 61). Hippocrates was the first physician to diagnose a disease on the patient’s symptoms by comparing them to the symptoms in relation to other patients. Hippocrates also originated the disciplines of etiology and pathology by deciding the diseases the patient was diagnosed with. For once patients felt convinced of their diagnosis and were not as skeptical as they were before Hippocrates. Overall Hippocrates was one of the all time best known and most influential physicians. His works lead the way for future medical physicians and really changed the whole world of medicine around. He will always be known for his love of healing and great attitude towards his patients. As a physician it is not all about just healing the patient but also creating a relationship with them of trust because they truly are putting their life into the physician’s hands. “Hippocrates is most remembered today for his famous Oath, which physicians take before beginning the practice of medicine. In writing his Oath, Hippocrates set high ethical standards for future physicians to follow. Needless to say, compliance, both then and now, has been considerably less than perfect” (Schefski 87). Another important and influential figure in Greek Medicine was Aristotle. Aristotle even though became a great figure in medicine he made his biggest findings in Biology. Aristotle was a natural historian who spent most of his time dissecting plants and different kinds of animals to collect data and tried to come up with new theories. Aristotle was the father of comparative anatomy and physiology. Aristotle even contributed too many ideas about evolution (Sigerist 150-152). Aristotle’s most influential and most popular contribution to Greek Medicine was his document made up of the Four Basic Qualities which were hot, cold, wet, and dry. “Later philosopher-physicians would apply these qualities to characterize the Four Elements, Four Humors, and Four Temperaments. The Four Basic Qualities are the foundations for all notions of balance and homeostasis in Greek Medicine” (Greek Medicine. Net). Aristotle’s teachings on biology, medicine and the natural sciences were finally accepted by the church which before denied all of Aristotle’s claims and findings because they didn’t believe that he was being true to the religion. Another important part of Greek medicine was actually getting it passed to practice by the church. This was the most difficult challenge in the study because the church did not agree with most of the methods and ideas. Physicians needed to clearly explain that the methods being performed by the patients was for the better of mankind and was not offending or going against God in any way (Sigerest 155). There were many different basic principles to Greek Medicine. One principle was the seven natural factors principle. These factors were what the Greeks used to measure whether or not the body was healthy or not. The first one of the Four Elements which is what the body is made up of. The second is the Four Humors which are the metabolic agents of the Four Elements This principle is made of what a healthy body is made up of so they could compare it to a body that is diseased. The third is the Four Temperatures which is “the qualitative yardsticks by which health and homeostasis, or deviation there from, are measured; the basis of constitutional medicine” (Greek The fourth is the Four Faculties which describe the basic functions of life. The fifth is the Vital Principles which are the essence and energies that give life to the body. The sixth principle is the Organs and Parts which is about the basic usage and functions of different parts of the body. The last is the Forces or Administering Virtues which are the principles of all bodily fluid. The four element principle was a principle based on the four elements that the Greeks believed in which were earth, water, air, and fire. Each element had a different meaning. Earth the center of the universe and the Greeks related that back all dense solids in the body that are permanent such as bones, joints and teeth. Water is running over and around the earth and is very important to the Greeks so they related it back to the vital fluids of the body such as blood and mostly the clear fluids such as mucus. The element air goes over the earth and water so the Greeks related that to the lungs, chest and, thorax of the body and all open spaces. The final element fire was considered to light up the sun, moon and stars to the Greeks so they made it represent all muscles, the heart, the liver and the stomach of a person ( The Greeks also came with principles for energy. The Greeks discovered that there are two different kinds of energies. One kind of energy is thermal kinetic or “Pneuma” energy which is what the Greeks called it which is responsible for the digestion and metabolism and basically all kinds of energy inside the body (thermal meaning warm describing the inside of the body). The second kind of energy called kinetic energy is responsible for controlling all functions of movement that the body does. Both energies work equally together to accomplish certain goals. For example in digestion kinetic energy is caused when the stomach churns the digested food then moves the food to the intestine. The thermal kinetic energy is caused when distillation and metabolism occurs ( Another principle that was discovered was the vital faculty. The vital faculty is the most important organism because it gives the body life. The vital faculty is centered along the heart and lungs and includes the immune system which is a cell group working together to get rid of all unnecessary cells in the body that might cause harm or damage. This system helps the body fight disease once it has entered the body. The circulatory system is also included and that system which includes all organs and tissue that help blood flow throughout the body. The last system it includes is the respiratory system. The respiratory system is a system that retrieves oxygen and feeds the lungs while turning that oxygen into carbon dioxide. This system includes the lungs, bronchi and nasal passages. “Besides giving life to the organism and empowering cellular metabolism, the Vital Faculty also activates and coordinates responses of the organism as a whole to its environment. This includes the immune response. And so, the Vital Faculty acts as a central nexus for the whole organism” ( The heart and lungs are the central part of the Vital Faculty. Both components work closely together, the lungs pump blood for the heart and the heart takes that blood and makes new blood out of the blood that the lungs pumped to the heart. The Greeks came up with many different diagnosis’s to treat disease. The word diagnosis literally means “knowing through” ( Making a diagnosis means someone has gone through the mazes and calculations of figuring out what is wrong with the patient then figuring out a plan of action to heal that patient and eventually save their lives. Making a clear diagnosis for someone in Greek Medicine was difficult and a lot more difficult than it is today because of the technology we use. Back then the Greeks used several different methods to figure out how to approach that person’s disease and how to stop it. The Greeks had to act as a detective on a case because that was basically what they were doing. Making a diagnosis separates all other kinds of science away from medicine and takes medicine away from being supernatural and magic. “Diagnosis is the heart of the medical world” ( There were several different ways that a Greek physician would make a diagnosis. One thing that the doctor needed to have was a basic knowledge of anatomy. Knowing the anatomy of the body and where everything was created many new possibilities of diagnosis for the Greeks. Knowledge of the physiology of the body is also needed so the doctor can pinpoint where the problem is and how to fix it. Knowing the physiology of body also comes with knowing the seven natural factors and the basic principles which the Greeks thought of and used throughout their medical discovery. Another kind of science that the Greeks used was pathology which is the study of what went wrong with the body before death or cause of injury ( Using the information they about pathology they could relate what bodies looked like after they died with certain diseases and compare them to what they saw on the new patient and what they couldn’t stop for one patient they could learn and heal another. One type of diagnosis the Greeks used was a visual diagnosis. Seeing someone for the first you get a first impression and that was exactly what the Greeks used when trying to make a diagnosis. This is the first kind of diagnosis performed by the Greek doctors because as soon as a patient came to see the doctor the doctor would start to analyze them up and down to try to find out if there were any visual keys to the illness that was occurring.”The clinical eye of the physician is trained to be more objective, detached and dispassionate than the average layperson. In general, it moves methodically from the generalities of the patient’s overall frame and physique, behaviors and mannerisms to increasingly more detailed, specific signs and clues” ( The physician looks for a cue and goes with the cue he finds and most of the time that one small cue that the doctor originally noticed leads to a complete diagnosis of the patient. Observing and inspecting the patient were also major parts in Greek Medicine for creating a diagnosis for a patient. After observing the patients outer most part the doctor could take samples and observe the urine, stool, and tongue (Longrig 109). The Greeks would also observe the behavior of the patient and take that into account when creating a diagnosis. There are four different attitudes that can be associated to certain terms to match behavior to a certain disease. If the patient is acting forceful and energetic that person was considered Choleric. If a person was acting poised and sophisticated then that person was considered to be Sanguine. If a person was acting quiet and reserved then that person was considered melancholic. Finally if a person was acting slow and relaxed they were considered Phlegmatic. Hippocrates discovered that patients that were acting incoherent or unresponsive such as a Melancholic or Phlegmatic patient was never a good sign and a diagnosis would need to be made as soon as possible (Singer 63). The Greeks also looked at the posture and physique of a patient. The way a person carries themselves could tell a lot to a doctor about just how low their energy levels were and their vitality levels. The Greeks would look if the patients were leaning or slouching which could indicate certain disease factors just from their body language observed. The complexion of a patient’s skin could also be a factor in making a diagnosis according to the Greeks. Normally a person’s skin is a pink-like color so when the Greeks saw patients that had a pale face they knew that something was wrong. The Greeks figured out that if a patient’s face was a pale color then that person could be suffering from a blood deficiency or anemia as well as a common cold virus (Grmek, Mueller, Mueller 102). The Greeks also used a patients nails as a way to figure out a diagnosis. A healthy nail is a pink-like color which shows generally good blood flow throughout the body. A pale nail represents some kind of blood deficiency problem. A purple-like nail represents cyanosis which is when the body does not get enough oxygen to its cells. White spots on a patients nails can also indicate an insufficiency such as not even zinc or calcium in a patient’s diet. The sturdiness of their nails can also be a symptom of something going wrong in their body. The sturdiness of a patient’s nails was founded by the Greeks to show a lot about the kind of nutrition the patient has. Flimsy nails can mean a lack of protein in the patient’s diet and it reflects the bones and hard tissue underneath the skin as well. The Greeks came to the conclusion that what the nails look like is similar to what the patient’s bones look like and a diagnosis can be made from that. ( Urine samples were also used by the Greeks in helping creating a diagnosis. There were six different tests when testing a urine sample. The first one was color. The Greeks would take a normal urine sample and compare it to the patient’s urine sample. From there they would not whether the sample was darker or lighter then the comparative sample. If the urine was darker then the patient could be dehydrated and the Greeks would also look at if there was a red-like color to it because then there was blood in the urine which is a symptom of kidney problems. Consistency is the second test for urine. In this test the Greek doctors would look at the urine to see if the urine was thick or thin. The third test for urine is looking for sediment in the urine. The Greeks would look whether there was some kind of presence of an unknown substance in the urine. The fifth urine test was the foam test. The Greeks would shake the urine vigorously and if there was foam formed, different amounts of foam could tell the Greeks different things about the urine. The last test was the odor test. The Greeks would test the urine to see if there was a different kind of smell to the urine or if there was even a smell at all. Different smells or no smell could tell the Greek doctors different things about the urine ( “Since the earliest times, Greek physicians like Hippocrates and Galen have always considered the tongue to be an important indicator or barometer of health and disease. Other great traditional medical systems of the world, such as Ayurveda and Chinese Medicine, also have sophisticated systems of tongue diagnosis” ( The Greeks found the tongue to be one of the most interesting and important of all the bodies’ organs. They found this because taste comes from the tongue and the Greeks are fascinated with how taste works and how vital it is to their lives. There are millions of little nerve endings that cover the tongue. The Greeks derived a method of where they saw sore spots on the tongue to where in the body the trouble was occurring. For example on the back center of the tongue there were sore spots the Greeks knew there was an intestinal problem. If there were spots in the center of the tongue there were stomach issues, if spots were on the front center of the tongue then there were lung problems, and if there were spots and on the tip of the tongue there were heart problems. The Greeks made another diagnosis by the pulse which they called “the river of life.” The Greeks used pulse as a method to see irregular heartbeats or any kind of heart problem that could be occurring to the patient. Even in today’s health care doctors and nurses take pulse rates to see if they can figure out a problem that the patient is having. Health care today can tell a lot more about what’s wrong with the patient from their pulse then the Greeks could but overall making a diagnosis from a patients pulse rate was common for both time periods (Nulton 174). The first Greek to master the pulse was a Greek named Galan. Even Galan though had trouble deciphering medical conditions from the pulse saying “For many years, I was doubtful about clearly discerning the movement of contraction by touch, and I shelved the question until such time as I could learn enough to fill the gap in my knowledge. After that, the doors of the pulse were open to me” ( Galan introduced this new method of creating a diagnosis to the Greeks and then the Greeks mastered this skill and used it in their study of medicine. They found that this was a vital method in creating a diagnosis and this pushed Greek medicine even further in the study (Bendick 106). In today’s health care the art of pulse taking can be taken at many different pressure points on the body. The Greeks however only used the artery in the wrist to take pulse because they only knew of being able to take it from a patient’s neck and the wrist and they felt that taking the pulse from the patient’s wrist gave much more accurate results (Bendick 94). When taking the patients pulse the Greeks looked for ten symptoms which could mean something is wrong. The first one was the speed of the pulse. If the speed o the pulse was too fast or too slow then the Greeks knew there was some kind of problem. The Greeks would look at whether the speed was about 70 beats per minute because they discovered that was the average heart beats per minute of a normal, healthy person. The second indication the Greeks looked for was the force of the pulse. If the force of the pulse was strong then the energy of the body was high and that was a good sign to the Greeks. However if the energy of the pulse was low then this could be symptoms of many different diseases that usually drain the energy from the body such as the common cold (Bendick 73). The depth of the pulse taken was also taken into consideration. The depth of the pulse could either be moderate which is normal, deep which is taken close to the bone or superficial which is close to the skin. For a healthy person the pulse should be taken at a moderate deepness because if the pulse is taken at a deep level that could mean that the heart is beating at a very low level or if the pulse is needed to be taken at a superficial level then the Greeks knew that the heart was beating sporadically and the patient was in danger either way. The final way the pulse was taken was and looked at was the rhythm in the beats. The Greeks knew that if the rhythm of the heart was too slow or too fast then the patient was having trouble and needed to be treated right away (Bendick 113). Since the Greeks thought of ways to diagnose a patient they then discovered a way of healing them with different kinds of therapies and treatments. Some of their treatments and therapies are even used today on our present health care. One technique that was used for a remedy to the common cold was the water diet. The Greeks came up with a theory that if the cold was taken into the body then it should be able to be flushed out. After coming up with this hypothesis the Greeks came up with the diet. The water diet is exactly what it sounds like. The patient is told to only ingest liquids and not any kind of solid food. This way the liquid will easily be digested and flushed out the patients system. After a couple of days of this diet the patient should be starting to get rid of the disease by basically urinating it out of their system (Philips 94). The Greek Doctors prescribed many different kinds of medical drinks that the patient could make and drink. A popular herbal tea that was prescribed contained lemon and was called Luiza by the Greeks. This tea would be prescribed if the patient was complaining of digestion or stomach problems. The tea would actually act as a digestion and was also great for the patients skin because of the amount of lemon used. Another medicinal drink is called Oxymel which contains only honey and vinegar but can be used in a few different ways. If a patient is complaining of a sore throat this liquid can be gargled and the acid in the vinegar will kill the bacteria while the honey soothes the throat. A patient could also just put a spoon full of this substance in a glass of water for a refreshing medicinal beverage that can be used for patients after they are starting to heal from a disease to keep the healing process strong (Freeman 221). The most respectable and drink of choice for almost anything for the Greeks though was wine. Even though the Greeks did not invent wine they still consider it one of their main drinks of the culture. Wine is actually very good for you if you drink it responsibly. Wine stimulates the heart thus helping blood flow because of the low alcohol content. The Greeks also used wine as a disinfectant to kill bacteria on open wounds of a patient (Dawson 111). The Greeks found Hydrotherapy to be a very compatible treatment because it was capable of producing a wide range of therapeutic effects not only by differentiating the temperatures, but also how the Greeks applied them. Although there are endless ways to apply hydrotherapy, the major ones are full bath, foot bath, sitz bath, sponge bath, blanket wrap, steam bath, and fomentations (Lloyd 152). Full bath is when the total body submerged into the water used. This therapy can produce a wide range of different effects and reactions, depending on the water temperature that the Greeks decided to use. Foot Bath was when the Greeks submerged the patient’s feet up to their ankles in a tub of water that was shallow. The Greeks used different water temperatures for different symptoms. The Greeks used cold water for varicose veins, foot edema, headaches, low blood pressure, sweaty feet, and sprained ankle. The Greeks used cold water for those symptoms because they knew that cold temperatures decreased swelling thus healing the patient. The Greeks used warm water for sleeplessness, susceptibility to colds and flu. The Greeks also found that the best way to improve circulation in the feet and legs was to Alternate between hot and cold water temperatures. The Greeks decided though that they need to avoid cold foot baths if the kidneys are weak or the bladder sensitive because that would trigger the patient to urinate (Lloyd 154). A Sitz Bath is when the Greeks submerged the patient’s hips, buttocks and pelvis by sitting down in a medium sized tub, with water up to about the patient’s stomach. The Greeks found that this method was great for treating all types of pelvic disorders because it brought down the swelling so much. The Greeks used warm water when the patient was diagnosed with urinary obstruction, irritable bladder, or any kind of problem with their prostate. The Greeks concluded that when they alternated between cold and hot water they greatly strengthen circulation, immunity, healing and regeneration in the patient’s pelvic organs. A Sponge Bath the Greeks found was excellent for bringing the patient’s body temperature way down when the patient had a fever (Lloyd 155). A Blanket Wrap was when the Greeks wrapped their patient in a cotton or linen sheet that was soaked with cold water. Around the wet blanket the Greeks then wrapped a dry sheet, and around the dry sheet they then wrapped a thick wool blanket. If the patient wants they can drink a cup of hot diaphoretic herbal tea before getting wrapped in these blankets since their body temperature will be shot higher and already having something warm in the patient’s body will just help the patient at that point. The Greeks used this method so the patient could sweat out the deadly toxins that caused their colds. A Steam Bath is a sauna that the Greeks created with the use of water or herbal teas to create steam. Steam has many of the natural effects of hot water such as a relaxing effect. Steam also penetrates into the lungs and respiratory tract to release phlegm from the lungs, and opens the pores of the skin to releases sweat which can contain toxins that are causing the patient to become sick. Steam baths and saunas are used by the Greeks in small i
Netflix Inc 2011 Re branding/Price increase debacle.

Referring to Cases 27 and 28 in your textbook Strategic Management, Netflix, Inc. and Netflix, and using the three circles analysis, describe Netflix’s competitive strategy. In a 3- to 4-page paper, analyze how Netflix competes with similar companies, as follows:The first circle represents the team’s consensus of what the most important customer segments need or want from the product or service.The second circle represents the team’s view of how customers perceive the company’s offerings.The third circle represents the strategists’ view(s) of how customers perceive the offerings of the company’s competitors.Describe how 1, 2, and 3 are particularly important for asking questions about the company’s competitive advantage.Include a title page and reference page, and follow APA format according with at least 3 credible sources.
Netflix Inc 2011 Re branding/Price increase debacle

The Corporate Culture Of Apple Inc Business Essay

The Corporate Culture Of Apple Inc Business Essay. Apple incorporation is today’s one of the biggest if not the biggest organisation culture change trend master, in the past few years apple as being in the light of it totally perceive genius ways of getting thing done with a different, however Apples corporate culture is constantly changing as a result of changes to its leadership/CEO from time to time. To gain an in-depth understanding of this we must dwell into apple historical background, it pros and cons, and the possibility of future management. Therefore the empirical question would be what is the culture of Apple? What is culture? Culture has been describe by many authors, school of thoughts, theories to mention a few in relation to its conceptual usage,it has been described for example as the dominant values espoused by an organisation’,’ the commonly held and relatively stable set of beliefs, attitudes, values and norms that exit throughout an organisation’ the basic assumption and beliefs that are share by member of an organisation’. In recent time culture has been refer to as ‘the way things are done around here. Lynch (2006, p.37) culture refers to the shared understandings and meanings of that members have concerning an organisation. Rather as individuals have distinctive personalities organisation have their own particular culture. Some will be friendly, relaxed and informal while others will be highly formal aloof and hostile. Also Drenna(1992).in senior.B (1997).p101)says culture is what typical of the organisation, the habits the prevailing attitudes, the grown up pattern of accepted and expected behaviour “. The main feature of culture is that even though there are many organisational differences there seem to be share understandings within them. Culture tends to build gradually in rational thinking of groups with the system which later forms a sub/dominant culture. Using Handy (1993) cultural model, handy opine that ‘A culture cannot be precisely define, for it is something that is perceived, something felt handy (p. 191).however he pointed out the four type of culture in organisation which are explain in fig1.1. Type Metaphor Characteristics Power Culture A web Control from centre; political and entrepreneurial ,personal power serves the figure-head and the leader Role Culture The Greek Temple Classical structure; bureaucratic; role identity position power predominate, serves the structure Task culture A net Valued individual expertise and contribution focus on completing the job, both personal and position powers are important; high level of collaboration base on group unity. Person culture A cluster or galaxy Combine of a lose collection of individuals-pursuing own goal but share common facility, power not necessary a focus because members are experts in their own field. This culture serves the individual. Fig1.1 The four culture type highlights how power and control are utilized by organisation and of whose interest are they serving? certainly there’s an element of power culture at Apple inc, as noted in the case study, Steve Jobs entrepreneurship style had giving way for personal ideology and more-or-less gain control over the system, he is characterise as Apple itself, the span of control and politic is also associated with Steve upon returning back in late 1990s, when he changed the culture back to the way it’s use to be when he was at the apex Apple. Also the Role culture could be link with eras of sculley, and other leaders who try to formalize the structure by imposing their own rule, neglecting the important of project groups, which is central to the Task culture even though individual expertise at Apple is crucial to its innovation the only existing collaboration is based on secrecy. A typical reflection of Apple is the individual culture we may say is the Person culture as different geeks work tiredly to bring about a unique invention based on their expertise. According to, Van backer(case study p.10), ( Backer)an analyst at Gartner inc, noted” when Apple goes out to hire somebody, the no 1 criteria isn’t how much experience you have or who you know .it’s whether they think you will fit into the culture. Nevertheless the culture seems unique but can it function without structure, the leadership, performance and strategy? Ideally, we can communicate this by a thorough analysis of the model below; take note that the model is a non linear model as all the elements are inter-related and interdependent. Fig1.2 a culture relation model Structure Noticeable in the case study is the commentators’ reference to Apple as a Unique culture, analysts argued that Steve jobs the CEO of Apple is the best marketer in the world, but his leadership style suggest a different view. For instance secrecy is the pinnacle of Apples strategic marketing culture. Apple was known to appreciate and value its employee, it worth noting that whereas motivational theories such as B.F Skinner (1974), Mintberg (1979), have highlighted the importance of reward and value as the ideological stimuli that motivate individual to work, in contrast, at Apple any universal concept of motivation might not work, because of how apple justifies its reward system with a do or die culture. More so the structure at Apple Inc is becoming complex as it evolves into a different pattern over the years. FIG2 Hierarchy and Flat structure The above is an illustration of a standardize structure of organisation formulated by many scholars over the year to explain organizational functionality; the flat is more prominent to entrepreneurship, with suitable element of informal, charismatic ,and informal leadership quality but grapevine in nature while the other is ideal for a larger organisation. However, of all the supportive research is the work of Canadian academic, Henry Mintzberg. According to Mintzberg (1979) an organisational structure is the sum total of the way in which it divides its labour into distinct tasks and then achieve coordination between them’. also structure is define as “the established pattern of relationship between the components parts of an organisation, out lining both communication control and authority patterns .supportive to this also is Wilson and Rosenfeld(1990) explained that structure distinguishes the parts of an organisation and delineates the relationship between them”. This is supported by Apple’s trend in organisation structure which is more complex than initially perceived, for instance Apple is seen as the pioneer of “work hard play hard” ethic. Equally important is the frequent changes in culture as different leaders tried to adopt a different approach to reorganise the structure, it is interesting that analyst said Apple adopted a style that was not too far too formal or hierarchical and that the approach was more result-driven. In ugly circumstances as a reference to the case study, any poor performance at Apple will not be consistent with its culture; it is important to say that any change in culture will resort in change in structure, however if the structure cannot survive without the culture then where do we inject the leadership style to bring about ultimate performance? Apple structure is neither hierarchy nor flat we could say it’s more of a hybrid or matrix unlike hierarchy which is prone to bureaucracy=read further according to Webber (1947),in his analysis of organisation he had identified the principle of bureaucracy as a continuous organisation that is bound by rules. Webber outline the importance of ideal bureaucracy to an organisation as positive and rational unlike the other which he described as domination as charismatic authority and traditional authority ….mention adocrasy=read further Fig 2.1 A representation of Apples organisation formation structure. AGENT OF TRANSFORMATION Leadership as a concept has been an interesting centre piece to different fields of thought, to the ordinary man; a leader is just a symbolic head, but as a supportive element by theorists and analysts a definite category of classification; it is said the most important type of leaderships are of the following: the charismatic, the traditional, the situational, the appointed, the functional and the principle centred leader for the purpose of this essay we will look at leadership from management perspective, according Cole(2004), leadership is define as the following: “leadership at work is a dynamic process whereby one individual in a group is not only responsible for the group results but actively seeks the collaboration and commitment of all the group members in a achieving group goals in a particular context and against the background of a particular national culture” INNOVATORS The leadership style of Apple is highly represented by their iconic CEO Steve job that is highly regarded for his innovative, creative and marketing strategies. Using classification of leadership his style could be linked as the transformational leader which is characterised by the transformation of organisation, creativity and innovation with the purpose to engender commitment. However the simplicity of his approach could resort in the downfall of his perceived personality and organisational performance, for instance if this was ideal for the organisational culture then the question would be the sited instances of global workforce revolting against the culture of secretary used by Apple as an accepted way to move the company forward. If apple is to maintain its status quo as the number one most valued company in the world then it needs to engage itself in some form of leadership re orientation as over the past decade different management/leaders have tied to change the culture of apple and its structure only to head back to the starting point which is where they are today, Steve job certainly must be doing some right, concrete evidence suggest that Steve job must have outperformed his expectation to the board of management as emphasized in the case study. CONSTRAINTS the ripple effect of change of leaders/managers at Apple inc emphasis the need for change in culture, however this changes also brought about change in structure as each leader tries to implement his/her own ideology, arguable is the internal problem that apple faces from its reorganisation, for instance the appointment of Sculley who was credit for making Apple one of the biggest and fastest-growing corporation in the US.(case study p.5 ).A series of failure in the early 90s again brought another power shift when the board decided it time for leadership change and Micheal spindler was appointed in 1993 to replace Sculley, Spinder also fail to perform as expected ,Amelio could have being the one man that brought the last drastic change into apple because of his focus on Apple product line and workforce reduction but fail follow Apples corporate culture, once more Steve was back in business to turn things Around. A key point to his transformational leadership style, nevertheless it would appear that the board were more interested in performance rather than leadership quality or style; however performance cannot be divorced from leadership. THE ACHIEVER Performance, there’s no generalised definition of performance; it has being said that performance cannot be easily defined as you cannot measure or manage it. However few management researchers have noted the core different of performance from other fields in comparison to management sectors. Performance is more adapted to performance management day in day out, therefore performance could be agreed to be of relevance to situational changes. Armstrong and Baron (1998) define performance management as “a strategic and integrated approach to delivering sustained success to organization by improving the performance of the people who work in them by developing the capability of team and individual who work in them”.. Therefore, it provides avenue for knowledge on organizational objectives and goals and a spectrum to manage and train individual in order to achieve to such objectives’ Armstrong stress that performance is strategic because it is concern with broader issues facing organizational effectiveness. As evidence in the case study the market value of Apple against the backdrop of its financial performance over the years in Exhibit VIII, it is clear that in the past decade there being a major profit share in the company, more so recently Apple posted all time record revenue with increase earnings of 78 percent, as of July 2010. Apple posted record revenue of $15.7 billion and also quarterly profit of $3.25 billion,. Surely the share holders would be very pleased with the result. These results compare to workforce engagement and the strategy used to achieve result cannot be overlooked, Apple was known to appreciate its employees. It was consider a great place to work for people who are personate about what they did. (Case study p.3) also experts felt one of the key success to Apples performance is its ability to attract and retain key personnel in technical, marketing and staff positions Nevertheless financial performance in one comfort zone for the company identity externally but does this speak the same for the internal general audit of employee of Apple who work tirelessly for over 60hours to get this results out. Then how engaged are the staff of Apple incorporation. The unique culture of Apple which is base on the leadership style of one man approach: Steve jobs, can it survive after the exit of jobs. its plausible to say yes as jobs himself claim he had trained others to manage whenever he is no longer available, however the determination of each individual could result in systemic failure of the culture as every leader approach with a different goal setting. If the goal serve as the basis for motivation, and the goals are set by managers, industrial standard or base on negotiation, how then do you motivate individual, researchers noted that one can be motivated by target set against the others while you could be de-motivated by over pressured standard. “levison(1972)”highlights this in Asinine attitude towards motivation, in relation to reward or punishment to motivate workers, more so borrowing the work of Hygiene theory of motivation by Herzberg (1968),which he claim that the most important motivator or satisfier are Achievement Recognition Work itself Responsibility Advancement. While the following called hygiene factors or dissatisfies Company policy and administration. Supervision-the technical aspects. Salary. Interpersonal relations-supervision Working conditions. Herzberg pointed out that these factors were intrinsically related to the content of work, i.e. with intrinsic challenge, interest and the individual responses generated by them. If applied to Apple, how do we justify the working condition of staff who work for long hours to get the job done, or does the secrecy atmosphere bring about individual motivation or fear of punishment has whoever fail to comply to the culture is noticeably punished, the reward scheme in apple for those that come up with innovative technology like iphone, mac ipad could result in esteem of individual while the punishment approach on the other hand is detrimental to the public image of Apple as any failure leads to sacking individual or leakage of secret will automatically result in dismissal. Therefore we could say any universal concept of motivation might not work in Apple cooperate culture base on perceived punishment and reward of staff performance, thus Apple cooperate culture is zero experience and no stability of staff until now though it has worked for the company. Even though the strategy may be consider risky. Apple target young staff recruits with less commitment and more glory seeking rather than experience. However is worth saying the older generation are not mush expandable. This could be explain using Maslow (1956) Hierarchy of needs, which he associated the important of needs to motivate individual, starting from basic needs called physiological needs, follow by safety needs, then love needs, esteem needs, and self actualisation. He emphasis that as one needs is fulfil we move up to another. Goal setting (locke,shaw sariThe Corporate Culture Of Apple Inc Business Essay

BIOL103 Saudi Electronic University Wk 12 Symtoms and Clinic Diagnose Case Study

essay helper free BIOL103 Saudi Electronic University Wk 12 Symtoms and Clinic Diagnose Case Study.

Guidelines: Font should be 12 Times New RomanHeading should be BoldThe text color should be Black Line spacing should be 1.5The length of the write-up should be no more than 1000 words (1-2 pages ).Avoid PlagiarismAssignments must be submitted with the filled cover pageUse graphics and shapes whenever you canAll assignments must carry the references using APA style. Please see below the weblink about how to cite APA reference style. Click or tap to follow the link.
BIOL103 Saudi Electronic University Wk 12 Symtoms and Clinic Diagnose Case Study

Feminism in Top Girls

The play is one of the most famous works of Churchill in all of hers. Some consider the play as a very radical feministic one, some consider it as anti-feminist. But the matter is that she, by the use of different techniques and strategies has made her play like a globe in which all women are there supporting, discarding each other. The play has a very important historical evidence behind itself and it was the matter of Thatcher that had become prime minister, as Churchill, her self comments that when she wrote top girls: “Thatcher had just become prime minister; there was talk about whether it was an advance to have a woman prime minister if it was someone with policies like hers. She may be a woman but she isn’t a sister, she may be a sister but she isn’t a comrade. And, in fact, things have got much worse for women under Thatcher”. (Churchill in Betsko and Koenig 1987, 77) In fact Margaret Thatcher and Edith Cresson, as prime ministers of their own time were really “top girls”. In top girls, Churchill has had two main idea in her mind: those of dead women coming back and women working. these are in fact two main topics of the play, which are very closely intertwined. the dead women from the past appear in act one, taking place in a restaurant, a celebration that Marlene organizes, because of her recent promotion, we see other characters such as Lady Nijo, Dull Griet, Pope, Joan who celebrate their femininity with each other. during the course of the night they gather together and supposed to speak about their victories, and of course there occurs an epiphany for them because they in fact had lost their own womanly manner in order to achieve men’s world. The presence of this empty women is so well epitomized in the character of Marlene, as a kind of gap between past and present, this working class girl pregnant who left her home village to make a new one in London., so the old Marlene has died and no one is born and replaced by a cruel one, so we see here some assembly of dead women, who so naively consider themselves as the most alive ones. The structure of the play so excellently shows the sense of death of its main characters, in other words we can see a kind of parallelism, between their life and the structure of play. the play’s denouement is somehow truncated, as the lives of women truncated and crooked. Of course we can consider this kind of techniques used by her as a feminist stances of denying the masculine pattern of plays inherited by Aristotle, I think before the full analyses of the play, that’s better to mention some characteristic of it that is so prominent: her adaptation of Brechtian drama by the use of alienation effects,a kind of aesthetic distance, the matter and technique is so excellently showed by successive interruption of waiter and of course their laughter. From the perspective of dramatic shape it consists of three acts. one consists of three scenes and act two of tow scenes. I think the matter and division is because of creation of some chronological disruption, and it is done as a way of fulfilling a very good function in order not to create a kind of identification between the reader/audience and the actor/actress on the stage. Another important thing mentioned here is that, between different layers of this play, we have the working of the ideology. In this way we have a criticism of capitalism and capitalist regimes that the play puts forward. In another sense, it can be used to exemplify more feminist reading of the play in fact by occurrence of a complete climax and by in fact having a diametrically opposed position to the structure inherent to tragedy postulated by Aristotle. as Christopher Innes has stated: “Combining surreal fantasy with Shavian discussion, documentary case-histories, and naturalistic domestic drama (complete with kitchen sink and ironing-board), Top Girls breaks out of conventional methods of portraying life on the stage, and suggests new ways of seeing reality .. creating a dynamic that is liberated from cause-and effect logic. “(Innes 1992, 466),and this matter some how leads us to the next point: looking for a feminist form(or at least a kind of form different from the patriarchal one).the fact that we have in the drama only women and not men, is really vital in comprehension of it. the fact that the actresses in Top Girls have to double or treble roles prevents us from identifying with them and, consequently, focuses the attention of the reader/audience on the political message of the play, that is feminism . Thus, the woman-only cast illustrates the subject matter of Top Girls and reinforces the theme of feminism or that’s better to say anti feminism. Although, the play deals with oppression of women by men in a capitalist regime, but we see the oppression of women by women as a result of being part of that regime .It can also means that how women have internalized the rules and privileges of patriarchal societies, however, we don’t see a manifest attack of Churchill on men, in other words we don’t see the struggle of women but in fact the play turns on the analyses of class strife and economics. An example can be found in the case of Marlene, who sacrifices her own daughter and family in order to escape from her working-class origins, besides, here in this drama we see that all the women somehow have some masculine way of behavior, although they think that they have cut with them, as we see that they have just an illusion that they are successful women or we as a kind of reader find tat its just an illusion to consider the play just as representation of a feminist drama. I think even the naming of character in the play, they exemplify the whole discussion about class struggle and economic strife that underlies it. so we have here a four group classification. First group women of past as we have Isabella Bird, as her name reminds us the matter of travelling. It can also be considered as a reference to the several characters in the play(Marlene, Lady Nijo, Win, Angie, Jeanine and Shona), who long for escape from their reality and fly to other, sunnier lands. here we see on the surface feministic tendency. Another important thing that really needs concentration is the language used by Churchill, she really has done her best to create a kind of distinctive use of the language in the play as Aston and Savona argue that: “In Top Girls, the use of overlap is a sign of the female voice. Brecht’s splintering of the ego is further problematised in Churchill’s text by the female entry into the symbolic order of language. As a logocentric or phallocentric sign-system (as identified in Derridean or Lacanian terms), language places the female subject in a marginalized relation to its patriarchal order. “(Aston and Savona 1991, 70) By destabilizing the linguistic exchange and therefore unfixing identity, but at the same time giving predominance to a “female voice”, Churchill seems to be stressing in a radical way “the destabilization and displacement of the female subject in relation to language” (Aston and Savona 1991, 70), and consequently in relation to occupying a position in a patriarchaliy-defined society. All the women of top girls have conformed themselves to the male standards of behavior and that shows the theatricality of their works and glories. They are never satisfied with this new brand of gender, at least before they were just women now not men and not women belonging to one of them. From Lacanian point of view and as a confirmation of what I mentioned in the previous paragraph that all their actions are nothing but facade, we see that all of the characters are confined in the symbolic stage with the role of father. Since language is given in and by a system dominated by men, women’s access to it is going to be clearly mediated. According to this, women’s ‘voice’, their ‘identity’, will be totally artificial, a construct defined by patriarchy. This is precisely what Gret purports to destroy in her powerful speech, in which she equals the Symbolic Order to hell. A hell where all the devils are male. As I mentioned in the previous paragraphs, Caryl Churchill in her marvelous play Top Girls has inserted a lot of messages some say that it is basically a play about capitalism and sexism: About capitalism in the sense that it analyses labor and social relations constituted by a capitalist economy, about sexism in that these relations are seen from a female point of view, which explores how female identity is put down by the politics of patriarchy. Top Girls is also a socialist-feminist play. It can be defined as socialist in that it takes a clear position against any sort of capitalist ideology, and it can be defined as feminist because it presents us with a parallel between socio-economic, by the use oppression and gender oppression. In fact, as we have seen, Churchill herself is a firm believer in the “inseparability of feminism and socialism”(Kritzer 1991, 149).besides, her uses of characters are true to life, she really generalize the theme of her feministic play, by use of characters of different classes to connote that it is a play about all women. Different strategies of her to create a feminine setting is really of paramount importance, although in this play she showed women who have achieved the highest level of social life but they are not really satisfied. I think the main message of her is that women should know the limits, as she is a social feminist and she is criticizing the bourgeois feminists. References: Jstore: Titol de la testi: Gender, Politics, Subjectivity: Reading Caryl Churchill

History of Social Media

History of Social Media.

This project requires that you: (Note that these points MUST be covered in your proposal)Consider the following as per discussions in social media affects our society how social media affects each of us individually Based on this, outline a proposal for a social media app which addresses a need you feel must be addressed in our next generation of social media apps:Identify the content, and form, as well as the media for your app Acknowledging the importance of dialogue, agency, and collaboration in social media, Show how your app addresses these.Prepare a preliminary prototype (Simple drawings or compilation photos suitable for a powerpoint which can be included in your report)Develop sample content Have an image of the form (how the app will look)Identify the primary mediaProvide some images of the context in which it will be used Get feedback from friends (6) about your idea by writing a questionnaire, disseminating it in print or asking orally, gathering data, and providing an analysis of what they said.Formal Report: Post on Discord and hand in print report2500 – 3000 words: report format. Single side.11 pt Times Roman, 1.5 Line Spacing. 1″ margins top and sides, .5″ bottom. Use head and subheads in bold to identify your sections. Use .25″ indent for new paragraphs. No extra space between sections. Include page #s.IntroductionRational for AppDescription of App including imagesConclusion: what your friends thought and how you responded.In-Text Citations for all quotes and main ideas. Bibliography and ReferencesImages are to be small i.e. 3″x 4″ or so. Must illustrate text and be referenced in text. Use captions starting with [Fig.1] and number sequentially.
History of Social Media

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