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Music in Context

Music in Context.

Introduction:In addition to understanding music immediately and experientially, an important skill we’ve been working to develop this semester is understanding music in a historical context as an important social and political phenomenon. This last writing assignment will be an opportunity for you to exercise both your research and your critical thinking skills as they relate to music.Word Count:1500 words Goals:Think about a musical genre or form in a historical context, tracing both origin and development Effectively trace a musical genre/form and highlight some of its most important features and characteristic pieces/songs Outcomes:Practice effective writing techniques, using the course grading rubric found in your syllabus and SJSU GE writing expectations as your guide. (If you have trouble with writing mechanics, don’t hesitate to use the SJSU writing center for help and advice.)Utilize critical thinking to shape your thought process and writing.Understand where to find information related to music and its many expressionsFeel prepared to discuss music in a historical and social context and relate music you experience to a broader backgroundInstructions:This is a research paper. You will be spending some time reading in addition to listening and will practice combining your observations with published literature on the genre/form of your choice.First, you will need to select a genre or form! This can be any we have discussed in class. I have attached a list of good candidates below and would encourage you to select from this list. Choose a genre you do not regularly listen to. I don’t want to hear about what you already know, but rather what you learn through your research.Second, you’ll need to develop your essay along two lines. Please cover both history of the genre as well as modern expressions of that genre. For example, if I chose to discuss kabuki as my genre, I would need to both give a brief description of the history of kabuki as well as talk about when, where, and how it is performed today.Third, during your research, you will need to listen to examples of this genre and include a description of the characteristic sounds, instruments, and visuals associated with the genre. Also include a few specific song/piece examples that are significant within the genre with titles and composers names if known. Youtube, Soundcloud, and Wikipedia are good places to start searching for examples of a given genre.Finally, be sure to discuss any political or social implications related to that genre. For example, if I chose to discuss South African rap, I would want to include a discussion of how it is often a vehicle for discussions on race relations, politics, and poverty.Notes on Format and CitationsYour format should be a standard research essay format including introduction, body, and conclusion. Please include your word count in the heading.Citations must be included in this essay and I will lower grades for quotes or ideas left un-cited. When in doubt, cite your source. I do not have a requirement for style (MLA, Chicago, APA…), but you need to be consistent with the style you use. Consider using the style standard within your field of study (I personally use MLA as I am in the humanities).Wikipedia is not a source. If you cite or quote wikipedia, I will lower your grade. However, wikipedia is a great resource. As you are doing your research, check out the sources included at the end of any wikipedia pages you come across, follow those links, and read those sources.I highly encourage a visit to the music librarian at the King Library. Let them know your topic and they will be able to guide you to an excellent number of resources to use and reference. Ideally, start there. Genres/Forms/Styles to ConsiderConcertoOpera (choose an era, eg. Classical, Early Romantic, etc.) LiederSonataSong CycleSymphonyPrepared Piano Theremin and early 20th century electronic instruments Jazz (select a sub-genre, eg. Big Band Swing, New Orleans, Chicago, Bebop, Freeform, etc.)Delta BluesR&BSoulCountryBluegrassEast Coast or West Coast RapInternational Rap (select one country, eg. South African rap, Japanese rap, Brazilian rap, etc.)GrungeHeavy Metal (choose a sub-genre, eg. death, black, symphonic, etc.)DiscoEDM House (choose sub-genre, eg. deep, tropical, trap, etc.)Jamaican Dance HallReggaeCumbiaBachataSalsaMariachiSambaBossa NovaCongolese RumbaWest African HighlifeKlezmerPersian ClassicalHindustani ClassicalCarnatic ClassicalPeking OperaChinese Revolutionary OperaMando-popCanto-popKabukiNohGagakuEnkaPansoriSamulnori
Music in Context

How the evolution in technology has changed the banking industry and will influence banking in the future Technological evolution has immensely changed the banking industry for the last 20 years. At present, one cannot mention banking without technology, as the latter drives the whole system forward. When banks could not handle large volumes of information, they introduced computers (Panwa n.d.). Simultaneously, there was an increasing need to promptly convey the financial information to human resource management and even cut the cheque clearance system. Remarkably, the introduction of computers by the mid-1960s led to decentralization or redistribution of organizations’ duties. Banks use technology in designing new ways of satisfying their customers’ needs. For example, the introduction of Automated Teller Machines (ATM) led to a reduction in the cost of delivering services via other channels like directly at the banking halls. These machines are convenient, safe, and quick in delivering services. Therefore, RBS has improved their customers’ satisfaction in introducing the ATM machines that are; the customers can take their shortest time to access some of the banking services (Watkins 1998). Also, the bank can simultaneously meet the customers’ financial services. On the other hand, RBS reduced its cost of service delivery; for instance, the bank could minimize the constant historical traffic of customers at their branches (The RBS: Here for you 2012). The success in the ATMs usage has encouraged banks to include other technological advancements to help in services delivery, therefore, leading to cost reduction, massive production, and customers’ satisfaction. These other services include mobile banking, telebanking, Internet banking, and call centres. At the call centres, there is a lot of information about banks that customers can access 24/7 through their mobile and telephones. Specifically, the Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS) has introduced several ways by which their customers can bank money efficiently. For instance, in digital banking, customers can manage their money at any place and time of their choice. In mobile banking, customers can access bank services through their Androids, iPads, Blackberry, or iPhones. According to RBS Personal Banking (n.d.), digital banking is accessible 24/7/365, safe and saves time. Moreover, for telebanking at RBS, there is no monthly levy, customers can pay regular bills and have their personal accounts managed at one place. This has helped them ensure high security to their clients and reach close to all their clients at ago. Additionally, the RBS Group has developed mechanisms of making and receiving international payments. This method enables people in foreign lands to help their families and even buy properties. The royal budget is a method of sending small amounts of money, which do not require any agency. Technology has revolutionized the banking sector and the RBS Group in particular. Recently, there was an Information Technology (IT) failure at the bank, which the CEO blamed on constant innovation at the expense of updating the existing systems (King 2009). Therefore, it is evident that the RBS Group has been trying to develop new systems that are secure to increase its customers’ confidence. Although there was a system failure, it is evident that the bank uses more funds in the technological field. The bank worked with the CA Technologies in fixing the issue, which occurred because of a software system upgrade. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the future, the digital revolution will have a pronounced impact on the way banks carry out their activities. Earlier, most banks valued direct interaction with their customers. Still, in the future, this will change, as most customers will be accessing services like loan application through their mobile phones. Through mobile and internet banking, most customers will have their banks in their pockets (Dixon 2002). Consequently, there will be a reduction in the number of employees at the banks, as full digital automation implies no human movement and thought. Banks will adopt new technological applications in mobile devices to increase customers’ satisfaction and interaction. Notably, customers will be able to use live chats with the bank officials in case of inquiries and clarifications 24/7. Also, the use of video conferencing will reduce the travelling cost of bank executives (Marous, 2011). This technological idea will save time and travel budgets, thus increasing efficiency in implementing banking services changes. Customers will continue receiving two-way and real-time service delivery. In summary, the constant technology change will force banks to adjust their management to remain competitive in the future market. The approach of senior management to employees at RBS The Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS) provides a wide range of financial services to over 36 million customers worldwide. Employees of the company are more than 140,000 people across the globe. The group owns over 40 brands in the market including Coutts, Direct Line and Churchill. For the company to provide the first-rate service, it should attract and retain talented people (Kotter 1998). In the face of competition for highly talented people in the job market, RBS stands a higher chance of attracting these talents. This is because it offers exceptional employment opportunities across the globe. For example, RBS offers a variety of career opportunities ranging from bankers, traders, sales customer service, investment, business advisory, IT, marketing, finance, legal, and human resources. Moreover, “jobs at RBS are described in terms of specific job targets. This allows management to gauge individual performance and reward accordingly for targets and objectives set at the beginning of the year” (The RBS: Here for you 2012). These are measured during the year, and employees are paid for results. This reward scheme is a strong motivator in the group, as it encourages individual creativity and proper remuneration on personal efforts. Additionally, the management of RBS has adopted Herberg two-factor theory. This theory puts forward hygiene and motivator factors at the work place. Hygiene factors include salary, job security, working conditions, amongst others. Notably, the absence of these factors causes dissatisfaction, but their presence does not bring higher motivation. However, motivators include achievement, interest in the workplace, and other activities at the workplace. Motivators make customers develop an inward interest for work. RBS balances the two factors to realize superior growth. In view of this theory, employees at RBS are recognized for exemplary work done; management has in cultivated a collective sense of achievement in employees when the business performs well and ensured a favourable environment for work. Finally, employees gain extra responsibility and growth after the regular performance reviews. We will write a custom Coursework on Royal Bank of Scotland and Its Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Also, RBS applies Maslow’s hierarchy of needs in management. This theory argues that a person will try to acquire or satisfy his/her immediate need. When this need is satisfied, he/she moves to gratify a higher-order need. RBS strived to create room for recognition, promotional opportunities and a chance for career growth alongside providing quality meals, secure working environment and encouraged employees’ interactions. This boosted the self-actualization of employees (Armitage 2006). Furthermore, “the management created an opportunity for the employees across the globe to share a common goal and vision” (Treanor 2007). Finally, management created an environment for the employees to improve their self-esteem. Maslow further stated that motivation of employees is not only through money but also through other non-monetary benefits, that is, in self-actualization. The management of RBS embraced this ideology. The “total reward package for employees is made up of non-monetary benefits such as health and medical benefits, paid holidays, confidential advice service, RBS financial products, and flexible pension funding. Further, the company encouraged employees to grow and develop their skills” (RBS axes 9,000 jobs in a bid to cut £2.5bn 2009). They have training and development programs. Besides, employees are encouraged to gain new skills that will make them stand a chance of promotion in future openings. Finally, RBS gives employees a chance to give back to their communities. This is done through various corporate social responsibility schemes, which the company organizes (Business Case Studies LLP: Motivating through total reward 2012). Ways to encourage and maintain employee motivation Motivated workers are very efficient, as displayed at RBS. Therefore, the management of the company should strive to maintain or improve the current level of motivation because it reflects on the output of the organization. In addition to what is already put in place, the management should also consider enhancing team building (Stredwick 2012). The company’s performance has been on a downwards trend in the recent past. This caused the termination of employees and created loss in employees’ confidence since they feel their jobs are not secure (House of Commons Treasury Committee 2009). Sustainable and conservative risk profiles. The Royal Bank of Scotland decided to address its first strategic objective, to serve customers well, by improving the staff that would be working in each local branch. The management left employees who were more interested in communicating with customers in the local branches, whereas the ones that felt more comfortable in carrying out financial procedures were moved to the manufacturing division; they did not have to deal with customers at all. The bank’s HR professionals divided the staff using psychometric tests. In the manufacturing division, the employees had to carry out routine tasks; these tasks included clearing of cheques, the opening of accounts, convey the financial information to the human resource management, and other paper works. The adoption of technology immensely changed the service delivery at RBS; for example, the introduction of Automated Teller Machines (ATM) led to a reduction in the cost of delivering services via other channels like directly at the banking halls. These machines are convenient, safe, and quick in delivering services. Customers can take a short time at their bank branches to get services. ATMs act as alternatives to banks, as customers can withdraw and deposit cash at any time. This has helped the RBS to minimize the constant historical traffic of customers at their branches. Interestingly, the RBS achieved the various strategic objectives, which the management had set. Currently, the Royal Bank of Scotland is among the most successful banks in the UK. For instance, last year, the RBS received the banking award for being the best bank for credit loans, most innovative for loaning services, most innovative for structured finance amongst others. Evidently, technology has revolutionized the banking sector and the RBS Group in particular. Not sure if you can write a paper on Royal Bank of Scotland and Its Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Armitage, J 2006, RBS scoops up Marriotts for £951m. This is Money. Web. Business Case Studies LLP:Motivating through total reward 2012. Web. Dixon, P 2002, Future of banking: new technology impact on corporate banking, Web. House of Commons Treasury Committee 2009, Banking Crisis: Dealing With the Failure of the UK Banks, The Stationery Office, London. King, L 2009 November 6, RBS says technology efficiency will pull it out of £2bn loss, CIO – Chief Information Officer News and Insight. Web. Kotter, J 1998, Harvard business review on leadership: what leaders really do, Harvard Business School Press, Boston. Marous, J 2011. Consumers are increasingly using multiple devices to support banking needs, Web. Panwa, S n.d., Technology
Walden University Public Health Discussion.

I’m working on a nursing discussion question and need a sample draft to help me understand better.

I need to answer to the below post. One community issue that rises to the presidential level is: individuals and family’s access to health care and coverage. Each presidential administration must address this issue by considering the effects their policy will have on the economy and on families. Consideration had to made regarding the coverage of patients with pre-existing conditions and families with low-incomes. Trump, Bush and Obama, all had a different approach to this issue, the results are below: The implementation by President Trump of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act was a concern during the 2016 campaigns. As of January 31, 2017, 12 million newly insured individuals were added to an already strained health-care system (O’Rourke, 2017). The Affordable Care Act (ACA) set new standards for virtually all private health plans, including a prohibition on pre-existing condition exclusions and a requirement for private plans to extend dependent coverage to the age of 26 (Health Reform, 2016). This is significant because young adults that would normally not be covered by their parent’s insurance were now covered during a crucial time in their transition to adulthood. It also allows patients to be covered regardless of their pre-existing condition. The law also established new marketplaces for the sale of nongroup insurance to all individuals except undocumented immigrants, and created new subsidies for nongroup coverage (Health Reform, 2016). Families that don’t have a legal status did not qualify for coverage, and therefore did not have access to care. In return, this leaves many families and children uninsured. Trump would provide a tax deduction for the purchase of individual health insurance. He would promote competition between health plans by allowing insurers to sell plans across state lines; an insurer licensed under the rules of one state would be allowed to sell coverage in other states without regard to different state laws that might apply. He would promote the use of Health Savings Accounts (HSA), and specifically would allow tax-free transfer of HSAs to all heirs. Trump would also require price transparency from all hospitals, doctors, clinics and other providers so that consumers can see and shop for the best prices for health care procedures and other services (Health Reform, 2016). In 2010 President Obama established the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (commonly known as the ACA and Obamacare), a huge first for the United States (Milstead, p 11). Under this act, all people would be required to have health insurance or else there would be a fee at the end of the year. This act especially increased access to care to the most vulnerable patients, such as children and the elderly. Some of the benefits are: Parents can add their adult children (up to age 26) to their plans. If anyone gets sick, the insurance company can’t drop them from the plan or limit how much insurance your family uses. If anyone is chronically ill, a new insurance company can’t deny coverage. Wellness and pregnancy exams are now free. That includes copayments (Amadeo, 2020). Mandating coverage makes the population ensure coverage, but it doesn’t always ensure that coverage is obtained by those who are below the poverty line. Lack of education, and limited resources is still an issue. President Bush blessed the latest thing in American health policy: “consumer directed health care,” also widely and inaccurately known by the acronym HSAs, which stands for “health savings accounts.” The idea is to “empower” “consumers” (formerly “patients”) to function as agents of both quality control and cost control in health care, through two instruments. Americans would be enticed into private health insurance with very high annual “deductibles”—out of pocket payments before insurance kicks in, from $2100 to $10 000 or more per family. Firstly, the approach inevitably delegates most of the expected belt tightening in health care to families in the lower half of the nation’s income distribution, whose decisions on health care are most sensitive to high out of pocket costs. In effect, the proposal seeks to ration health care by income. Secondly, the approach would shift more of the financial burden of health care from the chronically healthy to the chronically ill (Reinhardt , 2006). Although, this HSA comes with tax break benefits, the high out of pocket costs puts a strain on families. This is worrisome for some that will not seek care due to costs. Personally, all of these presidential efforts to improve the populations access to health care and coverage , this issue has not been properly addressed. A lot of times, the most vulnerable are the ones that are left helpless and uninsured. Obama care was the best effort to remedy this problem but still falls short of correcting it. As a health care worker, I believe quality health care should be a basic right. Everyone should somehow have access to care for their health, especially those who have pre-existing conditions. Universal coverage should be a priority of the government in order to assure everyone is covered. I also believe the government should do a better job in regulating health services and medication pricing. The pharmaceutical companies and hospitals should not be allowed to determine pricing to their advantage. Regulations should be placed in order to make sure patients are not over charged from services that they need to stay healthy.
Walden University Public Health Discussion

History of Slavery in Haiti in 1492 when Christopher Colombus Arrived Discussion

History of Slavery in Haiti in 1492 when Christopher Colombus Arrived Discussion.

Research Requirements:Support your research paper with a discussion of quotations and evidence from at least 5 outside sources that are cited using MLA format. More sources would be even better. You can use your research sources to either 1) clarify or support your own position, 2) provide evidence for a counterargument, or 3) show that your paper is valuable because not enough work has been done on your essay topic.Research Paper StructureInstructions: Break your essay into the following sections, each of which is a mini-essay. Skip a line between sections. You will need to decide where to divide paragraphs within each section. No section should look like one long paragraph.Each section shall be a mini-essay with its own title (except for Section 1, which does not need its own title since the title of the whole Research paper comes right before it) introduction paragraph that ends in a thesis, body paragraphs that each discuss only one main idea and start with a topic sentence and end with a concluding sentencing body paragraphs that contain correctly cited information from research sources supporting quotations and other evidence from sources using MLA format a conclusion paragraph.Sections:1) History of Slavery in Haiti (2 pages)2) Origins of Haitian Zombie Myths in Slavery (3 pages)3) Comparison / Contrast of George Romero’s Dawn of the Dead and Haitian Zombie Myths (4 pages)4) Works Cited Page (1-2 pages)Section One: History of Slavery in Haiti (2 pages)Thesis question: How did slavery become instituted and maintained in Haiti, and what are two significant ways slavery impacted the Haitian people on both sides (master and slave).Possible topics include how Haitian slavery began, who the indigenous people and slavers were, what practices allowed slavery to persist, how were slaves treated, economic impact of slavery etc.Make sure to use MLA format for in-text citations and don’t forget to cite all sources on your Works Cited page as wellSection Two: Origin of Haitian Zombie Myths in Slavery (3 pages)Introduction Paragraph: Describe the story of the Haitian zombie myth in detail. Describe the process of Haitian zombification as it is carried out even today.Thesis question: Argue whether or not the Haitian zombie myth originated from and / or mirrored Haitian slaves’ experiences by critiquing historical accounts of the Haitian slave trade and the testimonies of modern day Haitian people who believe they were made into zombies.Required Body Paragraph Evidence: Provide quotations and examples fromUnexplained Podcast Season 4, Episode 8 Part 1 (Links to an external site.) and Part 2 (Links to an external site.) “Death’s Pale Flag.” (Podcast. Transcript available in Modules.) Helpful Resource on GCC Library Reserve: The Serpent and the Rainbow: A Harvard Scientist’s Astonishing Journey into the Secret Society of Haitian Voodoo, Zombis and Magic (Links to an external site.) by Wade DavisSection Three: Comparison / Contrast of George Romero’s Dawn of the Dead and Haitian Zombie Myths (4 pages).Introduction Paragraph:Describe some key US historical events that marked the late 70s’ (when Dawn of the Dead was made). Summarize the story of George Romero’s film Dawn of the Dead (1978).Watch Dawn of the Dead complete film free on Youtube. (Links to an external site.) Make sure you are using Romero’s original 1978 film—not the Zack Snyder remake.Warning: There is some racially offensive language in Dawn of the Dead.Thesis Question: What is one point of similarity and one point of difference in the way George Romero’s Dawn of the Living Dead and Haitian Zombie Myths represent zombies’ relationships with people? In your thesis language, be very specific about what particular aspect of the zombie’s relationships with people you are interested in.In your body paragraphs, you can support your analysis of the film and Haitian zombie myth by bringing up historical events that are relevant.Detailed plot summary of Romero’s Dawn of the Dead (Links to an external site.)Read Deep Focus Review analysis of Dawn of the Dead (Links to an external site.). Works Cited Page (1-2 pages)Be sure to follow MLA format for your Works Cited page.Five reputable sources or more are required. Make sure to also cite all sources on Works Cited page.For help with MLA style in-text citations and Works Cited page, please go to Purdue University Online Writing Lab Style Guide. (Links to an external site.)
History of Slavery in Haiti in 1492 when Christopher Colombus Arrived Discussion

National Business Systems Variations

essay writer free In this essay I will explore how Porter’s diamond model explains the variations in national business systems and comparative economic performance and to what extent other ideas and approaches will be required. Porter introduced the diamond model of national competitive advantage (1990) to explain why a number of countries are more competitive than others and why a number of businesses within the countries are more competitive. The model proposes that the national home base of an industry plays an important role in achieving an advantage on a universal scale. This home base contributes the essential factors that will support the organisations in building advantages in global competition. Japan’s automobile industry and US semiconductor industry have both been linked to Porter’s diamond model in creating unique business systems and gaining competitive advantage over other industries. Porter (1990) identified four determinants in attaining a national competitive advantage he concludes that a combination of the four determinates within a nation has an enormous influence on the competitive strength of the firms located there. Porter (1990) argues that competitive industries take the form of specialised clusters of home based firms. Clusters are correlated through vertical relations such as buyers integrating with suppliers or through horizontal relations through customers, technology, skills, distribution channels etc (Chen et al 2008). These specialised clusters will enable a nation to create business systems which will lead to competitive advantage and economic success. Factor condition is the nation’s position on factors of production that is necessary to compete in a given industry, for example skilled labour or infrastructure. These national factors often provide initial advantages for the nation. Each nation possesses particular factor conditions that are more favourable. For example, Japan’s large pool of engineers is reflected by the number of engineering graduates. These engineering graduates have been essential to Japan’s success in variety of manufacturing industries. Porter (1990) points out that these factors don’t have to be nature made or inherited. Home demand conditions can influence the creating of specific factor conditions which can affect the direction of the innovation and advancement of product development. Porter argues (1990) that home demand rests upon three major characteristics. First the mixture of customer’s needs and wants. Second the demanding buyers in the home base will pressure companies into meeting high standards. For example Japanese consumer’s value space-saving gave the nation a lead in compact products and America’s long distances have led to competitive strength in very large truck engines. Third, an industry will have an advantage in market segments which are more important at home than elsewhere. In each of these instances, it is not the size of the home market that is important, but the extent to which it encourages firms to innovate. A large home market which meets all three conditions will be highly supportive of international competitiveness (Davies and Ellis 2000). A related and supporting industry is when one globally successful manufacturing company can create advantages in other similar manufacturing companies. A nation industries will be better able to compete internationally if there are ‘clusters’ of industries in the home base economy which are linked to each other through vertical or horizontal relationships amongst suppliers, customers and distribution channels. For example Germany has a cluster in chemicals and USA in the semi-conductor industry. Dyer (1994) found in his research that the Japanese network relationships with their suppliers can enable the company to send their workers to assist customers with the work, position the factory near the customers or even invest in physical assets that are customised. This will therefore allow the Japanese’s auto businesses to keep up with the inventory and transportation costs low enabling them to improve the product development. For example Toyota was able to benefit from their production networks as they created assembly factories that are geographically close with their suppliers. The firm structure, strategy, and rivalry are the conditions governing how businesses are shaped, managed and deal with domestic rivalry in a nation. The cultural factors are important for each nation. For example each country will have different cultural traits in which the business is structured. This will create benefits for each nation and industry. In Japan the automobile industry rivalry is strong, has seven major companies: Toyota, Honda, Nissan, Mitsubishi, Suzuki, Mazda, and Subaru which all fight for the market share. These seven businesses compete intensely in the home nation, and within other nations and markets. Strong domestic competition demands all these businesses to have superior technologies, products, and management practices to compete and survive, for example there is high number of engineers in management that emphasis on improving manufacturing processes. The US has only two main businesses in automobile industry which are Ford and General Motors. The US manufactures have stated that the quality of the automobiles of Japanese cars is better than the US cars. Toyota and other automakers in Japan were able to grab 25% of the US auto market industry while the US home producers for the cars were unable to compete with the Japanese price and on the quality of the product (Buffa 1984). In addition to the four conditions, Porter (1990) points out two important components which are the role of chance which are important as it allows nations to shift their competitive position and alter the conditions of the diamond model. Chance events have different impacts on nations for example the oil shock helped to upgrade Japanese industry (Porter 1990). The role of the government is an important influence on modern international competition. The governments can put forward the policies a nation should follow to create advantages, enabling the industries in a nation to develop a strong competitive position globally. For example the government policy for Japan and US has created success for these nations. According to Porter (1990) governments can progress the advantages by ensuring there is high potential of product performance, ethical standards, or encouraging reasonability and negotiation between the suppliers and buyers on a domestic level. For example the US governments gave large support in semiconductor industry in focusing on specific products that meet consumer demand for example the missile system in the US national security. Nations can use Porter’s (1990) diamond model to identify which businesses systems they can build to generate a competitive advantage and compete with others nations globally. The Japanese have considerable advantages in Porters diamond factors. The semiconductor manufacturing and software services are key industries that have contributed greatly to US growth and productivity in the 1970s. Okimoto, Sugana and Weinstein (1984) research found that the US businesses were able to obtain competitive advantage in key industries such as steel, automobiles and consumer electronics. These businesses had the ability to set the standards of each industry, create new technology and control shares of the world market. The markets and industries that Japan have chosen or created a competitive advantage are the autos, steel, motorcycles, cameras and small appliances. The success of Japanese automobile industry is due to the close relationships with their suppliers. For example both Toyota and Nissan are able to work closely with their supply production network to produce ‘high quality’ cars; this gives the Japanese manufacturers an advantage over the US automakers (Dyer 1994). Research found on Numakura (2004) article has shown that the Japanese automobile companies have greater higher profit margins than the American companies. This is because the Japanese production systems such as Just in time (JIT) and Kaizen have enabled the industry to increase their productivity and cost reduction. Compared to US, rather than having a close relationship, the businesses are more likely to influence their supplier by a number of strategic polices (Buffa 1987). In the 1970s the Japanese had labour cost advantages, strong networks of suppliers, very demanding consumers which enabled them to gain competitive advantage over other nations. However Porter (1990) underplays the role of history, late development theory, globalisation, culture and managerial enterprise in determining the competitive advantage. As a result of defining the problem incompletely, he offers an incomplete solution (O’ Shaughnessy 1997). This shows other approaches are required to explain various business systems and comparative economic performance in nations. Gerschenkron (1962) theory on late industrialisation could be another approach to Porter’s theory to explain the economic performance of a nation. The theory shows how Japan as a nation was able to go through a period of rapid growth during 1951-1990 that helped them to compete globally. Japan’s economy boosted after the US declined as in the 1970s the Japanese companies was able to replace the US leaders in key industries. The production and operation management enabled the Japanese industries to become a competitive nation. This was done through their production systems and manufacturing products at a low cost. The Japanese companies were able to do this by offering the consumers good quality products at cheap prices. Table 1 (Capdevielle

BA405 Week 8 Final Exam

BA405 Week 8 Final Exam.

1. How should an HR department evolve to match a company’s expansion overseas? Which leadership roles are most important in this scenario?2. In your opinion, what are the biggest challenges facing MNC’s in today’s economy and why? Allow for political, technological, and economic challenges.3. Characterize the future of US-based companies desiring to expand overseas within the next 5 years. What political, economic, and technological challenges might those companies face and why? How can they be overcome?4. Which of the cross-cultural themes discussed in Chapter 4 do you feel is most vital to the success of an MNC and why? 5. Why is it useful to have an 8-step negotiation model? What are the consequences if a step is skipped?
BA405 Week 8 Final Exam

Single Nucleotide Polymorphism

SHREEVANI RAJ REDDY INTRODUCTION The aim of genetic research is to understand the role of genetic variation. In humans, the most common type of genetic variation involves single DNA bases, and is termed as single nucleotide polymorphism. DNA polymorphism involves one of two or more variants in a particular DNA sequence and Variation at a single base pair of DNA sequence results in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs). SNPs are the most common type of genetic variation among people; each SNPs represents a difference in single nucleotide. On average they occur once in every 300 nucleotide which means there are roughly 10 million SNPs in the human genome. These variations are commonly found in the DNA between genes. SNPs accounts for much of phenotypic diversity among individuals. In the human genome the half of the known coding region SNPs lead to change in the resulting amino acid sequences and other half do not, these are called synonymous SNPs. Synonymous SNPs encode change in the DNA sequence without altering the resultant protein sequence, these silent SNPs assumed as inconsequential, however these synonymous SNPs represent genetic marker for functional molecular alterations with which they are in linkage disequilibrium. These SNPs alters the function of gene and phenotype by various mechanisms such as altering protein folding, mRNA binding or by affecting splicing of mRNA; stability and expression of mRNA. These SNPs can act as biological markers (also known as gene marker), therefore helps to locate gene that are associated with disease. Researchers found that SNPs may help to predict an individuals response to certain drugs and susceptibility to environmental factors such as toxins and risk of developing particular disease. SNPs with sufficient technological solutions can enable the mapping of disease genes involved in complex disorders. One of the examples of mapping disease associated with SNPs is Alzheimer’s disease. GENETIC VARIATION Genetic Variation is defined as, variation of genomes between groups of species as a result of genetic mutations or genetic drifts. In all living organisms, the genetic material is made up of same basic components, called nucleotides. Each nucleotide contains one of four nitrogenous bases – A (Adenine), G (Guanine), T (Thymine), C (Cytosine). These 4 building blocks are linked together to form long chains, the sequence of which then codes for various proteins and gene products. The DNA sequence collection and organization is specific for each species, and is called a genome. On average, two humans share 99% genetic identity, although the majority of differences in DNA sequence (genotype) do not result in noticeable physical change (phenotype), the few that account for the diversity in human population are height, eye, skin,

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