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need done my 2pm tomorrow 11/28/17

need done my 2pm tomorrow 11/28/17.

Assignment Details An Annotated Bibliography organizes your research by way of APA citations and a short paragraph about each source. For this Assignment, you will create an Annotated Bibliography for four sources related to an argument for change. One of the sources should address an opposing viewpoint or misconception related to your topic. Your instructor will provide insightful feedback on the sources you find so you can determine whether to use them in the Unit 8 Assignment, a persuasive research essay.The following aspects are required for your Annotated Bibliography Assignment: Title page in APA manuscript format. Your revised thesis statement for an argument for change in your community or workplace. Four primary and secondary sources; one source should be a periodical or ebook, preferably from the Library. Sources that would be appropriate are as follows: Book, ebook, article, or a chapter from book or ebook Periodical (e.g., newspaper, magazine, journal article) Internet source (e.g., blog, organization website, article from Internet site) Video or audio source (e.g., documentary, video blog, TED Talks , podcast) A primary source in which the authors of the content are the primary researchers (the ones who conducted research), e.g., a government report, case study, or speech At least one source should address an opposing viewpoint or misconception. APA citation for each source (this is the information you would normally include on a references page). Annotation for each source, which must include each of the following in a full paragraph: Brief summary of the source (no direct quotes from the source) and a parenthetical citation after the summary, e.g., (Smith, 2014) Evaluation of the source’s credibility, including the author’s credentials and the verifiability of the source’s information; this should include where you found the source Library, Google search engine, government website, etc.) Discussion about the source’s usefulness to your argument for change in your community or workplace All writing must be in Standard American English. Use APA manuscript format throughout the Assignment.To help you complete this Assignment successfully, please review the resources noted below, including relevant articles from the Writing Center that discuss how to write an annotated bibliography, find/evaluate research, and use APA citations. The previously noted Learning Activities related to evaluating sources will also help in your writing of this Assignment. WC: “How to Write an Annotated Bibliography ” WC: “Common Citations in APA Format ” WC: “Citing Sources Tutorial” WC: “Internet-Only Sources” WC: “APA Sample Title Page”Click the following link to access the grading rubric your instructor will use when assessing your Assignment: Unit 6 Assignment Rubric.Click the following link to see a sample Assignment: Unit 6 Assignment Sample.Submitting your Unit 6 Assignment:Remember that you must use Word for this and all Assignments submitted for this class in order to be reviewed and graded by the instructor. When you are ready to submit it, go to the Unit 6 Assignment Dropbox and attach your work.To view your graded work, come back to the Dropbox or go to the Gradebook after your instructor has evaluated it.
need done my 2pm tomorrow 11/28/17

Zappos Company Management Essay. Synopsis Zappos Company outsources work to handle selling, shipping for other companies and its customer services. This company offers training to its entire staff at, new employees and interested parties outside the organization (Chafkin, 158). The writer states that Hsieh is a customer oriented manager who goes out conducting research studies on what makes his target market happy. The company has an effective management system with a well-designed website courtesy of Hsieh. All the employees are treated equally with a salary below market rate accompanied by lots of motivations. Hsieh takes his employees out frequently to bars and restaurants making them feel valued. The humble trait has made employees and customer love this company. My thoughts I have read quite a number of articles that discuss the importance of outsourcing. However, for a large company such as Zappos, outsourcing has potential damages as well as importance. Small business consultants and entrepreneurs can learn from Zappos that it is possible to reduce workload through outsourcing. I agree with the fact that Zappos Company should outsource work to handle selling, shipping for other companies and its customer service. The negative side of this program is that outsiders have no idea concerning the internal marketing environment and factors of production. In order to improve sales, the management and employees of the company must be involved in decision making. Engagement of external stakeholders is only important in reducing the workload hence outsourcing cannot be an effective management strategy. The writer states that Hsieh conducts some training for interested individuals outside the company. I support this move because training equips employees with the required skills at all levels of management. Training new employees is also a good initiative for Zappos Company because it creates some confidence in the new environment. Human beings always fear to make mistakes when in a new environment; it is a life-preserving habit. I would recommend a training session for business consultants on how to handle clients. This idea is, however, challenging due to the fact that there are some costs to incur when training people. Entrepreneurs can pay for such training to gain knowledge in business management. Training should be done within the organization in order to reduce the costs involved. Conducting research on what makes people happy is Hsieh’s strategy of understanding the target market. I believe attracting customers is like catching fish; one cannot just dive in and grab the fish. Zappos is looking for ways to bait the hook and dangle the worm. Hsieh believes that once research is done on the things that keep a customer coming back, sales always increase (Chafkin, 161). This is consistent with reality. For entrepreneurs who want to venture into businesses, market research is very important because it gives the entrepreneur an idea of the market. Zappos managers also use technology to connect with customers through a well-designed website. It is important to note that this company is doing this to survive in the current e-business environment. However, this may affect Zappos’ approach to customer and employee relations because the Chief Executive of this company prefers dealing with humans themselves. This technology is, therefore, in conflict with the company’s policy thereby making it obsolete. Hsieh has the same challenge faced by most entrepreneurs in the real world. Many people never set the right objectives that lead to achievements of goals (Chafkin, 159). New policies, if not checked, can at times interfere with objectives and as a result, affect the goals of an enterprise. With the help of its C.E.O, the company has created a management system where all necessary software is used to make work easier for both employees and top managers. I would not consider paying my employees salaries below market rates as it is in Zappos Company. This is a potential risk to mass action because compensations are motivation factors to human beings even in the real world. However, Hsieh has his own ways of motivating employees like hanging out with them in bars (Chafkin, 158). He also tweets to keep up with the goofy libertine human culture. Consultants should learn from Hsieh that human beings are creators of emotions hence clients need to feel appreciated and valued. However, Hsieh has gone as far as conducting interviews in a bar which involves a lot of risks. Social media is used to create relations in the real world, but for businessmen and women, such relations should be limited because they provide platforms for defamation. Today, the consumer is more connected, more demanding, more informed and less loyal to a brand. Zappos’ strategy of placing toll-free customer support number, personal buying service and free socks can help create a strong customer base. Creating a business card, for instance, can help consultants increase contacts. In the real world, the current generation is programmed to follow what others are doing. The things people watch and read have an impact on their consumption habit. I would, therefore, recommend a website and a free toll customer support number to an individual who plans to venture into any business. Works Cited Chafkin, Max. “Inc magazine.” The Zappos Way of Managing (2009): 158-162. Print Zappos Company Management Essay
Los Angeles City College The Perils of Eating Disorders Chapter Discussion.

I’m working on a health & medical discussion question and need a sample draft to help me study.

Being at a healthy body weight is important, but for some individuals the struggle is much more intense. In fact, for some people a distorted perception of body image can have a detrimental effect on their overall health. For this discussion board, please read Controversy 9: The Perils of Eating Disorders at the end of Chapter 9 in our textbook Nutrition Concepts and Controversies, 15th ed. In your initial post, please discuss what you have learned about eating disorders — such as the different types, symptoms, and their treatments. Use only the information from the assigned reading to support your statements and be sure to cite the source properly using APA formatting. Your initial post should be at least 250 words.
Los Angeles City College The Perils of Eating Disorders Chapter Discussion

Pricing

Pricing.

Read this week’s required article: “How Companies Can Get Smart About Raising Prices”.In a three- to four-page paper (not including the title and reference pages): Retrieved from the ProQuest database.Explain how to successfully get customers to pay more for your products. Reference the article in support of your response.Explain how a specific pricing strategy will allow you to raise the price on your product successfully.The paperMust be three to four double-spaced pages in length (not including title and references pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site..Must include a separate title page with the following:Title of paperStudent’s nameCourse name and numberInstructor’s nameDate submittedMust use at least three scholarly sources from the Ashford University Library, one of which must be peer reviewed, in addition to the textbook.Must document all sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.Must include a separate references page that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Writing Center.
Pricing

Goal Statement for PhD applicant

write my term paper Goal Statement for PhD applicant. I’m trying to study for my Writing course and I need some help to understand this question.

IF YOU CANNOT DO IT, DON’T WASTE MY TIME OR YOURS. I WILL ASK FOR REFUND IMMEDIATELY
Please provide a GOAL statement indicating THE FOLLOWING:
1- Why you want to pursue a graduate degree in your chosen field of study? I CHOSE PHD IN HEALTH EDUCATION AND PROMOTION (ATTACHED IS THE intended PROGRAM DESCRIPTION) “keep in mind that i am a Teaching Assistant and i wanna be a scholar and a professor.”
2- What you hope to gain in the graduate program?
3- WHAT ARE your career goals upon graduating? “remember, a scholar and a professor”
4- Include relevant academic and professional experience achieved in the past or expected in the future that support your goal. “I worked on a capstone project in the past during my masters about (Evaluation of Programs for Pediatric Mental Health systems at King Abdulaziz Medical City in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia). currently, Im in the process to publishing my paper about heat stroke during Hajj”
Narrative length should be approximately 1-2 pages, double-spaced
Goal Statement for PhD applicant

Case Study Of Yellow Auto Company Commerce Essay

As one of the most well-known car company, Yellow Auto Company was built in 1989 and occupied 54 marketing share in 2008. Why can it develop so fast and increase their share great in less than 20 years? This paper aims to conduct the case study of Yellow Auto Automotive Company, from the perspective of psychology digging the decision making issues in this company. First, a brief introduction of the company is given to let readers know the basic information of Yellow Auto. Then the relevant decision making issues are analyzed combining the theory of psychology in making decision. At last, suggestions on how to maintain long and short comings of Yellow Auto are given and how to improve their decision making in the future is also discussed. introduction of the Company Yellow Auto Automotive Company was built by two brothers, Can and Caner Sale in 1989. As a family company, its shareholders are acted by the owners and the assets came from the two brothers’ family. Yellow Auto owns two stores in Gaziemir and Cambidi respectively and acts as one of the most well-known car company over the worldwide. Yellow Auto aims at selling famous brand’s cars in different areas, such as Coca-Cola. They have two options of car market, first of which are high market demand models and second are those cars with special features according to customers’ needs. Yellow Auto followed the development step and changes of the parent company. All the employees are required to adapt to the developing steps of technologies. The top manager put eyes on three important departments: finance, sales and after-sales services. The sales of Yellow Auto were supervised by a manager and they put a lot of attention on the face-to-face communication to attract customers. In their recruitment, Yellow Auto prefers active and highly-educated young people. Employees are required to ask every detail and not encouraged to make decisions by themselves. Many rules in the company management are unwritten but stored in hearts of the family members. Yellow Auto always cares about the level of customer satisfaction. They figured out several ways to increase customer satisfaction. They made great effort to attract future young customers, and offered sufficient communication with existing customers, such as telephone conversations and sending text message. Analysis on the Relevant Decision Making Issues in the Case 3.1 Relevant Decision Making Issues What kind of issues in the case Since 2001, top managers of Yellow Auto made a risk decision under the background of a serious economic crisis in Turkey. In the whole changing process, top managers made a lot of analysis on the psychology of employees. They even asked external consultants from a university in Turkey for help to assist the policy change process well operated. Therefore, this report is going to conduct the case study of Yellow Auto from the perspective of psychology. What decisions made /how the decisions implemented by the company Yellow Auto used to make several decisions in the whole changing process as the following. First, top managers of Yellow Auto made the important decision, that is, to achieve a goal of having 50% of the market share in the field. It is a high risky decision due to the economic crisis. In order to promise the smooth going of this decision, Yellow Auto decided to ask help from academics in university. Under the guidance of the external consultants, change efforts are put on increasing physical working conditions, distinguishing tasks for managers and employees, designing careers plans for young generations, and “right person for the right job” principle. Next the implementation of these decisions by the company will be analyzed from the perspective of psychology theory. According to the transactional analysis by Berne (1961), the human psyche consists of three ego states: parent, adult and child. Yellow Auto Company acts as the adult state. They owns strong objective and always are able to evaluate and critique. When implementing the decisions, top managers evaluate the results in time, face the actual effect of the changing process and make enough adjustment to make sure correct changing direction What’s the result After two years changing process under the suggestion from academics, the job satisfaction and organization loyalty of employees in Yellow Auto are enhanced greatly. The following increased profitability of the company is 25% more than the profitability result of 2001. Yellow Auto also extends their sales and added two stores around lzmir. In the future, the owners of Yellow Auto would maintain the good results and continue the investing in human resources. Through the cooperation with a university in lzmir, human resources of Yellow Auto will have a bright future and bring more good results. Evaluations on the Issues and Decisions How important are these issues and possible influences of these issues People are often sort of reluctant in making decisions. Analyzing the psychology of decision making for managers in company is so important that the decisions by owners and top managers would determine where the company is going to. If top managers made the wrong decision, not only huge crisis will be brought to the future of company, but also the morale of employees and loyalty to the company may be affected greatly. There are several psychological approaches for the analysis of decision making, such as psychoanalytic, behaviourist, humanist, neurobiological and cognitive (Lecture 7). In this report, the psychoanalytic approach will be applied on analysing psychology of decision making. Next, the changing strategy of Yellow Auto will be looked into from the psychology of the decision maker. According to Lauent and Kapferer (1985), there are four factors influencing individuals’ decision making: sense of oneself, perceived risk, social factors and hedonistic factors. These factors are not only suitable for the consumers, but also fitful for decider (Berne, 1964). On the consumer level, if people are willing to buy products from Yellow Auto, they must seek a feeling of satisfaction. All human beings own the potential of hedonistic factors. Good services and products can help consumers obtain superiority and good sense for themselves. Although perceived risk may exist in their mind, face-to-face communication by staff in the company will assist vanishing the risky feeling, such as employees in Yellow Auto. They are required to contact with consumers by phone calls and message, that gives consumers a family feeling and trust the company increasingly. As top managers, they must be familiar with the psychology of consumers for better management and marketing future. On the other hand, from the perspective of managers in Yellow Auto, they are also decision makers. They made important decision for the company development. Sense of self is crucial for the top managers and shareholders. Based on their experience in the car market, they may be able to sense sensitively where the “big fish” is. However, 50% of the marketing share is such a huge risk based on the background of economy crisis. A smart manager should be able to put a lot of attention on the perceived risk and conduct some action, such as top managers of Yellow Auto. They asked help from academics in a local university, that is, they used social factors which can be reached to guarantee their company changing process. Those external consultants were professionally good at analysing psychology of employees and provided managers good suggestions to increase the satisfaction and commitment of employees. From the excellent results of Yellow Auto, that is, they had 54% marketing share in 2008, psychology of employees and managers play crucial rules in the marketing strategy. Strength and weakness of the decisions made in the case Pisharodi and Langley (1990) used to propose a Perceptual Process Model, assisting the analysis on perpetual process in the decision making. That model consists of three parts: selective attention and emotional maker response, perceptual organization and interpretation, and the attitude and behavior. The Perceptual Process Model is going to be used to analyze the strength and weakness of decisions made in this case. First, under environmental stimuli, selective attention and emotional maker response are made (Pisharodi and Langley, 1990). That depends on a lot of factors, such as characteristics of the perceiver, assumptions and anticipation of future events. One strong strength point of Yellow Auto is that their top manager did well in this step. They perceived the right marketing trend and anticipate a bright and feasible goal for the company. Next step is the perceptual organizaiton and interpretation. An important part is the mental process in it. Here the perceivers or managers should do the categorical thinking and perceptual grouping to make sure the feasibility of the assumption and anticipation. Top managers in Yellow Auto did the perceptual organazation and interpretation so that they obtained the results, that is, they cooperated with academics to guarentee the smooth going of the change. It is indeed one strong point in this case. However, each coin has two different sides. There are still some weaknesses for Yellow Auto. Their main point is focused on the psychology of the employees and they aimed to increase the job satisfaction and commitment of employees. Although the good morale and loyalty of employee are important for the company development and culture forming, it is vitally dangerous if all top managers’ attention is focused on the psychology analysis of employees. They ignored to put more attention on the marketing wave and flexible future. If marketing would suddenly change, all the previous work could not be efficient anymore. On the other hand, the competitors of Yellow Auto may be aware of this weak point of the company and attack Yellow Auto when the marketing is changing. If Yellow Auto is still paying attention on the psychology of managers and employees, but not to figure out strategies to face the changing market, Yellow Auto would be in big trouble. After these two steps, Yellow Auto come out the attitude and behavior which is the last step of the Perceptual Process Model. Recommendations advices on ways of maintaining advantages and facing challenges¼‰and how to improve their decision making in the future From the results of the change in Yellow Auto Company, they indeed did a good job; however, it still has the points to be improved. Here this report is going to give some advices on maintaining the advantages and how to improve their decision making in the future. First, Yellow Auto should continue with their adjustment which maintains the current job satisfaction and commitment of employees. From the experience, increasing morale of employees indeed help people treat the company as their own family, so that they would take 100% effort for working. Also, the recruited personnel for the “the right person for the right job” should be continued. That saves a lot of time for both managers and employees. From the psychology perspective, this change to some extent increases the morale and loyalty of employees. People can sense the feeling of being valued and nobody’s talent would be wasted in some meaningless position. However, there are various sources of perceptual process bias that deserve more attention (Zajonc

Front Office Department Yield Management

Chapter 1 Introduction The purpose of this chapter is to give an overview of the Front Office department and the yield management. The term “Front Office” was introduced in the US, but now used in worldwide. Front Office is divided into sub-departments namely reception, concierge, switchboard, bellboys, reservations and guest relations. Nevertheless, as hotels vary in size and type, some of these sub-departments may not be present. Despite the size or the type of the establishment, the department is in many ways the “nerves” of the hotel. One reason for this is that the sale of rooms generates more than 50 per cent of revenue and profit of a hotel, thus it is compulsory that Front Office department maximize its sales. For instance it might be through the switchboard, in the process of making reservation over the telephone, by entering the hotel to check-in or to make an inquiry. It clearly depicts that Front Office is a strong marketing tool that generates business for a hotel through guests’ registration. It is the center for guest activity. Front Office is in fact a hotel department where guests check-in, request information about services that the hotel provides and at the end of their stay they settle their bills and check-out. The Front Office as well generates profit or revenue indirectly, for other departments such as restaurant bookings and up-selling of the hotel in general. Normally, up-selling is done by the team members to increase profit by offering other services to the guests. When guests inquire about those services then it is an opportunity for the staffs to persuade them to purchase these facilities. It is important that the department sets goals and objectives to be able to manage and control yield management so as to maximize sales revenue. The Front Office should however have its own mission statement for a successful management system. Aim: Planning and evaluating Front Office yield management for a better revenue management and for the success of the department Objectives: •Proposing a solution for an effective communication and how to eliminate all barriers •Understanding the purpose of yield management and how to plan, manage and organize in the Front Office department •Investigating the link between Front Office Operations and yield management: how it contributes in the department •Implementing yield management in Front Office department •Making Front Office department successful in controlling and calculating revenue obtaining from up-selling Problem Statement: There is an increase in communication barriers interdepartmentally concerning sales revenue. Messages are not passed accordingly to right person, to the right place and at the right time. It is noticed that employees are not convince to do up-selling owing to lack of training facilities and procedures. Thus, expectations are not met which results to a low revenue. The fact that there is misunderstanding, conflicts may arise among staffs and supervisors to make decision on how to increase sales. The time scale does not allow the employees to properly plan, organise and implement their task if managers do not set objectives and guidelines. Finally, owing to a miscalculation or a decrease in revenue and sales, it minimizes the profits. In general, team members do not take their planning of task into consideration thus result to ineffective, inefficiently and less productive. Updated information is not usually circulated. Thus, outdated data is given to guests concerning the selling price of the products and services at the hotel. If there has been carelessness, guests get compensation, for instance a dinner free of charge on the beach. In somehow, reducing the revenue and sales. Chapter 2 Front Office department Front Office department is one of the departments within the rooms division. It is the “heart” center of the hotel and is the most revenue generating. Front Office is a noticeable department in a hotel with the greatest amount of guest contact and highly people orientated. It is designed as the first lasting impression. The front office functions can be divided into six general areas: 1. Reception 2. Guest Relations 3. Bell service 4. Mail and information / Reservation 5. Concierge 6. Cashiers and night auditors Front Office Structure A hotel’s size and objectives determine the organizational structure of the Front Office. (Abbott,P. and Lewry, S. 1993) A table of Front Office structures is shown below. [Drawing]Front Office Manager [Drawing] Assistant Front Office Manager [Drawing][Drawing][Drawing][Drawing][Drawing][Drawing][Drawing][Text Wrapping Break] [Text Box][Text Box] [Drawing]Reservation Manager [Drawing][Text Box] [Drawing][Drawing][Drawing][Drawing] [Text Box][Text Box][Text Box][Text Box][Text Box] [Drawing] [Text Box] Planning and evaluating operations There are seven management functions that have to be considered when planning and evaluating operations. These points are as follows: 1.Planning 2.Organising 3.Coordinating 4.Staffing 5.Leading 6.Controlling 7.Evaluating Planning Planning is an essential function in the success of different office operations. It is a procedure of setting objectives, developing plans and outlining tasks and schedules to accomplish the goals targeted. An effective strategic planning is done for the contribution of a successful operation and to maintain higher or constant revenue in the Front Office operation. At the stage of planning, the Front Office manager determines the department’s goals and objectives. Therefore, the Front Office manager uses these goals as a guide for planning most specific and measurable objectives. Finally, through these goals, the front office manager determines the strategies and procedures to reach these objectives. These aims will thus discuss to the Front Office staffs so as to plan and organise their task efficiently for the success of the department. Organising After setting the objectives, the Front Office manager organised the work to be done through dividing it among Front Office staffs. When organising the tasks, the work is distributed properly and is to be completed in a given period of time. Coordinating Coordination and team spirit are vital. It involves togetherness and using the available resources to attain planned goals. Staffing The right persons and experienced ones are recruited. It is important to introduce training to the employees for a better success of the department. Leading Leading involves supervising, motivating, training, disciplining and setting an example for the Front Office department. Leading is important to maintain the effectiveness of the tasks. Controlling Through controlling, it ensures that the concrete outcomes of operations closely match the plan results. Leading and controlling of task are mostly the duties of the supervisors. Evaluating Through evaluating, it determines the extent to which planed goals and objectives are actually attained. Furthermore, it involves appraising and when necessary reviewing or helping to revise Front Office goals. Moreover, to maintain the successful of the department, every task are planned in advance. The room allocations for arrival of guests are well planned. Before the arrival of guests, the registration card which is a legal form is prepared on the eve of the day as well as concerning the hotel information sheets. The cold towels and the cocktail juice are also prepared in the evening for the arrival of guests on the following day. The departure and arrival check list are prepared one day before. If there are any group arrivals, a planning is done on how to do the check-in. A daily event record is prepared every evening by the Guest Relation Officers; showing all detailed information about arrivals and departures of guests including total guests- in- house. A daily event report is shown in the annex. If there is any early arrival, then, the housekeeping department has to be advised to prepare the room earlier. Establishing room rates The Front Office manager allocates to each room category a rack rate. In fact, the Front Liners are expected to sell rooms at rate unless a guest qualifies for an alternative room rate for example airline rate, commercial rate, group rate, day rate, package plan rate, complimentary rate, cooperate rate, promotional rate, incentive rate or family rate. While establishing room rates management has to consider its operating cost, inflationary factors and competitions. In general, there are three well-known approaches to pricing room: 1)Market condition approach 2)Ruled-of-thumb approach 3)Hubbart formula approach Market condition approach Under this approach management look at comparable hotels in the geographical market to verify the prices charging for the same products. Thus, “charge only what the market will accept”. In contrary, this approach is endangered to some drawbacks as it does not take into account the value of the property and the strong sales effort to accomplish. Ruled-of-thumb approach In this approach, the rate of a room is €1 for each €1000 of construction and furnishing cost per room, assuming a 70% occupancy rate. However, this approach does not consider the inflation term, the contribution of other facilities and services towards the hotel’s desired profitability. The Front Office manager must stay in contact with the General Manager and controller to monitor room rate effectiveness. Hubbart formula approach This approach considers operating costs, desired profits and expected number of rooms sold, that is, demand. Generally, this approach lays emphasis on the factors such as operating expenses, desired Return on Investment (ROI) and income from different departments in the hotel; to establish room rates. This method relies on the Front Office to produce income to cover operating expenses, overhead and ROI for the hotel operation. According to Hubbart formula approach, the procedure of calculating a room rate is shown below: i.Measuring the hotel’s anticipated profit by multiplying the desired rate of return (ROI) by the holder’s investment. ii.Measuring pre-tax profits by dividing the anticipated profit by 1 minus hotel’s tax rate. iii.Measuring fixed charges and management fees. This calculation includes estimating depreciation, interest expense, property taxes, insurances, amortization, building mortgage, land, rent and management fees. iv.Measuring undistributed operating expenses. This includes estimating administrative and general expenses and energy costs. v.Assessing non-room operating department income or loss, that is, Food and Beverages department income or loss, telephone department income or loss. vi.Measuring the required room department income which is the sum of pre-tax profits, operating department losses less other department incomes. vii.Determining the room department revenue which is the required room department income, plus other room department direct expenses of payroll and related expenses. viii.Measuring the average room rate by dividing rooms’ department revenue by the expected number of rooms to be sold. These methods are guidelines only. Room rates must frequently monitored with regard to market conditions of demand and supply. Furthermore, some more formulae are depicted below: •Doubles sold daily = double occupancy rate x total number of rooms x occupancy% •Singles sold daily = rooms sold daily – number of double rooms sold daily •Singles sold daily x X doubles sold daily x (X Y) = (average room rate) x (total number of rooms sold daily) •Whereby: X = price of singles; Y = price differential between singles and doubles; X Y = price of doubles. Forecasting Room Availability: Forecasting room availability is to predict the number of rooms available for sale on forthcoming date. The kind of forecasting helps to manage the reservation process, guides the Front Liners for an effective room’s management and is used as occupancy forecast. Therefore, it is useful in attempting and to roster the essential number of staffs for a planned size of a department. In order to predict room availability, the following information is needed •Number of expected room arrivals/ check-ins •Number of expected room no-shows •Number of expected room walk-ins •Number of expected room stayovers •Number of expected room overstays •Number of expected room check-outs •Number of expected room understays The above mentioned information helps the Front Liners to conduct various daily operational ratios. The formulae to calculate No-show percentage, Walk-ins percentage, Overstays percentage and Understays percentage are as follows: i.No-shows percentage = (Number of no-show rooms) divided by (Number of rooms reserved) ii.Walk-ins percentage = (Number of walk-in rooms) divided by (Sum of the number of rooms arrivals) iii.Overstays percentage = (Number of overstay rooms) divided by (Number of expected check-outs) iv.Understays percentage = (Number of understay rooms) divided by (Number of expected check-outs) The predicted number of rooms available for sale for upcoming date can be likely successful by using the formula shown below: Forecasted number of rooms available for sale = Total number of guests rooms -Number of out of order rooms – Number of stayovers rooms – Number of reserved rooms Number of no-show rooms Number of understay rooms – Number of overstay rooms Under non-automated and semi-automated systems, total of rooms available for sale forecasts are measured upon demands and needs which vary from three-day to ten-day forecasts. Nevertheless, under fully automated systems, forecasts are done at any instant for imminent period of time. For instance, on opera system, room forecasts are already registered and considered, thus eliminating monotonous labour work and human error margins. Budgeting for Operations Hotels have to prepare annual budgets, which are profit plans that address all revenue sources and expense items for the next calendar year. Furthermore, the hotel annual operating budget represents against which management can evaluate actual outcomes of operations. In the twelve-monthly budget preparation process, close coordination efforts of all management personnel are essential. The annual operation of a hotel budget is generally divided into monthly plans which in turn divided into weekly and even daily plans for a better control over the current consequences. In addition, while preparing the Front Office department annual budget, the Front Office manager has to coordinate with the financial department to estimate only rooms’ revenue and related direct expenses. The hotel controller and the General Manager, therefore, have to revise this budget. Forecasting room revenue In order to predict room revenue, the Front Office manager considers the historical financial data such as past room revenue, past number of rooms sold, past average daily rate and past occupancy rates. Thus, compare and contrast for a better decision making. Forecasting direct expenses Owing to the fact that the Front Office manager is responsible only for his or her department direct expenses, that is, variable costs; the Front Office manager consult past financial data showing variable costs to room revenue ratios, in order to estimate department expenses. Refining budget plans If ever the external strong factors change considerably, in an unpredicted way, then the actual operating budgeted figures have to be revised. Evaluating Front Office Operations A successful Front Office manager has to continuously evaluate the outcomes of the department activities on a daily, monthly, quarterly and yearly basis. While evaluating, the following items and tools have to be considered: •Daily operations report; for example Room move report •Occupancy ratios •Rooms revenue analysis •Hotel income statement; for example Early breakfast sale •Rooms division income statement or schedule; for example up-selling of rooms •Rooms division budgets report •Operating ratios and ratios standards Daily operations report This report is also known as the manager’s report, the daily report and the daily revenue report. It encloses a summary of the hotel’s financial activities during a 24 hour period. In addition, it assists as to reconcile cash, bank accounts and revenue and accounts receivable. Occupancy ratios Occupancy ratios measure the enhancement of the Front Office in selling the hotel’s guestrooms. Some common ratios that are used in the Front Office department are depicted below: i.Occupancy percentage = (Number of rooms occupied) divided by (Total number of rooms available for sale) ii.Multiple occupancy percentage = (Number of rooms occupied by more than one guest) divided by (Total number of rooms occupied) iii.Average guests per rooms sold = (Total number of guests) divided by (Total number of rooms sold) iv.Average daily rate = (Total rooms revenue) divided by (Total number of rooms sold) v.Average rate per guest = (Total rooms revenue) divided by (Total number of guests) Room revenue analysis One prime report to succeed control over room revenue is the room rate variance report, that is those rooms that have been sold at rates other than their rack rates, for instance, airline rate, corporate or commercial rates and so on… Another form is the yield statistics, which is the ratio of the current revenue to the sum of the possible potential revenue if all rooms are sold at rack rates. Formula of Yield statistic is shown below: Yield statistic = (Actual room revenue) divided by (Potential room revenue) Hotel income statement This statement provides vital financial data about the outcomes of hotel operations for a given period of time. Room division income statement The room division income statement also known as a schedule has to be referenced on the hotel’s income statement. Furthermore, the room division schedule has to be prepared by the hotel’s financial division not by the hotel’s Front Office accounting agent, that is, the Night Auditors. Room division budget reports These reports are monthly budget form comparing to current revenue and expenses figures against budgeted amounts depicted both in Euro values and percentage variances. Operating ratios Operating ratios for instance occupancy ratios, yield statistics… assist managers in evaluating the success of the Front Office operations. In addition, for the ratios to be meaningful they should be compared against proper standards such as prior periods, competitors or budgeted ratios. Front Office Operations A need for communication exists to communicate with other managers and staffs working other shifts. The reservation area is the sales department of the Front Office, thus a revenue center for the department in the sense that reservations determine on occupancy levels. The Front desk staffs must compulsory alert the guests when their credit limit is exceeding. Lastly, the Front Office staff should take the check-out as an opportunity to offer the guest supplementary services; for example, proposing the guest to book a room in the hotel for the future. (Vallen, J.J. 1985) Night audit, reception and Guest Relation are an essential element of Front Office department and claimed to be revenue generating department. The Guest Relation Officers have to convince the guests to accept upgrades. (Jones, C and Paul, V. 1993). There has to be a control process system to monitor the performance objectives targeted. Furthermore, the Front Office controls its cash or revenue sales. Interdepartmental Communication The Front Office staffs cooperate with all departments of the hotel including marketing and sales, housekeeping, food and beverage, banquet, controller, maintenance, security and human resources. Each department has a different kind of communication with the Front liners. These departments view the Front Office as a communication connection in providing guest services. The Front Office is a clearinghouse for communication activities. Marketing and Sales department The marketing and sales department depends on the Front Office to provide data on guest histories or concerning guest’s prior visit. The guest history is a valuable resource for marketing and sales as it uses the guest registration information to target marketing campaigns, develop promotions, prepare mailing labels and select appropriate advertising media. Housekeeping department Communications between the Front Office and the Housekeeping department is vital as it revolves around room status. Team members of the Housekeeping department provide a room status report to the Front Office department. Thus, follow-up can be done easily through this report. Food and Beverage department There are handovers which are used to communicate a charge to a guest’s account. It is essential that the Food and Beverage department communicates with the Front Office department to know the meal plan of the guests. This is to charge the guests accordingly prior to their meal plan they paid for. Through interdepartmental communication, information is spread out to all the departments so as to communicate effectively for an enhancement situation of the hotel and to increase revenue. It is also essential for a better planning of work. Intradepartmental communication Communication within the department is essential for a better planning of work. After planning the goals and objectives for the success of the Front Office operation, it is important that all the Front Liners work together and communicate effectively to deliver a proper task. Through effective communication, the Front Liners may achieve their aims and increase their revenue in the operations. The team spirits and understanding are the prime factors to be considered for the enhancement of the Front Office department. There has to be an interaction between the Front Office manager, the supervisors and the Front Liners so as to determine the root of the problem and therefore find solutions to remedy the situations. Interdepartmental exchange of information is crucial to attain goals and objectives. Barriers resulting to a decrease in sales revenue Decrease in sales revenue leads to unsuccessful operations of the hotel. There is lack of co-operation between departments which results to barriers of communication. A decrease in arrival of tourists results to a negative outcome concerning a raise in revenue. That is, a low demand leads to low revenue for instance, a decrease in room sales, products and services revenue. The problem root comes primarily from the reservation department. There may be barriers in departments such as Financial department, Food and Beverage department and housekeeping department relating to sales. For instance, if a guest has an Half Board voucher and that on the opera system it is All-inclusive it creates confusion to the departments concerned. The All-inclusive minibar and that of the Half Board is completely different. If the Housekeeping, Food and Beverage and Financial departments are not advised or change the guest’s meal plan on the system by the Front Liners, may create loss in revenue. Lack of training procedures concerning up-selling will not increase sales revenue. The lack of skills does not convince the employees to make upselling. There may as well conflicts in different tariffs charged to guests for example; a Front Liner may charge a guest Rs 200 instead of €200 resulting to a huge decrease in sales revenue. Ways to remedy the barriers relating to a decrease in sales revenue Through effective communication, there may be an increase in sales revenue and a successful department. It is important to maximize rates when demand is high but if demand is low, special promotional package has to offer to guests to increase the demand. The Front Office manager has to well-trained the Front Liners to understand the meaning of yield management and how to increase sales or ensure sales revenue. The Front Office management has to set objectives to increase sales revenue and thus discuss with various departments of the hotel. Through these strategies, there is co-operation among the departments for successful revenue generated. Front Liners have to communicate effectively and efficiently to departments such as Food and Beverage, Financial and Housekeeping concerning the guests’ meal plan. Training allows team members to be successful in delivering good sales techniques. It is vital that each department provides training facilities and procedures to the employees so as to learn the methods to increase the sales revenue. The employees should be product knowledgeable; thus promote more profits and the staffs have to attentive when taking payment from guests. Questions have to be asked properly concerning the booking for accommodation and meal plan when guest reserved a room. It is important to keep a record concerning the financial transactions so as the Financial department may evaluate the ways to remedy the barriers relating to a decrease in sales revenue. “It’s not always easy and often takes a lot of determination. But making an effort to remove the obstacles – tangible and intangible – that stand in our way, can be the key to building relationship that really works” – by Eric Garner Yield Management Yield Management is a demand forecasting technique used to maximize room revenue that the hotel industry borrowed from the airlines. It is based on the economics of supply and demand, which means that price rise when demand is strong and drop when demand is weak. Thus, the purpose of yield management is to increase profitability. Yield management allocates the right type of aptitude to the right customer at the right price so as to maximize revenue or yield per available room. (Kimes, S.E, 1989) Yield management will monitor reservations and based on previous trends. Existing demand determines the number and type of rooms to sell at what price to obtain the maximum revenue. The yield management program will monitor the demand and supply and recommend the number and type of rooms to sell for a given day including the price for which to sell each room. Planning sales revenue The Front Office plays a vital role in promoting sales and the Front Office manager has to develop and implement a plan to the utmost to increase sales opportunities to the Front Office agents. This plan focus on areas of promotions, developing objectives and procedures, incentive programs, training program for staffs, budgets and tracking systems for employee feedback and profitability. Moreover, planning yield management includes setting up objectives, evaluating alternatives, drawing up budgets and developing an evaluation tool for feedback. The plan has to be discussed with the General Manager, department managers and Front Liners from different department to attain goals and objectives. The team members have to ensure that the profitable plan is accordingly developed. According to Narula, (Feb 1987), some goals were provided to the Front Office employees to increase sales. The following are depicted below •Sell rooms to the guests who have not make prior reservations. •Upgrade is to be made to the guests so as to boost the customers to purchase higher priced product or service; to those guests having former reservations. •Maintain the record of the rooms. •Convey information about the product facilities available in the premises for sale, for instance, Food and Beverage and other facilities. The objective of the Font Office employees is to sell all facilities and benefits available at the hotel. •Ensure that the maximum revenue is generated from the sale of rooms by prominent a stability between overbooking and a full house. •Achieve guest feedback Planning can only be started if there an increase of communication between Front Liners and Marketing and Sales department. It is essential to formulate an effective marketing strategy when there is a change in the market conditions. The eventual goal of a sales-oriented Front Office is to increase revenue from room sales, Food and Beverage sales and sales in various departments. The Front Office and other departments of the hotel have to plan on how much to increase revenue to accomplish the objectives set. Before decision making, several questions have to ask for a better planning of revenue management. Each moment new objectives has to plan for future months to generate revenue. When developing and implementing a program to increase sales activities, the Front Office manager along with other department managers and employees, have to identify products and services to promote. A list of services and products to be promoted is shown in the annex. Evaluating sales – Yield management in Front Office Operations The Front Office team members have to determine which concepts to produce in order to increase sales re

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