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Need answers in 1-2 sentences. Not more than 5 sentences per question. NO PLAGIARISM

Need answers in 1-2 sentences. Not more than 5 sentences per question. NO PLAGIARISM.

MODERN PHILOSOPHY___________________________________________________________________________ 0. Some background terminology 1. Be able to define the following notions: (a) necessary truth; (b) contingent truth; (c) analytic truth; (d) synthetic truth; (e) relations of ideas; (f) matters of fact; (g) a priori knowledge; (h) a posteriori knowledge. I. Rationalism 1. What is a natural philosopher? 2. What is radical skepticism? 3. Explain how Descartes reasons from radical skepticism to knowledge of cogito ergo sum and from the cogito back to knowledge about the external, material world. 4. What is Descartes’ clear and distinct criterion of truth? If P is true, its denial at any point creates a contradiction. (necessary truths) 5. Explain Descartes’ substance dualism. 6. What are the characteristics that Descartes attributes to minds? 7. What are the characteristics that Descartes attributes to matter? 8. What is interactionism, and why does it face the mind-body problem? 9. Be able to describe the representational theory of mind. 10. Be able to give the dream argument for RTM as well as the relativity of perception argument. 11. What is the theory known as mechanical philosophy? 12. What is Descartes’ plenum? 13. What is Spinoza’s argument that the plenum is infinite? Space is filled with matter 14. What is Spinoza’s argument that the plenum is a mode/attribute of God? Space is god because there can’t be two infinite things 15. How many substances exist according to Spinoza? Infinite for god, 2 that we are aware of 16. What is the definition of a substance? God 17. Be able to explain how Spinoza’s pantheism differs from Descartes’ dualism. 18. What is necessitarianism in Spinoza’s metaphysic? How does it lead to determinism? 19. What is Spinoza’s notion of the intellectual love of God and how does that relate to blessedness. 20. Be able to explain the salient features of Leibniz’s monads. 21. What is Leibniz’s doctrine of pre-established harmony? 22. What is Leibniz’s truth argument for pre-established harmony? 23. How would Leibniz respond to the mind-body problem? 24. What is Malebranche’s occasionalism? 25. How does the doctrine of continuous creation entail occasionalism? 26. What is Malebranche’s know-how argument? 27. What is Malebranche’s necessary connection argument for occasionalism? 28. Be able to explain how Malebranche responds to the mind-body problem. 29. How do Spinoza’s, Leibniz’s, and Malebranche’s views compare with Descartes interactionism. 30. What assumptions do rationalists make that empiricists reject? II. Empiricism 1. Explain John Locke’s attack of nativism and the ramifications of this attack on rationalism. 2. What did Locke mean when he calls the mind a “tabula rasa” at birth? 3. What are ideas of sensations? What are ideas of reflection? 4. What are simple ideas v. complex ideas? 5. What is Locke’s notion of a substratum? 6. Explain the distinction between primary and secondary qualities. 7. Be able to give the following arguments for the primary v. secondary quality distinction: (a) the science argument; (b) the almond argument; (c) the analogy argument; (d) relativity of perception arguments (including the two-hands in a bucket case). 8. What does Berkeley call materialism and how does it differ from idealism? 9. Be aware of the three arguments against materialism and for idealism (one of these arguments is the inconceivability argument). 10. What does the phrase esse est percipi mean? 11. What are some problems for Berkeley’s idealism? 12. What is Hume’s conceivability argument against necessary connection? 13. What is Hume’s deducibility argument against necessary connection? 14. What is Hume’s “no idea” argument against necessary connection? 15. What is the distinction between deductive reasoning v. inductive reasoning? 16. What is the assumption called the unity of nature? 17. Be able to re-write Hume’s critique of induction.
Need answers in 1-2 sentences. Not more than 5 sentences per question. NO PLAGIARISM

PSY 645 Ashford University Online Week 3 Psychiatric Diagnosis Paper.

Outline for the Psychiatric DiagnosisReview the instructions for the Psychiatric Diagnosis assignment in Week Six. This week’s assignment will build upon the work you have completed on your chosen case study in Weeks One and Two.For this assignment, you will construct an outline of your Psychiatric Diagnosis paper. This outline is meant to provide structure for your final assignment, jump-start your thought process on your case study, and ensure you are on the correct path toward the successful completion of your diagnosis.Your outline should be one to two pages of content and include a brief two- to three-sentence description of each of the required areas listed in the Psychiatric Diagnosis prompt, except for the following two areas:Justify the use of the chosen diagnostic manual (i.e., Why was this manual chosen over others?).Evaluate symptoms within the context of an appropriate theoretical orientation for this diagnosis.For these two areas, provide a complete draft of your justification and evaluation based on the case study. You must include explicit information on the theoretical orientation chosen for the case and justification of the use of the diagnostic manual chosen. Research a minimum of five peer-reviewed sources published within the last 10 years to support your choice of theoretical orientation and diagnostic manual. These sources will also be used for the Psychiatric Diagnosis paper. The outline should specify which sources will apply to the justification and evaluation areas.The Outline for the Psychiatric Diagnosis:Must be one to two single-spaced pages in length (not including title and references pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.Must include a separate title page with the following:Title of paperStudent’s nameCourse name and numberInstructor’s nameDate submittedMust use at least five peer-reviewed sources published within the last 10 years.Must document all sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.Must include a separate references page that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
PSY 645 Ashford University Online Week 3 Psychiatric Diagnosis Paper

NTC 260 UP Enterprise Security & Architect Technical Resource Case Study.

n Enterprise Security and Architect Technical Resource are part of the project core team. You have met with the technical resources to obtain the security and architect requirements necessary to update the business case and diagram to assist the CTO with the proposed solution.Build on and update your diagram created in Week 3 by adding the role of business continuity, a disaster recovery plan, and the relationship to the cloud.Update your Week 2 business case to the President and Board of Directors with the following information:An explanation of the role of risk, compliance, and securityA best practice type of data protectionAn explanation of the key cloud-based security standards using appropriate terminology to provide clarity during the review processThe updated diagramIncorporate the instructor’s feedback from Weeks 2 and 3. This section of the business case should be between 2 and 3 pages.Provide research and references to support your recommendations. References should be formatted according to APA guidelines.
NTC 260 UP Enterprise Security & Architect Technical Resource Case Study

Management Information Systems

Management Information Systems.

The owners of MovieFlix realize that they need to modernize their information management systems in order to make their processes run more smoothly and to solve some of their business problems.
In 2-3 pages, discuss a technology system that you suggest for the company.
Include why you selected that particular database or information system and how it will help improve MovieFlix’s processes.
Discuss the potential costs of the system to the organization and how the system will help the company to increase their revenue.

Remember to use credible sources. Make sure to write your paper utilizing proper APA formatting guidelines, and to include an APA formatted title page. Save your assignment as a Microsoft Word document
Management Information Systems

HTHS 230 WEEK TWO case Study

best essay writers HTHS 230 WEEK TWO case Study.

Jim is a financial analyst at his organization and his primary role is to ensure that the cardiology service line and the transplant service line stay within operational budget for the fiscal year. Today he is meeting with the operational leadership of his organization’s cardiology service line. He let them know that they are currently over budget for the year, mainly due to staffing and over utilization of supplies. Write a 750 word essay in APA format thy critically evaluates the organization’s operating cost. Ensure that you answer all prompts throughly using at least two resources as references to justify your response. Educate operational leadership on why it is important to the overall bottom line of the organization to contain these costs and the challenges that come with doing so.Explain the measures that operational leadership can take to help manage these operational costs across its service line. What best practices are out there that they can learn from and implement?
HTHS 230 WEEK TWO case Study

Treatment of SCID Disease with Stem Cell Therapy

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp SCID: SCID is an abbreviation of Severe combined immunodeficiency. It is an inherited disease and is also known as Primary immunodeficiency disease and presents in infants. The 1weakened immune system is a basic presentation. The various symptoms of this disease are listed as follows: Extreme weakness Loss of Bodyweight Compromised immune system 2 Genetic alterations affect the function of T cells. B cells and NK cells may also be affected 3the major function of these cells is their aid provision in battling the viruses, bacteria, and Fungi that try to enter the body cells and infect it.4 Diagnosis: Complete medical History Physical examination Blood tests including complete blood cell count 5 Themes ESCs and iPSCs: The major component of adaptive immunity is T cells which protect its host again foreign pathogens. These cells are not produced directly in bone marrow, they are produced in the thymus gland. In an Adult bone marrow, the Hematopoietic stem cells are functioning to provide all the necessary blood cells throughout life in order to maintain homeostasis. In this case of SCID, infants suffer from the intensively compromised immune system. It is necessary to come up with a solution to maintain this immune system and remove the deficiency of the Immune System. One of the methods is the production of HSCs. Hematopoietic stem cells are present in the bone marrow. Hematopoietic stem cell can be produced from Pluripotent stem cells. These include two types of cells; Embryonic stem cells Inducible PSCs i.e. pluripotent stem cells.6 Brief description of the use of induced pluripotent stem cells to treat severe combined immunodeficiency diagnosis followed by drug screening, Disease modelling and Therapy.29 A constant effort is being established to avoid any more infant deaths due to the immunodeficiency diseases using the method of Stem Cell Therapy. The research was established in mice for experimentation of Embryonic Stem cells Therapy. According to this research: Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells were introduced into the mice blood. These cells are considered to differentiate into blood cells in vitro and they recapitulate yolk sac hematopoiesis. After this administration, the Embryonic Stem Cells derived B-Progenitors differentiated into marginal B cells and B-1 cells. In mice blood, B-2 cells were not produced. B-1 derived ESCs persisted in the recipient blood for more than 5 months. These newly introduced cells kept producing natural IgM antibodies in vivo. After this, Gene Profiling was done, which lead to the idea that there is a closed relationship between ESCs and YS derived B-1 progenitors. In the ESC culture, no hematopoiesis stem cells were detected. But long term engraftment suggested that Functional B-1 derived embryonic stem cells support the presence of HSC- independent B-1 growth.8 Embryonic Stem cells and induced PSCs are both types of Pluripotent stem cells. Embryonic Stem Cells are derived from the inner cell mass of human blastocysts while iPSCs are produced in vitro. They share some common features which are listed as follows: Ability to differentiate indiscriminately into somatic cell types which also includes blood and immune cells. Indefinite Growth Maintenance of pluripotency.6 The major component of adaptive immunity is T cells which protect its host again foreign pathogens. These cells are not produced directly in bone marrow, they are produced in the thymus gland. The pluripotent stem cells have the potential to differentiate prominently into somatic cells. This achievement can be established only if the condition provided is suitable. Initial mesoderm induction followed by the specification to hematopoietic precursor cells. These procedures then proceed to the production of T cells which reduce the compromise in the immune system. The experiment done on mice are quite flattering but this method is still not being used in humans as mice and human blood are different.9 In the future, this technique may be used. Assessment of cKit and CD41 population is necessary to access the T cell differentiation process.10 evident markers are used to establish the data regarding the differentiation of these cells if the immunodeficiency is to be reduced. Summary: SCID can be treated by Stem Cell Therapy using the Embryonic Stem Cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. In mice, this therapy is known to cause prominent effects. They produced Hematopoietic stem cells which cause the further production of blood cells and thus making improvements in the immune system of mice T cells and B Cells are a basic part of the immune system which can be produced in these therapies. Mice and Human blood are very different in this regards. In humans, this system of therapy is not being used still. Adult Stem Cells: A stem cell has the ability to divide and divide over again, this division produces more stem cells which descend into the production of more cells.11 there are different types of stem cells for each type of cell in the body. For Example: In blood, the Hemopoietic cells are used to produce the blood cells that include Red Blood cells, White blood cells and platelets.12 HSCs were obtained originally from Bone Marrow and the basic procedure used in this regard was Bone Marrow Transplantation. Nowadays, a new method is obtained, which extract cells from peripheral Blood or cord blood which is obtained from the placenta at Birth. The blood obtained from Placenta also called cord blood is an excellent source of Hemopoietic stem cells and thus very helpful in getting the immune system recovered. The most commonly performed Hematopoietic stem cell Therapy is used in severe combined immunodeficiency. There are two problems in successful stem cell therapy. These two problems can be enlisted as follows: The immune system of host: One of the obstacles is that the host body or the recipient may react to the introduced cells. They may reject the implanted stem cells as the body has an innate system to react to foreign bodies which are known as Graft Rejection. So, the obstacle of graft rejection is terminated through the process of chemotherapy or Radiation therapy. These therapies confine the immune system of the host so that they do not render the grafted stem cells as foreign and begin to produce antibodies against them. Similarly, the situation worsens when defective or mutated HSCs and stem cells are unable to find a place for their establishment. This is known as “Engraftment Failure”. Chemotherapy is used to prevent this type of complication but chemotherapy is fatal itself as it has serious side-effects. These include bleeding problems due to low platelets, anemia and susceptible infections.13 The second obstacle most commonly observed is Graft vs. Host disease. In this case, the mature T cells or the T cells produced after division in the host, reject the body of the host and begin to attack their own body cells. In this case, to avoid complications, a right donor is chosen in which the mature donor who has the same Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) as the recipient is selected.14 Selecting a Donor: The chance for a perfect match in siblings is 1 in 4. The donor must have the same Group of Human Leukocyte Antigen as the recipient so that there is no chance of failure or rejection of grafted stem cells. HLA antigens are specific for each of us. The exact structure of these HLA antigens is determined by a series of genes clustered on human chromosome no. 166. For the successful engraftment, it is necessary to understand and use the compatibility of HLA. It may be available in the siblings but in this modern day, it is an alternative to find a suitable and matched donor for transplantation through an International Computerised Program where individuals volunteer to provide their stem cells for transplantation. Sometimes parents are also used for Donor selection.15 In case, a perfect match is not available, one of the parents may be used as a donor. In this type, either parent has half of the same alleles as the recipient patient who is there, daughter or son. The problem in this donor selection is that the mature T cell of the haploidentical parent would not be able to recognize the HLA alleles that are very unique to the patient. This would cause Graft vs. host disease. This complication is overcome by removing the mature T- Lymphocytes from the bone marrow before introducing the stem cells into the patient. The babies who are unable to find a matching donor are injected with T-Lymphocyte free stem cells. The selection for the best choice of the donor is accessed by the following factors: Type of immunodeficiency disease patient is suffering from A fraction of immune system left Degree of matching of potential donors Patient Age Type of stem cells available Degree of the sickness of the patient and the complications. 17 The procedure of Harvesting: In the case of Bone Marrow Transplantation, the bone marrow is removed from the pelvic bone. Two teaspoons of bone marrow are drained through each puncture site. If more than this is taken, the sample of bone marrow becomes diluted. Such a diluted sample is suspected to contain mature T- cells and they may cause Graft versus host disease. Two teaspoons for every two pounds of the recipient body weight are usually taken. More than 101 puncture is required for adults but in the case of SCID, just a few punctures are sufficient due to the low weight of infants. The procedure is done under strong anaesthesia. All donors have prescribed pain medication for two to three days but they are allowed to leave the hospital overnight. The immune system of the donor is not compromised because marrow and HSCs regenerate themselves shortly. In case of extraction of Hemopoietic stem cells from peripheral blood, blood purification is done through a process called apheresis. Donor blood is collected from a donor and white cells are removed while the red cells are returned back through the opposite arm.18 to enrich the donor blood with maximum HSCs, subcutaneous injection of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor is injected in the days after which the blood is drained. This procedure moves the stem cells from Bone marrow to Peripheral Blood. Results: In the treatment of primary immunodeficiency diseases, the Hemopoietic stem cells transplant between HLA matched siblings has been in use since 1968. The first child to receive this therapy is well and healthy and even has children of his own. In the case of severe combined immunodeficiency disease, the risk of graft versus host disease is minimal.19 in this particular case, the perfect matching donor is found and used for transplant. The success rate, in this case, is as high as 90%. Almost 70-80% of the infants still survive in case the matching donor is not found. The chances of survival are very high if the patient is: Free from infections In Good Health Not suffering from any other pathology at the time of transplant. Doesn’t have lung damage. In the case of SCID, the reconstitution of the number and function of the T-Lymphocyte is the rule. In some patients, normalization of antibodies production occurs. The reconstitution process is dependent on several Factors. These factors are enlisted as the use of chemotherapy and Radiotherapy and on the type of donor used for transplant.20 In some cases, reconstitution of antibodies production doesn’t take place. In these cases, the patient requires Ig replacement therapy so that the patient can be prevented from any sort of infection which is very common in case of SCID. Patients enjoy a Good quality of life even if the replacement therapy is required. The patients in case of SCID are infants, the transplantation of stem cells requires several protocols but the survival rate for SCID patients by stem cells therapy is very high and it is being used successfully in many areas of the world although the problem of donor matching still needs to be enhanced. Several Doctors are working free and several NGOs are striving to get rid of this disease. Summary: Adult stem cells have the capability to divide into several other stem cells and differentiate into other cells. Bone Marrow Transplant is also used to obtain stem cells so that they can be introduced in patients with immunodeficiency. In the case of SCID, only a bone marrow transplantation is required for introducing into a patient. Hemopoietic stem cells are obtained from Peripheral Blood. Red Blood Cells are removed from this peripheral blood while white blood cells are introduced into the patients. Graft versus Host disease and host rejection are most commonly seen a problem in this matter. To avoid any complications, chemotherapy and Radiotherapy are used before therapy. After making sure that the Donor and Recipient cells match, the Stem Cells are harvested and they produce good results in infants with SCID. The success rate of stem cell therapy is 90% in the case of matched donor and host. In case, where donor match is not found, T cells progenitors cells are removed from graft and then introduced into the host. The success rate in this situation is 60-80%. The chances of survival of SCID patients increase if they are healthy, not suffering from any infection at the time of transplant and are a match of Donors. Cancer Stem Cells: 28Discussion between the uses of cancer stem cells appeared in the early 19th century. The cancer stem Cells are specific stem cancer cells that have specific characteristics that are associated with normal stem cells.21 specifically, they have the ability to give rise to all cell types that are found in a particular cancer sample. Cell sorts that area unit found in an exceedingly explicit cancer sample. 30One theory was conducted for the detection of the proliferation of Cancer stem cells in the SCID mouse in that theory cancer stem cells were delivered intravenously or subcutaneously through Xenotransplantation technique. Figure.2: Method to study the proliferation of Cancer stem cells in the SCID mouse. According to the figure, it was clearly depicted that there was a generation of heterogeneous secondary tumour which was analogous to that of the primary tumour and finally there was the existence of CSCs in the cell suspension. 31However, there was still confusion that after grafting some of the cell lines were able to produce secondary tumours while some of them weren’t and hence fro the research it was concluded that SCID mouse xenotransplantation was not sufficient to provide the existence of CSCs. The failure of traditional therapies, Chemotherapy, and Radiotherapy, most commonly used is usually attributed to these cancer stem cells. Sources of cancer stem cells may be different. They may arise from differentiated cells, restricted progenitor cell or even normal adipose-derived stromal cells. The normal stem cells are the most common target of mutants and carcinogens, as these cells already possess active self-renewal pathways.22 the first cancer stem cell was obtained from human’s inpatient of acute myeloid leukaemia. After this extraction of cancer stem cell, the therapeutic value of cancer stem cells was recognized, these cells are now being used to arrange for methods of targeted therapy. These target therapies may be used in the future to treat cancer cells. Nowadays, some of the techniques are being used for cancer marking by using the already obtained cancer stem cells.23Cancer Stem Cells are pathogenic, or rightfully carcinogens. SCID treatment cannot use such cells as it will lead to the formation of cancer cells and with the already compromised immune system due to immunodeficiency, it will lead to a worsened situation of the patient. So, it will be ridiculous to use cancer stem cells in the treatment of severe combined immunodeficiency. Summary: The cancer stem cells were first obtained from Acute Myeloid Leukaemia. These cancer stem cells are known to cause cancer prognosis inpatient. Cancer formation begins from these cancer cells. These cancer stem cells are known to have features of normal stem cells i.e. they produce White Blood Cells, Red Blood Cells and platelets. These cells cause cancer, so they cannot be used in the treatment of SCID by introducing the cancer stem cells into the infant with immunodeficiency. So, they have no importance in this case of SCID. Clinical Applications of Stem cell Therapy: The various clinical applications of Stem Cell Therapy can be enlisted as given below: Embryonic stem cells can be used to greatly increase their numbers. These embryonic stem cells have the ability to repair tissues. These cells May even be immuno-privileged.24 The stem cells have a great clinical value in the Case of patients who are suffering from leukaemia. The bone marrow transplant is advised in these cases to provide normal white blood cells. Stem Cell Therapy is used in various diseases to acquire better immunity and functional capabilities.25 In infants, who suffer from severe combined immunodeficiency, this stem cell therapy is the best available treatment. In the case of Acquired Immunodeficiency Disease i.e. AIDS, this therapy is sometimes used to a better quality of life in patients infected with HIV. Stem Cells of different parts have their capabilities to produce particular cells, so these stem cells may be used to produce the specific cells required.26 Commercial Applications of Stem Cell Therapy: Commercial applications of Stem Cell Therapy can be used in various ways: The stem cells are not only being used and analyzed in laboratories but also in several commercial companies in various countries of Europe. The main focus of these commercial centres is the production of regenerative medicine. Cell therapies have gained considerable importance in commercial Centres with the aim of maintaining, improving and restoring the structural and functional capabilities of human tissues or organs. They may also be used in repair and compensation of damaged organs and tissues caused by Trauma or disease.27 References: Davila J. Refining the association between excessive reassurance seeking and depressive symptoms: The role of related interpersonal constructs. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology. 2001 Dec 1;20(4):538-59. Bakare N, Menschik D, Tiernan R, Hua W, Martin D. Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) and rotavirus vaccination: reports to the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS). Vaccine. 2010 Sep 14;28(40):6609-12. Chan A, Scalchunes C, Boyle M, Puck JM. Early vs. delayed diagnosis of severe combined immunodeficiency: a family perspective survey. Clinical Immunology. 2011 Jan 1;138(1):3-8. Chan, K., Davis, J., Pai, S.Y., Bonilla, F.A., Puck, J.M. and Apkon, M., 2011. A Markov model to analyze the cost-effectiveness of screening for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Molecular genetics and metabolism, 104(3), pp.383-389. Fasth A. Primary immunodeficiency disorders in Sweden: cases among children, 1974–1979. Journal of clinical immunology. 1982 Apr 1;2(2):86-92. Laurent LC, Ulitsky I, Slavin I, Tran H, Schork A, Morey R, Lynch C, Harness JV, Lee S, Barrero MJ, Ku S. Dynamic changes in the copy number of pluripotency and cell proliferation genes in human ESCs and iPSCs during reprogramming and time in culture. Cell stem cell. 2011 Jan 7;8(1):106-18. Chen G, Gulbranson DR, Hou Z, Bolin JM, Ruotti V, Probasco MD, Smuga-Otto K, Howden SE, Diol NR, Propson NE, Wagner R. Chemically defined conditions for human iPSC derivation and culture. Nature methods. 2011 Apr 10;8(5):424. Takayama K, Inamura M, Kawabata K, Tashiro K, Katayama K, Sakurai F, Hayakawa T, Furue MK, Mizuguchi H. Efficient and directive generation of two distinct endoderm lineages from human ESCs and iPSCs by differentiation stage-specific SOX17 transduction. PloS one. 2011 Jul 7;6(7):e21780. Hanna J, Markoulaki S, Mitalipova M, Cheng AW, Cassady JP, Staerk J, Carey BW, Lengner CJ, Foreman R, Love J, Gao Q. Metastable pluripotent states in NOD-mouse-derived ESCs. Cell stem cell. 2009 Jun 5;4(6):513-24. Laurent LC, Ulitsky I, Slavin I, Tran H, Schork A, Morey R, Lynch C, Harness JV, Lee S, Barrero MJ, Ku S. Dynamic changes in the copy number of pluripotency and cell proliferation genes in human ESCs and iPSCs during reprogramming and time in culture. Cell stem cell. 2011 Jan 7;8(1):106-18. Ramalho-Santos M, Yoon S, Matsuzaki Y, Mulligan RC, Melton DA. ” Stemness”: transcriptional profiling of embryonic and adult stem cells. Science. 2002 Oct 18;298(5593):597-600. Körbling M, Estrov Z. Adult stem cells for tissue repair—a new therapeutic concept?. New England Journal of Medicine. 2003 Aug 7;349(6):570-82. Mould JE, Venkatasubrahmanyam S, Burt TD, Michaëlsson J, Rivera JM, Galkina SA, Weinberg K, Stoddart CA, McCune JM. Fetal and adult hematopoietic stem cells give rise to distinct T cell lineages in humans. Science. 2010 Dec 17;330(6011):1695-9. Nakagomi N, Nakagomi T, Kubo S, Nakano‐Doi A, Saino O, Takata M, Yoshikawa H, Stern DM, Matsuyama T, Taguchi A. Endothelial cells support survival, proliferation, and neuronal differentiation of transplanted adult ischemia‐induced neural stem/progenitor cells after cerebral infarction. Stem cells. 2009 Sep;27(9):2185-95. Masson S, Harrison DJ, Plevris JN, Newsome PN. Potential of hematopoietic stem cell therapy in hepatology: a critical review. Stem cells. 2004 Nov 1;22(6):897-907. Hacein-Bey-Abina S, Le Deist F, Carlier F, Bouneaud C, Hue C, De Villartay JP, Thrasher AJ, Wulffraat N, Sorensen R, Dupuis-Girod S, Fischer A. Sustained correction of X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency by ex vivo gene therapy. New England Journal of Medicine. 2002 Apr 18;346(16):1185-93. Brignier AC, Gewirtz AM. Embryonic and adult stem cell therapy. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2010 Feb 1;125(2):S336-44. Matsui W, Wang Q, Barber JP, Brennan S, Smith BD, Borrello I, McNiece I, Lin L, Ambinder RF, Peacock C, Watkins DN. Clonogenic multiple myeloma progenitors, stem cell properties, and drug resistance. Cancer research. 2008 Jan 1;68(1):190-7. Henningson Jr CT, Stanislaus MA, Gewirtz AM. 28. Embryonic and adult stem cell therapy. Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. 2003 Feb 1;111(2):S745-53. Hicok KC, Du Laney TV, Zhou YS, Halvorsen YD, Hitt DC, Cooper LF, Gimble JM. Human adipose-derived adult stem cells produce osteoid in vivo. Tissue engineering. 2004 Mar 1;10(3-4):371-80. Reya T, Morrison SJ, Clarke MF, Weissman IL. Stem cells, cancer, and cancer stem cells. nature. 2001 Nov;414(6859):105. Jordan CT, Guzman ML, Noble M. Cancer stem cells. New England Journal of Medicine. 2006 Sep 21;355(12):1253-61. Singh A, Settleman JE. EMT, cancer stem cells and drug resistance: an emerging axis of evil in the war on cancer. Oncogene. 2010 Aug;29(34):4741. Abdallah BM, Kassem M. Human mesenchymal stem cells: from basic biology to clinical applications. Gene therapy. 2008 Jan;15(2):109. Wollert KC, Drexler H. Clinical applications of stem cells for the heart. Circulation research. 2005 Feb 4;96(2):151-63. Fortier LA. Stem cells: classifications, controversies, and clinical applications. Veterinary Surgery. 2005 Sep;34(5):415-23. [1]Resnik DB. The commercialization of human stem cells: ethical and policy issues. Health Care Analysis. 2002 Jun 1;10(2):127-54. Fulawka L, Donizy P, Halon A. Cancer stem cells–the current status of an old concept: literature review and clinical approaches. Biol Res. 2014;47(1):66. Published 2014 Dec 10. doi:10.1186/0717-6287-47-66. Harald Mikkers1,2, Karin Pike-Overzet2 and Frank J.T. Staal2. Received 20 October 2011; accepted 23 November 2011; advance online publication 8 February 2012. doi:10.1038/pr.2011.65. Oliveira LR. Stem cells and cancer stem cells. In: Shostak S, editor. Cancer Stem Cells – The Cutting Edge. Rijeka: InTech; 2011. pp. 3–28. Grotenhuis, B., Wijnhoven, B.,

Dubai Electricity and Water Authority’s Employees Report (Assessment)

Introduction Dubai Electricity and Water Authority (DEWA) is a public utility company that is aimed at supplying water and power to the city of Dubai. The organization has a high media profile and is particularly famous for its support of Dubai 2021 vision, a strategy aimed at making the city more innovative and sustainable. Human resources management is at the core of DEWA’s approach to excellence, with a large HR department to monitor, evaluate, and manage employee behavior. Nevertheless, despite the thorough HR management strategy in place, the company has been experiencing workforce issues, including increased employee turnover and impaired motivation, in the past few months. DEWA’s HR department is now looking to address the issues promptly and efficiently to avoid problems with employee performance. This project aims to explain and evaluate the HR issue faced by DEWA using course concepts and supporting literature. The paper will seek to determine the primary reason for the symptoms indicated by DEWA’s HR staff and to provide recommendations for action to improve the current situation. Addressing the problem effectively will make a positive contribution to the company and will benefit all of its key stakeholders. Background DEWA was founded on 1 January 1992, on the basis of two separate public entities, Dubai Electricity Company and Dubai Water Department. The company has been the key utility provider in Dubai ever since. Today, DEWA has a complex corporate structure, as it owns seven other companies, including Al Etihad Energy Services Co., Ducab High Voltage Cable Systems, and Data Hub Integrated Solutions, in addition to operating power plants and water facilities (DEWA 15). As of 2016, DEWA had 11 485 employees, serving hundreds of thousands of customers in Dubai each day. DEWA has strong business ethics that is supported by years of management knowledge and strategy. Due to its active involvement in Dubai 2021 vision, the company strives to continuously improve performance and maintain business excellence in all areas of operations. For instance, in organizational decision-making, the company applies the triple-bottom-line perspective, accounting for financial, social, and environmental implications of strategic actions (DEWA 17). Internal processes are an important part of the company’s strategy, and thus, DEWA seeks to promote efficient HR strategies, supporting the continuous development of its workforce. As shown in DEWA’s Sustainability Report, the company’s internal strategy “focuses on the priorities to create an environment that supports organizational change, innovation, and growth to achieve excellence in our operations, and to create the necessary potential and improvements that should be available in DEWA” (17). Such approach creates a positive environment for employees, thus improving the relationship between the different stakeholders. The HR department at DEWA consists of several divisions responsible for different aspects of HR management. For example, the HRPA section of the Personnel Management Department is responsible for benefits, pensions, end of service arrangements, and other legal processes, whereas the AC section monitors and imposes working hours, attendance, sick leave, and other daily workforce arrangements. The structure of HR management at DEWA is useful as it separates various HR processes between units, which promotes good organization and structure. The working conditions at DEWA are generally beneficial for employees. The company seeks to ensure employee well-being and foster positive organizational behavior. Misconduct or undesired behaviors of employees are monitored and controlled using preventive schemes. Supervision occurs at all levels of personnel management to ensure full transparency and improves performance. In addition, workforce characteristics are also subject to regular evaluations and tests that are part of the company’s sustainability strategy. Overall, HR management at DEWA consists of a set of well-organized and focused processes that target working conditions and employee performance. HR Issues Despite the strong focus on HR management quality, since July 2017, the company has been facing a developing HR crisis. The symptoms observed by the managers include low motivation, increased turnover, and poor employee engagement. The managers feel as if the employees are not committed to the organization or its goals, and feel that this might impact DEWA’s performance in the future. In response to the problem, the HR department has been collecting information on employee engagement, motivation, and turnover intentions. The results of the internal questionnaire showed that about 15% of employees would consider other employment opportunities and 38% feel that the management does not respond to their needs and concerns effectively. A significant share of employees also reported increased job stress (34%) and limited development and growth opportunities (51%). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These results suggest that, while concentrating on working conditions and workforce performance, the HR management at DEWA did not consider other factors that contribute to worker’s attitudes and behavior. Based on the information provided by the managers, it is possible to suggest that the workers lack some important components of the workplace environment, such as rewards and recognition schemes, job enrichment opportunities, and personal growth. The symptoms outlined by DEWA’s HR department indicate a low rate of job satisfaction, which, in turn, causes low motivation, poor engagement, and predicts turnover intentions. Problem Statement The HR department of DEWA is concerned with employee attitudes. A recent internal study outlined low motivation and engagement, as well as increased turnover intentions in a significant share of workers. Given that the company’s internal HR processes provide for adequate working conditions, it is most likely that workers are experiencing low levels of job satisfaction. This problem could affect the company’s performance and cause issues with its key stakeholders. The main stakeholder groups affected by the problem are workers and the management. Workers experience high stress and are not satisfied with growth and development opportunities offered by the company. Moreover, they are concerned about the management’s approach, which does not make them feel valued and important. This affects the workplace environment, causing workforce problems, such as high turnover and poor employee engagement. It is crucial for the management to address the worker’s job satisfaction in order to avoid performance issues. The company’s internal problems might also affect its consumers. For instance, if turnover increases further, the quality of services provided by the company would most likely decrease, as noted by DEWA’s manager. Evaluation of the Issue Motivation is the essential course concept that applies to the present case, as motivation is among the critical symptoms identified by the managers. Unmotivated workers present a threat to the organization as they do not contribute to the company in a way that is expected (Valcour). Lack of motivation is also connected to employee engagement, which was also among the symptoms outlined by DEWA’s HR managers (Valcour). Finally, research shows that there is a negative correlation between motivation and turnover intentions (Sajjad et al. 89). Therefore, finding the reason behind low motivation and addressing the core problem will help to reduce the symptoms that affect DEWA’s workforce. Based on the information about the company’s HR approaches and processes, Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory appears to be appropriate in resolving the issue. The key provision of Herzberg’s theory is that there are two different sets of factors affecting employee satisfaction and dissatisfaction with their job. The first set of is called Hygiene factors, which include working conditions, such as company policy, salary, workplace quality, and other factors responding to employees’ basic needs (Konopaske et al. 109). Significant gaps or failures in these aspects cause employee dissatisfaction (Konopaske et al. 109). In the case of DEWA’ working conditions are adequate; the company strives to attract well-skilled workers by providing a competitive salary and ensuring that all internal work processes run smoothly. However, according to Herzberg’s theory, accounting for the factors influencing job dissatisfaction does not increase job satisfaction, which depends on a different set of factors. As shown by Konopaske et al., factors improving job satisfaction in employees are called motivator factors and include rewards and recognition practices, achievement, career advancement opportunities, and personal growth (109). Although the HR department of DEWA has been working hard to enhance the company’s workforce, there is no efficient individual rewards scheme in place. The HR processes such as attendance checks and performance evaluations are aimed at identifying failing or slacking workers, and little recognition is given to diligent and productive employees. Therefore, whereas the company has catered for the hygiene factors, there is currently no system in place to ensure that the motivator factors are also evident in all departments. Improving employee job satisfaction based on Herzberg’s recommendations would help to increase motivation and engagement, while at the same time reducing turnover. Recommendations Given the complex structure of the organization and the limited information about its internal processes available to the public, two recommendations will be provided. The first recommendation is for preferred action. This option would be rather time-consuming and expensive, but it is more likely to yield good results in the long term. The alternative recommendation is suitable for targeting the problem fast, although it will need additional control mechanisms to maintain effectiveness. We will write a custom Assessment on Dubai Electricity and Water Authority’s Employees specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Preferred Action Based on Herzberg’s theory, it is crucial for DEWA to ensure that the following factors are accounted for (Konopaske et al. 109): achievement; recognition; responsibility; work itself; career advancement; personal growth. To determine employee’s current attitudes to these aspects of the job, it is necessary to perform a thorough study of the workforce. Each employee should grade his or her satisfaction in the outlined aspects of the job. Based on the results, DEWA’s HR department should analyze the performance of management across various units and departments. Whereas some managers and supervisors might need training on rewards and recognition processes, other units might suffer from low job enrichment and thus would need changes to work routine. The main aspect of preferred action is to treat every unit separately. Indeed, the organizational structure of DEWA allows suggesting that the issues causing low job satisfaction will vary depending on the department and work kind. The HR department should seek to work closely with managers and supervisors to ensure that they understand the main problems of their teams and units and are tackling the issues effectively. Although such approach is time-consuming and rather expensive, it offers an opportunity for a significant organizational change that will resolve DEWA’s current HR crisis and prevent similar issues in the future. Alternative Action Alternatively, DEWA could apply Herzberg’s theory throughout the workforce without targeting particular units. For instance, establishing rewards for attendance and performance could increase worker’s commitment to work, whereas job rotation opportunities within each department could help to improve workers’ satisfaction with the job itself (Konopaske et al. 109). Increasing the share of internal recruitment is also important, as this would help to generate advancement opportunities. Finally, the company could offer regular seminars for workers that could help them to learn new skills, thus contributing to personal growth. Although this alternative does not take into account the differences between units and departments, it could yield positive results fast by addressing all of the motivator factors outlined by Herzberg. To track the changes in motivation, turnover intentions, and employee engagement, it is also crucial to introduce a regular evaluation scheme. Performing regular employee satisfaction surveys would be useful in tracking the company’s progress in resolving HR issues and is thus an efficient control mechanism. Conclusion On the whole, DEWA is a profitable company with strong vision and commitment to serving its stakeholders. However, the organization’s continuous strive for excellence caused the HR department to put more efforts into organizing and structuring HR processes rather than responding to employees’ needs and concerns effectively. Hence, the organization has been experiencing various symptoms of low job satisfaction, including high turnover, low motivation, and decreased employee engagement. By applying Herzberg’s theory, it was possible to determine that the company’s current HR approach does not address motivator factors that determine job satisfaction. The alternatives suggested in the report would be useful in resolving the HR crisis faced by DEWA as well as in creating a balanced and motivating HR management strategy. Works Cited Dubai Electricity and Water Authority (DEWA). Sustainability Report. 2015, Web. Konopaske, Robert, et al. Organizational Behavior