Get help from the best in academic writing.

Myths about Gods and Spirits in Different Cultures Essay

Supreme Being Myth Myth: Alla Religion or culture of origin: Islam What are the characteristics of the Supreme Being? God in Islam can be described as an omnipotent and all-knowing being that created the universe. Moreover, mercy is another attribute of this Supreme Being. In Islam, God is outside or above nature. This is one of the aspects that distinguish it from pagan deities. Furthermore, one should mention that Allah is an indivisible entity that does not have various representations. Furthermore, one should mention that the actions of this Supreme Being cannot be understood by a human being. Moreover, Allah should not be judged according to anthropomorphic standards. This is one of the reasons why the depictions of god are prohibited by the norms of the Quran (Shah, 2012, p. 400). These are the main details that can be distinguished. How did the Supreme Being create humanity? According to Islamic tradition, Allah created a human being out of wet earth or clay. Moreover, the Supreme Being did not create people within an instant. In particular, he did not simply breathe life into inanimate matter. More likely, human beings were the result of gradual and long-term development. This is one of the peculiarities that should be taken into account. Great Mother Myth Myth: Gaia Religion or culture of origin: Ancient Greece What are the characteristics of the Great Mother? In the myths of Ancient Greece, Gaia is depicted as the entity that gave birth to the Earth as well as heavenly gods. Overall, Gaia can be viewed as the representation of nature that sustains human life. To a great extent, she can be viewed as the creator of material reality. Nevertheless, Gaia is not the Supreme Being because her powers are limited. Apart from that, she is not omniscient. These are some of the traits that can be singled out. How did the Great Mother protect or look after humanity? Nevertheless, it is important to remember that Gaia is not a protective figure, especially if one speaks about humanity. She can care about her own children, such as heavenly gods or Titans. Nevertheless, she is not concerned about the existence of human beings or the hardships that they can encounter. This is one of the issues that should be considered because Gaia cannot be viewed as a caring deity. Dying God Myth Myth: Adonis Religion or culture of origin: Ancient Greece How did the god die? It should be noted that Adonis was killed by a boar (Detienne, 1977, p. 67). According to different versions, this boar could have been sent by Artemis, who envied Adonis for his prodigious hunting skills (Detienne). How did the god come back to life? One should keep in mind that at the beginning, Adonis was a human being, but he was resurrected by Zeus on the bequest of Aphrodite. Moreover, he was given the status of a deity. Later, Adonis became the god of desire and beauty (Detienne,1977). He is traditionally associated with Aphrodite (Detienne,1977). Trickster Myth Myth: Coyote Religion or culture of origin: The folk culture of Native Americans What tricks does the trickster pull? Overall, Coyote uses his skills and knowledge to disobey the established rules. For instance, this fictional character steals water from the so-called Frog people and gives it to other living beings. Similarly, he is credited for stealing fire from gods and giving it to people (Moncrieffe, 2012, p. 128). To some degree, he can be compared to Prometheus (Moncrieffe, 2012). The main difference is that Coyote was not punished for this action. However, at the same time, this character can play practical jokes which are not beneficial to anyone. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Do these tricks help humanity? If so, how do these tricks help humanity? If not, what is the purpose of the trickster? ‘ Overall, these tricks help humanity; to some degree, they are critical for the survival of people. This argument is particularly relevant about his theft of fire from deities. However, this trickster also poses challenges for people and creates obstacles that they need to overcome. Thus, Coyote prompts the development of human beings. These are some of the functions that this character performs. Deities and Spirits What are the general characteristics of deities and spirits? Characteristic Example of deity and spirit It should be mentioned that deities and lesser spirits have some behavioral characteristics of a human being. To some degree, they are anthropomorphic. In particular, these deities can become vindictive. For instance, one can mention that Athena turned Arachne into a spider for her disrespectful depiction of gods. Thus, one can say that these deities do not seem to be morally superior to humans. This is one of the points that can be made because it is important for understanding the way in which myths portray supernatural beings. Deities tend to come in conflict with one another. They do not share common goals. For instance, according to Greek mythology, the Trojan War divided the Olympic gods. They supported different sides; moreover, they could even fight one another. Thus, one cannot say that these deities always act unanimously. These entities are not omnipotent or all-knowing, even though their abilities are superior to those ones of human beings. For example, it is possible to mention that Apollo cannot resurrect his friend who dies in the course of an accident. Furthermore, Apollo cannot predict or avert this disaster. Thus, one can say that these entities differ significantly from the so-called Supreme Being that has unlimited powers. Deities and lesser spirits can develop attachments to human beings. In particular, one can mention Calypso, a nymph who falls in love with Odysseus and uses her magic to prevent him from leaving. However, Odysseus eventually escapes her, even despite her pleas. Reference List Detienne, M. (1977). The Gardens of Adonis: Spices in Greek Mythology. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Moncrieffe, K. (2012). Understanding Myths and Legends. New York, NY: Brilliant Publications. Shah, Z. (2012). Anthromorphic Depictions of God: The Concept of God in Judaic, Christian and Islamic Traditions: Representing the Unrepresentable. Boston, MA: MIT.
The industry in which Whole Foods Market operates is very competitive. It is a fact that this firm has managed this competition very well by creating a niche in the market and developing special products for this niche. However, it is important for the management to realize that success is a process that requires an understanding of the prevailing conditions and making relevant changes whenever this is necessary. The environment has been very dynamic due to various changes brought about by various forces. The market is heavily affected by political, economic, social and technological forces which continue to change quite often. According to Kratschmer (2011), technology has changed various factors in the production process, their transportation and marketing strategies. There has also been a change in the political leadership in this country. The changing socioeconomic factors in the United States also have direct impact on the operations of this firm. For the firm to be successful, it must find a way through which it can respond to these forces in a way that would help it become stronger than its competitors in the market. This organization must be able to learn new better ways and identify opportunities in the market by having a system that would relay a feedback about various forces in the market. This paper involves analyzing Whole Foods Market’s feedback loops and organizational learning opportunities. This research study will focus on the reinforcing loop and balancing loop that play off within this firm to enhance its growth. Reinforcing Loop According to Spulber (2007), reinforcing loop mostly take place without the knowledge of the relevant stakeholders. This scholar says that there are some effects that have a compounding impact when they are allowed to take place. Reinforcing loop can have a positive or negative impact on a firm depending on its nature. This scholar says that this effect may start mildly that the management may not realize. It may come to their knowledge when it is too late or when the effect has created massive impact. At Whole Foods Market, this has been witnessed. The growth of market share of this firm may be considered as a reinforcing loop. Whole Foods Market was founded in 1980 by John Mackey. When he started this firm, Mackey did not have a lot of resources to fight the giant firms that had already developed in the market by that time. However, this entrepreneur knew what the market wanted and was determined to offer exactly that. According to Morecroft (2007), it is always more difficult to retain customers than it is to make them have their first purchase. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is because there are cases where a customer would be left with no choice but to make a purchase at the store because of limited choices. Other customers would also be interested in making their first purchase on the basis of their curiosity. However, retaining a customer requires a deep understanding of the market, and the ability of the concerned firm to convince the market that what it offers is the best. The growth of the market share can be attributed to the dedication that the management and employees of this firm had towards satisfying their customers. It was mentioned that a reinforcing loop has a compounding effect. It actually works in the same manner as interest and principal. As the rate of interest increases, so will the principal. The increased interest will be added to the principal who will in turn increase the interest. If this circle is not put to an end, the principal will massively increase. This is the same thing that has been happening with the market share of this firm. At first, Whole Foods Market did not have a solid customer base that it could consider loyal. However, the management did not focus on growing its market share. The management and all the employees focused on offering value to the customers whenever they visited their outlet. The management was keen to understand market needs and offer products which meet their needs. As they did this, a virtuous cycle was being created. A customer who got satisfied with the service of the firm would become a loyal customer of Whole Foods Market. Their loyalty would not stop with making regular purchase at this store. The customers would invite other customers to come and share the thrilling experience at this firm. One of the factors that attracted customers to this firm was their conviction towards delivering products that are healthy to consumers and their insistence on protecting the health of their patients. One customer would invite another, the invited customer would invite another and the chain would continue. Although the management of this firm used advertising to market their brand and product offering in the market, one of the main factors that propelled this firm towards its current success was the evangelism that its customers involved in after making a purchase from its stores. This reinforcing loop effect has also enabled this firm expand rapidly in the European market. This is a confirmation to ABC Company that Whole Foods Market is a firm that is destined for more success in future. We will write a custom Case Study on Analysis of Whole Foods Market’s feedback loops specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Balancing Loop According to Dettmer (2007), balancing loop is always very important towards ensuring that a firm grows in the market. In an organization, growth is only common when the management can set a desired goal that should be achieved within a particular time. Setting a new stated- also referred to as the desired state- involves a number of activities. It always starts by understanding the current state of the organization. It is only possible to set a desired state when the current state is known. When this is done, it would then need the concerned authority to determine the desired state. This would mean that the management would create a gap between the current state and the desired state. When this is done, then there will be the movement from the current state to the desired state in a bid to eliminate the gap created. Several factors have happened within this organization that can trace their development through balancing loop. However, one of the striking factors has been goal setting and the behavior that always accompanies this. There has been a massive controversy over the health effects of genetically modified foods. A section of the market believes that genetically modified foods are very safe for consumption, while the other section believes that such foods are very harmful in the long run. The management of Whole Foods Market has been concerned with this issue. In 2010, the management of this firm started a research into this issue with an aim of coming up with a finding that would help determine the right path that this firm should take. The report was finally compiled on March 2013. In this report, the team tasked with this function first defined the current state of this firm. The team realized that there are some states where Whole Foods Market was stocking genetically modified foods while in others it did not. It all depended on the laws of that particular state and the general perception of the public towards these foods. The next step was to determine the desired state. The team realized that the desired state was not to eliminate the genetically modified foods from their stores, but to label them as a way of alerting the customers that what they are buying is genetically modified. The management realized that for this to be achieved, there had to be a change of attitude of employees towards genetically modified foods. Originally, the firm had created a culture where people within this firm believed that genetically modified food was not good. This attitude had to change in order to achieve a change of behavior of the employees towards this type of food. To achieve this, the management launched an internal awareness campaign to help employees change their behavior towards genetically modified foods. Not sure if you can write a paper on Analysis of Whole Foods Market’s feedback loops by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The desired state was to change the behavior of the employees towards genetically modified foods in order to convince them that these foods could be sold to customers who considered them good for consumption. The only responsibility of this firm would be to inform its customers that they were genetically modified. This change of attitude of the employees has helped this firm achieve its goals in the market. References Dettmer, H. (2007). The logical thinking process: A systems approach to complex problem solving. Milwaukee: ASQ Quality Press. Kratschmer, P. (2011). Organizational Culture is Highly Resistant to Change. New York: GRIN Verlag. Morecroft, J. (2007). Strategic modeling and business dynamics: A feedback systems approach. Chichester: Wiley

Hypertension in Afro-American and Health Laws Essay

Table of Contents Introduction New Approach Toward Policymaking Role of Existing Legislations Three-Legged Stool: Influencing Policymakers Challenges of the Legislative Process References Introduction The issue of the adverse influence of hypertension on the health status of the African American population remains unresolved because of the lack of attention to cultural and ethnic specifics. The health advocacy campaign proposed for managing the issue includes multiple steps that range from the integration of physician-led care teams for helping patients monitor their hypertension to coverage of the problem in the media to attract the support of multiple stakeholders. This means that newly integrated regulations should be put in place in order to address the challenge of hypertension in the African American population. Because the problem is serious and can lead to further complications and contribute to the declining health outcomes of the population, the creation of a new legislation is the most viable solution for enacting the proposed advocacy campaign. New Approach Toward Policymaking It is proposed to introduce a new regulation because of the differences between old and new paradigms within the context of health care. For example, a new regulation is more likely to implement a team approach, make nurses full members of teams, promote coordinated holistic care, focus on patient-centered home health, involve value-based organizations as well as “relevant professionals” that can help patients make informed decisions about their health (Milstead, 2016, p. 6). Therefore, in order to manage the problem of hypertension in African American population, there should be a firm action to support the integration of new policies and regulations that will follow the latest paradigms of healthcare and take into consideration the specific needs of the population group. Role of Existing Legislations The existing regulations on the management of hypertension as a problem are likely to contribute to the proposed campaign through providing a guideline, on top of which new efforts can be built. It is expected that the American College of Cardiology (2017a) guideline for high blood pressure in adults will influence the proposed regulations the most because it includes specific rules on how patients with hypertension should generally be approached, screened, followed-up, what are the most appropriate strategies of drug therapy, as well as how special populations should be treated. Also, it is important to mention that in November 2017, ACC and AHA lowered the definition of hypertension “from 140/90 mm Hg to 130/80 mm Hg […] to account for complications that can occur at lower numbers and to allow for earlier intervention” (American College of Cardiology, 2017b, para. 2). Therefore, when creating a regulation to address the issue of hypertension in African American population, it is important to take into account the recent developments in already existing policies. Three-Legged Stool: Influencing Policymakers In order to influence policymakers to support the implementation of the proposed regulation, extra attention should be given to national nurse groups that can play the roles of advocates for the target population. Since the proposed regulation targets the African-American population, the representatives of this ethnic group from the nursing profession are likely to better communicate the problem that the population faces to relevant policymakers. Cultural and ethnic representation of the target population should be the key strategy for influencing relevant policymakers because the issue has initially appeared from the lack of attention to the specific needs of this group. For analyzing how policymakers will be influenced, it is important to mention Milstead’s (2016) three-legged stool of lobbying model. The first leg implies the act of influencing to make sure against what stakeholders should or should not vote. Influencing in the case of the campaign to manage the problem of hypertension in African American population can be done through getting feedback from real patients on how the condition influences their quality of life as well as what challenges they encounter when seeking care. Learning about the issue from the stories of those who are directly impacted by it will create a better idea of whether the proposed regulation is needed. The second leg is linked to grass roots (indirect) lobbying, which implies the influencing of the public opinion on the legislation and encouraging the general audience to take action. With the availability of such forms of information sharing as social media, the campaign can be lobbied on websites, local forums, Facebook profiles of relevant organizations (e.g., ACC or AHA), and so on (American Heart Association, 2014). Getting the attention of the public will inevitably increase the awareness of the problem and subsequently lead to discussions about the need for introducing a regulation that will address the issue of adverse effects of hypertension on the African American population. The third leg of the lobbying stool refers to the financial contribution targeted at getting the legislative agenda to move forward. Larger organizations such as the American Heart Association or the American College of Cardiology should be involved in the financial support of the proposed regulation. In addition, public funding through charitable donations will also be encouraged because the more financial support the regulation gets, the easier it will be for the involved parties to facilitate its implementation in real life. In addition, strong financial support is especially high on the agenda for the proposed regulation because African American households have lower median incomes compared to other groups as reported by Long (2017) from the Washington Post. Overall, the three-legged model applied to the proposed regulation will take into consideration the key problems that exist in the context of African American health care because the cultural and ethnic needs of the populations remain unaddressed. Challenges of the Legislative Process Within the legislative process, several challenges and obstacles are expected to arise. The first potential obstacle relates to financial support of the proposed regulation because the distribution of governmental funds is significantly limited to the existing regulations and legislation and there may be not enough financial resources to address the needs of the proposed program. The second possible barrier to the implementation of the proposed program refers to the lack of nurses’ education on cultural and ethnic specifics of the African American population as well as why such patients are more likely to be susceptible to adverse risks of hypertension (Ortega, Sedki,

What is the relationship of the self to interactions with the environment through social heuristics?

nursing essay writing service What is the relationship of the self to interactions with the environment through social heuristics?.

Write a paper (1,500-1,750 words) in which you discuss the relationship of the self to interactions with the environment through social cognition, social attention, and social heuristics. Include the following in your paper:A research-based discussion of how the self influences social cognition. What role, if any, is played by self-regulation? What factors affect a favorable self-concept in relationships? Why? (Benchmarks C3.5: Analyze cognitive processes used to understand ourselves and others.)A research-based discussion of how nature and nurture influence cognitive development. How is social cognition influenced by nature and/or nurture? (Benchmarks C3.1: Critically analyze the influence of nature and nurture on cognitive development.)A research-based discussion of how the self influences social attention. What grabs your attention? Why? How do verbal and non-verbal expression influence your attention?A research-based discussion of how the self influences social heuristics. How does the self influence which shortcuts are preferred in a given situation?A discussion of psychometrically sound measures that could be applied in a research study to explore the relationship of the self to interactions with the environment through social cognition, social attention, and social heuristics. What properties of these measures make them reasonable for use in such a research study? (Benchmarks C3.3: Evaluate and identify properties of psychometrically sound measures.)
What is the relationship of the self to interactions with the environment through social heuristics?

Media Rights for Barclays Premier League in Singapore

1. Background Information In 1998, StarHub first introduced the English Premier League to Singapore and has constantly secured broadcasting rights for the past 12 years. During that period, local telecommunications rival, SingTel, has launched their own pay-TV service named mio TV on July 2007, signaling its intention to rival StarHub to be the nation’s main pay-TV provider. In 2008, SingTel made its first step by securing the media rights to the UEFA Champions League and UEFA Europa League from 2009 to 2012. With the rights for these prestigious European football competitions, many StarHub pay-TV customers were forced to sign up with SingTel’s mio TV to satisfy their needs. One year on, in October, SingTel rocked the nation by announcing their victory in the bidding war for the media rights for the English Premier League, which is known now as the Barclays Premier League, from 2011 to 2013. The victory was greeted with dismay from many football fans, as they now have to make the jump from StarHub’s pay-TV over to mio TV to get their dosage of English football. This effectively ended StarHub’s 12-year broadcasting rights of the league, which would certainly result in a fall of subscribers in time to come. 2. Purpose of the Report This report aims to identify the various economic concepts shown in the textbook, and show how they are applicable in the actual business world using the decisions of StarHub and SingTel as examples. 3. The Art and Science of Economic Analysis 3.1 The Economic Problem In the article, it is clearly identified that the resources which led to Starhub bringing in the Barclays Premier League (BPL) to Singapore are human capital and the entrepreneurial ability of the firm. Human capital was shown in the form of knowledge they had on the wants of the locals, and the entrepreneurial ability of StarHub made them realize that they could profit from this project. It was exactly the same two factors that led SingTel to wrestle for the BPL media rights from StarHub. Having observed the huge economic benefits StarHub enjoyed with the monopoly of the BPL media rights in Singapore, SingTel realized they too, would profit hugely from the ownership of the BPL media rights. Thus, SingTel launched a bid to rival StarHub for the rights, which sparked off a bidding war between the two telecommunications firm. Eventually, SingTel earned the rights to broadcast the league’s game for the next 3 years, starting from 2010. 3.2 The Science of Economic Analysis SingTel’s decision to foray into the Pay-TV market and especially, the market for televised sports like soccer is not due to a normative economic statement, or opinion, made by their staff. Instead, it has been based on a positive economic statement, which is backed by concrete facts. The decision to outbid StarHub for the BPL media rights was greeted by the stock market with changes to the share prices of both firms. “StarHub’s price dived 16 cents to a low of $2.01 before closing at $2.03 yesterday. SingTel’s share price rose from $3.25 to $3.31 before closing at $3.28.” (A whole new ball game in pay-tv market, 2009, October) This supports the statement that the local market for the BPL is lucrative, as the stock market has made changes to reflect the expected future gains of SingTel, and the foreseen loss of StarHub. Having said so, the change in the share prices are definitely in response to SingTel’s successful bid, thus eliminating the possibility that the fallacy that association is causation was committed. 4. Economic Tools and Economic Systems 4.1 Three Economic Questions Of course, before the bid was launched, SingTel had to know what to do should they win the bid. Hence, the three economic questions learned in Microeconomics come into play. Firstly, SingTel has identified the broadcasting of Barclays Premier League matches as a service they wish to provide to the nation. Secondly, the launch of mio TV in 2007 paved the way for the bid, with SingTel in the clear that they would use the mio TV as a portal to broadcast programmes, especially the BPL games in the future. With the above two questions answered, SingTel’s ultimate aim was to overtake StarHub as the nation’s leading pay-TV provider. Hence, their target market would be the existing subscribers to StarHub’s pay-TV, and more notably, the huge number of subscribers to the BPL games and other sports programmes. 4.2 Negative Spillover Costs Negative spillover costs have been incurred with SingTel’s foray into the local pay-TV market. This is supported by the article which mentioned that “SingTel’s foray into pay TV – which split the football content which previously all resided with StarHub – actually fuelled soccer fans’ ire. Thanks to competition between the duo, they said, football fans have to sign up for both StarHub and SingTel’s pay-TV services to enjoy all of the matches they had previously received when StarHub was the sole pay-TV player.” (A whole new ball game in pay-tv market, 2009, October) With that, it is clear that the move by SingTel has not gone down well with sports subscribers of StarHub’s pay-TV and has created unnecessary inconvenience. 5. Economic Decision Makers 5.1 The Firm The answers from the three economic questions, namely what service to produce, how and who to produce the service for, reiterates the fact that SingTel is a firm, just like StarHub. Firms are economic units created by entrepreneurs looking to earn money through the combination of the various resources to produce a good or provide a form of service. A more specific term to describe SingTel and StarHub are that they are separate corporations. Corporations are one of the most highly-valued forms of business, often equipped with significant financial power. Funds can be raised quickly through the sale of the corporation’s stocks, which also leads to the company having an array of stockholders. Behind the strong financial wealth are several drawbacks. Firstly, stockholders are unable to have a significant say in the operations of the corporations with their votes making up only a minority. Instead, a board of directors is often entrusted with the job of making corporate decisions with their bigger shares. Corporate income is also taxed twice, resulting in more profits being used to pay taxes. Despite that, corporate incomes are often huge sums of money, and the taxes would not be able to affect it much. 6. Demand, Supply and Markets 6.1 Demand, Supply and Market Equilibrium for SingTel’s mio TV For SingTel’s mio TV, the demand and supply increases by the same value. The increase in demand is attributed to the successful bid of SingTel for the Barclays Premier League’s media rights. With the media rights, SingTel is able to broadcast the BPL games on their pay-TV service. This would cause a significant increase in the subscribers for mio TV as the subscribers want their dosage of BPL football. This is in line with the taste and preferences of the subscribers, which is a determinant of demand. Hence, there will be a rightward shift for demand. The change in supply for SingTel’s mio TV is due to SingTel’s expectations on the future prices of their sports package, which is a determinant of supply. With the hype for the BPL matches present now, it would bring along sales for the sports package. However, in a year’s time, people might be more interested in other sporting events, and the BPL matches would not appeal as much to the public. As a result, SingTel would then have to reduce their prices to increase sales as the sport package would turn into a luxury product, instead of a necessity. This would see a leftward shift for supply. With an identical shift in the demand and supply curve, the equilibrium price will remain the same. 6.2 Demand, Supply and Market Equilibrium for StarHub’s pay-TV For StarHub’s pay-TV, a fall in demand has been observed. This is a result of their failure to continue providing Singapore with the BPL matches on their pay-TV service. As such, consumers desperate for their fix of football decided to make the jump to SingTel’s mio TV due to their taste and preference for the BPL matches. This is the determinant of demand that causes the fall in demand. There is no change reflected in the supply curve as the channels in the sports package are still present. However, the only difference is the removal of the BPL content. Hence, there is no change in supply. As such, the equilibrium price has reduced to account for the fall in demand. 7. Elasticity of Demand and Supply 7.1 Price Elasticity For many Singaporeans, the Barclays Premier League matches are not considered as a necessity to them. Hence, the demand of SingTel’s sports package is more price elastic to the general public. This means that they are very responsive to changes in the price plans for the matches, and would be unlikely to sign up for the package should it be too pricey. However, to the football fans in the nation, it is a content they are not able to live without. Therefore, the demand of the package is less price elastic to them, suggesting they are not responsive to price changes. This indicates that they would be willing to sign up for the package, regardless of the change in price. 7.2 Income elasticity With the nation recovering quickly from the economic recession, as seen from the recent reports stating that Singapore’s economy “expanded at a stunning pace of 19.3 per cent in the second quarter of 2010.” (Singapore economy zooms 19.3% in Q2, 2010, July), the money income of consumers has risen. To them, SingTel’s sports package is a normal good, as compared to StarHub’s sports package, which has been deemed as an inferior good. This is highly due to SingTel’s success in securing the media rights for the BPL games, which allows them to broadcast the BPL games and other related programmes on mio TV. Thus, with the increase in money income of consumers, they would be more willing to purchase the sports package launched by SingTel. 8. Production and Cost 8.1 Costs in the Long Run and Economies of Scale Firstly, the successful bid for the BPL media rights and ESPN Star Sports brought an increase to the amount of channels available for mio TV. This would indicate an increase in the output by SingTel. Next, average cost for SingTel decreases as they would see an increase in subscribers, especially with football fans rushing to sign up for their sports package. This would cover up the cost incurred between q and qa. Lastly, with the increase in customers for SingTel’s mio TV service, they would have to increase their plant size to cater to the increase in demand. The plant size could increase in the form of having more service centers around the island, with more technicians and customer service officers hired to meet demands. This would open up the opportunity to create a more extensive division of labour, reflected from qa to q’. In the long run, SingTel’s decision to take over as the exclusive broadcaster of BPL content would enable them to earn a tidy sum of profit. SingTel was not afraid of suffering losses even though StarHub reported that they “lose money from providing sports content to pay-TV customers.” (A whole new ball game in pay-tv market, 2009, October) They knew that as they were the only pay-TV operator showing BPL content, they would be able to benefit from the media rights with business opportunities coming in from all over the market, including advertising and partnership deals. 8.2 Explicit and Implicit Costs In the case of SingTel, they have incurred both explicit and implicit costs in their decision to outbid StarHub for the BPL media rights. The explicit costs incurred are the money spent on bidding for the exclusive media rights for the Barclays Premier League and the cost of operating mio TV. The implicit costs, also known as the opportunity cost incurred, would be the reduction of their budgets to spend on other genres of programmes. This reduces their ability to bid for other genres of programmes such as primetime blockbusters. 9. Oligopoly – Duopoly 9.1 Barriers to Entry With only two pay-TV operators in Singapore, the oligopoly could be identified as a duopoly. A duopoly is a form of oligopoly where only two dominant players are present in a market. As with all kinds of market structure, barriers to entry are in place to deter additional competition. Firstly, there is a high-start up cost involved to enter the pay-TV industry. With bids starting from six-figure sums, a lack of start-up funds would certainly spell the end of the new company as they would not be able to compete with the financial power of StarHub and SingTel. Secondly, StarHub and SingTel have been around for some time, establishing a reputation along the way. The general public is more accustomed to these brands, and any new entrants to the pay-TV market would find it hard to persuade customers to switch to their service. This is true till they are able to force competition through providing exclusive content that the customers demand or other attractive deals. In the case of SingTel’s mio TV, their original entry to the industry back in 2007 was tough as StarHub was the only established player in the market. SingTel’s mio TV was finally able to garner the support of customers when they secured the rights to the elite European football competitions. Lastly, the new entrants would probably suffer losses early on, as a large output is required before low production costs can be achieved. This is also known as the economies of scale. The economies of scale would not benefit the new entrants as it takes time to establish high economies of scale. This would put them at a disadvantage as they are unable to effectively compete with the other pay-TV providers. 9.2 Price Leadership Price leadership refers to a player in the market that establishes a price for the rest of the industry to abide to. The player that sets the market price is usually one of the forerunners in the industry, and others in the market would follow suit. This is practiced to avoid price competition as everyone’s prices will be kept the same. In the case of SingTel, after they have taken over the media rights for the BPL games from StarHub, pressure was inflicted by the public for prices to remain the same. Fans feared that a change in ownership of the rights would cause a hike in the price for BPL matches, due to the exorbitant bid made by SingTel for the rights. Hence, SingTel agreed to maintain the same price that StarHub used to charge for their sports package, appeasing the public. Thus, price competition was not present in this scenario. $25 million StarHub pay-TV SingTel mio TV Raise Raise Maintain Maintain $25 million $20 million $20 million $20 million $25 million $20 million $25 million9.3 Game Theory SingTel’s huge bid for the Barclays Premier League media rights was not made without any form of theory. Instead, SingTel and StarHub’s bids for the BPL media rights could be represented by the game theory. In the game theory presented above, the figures used are generic as the actual bid was not disclosed to the public. The objective of the game theory is to avoid the worst possible outcome, which in this scenario, is losing the bid for the rights. Hence, neither SingTel nor StarHub would think of maintaining their current bid. This is because if the other party decides to raise their bid, it would effectively rule them out of the competition. Thus, neither side would maintain their bid, ruling out the option of both parties maintaining their bids. As such, the only likely choice would be for both telecommunications firm to raise their bid. The difference was that SingTel decided to raise their bid significantly, which outweighed StarHub’s raised bid with ease. Hence, SingTel obtained the media rights for the Barclays Premier League. 10. Conclusion In conclusion, SingTel has come a long way to achieve its goal of overtake StarHub as Singapore’s dominant pay-TV operator in sports. When SingTel first started, they experienced difficulties attracting customers as they were unable to rival what StarHub was able to offer to its subscribers. It was only when they obtained the broadcasting rights for the UEFA Champions League and UEFA Europa League that football-mad customers decided to make the switch to SingTel’s mio TV. A year ago, SingTel stepped up its attempt to overtake StarHub by outbidding the latter for the BPL media rights for the next three years. Their successful bid enabled them to be the new price leader in the industry, and many football fans from StarHub made the jump from StarHub’s pay-TV to SingTel’s mio TV to get their fix of football. This led to an increase in demand of SingTel’s mio TV, and a fall in demand for StarHub’s pay-TV. Looking at the long term benefits, SingTel’s costs have been reduced due to an increase in the economies of scale, through establishing more service centers and hiring more workers to meet the increased demand. With a huge number of customers making the switch from StarHub pay-tv to SingTel mio TV due to their need for football, it has allowed SingTel to overtake StarHub as the nation’s dominant pay-TV operator in sports.

Pret a Manger Company’s Service Triangle Framework Essay

The Service Triangle Framework is a dynamic model outlining relationships between three interlinked groups: Company, Customer, and Employees. These three parties may engage in three corresponding types of marketing: external (Company and Customer – “making promises”), internal (between Company and Employees – “enabling promises”), and interactive (Employees and Customer – “keeping promises”). A promise stands for customer assurance about the fact that the services offered by the organization will be delivered following the set quality and time standards. The analysis of the business model of Pret a Manger using the framework reveals the following: External marketing. As indicated in the case, the company actively interacts with its target customers, staying informed about their needs and satisfying them when it is possible. Stating that their number one advantage is “quality, speed, and genuineness of service,” Pret a Manger lives up to this promise. First, it provided high-quality food, having no preservatives, artificial flavors, or colors, and prepared on-site. Second, the pricing is reasonable so that a wide range of customers can afford the product. Third, the brand name itself (“ready to eat”) functions as a promotion element. Finally, the product is marketed in the right place, where the customer needs it. Internal marketing. Another strength of the company’s strategy is its HR policy. In order to enable promises made to customers, Pret a Porter hires more employees than needed, which allows minimizing throughput time. Moreover, the turnover rates are remarkably low as compared to other firms from the sector. The concept “by the people, of the people, and for the people” suggests that the organization has a supportive attitude to its employees in all aspects, which is proven by the fact that many of them remain loyal to it even if they did not intend to stay for long. The firm not only shares its goals with the workforce but also gives employees a final say in hiring decisions. Besides, they are provided with training opportunities, bonuses, and even entertainment. The culture is, therefore, communal. Interactive marketing. The service provided by employees of Pret a Manger is famous for its unquestionable excellence, attention, and personal involvement. It is a common case when customers build personal relationships with employees—the latter offer free coffee and pastries to regular clients. What is even more important is that they display friendliness, enthusiasm, and genuine interest in each customer. As far as “twin shops” are concerned, I am against this business model in the form in which it exists at present. The major reason for this is that the policy disrupts external marketing due to the company’s failure to live up to its promise to prepare the food in shops. The customer’s trust is very hard to win and easy to lose. If regular clients feel deceived, they are likely to change their priorities and opt for another fast-food network. Furthermore, losing the on-the-spot element, the chain deprives itself of one of its key competitive advantages. Another problem is connected with the reduced selection of products due to trolley drops. However, the strategy may be made tolerable if the company considers rebranding (making twin store products differently branded than those from mother stores, e.g., Express Food) and provides sufficient proof that the food is fresh regardless of the fact that it comes from the twinning store.