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Nativist and Neuroconstructivist Positions of Brain Development

1) Compare and contrast the nativist and neuroconstructivist positions of brain development. What implications does the neuroconstructivist model have for atypical development? Why is developmental timing so important? (6 points) The nativist and neuroconstructivist positions of brain development differ in several ways. The nativist approach of brain development highlights that humans are born with pre-set structures which we then use in order to develop. In this view, the environment is merely a trigger for the activation of these preset structures (Karmiloff-Smith, 1998). This approach focuses on prenatal growth. On the other hand, the neuroconstructivist position of brain development is that development is the outcome of interactions between genetics, the brain, cognition, and the environment. While they do acknowledge the role of prenatal growth, they view the environment as playing a significant role in shaping and specifying brain structures (Karmiloff-Smith, 1998). In terms of an evolutionary perspective on brain development, nativists suggest that evolution is what has led to a more pre-specialized neocortex whereas neuroconstructivists see evolution as the force adapting the neocortex in order for individuals to have a greater capacity to respond and learn throughout development (Karmiloff-Smith, 1998). Although these two approaches vary greatly, they do share some similar views. The nativist and neuroconstructivist approaches both view development as continuous and ever-changing, with the environment being an important factor (Karmiloff-Smith, 1998). The importance of the interaction between the child and the environment is acknowledged in both approaches. The way the child reacts and processes their own environment is going to affect their own development. Both approaches acknowledge the effect the child has on their environment and vice-versa (Karmiloff-Smith, 1998). With the child having an active part in choosing their environment, this leads to the gradual development of domain-specific representations. Development of domain-specific representations indicates independence of brain structures, while also a specialization of certain structures (Karmiloff-Smith, 1998). Individuals are able to train one area of the brain without it affecting other areas. Both approaches do agree that development involves influences from both the environment and genetics (Karmiloff-Smith, 1998). The nativist approach suggests that disorders are the cause of innate impairments to domain-specific cognitive modules (Karmiloff-Smith, 1998). It is the belief that these impaired modules are there from birth and that atypical development stems from a genetic cause. Due to the atypical deficit in the brain circuit, plasticity is the brain’s response to that innate deficit, causing developmental disorders (Karmiloff-Smith, 1998). The neuroconstructivist approach argues that there are some innate starting points but that overall, modules emerge over development and are not solely innate. Plasticity is then in response to input the brain receives from the interactions with the environment. As Dr. Kelley discussed in lecture, this approach credits that disorders are not as specific and lie more on a continuum. As we have learned in lecture, atypical development has widespread effects. As it affects the brain, this leads to many neural and behavioral issues. The neuroconstructivist approach on atypical development implies that abnormalities occurring in lower levels actually have flowing effects on other parts on the brain as well (Karmiloff-Smith, 1998). As the brain constructs itself, functional specialization on modules that occurs for typical children may not occur for atypical ones. This suggests that with the interaction of these cascading effects of interacting genes and environment, it is a cascade of several subtle deficits rather than one large higher level one (Karmiloff-Smith, 1998). This approach is more indirect and seen as lower level causes rather than directly impaired cognitive modules (Karmiloff-Smith, 1998). The neuroconstructivist model focuses on change and emerging outcomes, unlike the nativist approach. The neuroconstructivist approach views every interaction and aspect of development as interactive and ever-changing. It considers domain specificity to not be the starting state but rather the outcome of development (Karmiloff-Smith, 1998). Therefore, the downstream effects of interactions between genes and environment suggest that atypical development may be caused by many things as behaviors can be reached by many different pathways (Karmiloff-Smith, 1998). This implies that there must be more of a continuum of developmental disorders rather than one clear cut disorder as there can be a failure to specialize or develop many modules. As learned in lecture, developmental timing is one of the most important factors that need to be taken into account when considering human development. The developing brain interacts differently with other parts across development, so better understanding the timing of the deficits can help us to better understand the mechanisms that have gone wrong in that impaired domain (Karmiloff-Smith, 1998). Atypical timing across developing systems can cause discomposure in many basic processes very early on in development. The developmental timing is so important because domain-specific outcomes may not be feasible without the steady course of development over time (Karmiloff-Smith, 1998). To fully assess developmental outcomes and trajectories of different developmental disorders it is crucial to understand the progressive changes from infancy and onwards. The developing brain interacts differently with other parts across development, so better understanding the timing of the deficits can help us to better understand the disorder. As Dr. Kelley mentioned in class, developmental timing is also important because it allows for earlier treatment when caught at an earlier stage. It is crucial to study disorders in infants as the earlier the genetic impairment, the more widespread it will be in the neocortex (Karmiloff-Smith, 1998). This can create differential outcome effects. If certain structures are neglected early on in development, this can lead to later difficulty developing other structures, leading to atypical development. This is why it is important to catch atypical development earlier on than later. Studying these early markers for disorders is beneficial for better treatment and understanding of the disorder (Karmiloff-Smith, 1998). 2. The National Institute for Mental Health in the United States (one of the largest funding bodies in the world) has proposed that researchers should stop our focus on investigating individual disorders but rather look for endophenotypes that can be seen across disorders, and investigate their genetic associations and response to treatment. Do you agree with this assertion? Why or why not? Would development itself have an effect on endophenotypes? (4 points) When considering newly proposed psychological theories, it is important to regard both the advantages and disadvantages in order to confirm that the approach is accurate and appropriate for studying mental disorders. In terms of focusing on endophenotypes across disorders, their genetic associations and response treatment, it is crucial to look into every aspect of this approach before coming to a final decision. There are valid arguments both for and against the endophenotype approach proposed by the National Institute for Mental Health in the United States (Insel

UM Employee Motivation & Dan Pink the Puzzle of Motivation Discussion

UM Employee Motivation & Dan Pink the Puzzle of Motivation Discussion.

Review this week’s Learning Resources, especially Chapter 6 in the Berman et al. text and the Dan Pink video. Consider factors that motivate employees to work.Describe factors that motivate employees to work.Explain how a manager might motivate employees when these employees have different needs.Analyze the types of motivation that are most effective (pay, incentives, etc.). Explain your analysis.Refer to concepts from the TED Talk video in this week’s Learning Resources.Post a 350-word response.Dan Pink: The Puzzle of Motivation”Career analyst Dan Pink examines the puzzle of motivation, starting with a fact that social scientists know but most managers don’t: Traditional rewards aren’t always as effective as we think. Listen for illuminating stories — and maybe, a way forward” TED, 2009View time 18:35 minutes.Human Resource Management in Public ServiceChapter 6, “Employee Engagement: Possible, Probable, or Impossible?” (pp. 215–240) Berman, E. M., Bowman, J. S., West, J., & Van Wart, M. R. (2020). Human Resource Management in Public Service[Powerpoint files & Study Questions via the Faculty Corner]Chapter 6, “Employee Engagement: Possible, Probable, or Impossible?” Berman, E. M., Bowman, J. S., West, J., & Van Wart, M. R. (2020)
UM Employee Motivation & Dan Pink the Puzzle of Motivation Discussion

Long-Term Care Diversification Analytical Essay

essay help online free The unstable operating environment in the United States, especially in the 1990s has made hospitals that provide long-term care services to diversify their products as well as services offered to capture ardently the ever-changing long-term care market. The University of Rochester Medical Center (2010) sees this as arising from the dynamic changing demographic and economic pressures (Para. 9). The hospitals have to enhance their financial stability while still ensuring enormous competitive edge in attempts to enter into new markets. A sure way to do this is to engineer a range of long-term care products from which customers can chooses. With reference to All about Long Term Care (2010), Diversification of long-term care among hospitals has been received with critics (Para. 7). However, the chief determinate criteria, on whether the hospitals should result to specialized long-term care services provision or continue with the current trend lie squarely on the capacity of the perceived diversification advantages and disadvantages Advantages Diversification of long-term care services has the advantages of organizational, community and market improvements. The community and its needs vary. Referring to Medicare (2010) by diversifying the long-term care services, the health centers ensure that their risks are spread along the various possible alternatives, which come with different charges (Para. 5). The risk that is evaded by most organizations and the health centers is that of offering certain care services, which might only prove to be demanded by the opulent only hence screening out the largest number: mainly comprised of the middle income earners. The health centre also have got the desires to escape rigid competition given that numerous long term care providers have opened doors both in private and public practice. According to Center for Medicare

PubHealth 8

PubHealth 8. I don’t understand this Nursing question and need help to study.

Review the following case study and complete the questions that follow.
As a nurse practicing within a family practice, you are interviewing a 55-year-old woman who is an executive assistant at a local law firm, where she has worked for 9 years. She has a 7-year history of respiratory illness, which occurs several times throughout the year, not seemingly connected to the changes in season. She does not use tobacco products in any form. During your questions regarding her home and work environments, she reports that she enjoys working adjacent to the courthouse in a building over 100 years old because it is such a contrast to her brand-new home on a local golf course. When describing the health of her coworkers, she indicates, “We all share illnesses, which seem to affect everyone else during the year; we just seem to be sicker more often!”

What information is pertinent to your client’s case?
How would you assess your client’s risk?
What would be an exposure pathway for your client?

Your document should be 1-2 pages in length, in APA format, typed in Times New Roman with 12-point font, double-spaced with 1” margins, and include at least two citations using references less than five years old.
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Large Credit Rating Agencies Business Finance Discussions Help

Large Credit Rating Agencies Business Finance Discussions Help.

Large credit rating agencies (RAs), such as S&P, have come under increasing criticism in recent years for a number of reasons. First, the RAs maintain close relationships with the management of the companies they rate. These connections are characterized by frequent meetings, during which the RAs provide advice on actions companies should take to maintain current ratings. This practice fosters a familial atmosphere that interferes with independent, unbiased rating judgments. Furthermore, because the RAs are paid by the companies they rate, rather than the investors they are meant to protect, a clear conflict of interest exists.Second, because the rating business is reputation based (why pay attention to a rating that is not recognized by others?), barriers to market entry are high and RAs are oligopolists (an oligopoly is a market dominated by just a few sellers). Thus, the RAs are somewhat immune to forces that apply to competitive markets and, to an extent, can set their rules.Finally, in many instances, the debt markets (through lower bond prices) have recognized a company’s deteriorating the credit quality many months before a rating downgrade occurred. This fact has led many observers to suggest that, rather than rely on ratings, investors and regulators should use credit spreads to make judgments about credit risk. (Credit spreads reflect the difference in yields between interest rates on “safe” debt, such as Treasury securities, and rates on risky debt such as B-rated bonds.)What do you think? To what extent are credit ratings valid? Do the criticisms of RAs have merit? Can the current credit rating system be improved? If so, how?1) make it simple as you can.2) USE YOUR OWN WORDS.3) And respond to this post with (3-5 sentences):Failure to do valid credit ratings are what caused the financial crisis of 2008 because of the failure to acknowledge and warn investors of the risks in the mortgage ratings. Although policy makers have worked to improve the credit rating system since the collapse, I think their is still room for improvement in this area. The improvements made since then still seem to be far from transparent and an unsound fix to the past problem. I don’t think that just randomizing credit ratings and changing private ratings to public ratings is what is truly going to fix the flaws in the system. I think something that could fix the issue is to have a universal rating system that is public and and a more structured scale. Benchmarks of ratings would allow to catch issues early and not allow them to continue rather than just going and going without checking on how soundly and smoothly the system is going. The other obvious way to help fix the issues is to be clear in warning of true risk associated with the investment to the investors.
Large Credit Rating Agencies Business Finance Discussions Help