National University Week 1 Drug Ads Disease or Cure Discussion.
I’m working on a writing discussion question and need a sample draft to help me understand better.
Your thesis statement is your paper’s main claim. Let’s develop your main claim. Watch the following video lecture on creating a strong thesis statement. Effective Thesis Statements Effective Thesis Statements – Alternative FormatsSince all academic writing is a conversation, please identify the articles to which you are primarily responding. Next, write three different versions of your main claim. Refer to Chapter 4 from the Readings this week to help compose the versions of your main claim.Afterwards, describe which claim you think is the strongest and express any concerns you have about your claim. Your instructor will read your claims and help you figure out which one he or she thinks is the strongest.
Discussion Methods for Layout Conception and Development Discussion.
National University Week 1 Drug Ads Disease or Cure Discussion
Layout Strategy DiscussionLayouts are how we set up a work environment to ensure efficient operations. It is a balance between efficiency and flexibility for many competing factors, including available space. Examine any workplace layout strategy you are familiar with. A picture or diagram would help. If this were your space, how would you change the layout to make it more usable? Have this posted by Thursday.For the second part of the assignment, review two of your classmate’s postings. What would you do to improve the layout to increase efficiency and long-term use?
Over the last few decades, foreign direct investments (FDI) have played a very relevant role in Brazilian industrialization, attracted especially by the large domestic market. The political stability and government policies are also key factors attracting foreign investors. Because FDI can bring major benefits to recipient economies by enhancing their competitiveness, the competition to attract FDI has intensified among countries, especially developing countries like Brazil. Theoretically, foreign direct investment depends on the monopolistic advantage of MNCs or comparative advantages in host economies (Hymer, 1976; Kojima, 1978; Dunning, 1980, 2000)1. According to Porters (1990), competitive advantages of local industries depend on four factors: factor conditions, demand conditions, context for firm strategy and rivalry, and presence of competitive related and supporting industries. In addition, external factors and government also play an important role in influencing industrial competitive advantage. Dunning (1993a, p.8) argues that Porters does not sufficiently take the globalization of economic activity into account and MNC influence is added to Porter’s diamond. Inward FDI can bring new resources and technologies into a country and foreign investors can import advantages from its home base and some of its assets might contain ownership specific advantages (Dunning 1993, p.108). For Dunning, each factor of the diamond is linked to multinational activity. The impact of the activities of MNCs on National Competitiveness It was suggested that MNCs may stimulate development in host economies, as foreign subsidiaries could introduce new know-how, stimulate competition, and transfer production techniques and management skills and these ownership advantages are believed not only to affect the nation’s productivity directly, but also indirectly through spillovers to improve overall efficiency in the economy and trade performance (Blomstrom and Kokko 1998, p.256; Narula and Marin 2003, p. 1)2. The macro-economic difficulties experienced by Brazil as of the early 80s caused a drastic reduction in infrastructure investments, which until the mid-90s were almost exclusively the responsibility of the public sector. The FDI reduced the deficiency in the infrastructure. Many acquisitions took place in the privatization of public companies (industrial and public services such as electricity and telecommunications). Unlike the FDI destined to building new assets, acquisition earmarked for buying pre-existing assets. In this case, the relation between FDI and increase in productivity of economy is indirect. It depends on whether additional investments are made on modernization and expansion of product capacity of the acquired asset. FDI Impacts on productivity level of Brazil economy Foreign firms with greater technological capacity may directly boost the average productivity level of the host economy by importing capital, advanced assets and proprietary technology and could cause technology spillover indirectly. FDI is generally regarded as a source of modern technology including product, process and distribution expertise, as well as management and marketing skills (Blostrom and Kokko 1998, p.247). According to the literature, these spillovers would occur due to two effects- competition effect and demonstration effect. In terms of competition effect, increased rivalry of foreign competitors force national companies to innovate and modernize their production and management technologies. As price competition becomes more intense, domestic and foreign firms have an incentive to differentiate their products and enhanced rivalry of MNCs ensures that only the most appropriate management practices survive. Regarding to demonstration effect, national companies could learn superior production technologies taking advantage of the arm’s length relations with MNCs (Gorg and Strobl 2001, p.723)3. Here, the absorptive capacity of domestic firms plays a crucial role. It was argued that the impact is greater when domestic firms and MNCs have similar levels of productivity (Driffield and Taylor 2002)4. Export coefficient: Exports in relation to turnover; Import coefficient: Imports in relation to turnover Table 1 shows that foreign firms in Brazil are indeed larger and more productive than national firms. In the same way, their workers appear to have more qualification and advertising expenditure also occupy a greater proportion in the turnover. (It is assumed that the more intensive use of technology demands greater qualifications in the staff operating it. In the same way, the greater the sales effort involved, represented by its advertising costs, the greater on averages the differentiation of the firm’s product.) 5Goncalves (2003), based on a sample of 22,000 companies with data from 1997 to 2000, sought to check the existence of productivity spillovers from foreign to national companies using a panel econometric model at firm level. However, contrary to expectations, there was no evidence of spillovers, either positive or negative. Then the national companies were classified according to their productivity gap with foreign companies in the same sector to test if companies with different levels of productivity would have different capacity absorbing potential spillovers. It was again surprisingly to find that the national companies with a narrower productivity gap were negatively affected and for those with a wider gap, the effect was positive. Therefore, according to Goncalves’ results, for the largest national companies competing directly against foreign companies in national market, the increased foreign share did not have a dramatic effect on productivity for the industrial structure as a whole, since the negative effects surpass the positive spillovers. This might due to decline in scale and the MNCs’ shift to lower value-productivity activities. In the 90s, faced with greater competition from imported products, the MNCs tried to achieve higher degrees of productive specialization and lower levels of vertical integration which led to increasing imported component in the final products manufactured in Brazil by reducing the local value added on final goods production. Opening the domestic market to foreign competitors will not only increase competition between the direct rivals of the MNCs, but also enhance competition at the level of local suppliers which will lead to the development of related and supporting industries. Because of the competition effect, Brazilian MNCs enabled local suppliers to develop specific skills to meet the new requirements for lower prices and higher quality product to differentiate from competitors. These are known as forward and backward linkage, as subsidiaries train and instruct their local suppliers, subcontractors and customers. The subsidiaries of MNCs shift from the stand-alone model of operation towards a model of integration with the network between corporations involved in the production and trade. The upgrading of human capital is consequence of and a complement to technology transfer (Narula and Marin 2003, p.6)6. Under the competition effect, national companies require for higher quality products with superior technology. Therefore, the demand for skilled labours increases as the development and effective use of technology requires human capital (Driffield and Taylor 2002; Lall 2001, pp. 128-131). Upgrading of human capital can occur through training or the movement of highly skilled staff from MNCs to domestic firms. MNCs FDI impacts on Brazilian trade performance In literature, foreign corporations have a greater international orientation than national companies, although this difference is higher for imports than for exports. Table 1 again shows that foreign companies are indeed better off in many aspects with greater competitive advantages and export potential than the national firms. However, the small difference between the export coefficients and the significant import coefficients difference seem to indicate that these competitive advantages were not translated into a more effective trade performance. It also shows that foreign companies’ contribution to positive trade balances was small because of the higher level of imports. One of the major advantages of MNCs over domestic companies is its well-established trade network and it was shown that these advantages were used mainly to increase import flows. MNCs distribution in Brazil – 2000 Source: Central Bank of Brazil Trade liberalization and exchange-rate appreciation during most of the 1990s increased imports dramatically, especially for the MNCs with international trade network to import technology-intensive inputs, while with no corresponding increase in exports. Foreign companies had an average propensity to export (exports/sales) of 14.3% in average and an average propensity to import of 13.6% in 2000. According to the Pie Chart 1, nearly half of total investment have both export and import propensity below than the average. This is because that these investments largely comprise service industries, which were oriented toward the domestic market and therefore had little influence on trade flows. The chemicals, telecommunications sectors with import propensity above average and export propensity below average, which accounted for 31% of the accumulated flows between 1996 and 2005. These industries prioritized the domestic market, but with a high volume of imported inputs and components. The resource-seeking industries such as mining have higher export propensity and lower import propensity which accounted for 10.4% of the total investment. The industries such as automobiles and machinery have both high export and import propensity. This is notified that the difference in the industrial size and distribution from other developing countries which are also attractive for FDI, such as Korea. Take the example of Korea, by the 1970s, its government was pushing Korean large business groups into a variety of new sectors with cheap credit and few limits on borrowing. Moreover, the export push meant that their business groups were not held back by the limitations of the Korean market. In Brazil, however, import-substitution industrialization greatly limited markets, though Brazil itself has large domestic market, it is insufficient especially after the crisis in 80s. In addition, large firms from Asia are more concentrated in middle- and high-technology manufacturing, such as automobiles, computers. Brazil, however, has relatively small proportion of the large firms in this sector. 7Hiratuka and De Negri (2005) suggest that most of Brazil’s imports of equipment required for local production are from their parent MNCs home countries and their major export destinations are the Brazilian domestic market and neighbor countries. Foreign subsidiaries tend to import from their home countries technology-intensive products, inputs, and components which results in significant differences between exports and imports flows not only in value, but also in terms of technological profile. According to literature, the increased foreign shares should have positive spillover effect on exports because MNCs cost to enter the international market is lower. However, as there is small difference in Brazilian export coefficient, there is no evidence to show the existence of this spillover. To sum up, the liberal trade policy and exchange rate appreciation increase the imports of MNCs subsidiaries, especially the highly technology-intensive inputs. MNCs, however, have limited impacts on trade flows, because most of the foreign investment in Brazil targets the domestic market. Conclusion In terms of productivity, Brazil has no doubt improved the productivity compared with the beginning of 90s. However, its productive structure is currently dependent on the acquisition of imported inputs from MNCs home country in order to produce. The increased imported component, on the other hand, increase the specialization of the local production, thus reduce some of competitive deficiencies of Brazilian industry. In terms of trade performance, there is an intense increase in the use of imported products in the domestic market. The increased imported content of local production improves the quality and efficiency of production significantly, but did not give rise to a considerable increase in exports. To sum up, the FDI impact on Brazil is different from other developing countries such as those Asian countries. Take again Korean example, the export share of production has been significantly boosted and the increase of productivity led to the investment abroad of national companies since the 80s. The internationalization in other developing countries expands foreign markets for domestic production through the investments abroad of national companies or the export of domestic production by local and foreign firms. However, in Brazil’s case, internationalization had the domestic market as its target through the greater presence of foreign companies and the increase in the imported content of final production. Therefore, the internationalization process resulted in a productive structure that is a micro economically more efficient, generating more unsatisfactory macro-economic result.
In this essay, the author will discuss internal communication and various important constructs present in the literature which facilitate practice and further the understanding of internal communication as a strategic management function. Tench and Yeomans (2006, p. 335) trace the origins of internal communication to business and industrial journalism in the late 1940s. The authors claim journalists were attracted by generous salaries to write for staff journals, publishing news and information relating to the organisation. It was thought that better informed employees, would be better motivated and thus make bigger contributions to the productivity of the organisation (Tench and Yeomans, 2006, p. 335). As the authors suggest, this view is still applicable today, with empirical and theoretical work published since, further validating these claims. Indeed, Robson and Tourish (2005, p. 213) state, “There is now a substantial literature that suggests that internal communications helps to improve the likelihood of an organisation being successful”. Even so, internal communication is regarded as an understudied area within public relations (Tench and Yeomans, 2006, p. 337; Welch and Jackson, 2007, p. 178), with scholars calling for further research on internal communication to derive a better understanding of its mandates, scope and focus (Forman and Argenti, 2005; cited in Welch and Jackson, 2007, p. 178). In responding to these demands, Welch and Jackson (2007, p. 178) proposed a stakeholder approach to internal communications. The authors began by examining the current position of internal communication in the literature, according to the domains (business communication, management communication, corporate communication and organisational communication) of communication, said to represent the crossroads between communication and organisational life (Miller 1996; cited in Kalla, 2005, p. 304). They particularly regard the use of Frank and Brownell’s (1989; cited in Welch and Jackson, 2007, p. 179) passage as a definition of internal communication by various writers, as an unhelpful continuous loop. The authors explain Frank and Brownell’s passage actually relates to organisational communication as a field of study as explained above, focusing on an organisation’s communication processes in general and over the last two decades, increasingly seen as shifting to integrated external and internal communication (Welch and Jackson, 2007, p. 180). The authors write, “While there is recognition that internal communication has an identity, it is seen as being integrated with external communication. Given this, Frank and Brownell’s (1989) definition of organisational communication (as a whole) cannot be appropriate for internal communication (as part of the whole)” (Welch and Jackson, 2007, p. 180). This distinction as explained by Welch and Jackson (Welch and Jackson, 2007), responds to calls in internal communication research to provide ways of improving understanding of the communication management function for the benefit of both practitioners and scholars. Rather than organisational communication, Welch and Jackson view corporate communication as a more appropriate school of thought for internal communication (Welch and Jackson, 2007, p. 181). Here internal communication is seen as one of seven facets of organisational communication (van Reil 2005; cited in Welch and Jackson, 2007, p. 181) and therefore considered in its own right. It is then possible for the development of theoretical grounding to further research and facilitate practice of internal communication itself. Indeed the authors justify their ascription to corporate communication for internal communication by stating it is more concerned with communication as an instrument of management, and allows for the provision of theory which could be of practical use (Welch and Jackson, 2007, p. 181). The authors propose an initial definition of internal communication and suggest it is the, “strategic management of interactions and relationships between stakeholders at all levels within organisations” (Welch and Jackson, 2007, p.183). Developing their stakeholder approach, Welch and Jackson (2007, p. 183-185) recognise the need to view stakeholders as more than a single entity and within their own groups and subgroups, perhaps identified by demographics or staff groupings relating to sector and organisational purpose (Welch and Jackson, 2007, p. 183). Something L’Etang suggested was not taking place in his critical view of current research (2005; cited in Welch and Jackson, 2007, p. 183). Welch and Jackson (2007) reference Freeman’s (1984) view of stakeholders, which he defined as individuals who can affect or are affected by the achievement of the firm’s objectives (Freeman, 1984; cited in Welch and Jackson, 2007, p. 183), to contextualise their proposals for internal communication from a stakeholder standpoint. It should be noted that within a stakeholder approach, there is a high level of importance implicitly assumed regarding the impact these individuals who can affect or are affected by organisational success, have on the achievement of such success. Freeman’s research was focused on understanding external stakeholders by encouraging organisations to become more responsive to their external environment and identifying groups and subgroups important to the organisation. His research contributed to internal communication research and suggested various internal stakeholders including line management, team members and other internal groups or related departments and subsidiary managers (Welch and Jackson, 2007, p. 183). These concepts are best viewed in practice, and are further developed by Welch and Jackson (2007) and in this paper. Identifying stakeholders is understood to be an important process in effective communication. Indeed a good understanding of stakeholders allows organisations to plan and measure communication more accurately, determining who needs to be informed, and the best way of doing so. Further analysis could identify stakeholders according to demographics (age, gender, income), psychographics (personality, attitudes, behaviours), contract with the organisation (fulltime, part-time, temporary), graphical location (head office, regional office) (Tench and Yeomans, 2006, p. 340). Staff groups could also be furthered to include supervisors, junior managers, specialist professional employees and overseas employees (Tench and Yeomans, 2006, p. 340). Welch and Jackson consider various methods of identifying internal stakeholders (Welch and Jackson, 2007, p. 184) to realise stakeholder groups at different levels of an organisation and ultimately redefine internal communication as the, “strategic management of interactions and relationships between stakeholders within organisations across a number of interrelated dimensions including, internal line manager communication, internal team peer communication, internal project peer communication and internal corporate communication” (Welch and Jackson, 2007, p. 184). The University of Central Lancashire will now be examined according to Welch and Jackson’s proposed approach. Internal stakeholders here would first consist of, strategic management or governors and senior management such as the university board, faculty leaders and senior management teams. Then day-to-day managers consisting of division leaders, head of departments, and service or middle managers. This will be followed by various team members and related groups, such as academics, researchers, administrators, academic support staff, and manual and other ancillary groups (i.e. library staff) (Diagram, 1). Diagram 1 – Internal Stakeholder Map – University of Central Lancashire Applying this construct to aspects of internal communication such as the direction of communication for example between top management and the rest of the organisation, identifying the participants involved as well as content, Welch and Jackson (2007, p.185) provide an internal communication matrix (Appendix 1). The matrix is useful as it contextualises internal communication in terms of the interrelated dimensions previously defined (of internal communication), and for example could aid organisations to plan internal communication strategies and tactics, according to needs of each internal stakeholder and the organisation itself. The dimensions offered are explained by Welch and Jackson (2007, p. 185-186) with most attention paid to internal corporate communication. For Welch and Jackson (2007, p. 186), internal corporate communication relates to communication between an organisation’s strategic managers and its internal stakeholders, for the purpose of promoting commitment to the organisation, a sense of belonging to it, awareness of its changing environment and understanding of its evolving aims (Welch and Jackson, 2007, p. 186). In order to explicate how internal corporate communication would work practically, Welch and Jackson (2007, p. 186) provide a diagram illustrating its functionality (Appendix 2). The authors dismiss criticisms of the model relating to its one-way communication between the organisation and its employees, suggesting it’s impractical to expect senior management to individually discuss strategy with all employees face-to-face, except in really small organisations (Welch and Jackson, 2007, p.187). They continue by highlighting Grunig et al., (2002; cited in Welch and Jackson, 2007, p. 187) notion that internal mediated communication, can be symmetrical if its content is aligned to employees’ need to know, instead of management’s need to tell. They also suggest one-way mediated communication is appropriate, when message consistency is crucial, and if combined with a commitment to encourage upward critical communication (double-pointed arrows in the model of internal corporate communication) then internal communication can provide opportunities for dialogue (Welch and Jackson, 2007, p. 187). Cornelissen (2008) who suggests allowing employees to communicate with management is important because their ideas, responses to their working environment, or critiques of the plans and ideas announced by the organisation may be used to find ways to improve performance and profitability (Cornelissen, 2008, p. 197). An example Furthering the goals of internal corporate communication, Welch and Jackson (2007, p. 188) look to the literature to explicate how these were derived. The first, contributing to internal relationships characterised by employee commitment, is discussed in relation to Meyer and Allen’s (1997; cited in Welch and Jackson, 2007, p. 188) distinction of three types of workplace commitment. Affective commitment which relates to employee’s emotional attachment with the organisation. Continuance commitment which relates to the cost of leaving an organisation. And normative commitment, relating to an employee’s feeling of obligation to an organisation. Welch and Jackson (2007, p. 188) also cite De Ridder (2004) as inspiration for this first goal. In De Ridder’s (2004) study, commitment and trust are proposed to be key conditions for creating a supportive attitude (De Ridder, 2004). The author suggests that both trust and commitment often go hand in hand, as indeed the same factors that affect trust can also affect commitment. De Ridder (2004) regards good communication as one such factor, and cites Mathieu and Zadjac’s (1990) study as indicative of the strong effect communication has on commitment. De Ridder (2004) also proposes information relating to an employee’s work (task-related) and information relating to organisational objectives, problems and policy (non-task-related) too increases the level of commitment and trust employee’s will feel towards the organisation. Summing their review of commitment and trust, De Ridder (2004) suggests commitment to relate to the daily communication processes that motivate employees (task-related), and trust as the communication activities that reassure them (non-task-related)(De Ridder, 2004). From this view, organisations are most able to contribute to internal relationships, by encouraging high-commitment levels from its employees, through effective communication directly relating to their work, and through open mediated communication relating to their organisation’s goals, problems and policy. De Riddler (2004) notes, however, task-related communication will be more effective if employees feel the information provided supports their preferred approach towards their job. This however can be difficult, especially in circumstances were daily task-related information is repetitious such as for a sales assistant in a retail store. Perhaps in such cases, task-related information to encourage commitment to the organisation would be more effective if focused on feedback relating to work efficiency as well as included aspects of task-related information. New United Motor Manufacturing, Inc. (NUMMI) provides a good example of an organisation successfully encouraging commitment from its employees, by providing high quality task-related information. In an article written by John Shook, an employee at the organisation during periods of organisational change directed at improving employee performance; Shook explains why the organisation was able to successfully transform the poor-performing workforce, into committed and involved members of the organisation. He writes, “What changed the culture was giving employees the means by which they could successfully do their jobs. By communicating clearly what their jobs were and providing the training and tools to enable them to perform them successfully” (Shook, 2009). The second, promoting a sense of belonging in employees, is considered by Welch and Jackson (2007, p. 189) according to Cornelissen’s (2004; cited in Welch and Jackson, 2007, p. 189) view of a “we” feeling which allows individuals to identify with an organisation. Welch and Taylor (2007, p. 189) also cite Baumeister and Leary’s (1995) study, which proposed individuals are strongly motivated by a sense of belonging. Welch and Jackson (2007, p. 189) suggest this need for belonging also exists in social situations, including the workplace. Belongingness is often related to the concept of identification, indeed Cornelissen (2008, p. 198) defined organisational identification as, “the perception of oneness with or belongingness to an organisation, where the individual defines him or herself in terms of the organisation of which he or she is a member” (Cornelissen, 2008, p. 198). Cornelissen (2008) citing works by Dutton et al., (1992) and Smidts et al., (2001) explain organisational identification to increase in relation to perceived external prestige of the organisation. They state, when an organisation appears to hold a strong reputation to outsiders, employees feel proud to belong to that organisation, partly to increase their self-esteem. For example an executive at a Premiership football club such as Manchester United is likely to be proud to belong to that organisation, as indeed it is widely perceived to be a prestigious organisation. Cornelissen (2008, p. 198) also highlight increased identification with an organisation when an employee sees an overlapping between his or her own personal identity to that of the organisation. For example a hip-hop DJ at the BBC’s 1Xtra digital radio station (a hip-hop radio station), is likely to identify with this organisation, as the overlapping of values and goals between employee and organisation is evident. Welch and Jackson (2007, p. 189) make an important distinction here, and suggest identification can be seen as a persuasive strategy organisations use to develop stakeholder relationships, by emphasising shared values. In this view, organisations are open to the notion of unethical practice or manipulation, as with any persuasive act of communication. As a result, Welch and Jackson (2007, p. 189) explicitly highlight the ethical dimensions within the concept of internal corporate communication. A good example of an organisation acknowledging the importance of related values between workforce and organisation is Danish pharmaceutical company, Nova Nodisk (Schreiber, 2008). The company ensures employees are understanding and supportive of the organisation’s core values by ensuring every employee spends at least one-day with a diabetic. The organisation has also set up a task-force named “value facilitators” who ensure the organisation’s values are understood and accepted throughout the organisation’s global internal environment (Schreiber, 2008). The interrelatedness of Welch and Jackson’s (2007, p. 186) goals of internal corporate communication can be seen, as Cornelissen (2008, p. 198) explains the impact internal communication has on organisational identification. Similar to the first goal of internal corporate communication, Cornelissen (2008, p. 198) suggests organisational identification is likely to increase when information provided is perceived as adequate and reliable, such as information relating to what is expected of an employee and their specific contributions (Cornelissen, 2008, p. 198). Cornelissen (2008, p. 198) also identifies increased organisational identification when an organisation makes an effort to listen to its employees. He states, “Good internal communication, combines upward and downward communication in such a way that employees are well informed about the future directions of the organisation, are allowed to interact with management about their policies, and where this interaction has an impact on managerial decisions” (Cornelissen, 2008, p. 198). The final goals of internal corporate communication are, developing awareness of environmental change, and developing understanding of the need for the organisation to evolve its aims in response to, or in anticipation of, environmental change (Welch and Jackson, p. 188). Welch and Jackson (2007, p. 190) explain internal communication happens within the context of an organisation’s constantly changing and dynamic environment (Welch and Jackson, p. 190). The authors argue for the need for organisations to communicate their opportunities and challenges in the external environment to their employees. This way employees are able to gather a clear understanding of changes in the organisation’s environment and align their contributions to the organisation accordingly, this also contributes to developing commitment to the organisation among internal stakeholders. At this point it is important to establish the dimension of internal corporate communication as part of the overall internal communication function. Welch and Jackson (2007, p.191) highlight the need to acknowledge internal corporate communication as positioned within an environment shared by the other dimensions of line management, team and project communication, highlighted in their communication matrix (Welch and Jackson, 2007, p. 191). This environment is argued by Welch and Jackson (2007, p. 191) to generate the atmosphere or climate in which communication occurs. This climate is influenced by attributes such as culture, attitude to conflict management and communication systems (Welch and Jackson, 2007, p. 191). Communication climate also considers communication levels as in the internal communication matrix, and thus represent different groups of internal stakeholders. Therefore, it is possible for varying communication climates to exist within the same organisation. Welch and Jackson’s (2007) stakeholder approach provides organisations with the opportunity to strategically plan its internal communication. Indeed with the internal communication matrix, organisations are able to acknowledge how required information can be disseminated throughout the organisation. The matrix can also aid organisations in carrying out audits of its internal communication, with a focus on each dimension. The internal corporate communication model is also useful as it provides organisations with a focus as to what internal corporate communication can achieve and how. Incorporating the model will allow organisations, to strategically plan mediated internal communication, maintain a symmetrical two-way communication and consider its internal stakeholders in relation to external factors, ultimately engaging employees with their jobs and their organisations (Welch and Jackson, 2007, p. 190). The author also considers applications of organisational commitment theory and organisational identification theory for understanding internal communication further, under the stakeholder approach proposed by Welch and Jackson (2007). These frameworks overlap and considerations of not only the theoretical works mentioned here but others within the literature can contribute to the development of a successful and efficient internal communication strategy. It is within the view of the author however, that a stakeholder approach to internal communication makes most contributions to organisational goals and objectives, as the most it is understood about internal stakeholders, the higher the quality of information which is provided to them. Reference List Cornelissen, J. (2008), Corporate Communications: Theory and Practice. Sage, London. De Ridder, J. (2004), ‘Organisational communication and supportive employees’, Human Resource Management Journal, 14(3), pp. 20-30. Kalla, H.K. (2005) ‘Integrated internal communications: a multidisciplinary perspective’, Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 10(4), pp. 302- 314. Robson, P.J.A., and Tourish, D. (2005) ‘Managing internal communication: an organizational case study’, Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 10(3), pp. 213- 222. Schreiber, E. (2008), ‘Reputation’, Institute for Public Relations. [Online]. (Updated 02 Dec 2008) Available at: http://www.instituteforpr.org/essential_knowledge/detail/reputation/#Employee _Involvement_and_Reputation Shook, J. (2009) ‘How NUMMI Changed Its Culture’. [Online]. (Updated 01 Aug 2009) Available at: http://www.lean.org/shook/2009/09/how-nummi-changed-its-culture.html Tench, R., and Yeomans, L. (2007), Exploring Public Relations. Pearson Education, Harlow. Welch, M., and Jackson, P. (2007), ‘Rethinking Internal Communication: a stakeholder approach’, Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 12(2), pp. 177-198. Appendix 1 Internal Communication Matrix (Welch and Jackson, 2007, p. 185)
Discussion Methods for Layout Conception and Development Discussion
Romanesque and Gothic Architecture Similarities
Romanesque and Gothic Architecture Similarities. Romanesque architecture between 800 and 1150AD was popular in Western Europe which then rose to the gothic style. Pre-Romanesque style developed by using elements of roman design in the Christian churches in the states of Western Europe. By the end of the pre-Romanesque period Roman elements had fused with Byzantium elements from the Middle East, these influences became known as the Romanesque, meaning “in the manner of Rome”. The appearance of the Romanesque style was multi storey entrance facades of geometric appearance buildings. Stone was a very popular material used in the buildings. Huge vaults and arches was one of the main characteristics of the time. Masonry vaulting since the beginning of Christian architecture had only been used in buildings of relatively small scale. Romanesque churches, on the other hand, sustained massive barrel vaults, making it compulsory to reinforce the load-bearing walls in order to carry the lateral outward thrust. The frequent presence of galleries above the aisles, sometimes with half-barrel vaults, is in all probability rooted in structural considerations connected with the problem of abutment. The use of wall openings to a minimum, due to the same concern, contributed to the sober yet soberly impressive character of the light. Each individual building has a clearly definite form which often consists of very regular and symmetrical plans so the overall appearance is known as a form of simplicity. Romanesque architecture mainly depends on its walls which are known as piers. Piers are sections of the wall that appear mostly at the intersection of two large arches, which are those crossing under the nave and the transept which is always in a circular shape, each arch is supported on its own supporting rectangular pier which is found at each right angle. Most of the buildings are mostly made from wooden roofs, mostly of a simple truss, tie beam or king post form. When the case of trussed rafter roofs occurs they will then be lined with wooden ceilings. The most important feature of Romanesque churches was the towers. Romanesque church facades were always built to face the west end of the building and are usually symmetrical and has a large central doorway made mostly by its moldings or porch and a arrangement of arched-topped windows which can be seen above the doorway. In Italy there is a single central ocular window which is most probably known as the most common decorative feature, as well as the arcading. One of the most important structural developments of the Romanesque era was the vault. Originally intended as an alternative to fire prone wooden roofs, vaults became a major innovation in architectural features. The cross vault was used throughout Europe even though it was heavy and difficult to construct so thus it was replaced with the rib and panel vault. The Church I chose the Sant’Ambrogio was originally built during the 4th Century but was excavated beneath the existing building. With the west facing façade, the use of vaulting is clearly seen throughout the church, down either side of the isle and leading to the nave. Although stone is not the main material used it can be seen in certain aspects of the church. The large central portal includes carvings. Gothic architecture, known at the time as the French style, started in the first half of the 12th century and continued well into the 16th century. Gothic architecture was made up from the previous architectural genre, Romanesque. For the most important part, there was no difference between the two, as there was later to be in Renaissance Florence with the sudden restoration of the Classical style by Brunelleschiwhich came from the early 15thcentury. Eventually Gothic architecture was brought south to Italy by the French. The characteristics of Gothic Style features include those of the pointed arch, the ribbed vault and the flying buttress traceried windows. The thin walls, slender columns, and the very large areas of glass in Gothic buildings gave an impression of lightness. It consisted of a central nave flanked by aisles, with or without transept, and was finished by a choir surrounded by an ambulatory with chapels. The ribs which held up the vaults were aligned to make a pattern of a diamond on the ceilings. These elements were however no longer treated as single units but were properly integrated within a joined spatial scheme. The exterior view was mostly dominated by the twin towers. The facade was pierced by doorways often decorated with varies sculptures and at a higher level appeared a central stained glass rose window. Due to the outward pressure of the vaults there became a need for buttresses. Windows were very important in the churches. Each stained glass had a message in it which was taken from a bible piece to pass across a message. Gothic architecture is unique in many different ways but mostly by its use of materials. Regional influences played a huge role in the design variations and preferences for the different building materials. While in France the most common materials used were limestone, England witnessed a great use of red sandstone and coarse limestone with marble which was known as Purbeck architectural features. Similarly, while in Northern Germany and the Baltic nations, the tradition was that of mainly using bricks, in Italy, the most preferred material was marble. Timber was also one of the materials used, which is seen in the hammer-beam ceilings and rafters. Some of the structural innovations included, the use of a reinforcing block or wall of masonry adding support to the great vaultsRomanesque and Gothic Architecture Similarities
Recording speaker : Hal Daub
assignment helper Recording speaker : Hal Daub.
Recording speaker : Hal Daub Go to this link to hear the recording https://onedrive.live.com/redir?resid=FC71E0F5479864B5!363&authkey=!AII8_GAxhahvPOQ&ithint=file%2cm4aWrite a two page single spaced, 12 font and typed summary of the guest speaker’s lecture and discussion. The objective of the assignment is to identify and apply the key learnings of the course and current events to the speaker’s lecture.All I need completed is part 2 and 5. This is a 45 minute recording (use link above). I have attached the document that I have already started on. as for part 5 I have provided a link to an article that you must read and relate it to the presentation (recording) provided. Summary Recording.docx
Recording speaker : Hal Daub
Major exam Essay questions!
Major exam Essay questions!. I’m studying and need help with a Philosophy question to help me learn.
MAJOR EXAM #5 (Final Exam) is based on chapter 14 (Unjust Wars & professional Obligations) and chapter 15 (the Role of the United Nations). PLEASE be sure that you have carefully reviewed these 2 chapters before you take this exam.
In this exam you are to answer separately (thoroughly and thoughtfully) each question asked in each number. Be sure to answer each question in complete sentences (not fragments). Be sure to proofread your answer for clarity, coherence and correctness in grammar, spelling, punctuation mark, etc. Make sure that you label or identify each part of your answer (for example, #1A, 1B, 1C, etc.). Please do not lump together your answers. Your answer must be word-processed, double-spaced, using 10-12 font size and number the pages of exam. If you quote a passage from the reading to support your answer to a question you need to cite reference (using parenthetical citation) for that passage you are quoting from the reading.
If you do not submit your final exam to Safe Assign your final exam will receive an automatic deduction of 25 points even before I read and grade it. So that you will be able to submit your final exam to Safe Assign, you must make sure that you submit it by the due date for this final exam. Please note that you get only ONE ATTEMPT to submit your final exam to Safe Assign. NOTE: In your answer to the final exam questions, please do not include the questions asked because that will automatically trigger a Safe Assign match that will cause your exam to exceed the 25% acceptable limit.
1. State clearly the view of the secretary of defense during the early years of Vietnam, Robert McNamara, about the Vietnam war. What does this view of McNamara mean to the U.S. military profession? Are professional soldiers culpable for fighting in a war that the secretary of defense believed to be unjust? Should military leaders resign their commissions if they believe a war to be unjust? (10 points)
2. What does the concept of civilian control of the military mean (at least in the context of the United States)? Explain everything that this concept entails. (10 points)
3. Explain all the legal stipulations implicit in the military subordination to political authority (at least in the context of the United States). (10 points)
4. Regarding the issue of military officership, 1st, explain clearly what being a member of a profession means; and 2nd, explain clearly everything that military officership entails. (10 points)
5. Is there ever a scenario where the United States (acting either unilaterally or in conjunction with the United Nations) can forcibly intervene in the internal affairs of another sovereign country for humanitarian purpose? Explain fully you answer. (10 points)
6. What is the long-standing presumption in the international community against states interfering in each other’s internal affairs? State the various articles in the United States Charter that reflect this presumption. (10 points)
7. What is the common factor in all cases of humanitarian intervention? What are the humanitarian reasons for such intervention? In the case of the United Nations’ intervention in Somalia in 1993, what are the human rights violations that nations cited for humanitarian intervention? (10 points)
8. Explain at least 3 external interventions that do not quality as humanitarian interventions. (NOTE: You need to explain here why each of these 3 external interventions does not qualify as humanitarian intervention (10 points).
9. Explain the view of Ellen Fey-Wouters about humanitarian intervention. What would be your own view on the so-called “crimes against humanity”? (10 points).
10. Explain fully each of the objective criteria would warrant overriding the principle of non-intervention. (10 points)
Major exam Essay questions!
diversity in the workplace
diversity in the workplace. I’m working on a Business question and need guidance to help me study.
Please visit the following site:https://www.forbes.com/2010/04/20/global-2000-leading-world-business-global-2000-10-intro.html#1f18dbb1512b
Visit the site listing the best companies for multicultural women:http://blogs.forbes.com/meghancasserly/2011/05/24/the-best-companies-for-multicultural-women/
Choose one leading company. Do research on this company to find out how it leverages diversity. Use resources, the Internet, or your local library.
The paper should be between 2-3 pages, organized and referenced in accordance with APA format.
diversity in the workplace