Get help from the best in academic writing.

Moral Hazard in the Companies Essay

Table of Contents Aligning Interest Variable Payment Attitude towards Risk Investment in Location Length of Tenants Lease Comparison of Tenants One of the potential ways in which the company would be subject to moral hazard comes in the form of not fully complying with the duties of being a landlord. This comes in the form neglecting to properly maintain the mall for potential customers of the tenants. Aligning Interest A variable payment scheme aligns the interest of the landlord and tenant through the process of percentile gain. Basically, the more sales a tenant has, the greater the amount of money the landlord generates. As such, it is in the interest of the landlord to support the tenant since this would result in higher profits for the landlord in the long term. In the case of the tenant supporting the landlord, it should be noted that the variable payment scheme ensures that the mall itself is serviced and maintained properly by the landlord since that is where a percentage of the payments would go towards. This ensures that the mall continues to be a viable investment for the landlord in the long term. Variable Payment When looking at the case and the various factors associated with the sale of goods and services, it is advisable that a gross revenue scheme be chosen. The reason behind this is that the mall operator will have a vested interest in ensuring the tenant will make money whereas under the net revenue option there is the potential moral hazard that the landlord would just collect payments without implementing any form of support since whether or not the tenant makes money does not impact them in the least. Attitude towards Risk Variable payment should increase or decrease based on the landlord’s perception regarding the risk associated with the type of tenant renting. Anchor tenants in malls (i.e. McDonalds, Starbucks, etc.) can be deemed as being low risk and should have a low variable payment rate. While small independent stores that are relatively unknown are thus more risky (i.e. fewer people may buy) and, as such, should have a higher variable payment rate. This is also because another more famous tenant could have rented the same space. Investment in Location Not all locations are created equal within a mall with some areas generating lower levels of foot traffic as compared to others. As such, giving a lower rate for certain areas is advisable so as to ensure fairness when it comes to rental management practices. One of the ways in which this can be accomplished would be to retain the standard of 1% of the client’s gross revenue while reducing the fixed monthly rate of $35 – $38 to $25 – $28 for areas with lower foot traffic. Length of Tenants Lease The average length of a tenants lease should be two years at most. This is due to the fact that the landlord may need to change the contract agreements to better align with increased costs due to inflation (i.e. increase the fixed monthly payment). Also, a length of two years would be viable for tenants since it ensures that they are not locked into a lengthy contract wherein they lose more money than they gain due to a lack of product patronage. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Comparison of Tenants When looking at the various malls, it can be speculated that the types of tenants for the IMM Building would be tenants that are looking for an area with a large square footage for their store along with sufficient warehouse space for their products. These are all factors that can be seen in the IMM building due to the 1,426,518 square feet available for retail. Some possible tenants would be big box stores such as Home Depot or various furniture retailers like Ikea. Centrepoint Properties would attract smaller independent retailers due to the fixed monthly rental charges which would enable them to price their products competitively. The mall developed by Maple Tree investments would attract more mid to high end restaurant tenants given its proximity to the central business district of Singapore which would result in many office workers going there for lunch or dinner.
Furnished cages and free-run systems are familiar with artificial housing environments for poultry. The two systems differ in the way they cater to regular feeding/foraging, nesting, perching, and dust bathing, which are essential for the welfare of poultry. The Peach Farmhouses 20,000 laying hens in cages (40 birds per cage) while the Olive Farm is a free run system with 10,000 chickens in a divided hoop barn (5,000 hens in each half). In the context of animal welfare, both systems meet the behavioral needs of the birds to varying degrees. Comfort feeding or foraging is a natural behavior of all birds. In the Peach Farm, the chain feeders are placed at a lower position than the average height of the hens. One bird can be seen straining its neck to reach the feeds, a scenario that has the potential of causing injury and abnormal feather pecking. In their study, Weeks and Nicol (2006) found that the absence of suitable feeders and foraging litter in conventional battery cages increases the risk of abnormal feather pecking. Ideally, hens spend half of their time feeding and foraging. However, in the Peach Farm the time spent feeding at the feeder is less than 50% of the 16 h light period. In contrast, feeding and foraging take over 50% of the 16.3 h light period of the Olive hens. Therefore, the raised feeders, nibble drinkers, and forage litter at the Olive Farm promote comfort feeding of the chickens than the low-level Peach feeders. Additionally, the abnormal feather pecking caused by the low-level feeders may account for the significantly higher mortality at Peach Farm (2.4%) than at the Olive Farm (0.8%). Perching and roosting is another essential behavioral need for hens. In the Peach Farm, the floor on the cages consists of wire and steel bars, which may hinder comfortable perching. In addition, the perches provided are more congested (12.4cm per hen) than those in Olive Farm (15cm per hen). Thus, there is a likelihood of pushing and aggression in the Peach Farm. Scientific literature shows that if the perch space is insufficient, birds are likely to display frustration because the intrinsic urge to perch or nest is thwarted by overcrowding (Knierim, 2006). Furthermore, abnormal feather pecking and aggression often arise in a crowded perching/roosting space. From the slides, the laying hens in the Peach Farm become flighty and huddle in a corner when a person approaches. In contrast, the Olive hens are less freakish and do not fear people probably because sufficient perching space reduces their anxiety and restlessness (Donaldson and O’Connell, 2012). Therefore, if the perch space is sufficient, as in the Olive Farm, the hens are less likely to be flighty and fearful of people. The lack of substratum litter in cages is repressive to the hens’ urge to dust-bathe. Experimental evidence shows that the availability of a dusty substratum stimulates the urge to dust-bathe, which is a gratifying activity for birds (Olsson and Keeling, 2005). In contrast, the littered floor in the Olive Farm is expansive, giving Olive hens a larger substratum to dust-bathe than the Peach hens (45cm by 45cm per 40 hens). Additionally, the small cage space may limit the hens’ ability to move around, which could explain the high risk of injury due to cage trauma recorded at the Peach Farm. On the other hand, the spacious Olive barn stimulates the urge to fly, which increases the risk of injury due to flying collisions. However, the large hoop barns may give the hens enough room to engage in comfort activities such as stretching and wing flapping. Comfort behavior is restricted in a cage environment. Valkonen, Valaja, and Venalainen (2005) explain that activities such as preening and flapping of wings maintain the feathers in a healthy state. The spacing in the Peach Farm cages (660cm2 per hen) may be insufficient for hens to do simple movements. Furthermore, the limited floor space coupled with the high frequency of abnormal feather pecking may account for the high average feather score (2.9) of the Peach hens. From the pictures in the slides, it is clear that the back feathers of the Peach hens are diminishing while those of the Olive hens are thick and healthy probably because they have enough space to engage in comfort activities. This observation shows that the free-range system offers a more comfortable environment than the cage system. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A confined environment also limits the birds’ ability to exercise, which is crucial in improving bone structure and strength. Yue and Duncan (2003) found that the limited space in cages impedes free movement that essentially strengthens the muscles and bones via the dynamic loading process. In this study, up to 24% of the caged birds culled at 72 weeks had fractured bones. This problem is also observed in the Peach Farm where 18.1% and 31% of the surveyed poultry suffered from hyperkeratosis and twisted/broken keel bones. In light of this finding, it is fair to conclude that hens require more space than the one provided in cages. However, hens temporarily prefer smaller spaces when nesting (Fraser and Duncan, 2008). In this respect, the Peach Farm’s 60 by 55cm may be more preferable to the large nesting area of 110cm2 per hen in the Olive Farm. Exploratory behavior is common among birds. Birds tend to be inquisitive of their surroundings, a trait that helps them identify a suitable site to perch/roost or nest. Research shows that environments that deprive hens of the opportunity to explore their surroundings affect their psychological well-being because exploratory behavior lies “at the core of avian physical existence” (EFSA, 2005, p. 33). In the Olive Farm, the hens spend most of their time foraging for feeds from the litter, which is an environmental challenge that quells their primal instinct to search for food. In contrast, the chickens at the Peach Farm obtain their nutrition from the chain feeders. Knierim (2006) explains that hens continue to explore for food or nesting sites even when such resources are provided. Thus, the cage environment at the Peach Farm may suppress the natural exploratory behavior of the hens, which may affect their psychological well-being. On the other hand, the free-range system at the Olive Farm is enriched with various stimuli, including litter and dust-baths, which appeal to the natural tendency of chickens to explore and manipulate their environment. The hens have the opportunity to investigate the litter for feeds, perch on the superstructure of the hoop barn, and choose a nesting site from a range of options. The variable environment matches the intrinsic desire to explore and interact with different objects. The engaging environment in free-range systems reduces the frequency of feather pecking and improves the hens’ quality of life (Fraser and Duncan, 2008). In the slides, the Peach Farm hens engage more in feather pecking than the Olive Farm chickens probably due to the lack of exciting stimuli in the cages. In conclusion, evidently, the free-range system in the Olive Farm is better for the welfare of the laying hens than the cage environment of the Peach Farm. Overall, the Olive Farm appeals to the psychological and behavioral needs of laying hens, such as comfort feeding, perching, dust-bathes, exploration, and exercising, more than the Peach Farm does. References Donaldson, C.J., and O’Connell, N.E., 2012. The influence of access to aerial perches on fearfulness, social behaviour and production parameters in free-range laying hens.. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 142: 51-60. EFSA, 2005. Scientific report on the welfare aspects of various systems for keeping laying hens. European Food Safety Authority, London, p. 33. Fraser, D. and Duncan, I.J., 2008. Pleasures, pains, and animal welfare: Toward a natural history of affect. Animal Welfare, 7: 383-396. We will write a custom Essay on Laying Hens Farm: Peach Farm and Olive Farm specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Knierim, U., 2006. Animal welfare aspects of outdoor runs for laying hens: a review. Wageninhen Journal of Life Sciences, 54: 133-145. Olsson, I.A. and Keeling, L.J., 2005. Why in earth? Dustbathing behavior in jungle and domestic fowl reviewed from a Tinbergian and animal welfare perspective. Applied Animal Behavior Science, 93: 259-282. Weeks, C.A. and Nicol, C.J., 2006. Behavioral needs, priorities, and preferences of laying hens. World’s Poultry Science, 62: 296-307. Yue, S. and Duncan, I.J., 2003. Frustrated nesting behavior: relation to extra-cuticular shell calcium and bone strength in White Leghorn hens. British Poultry Science, 44: 175-181. Valkonen, E., Valaja, J. and Venalainen, E., 2005. The effects of dietary energy and perch design on the performance and condition of laying hens kept in furnished cages. Institute of Genetics and Animal Breeding, Lublin, Poland. pp. 91-103.

Which statement is most true about glaciers? They are found on every contine

Which statement is most true about glaciers? They are found on every contine.

Which statement is most true about glaciers?

They are found on every continent except Australia.

They are found only in polar areas.

They are found only in mountainous areas of the northern hemisphere.
Which statement is most true about glaciers? They are found on every contine

Critically evaluate two theories of aggression

essay writer Critically evaluate two theories of aggression. There are three types of aggression. Hostile aggression is to do something aggressive and get some sort of satisfaction from it, such as, planning someone’s murder or robbing a bank. You get some sort of emotional reward from it. Instrumental aggression is basically to act in an aggressive way but without aiming to hurt the target, such as, fighting for survival in a war. Relational aggression is behaviour that is intended to damage another person’s peer relationships, such as spreading rumours. The two theories of aggression, I have been focusing on, have both been subject to controversy since they were carried out; the ethics, relevance and reliability of the studies have been questioned. The first study I am going to evaluate is the Frustration-Aggression theory (Dollard, Miller and Doob et al 1939). This theory is based on the opinion that all aggression comes from frustration and that all frustration leads to aggression. For this hypothesis to be plausible, the definition of the word ‘frustration’ needs to be very broad. An example of the Frustration-Aggression theory would be, if your boss have mistreated you at work and told you that you’re not pulling your weight at the company (when you believe you are), and there was nothing you could do because they’re the boss, and you’re the employee. Later, you meet your friend for lunch, and your friend talks about how good their day has been so far, and you suddenly stand up off your chair, it falls back, and you start yelling at your friend about how selfish, and full of themselves they are. This shows that you have been frustrated from the situation at work with your boss, and then you become even more frustrated when you find out that your friend is having a far better day than you and you can’t keep it in any longer so you release aggression in the form of shouting in a loud voice. To a certain extent this theory is relatively acceptable as it is easy to understand how it was come up with as we’ve all been frustrated and tried to release the tension/feelings that are caused by it in whichever way you choose to express it, whether it’s verbally- such as yelling) or physically- such as punching a wall. However, the theory implies that all aggression is caused by frustration, whereas I know in certain cases this is not the case. For example, if a family member or close friend dies, you are obviously very upset and you may need to release your feelings in an aggressive way such as shouting, to ultimately calm you down. If you think about that situation closely, you could say that the depression has actually come from being frustrated that you cannot see a person you love again, which has ended up in you using aggression to cure the frustration that has developed inside you. A weak link in the Frustration-Aggression theory is that the fact that the theory doesn’t take into the consideration that everyone is different. It states that ALL frustration leads to aggression, no matter what kind of person you are. It is true that I have come across people in my life who do need to release some sort of aggression when they become frustrated and I understand where Dollard, Miller and Doob were coming from when they published this theory, but I for one do not become aggressive every time that I become frustrated. I can think of a couple of occasions where I have been frustrated and not had to scream at the top my voice or know down a brick wall with my fists, such as missing the last bus home and having to call a taxi instead, costing me 10 times the price I would have paid if I had gotten to the bus station 30 seconds earlier than I did! Another example could be the time I pulled my hamstring in the warm up before the first game of the 2002/2003 football season, I ended up missing the first 11 games of a 29 game season. There are two examples I have been frustrated and not acted in an aggressive way afterwards. Maybe those two examples aren’t times when I have felt frustrated… What if they are just times when I have felt the feeling of annoyance… ‘the feeling that accompanies an experience of being thwarted in attaining your goals’ Frustration [] ‘the psychological state of being irritated or annoyed’ Annoyance [] The definitions show that there is a very fine line between feeling frustrated and feeling annoyed which makes it very difficult to make out if you can be feel one or the other or that they come hand in hand with one another. If you are able to feel frustrated without being annoyed, then I would believe that frustration is a step further than being annoyed, in which case it would be very difficult to tell when you are suffering from the feeling of frustration and when you have the feeling of annoyance. If this is the case than the theory is a lot more valid and actually makes me wonder whether I have yet to suffer from frustration, and if that were to be the case, it is understandable why I have not been very aggressive in my life. On the other hand, if frustration and annoyance come hand in hand with one another, the theory starts to lose its validity as I have felt the feeling of annoyance and not acted aggressively afterwards. The main problem with this theory is the fact that there are no experiments that prove it. The closest study was one which involved members of the public standing in line waiting to enter a room and a man was instructed to cut in front different people at different points in the que. The findings from the study were that people that were further forward in the line showed greater signs of aggression than those further back. The validity of this in terms of relation to the theory is very low and the fact that this is the closest study that relates to the theory means that the reliability should be questioned. Another problem is determining what frustration actually consists of. The second theory that I am going to look at is the Social Learning Theory, Bandura 1973. This theory was brought about due to people questioning how people learn to be aggressive in the first place. “Learning would be exceedingly laborious, not to mention hazardous, if people had to rely solely on the effects of their own actions to inform them what to do. Fortunately, most human behaviour is learned observationally through modelling: from observing others one forms an idea of how new behaviours are performed, and on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action.” Albert Bandura, Social Learning Theory, 1977 An example that would fit into Bandura’s theory would be; a young child aged 7, lives in an environment where he often hears a couple shout and hit one another. The next day he goes to his football match and yells at another young boy and pushes him over in the mud. This shows that children don’t just only learn how to talk and walk through imitation of adults, but they also learn aggressive motions too. There had been a lot on controversy in a study, in 1961, which Bandura carried out whilst developing this theory, such as, was it ethically acceptable to allow such young children to be subject to witnessing violent behaviour, whether or not a bobo doll was a valid substitution for another human being and of course whether the reasoning for hitting the doll was just because it looked fun! Bandura had 2 young adults (models) show aggressive behaviour towards a bobo doll. The aggressive actions were seen by 72 young children, 36 of each gender. Once they had witnessed the event, the adults left the room and the children were then left to play. In the play room, of course, were several observers with clipboards and pens in, a brand new bobo doll, a few little hammers and as well as other less attractive toys. Most of the children imitated the adults without rewards. Bandura ended up doing many variations on the study such as; Models were rewarded or punished in a variety of ways. Kids were rewarded for their imitations. Models were changed to be less attractive or less prestigious, and so on. Responding to criticism that bobo dolls were supposed to be hit He even did a film of a model hitting a real clown. When the children went into another room, there was another live clown… They proceeded to punch him, kick him, hit him with little hammers, and so on. All these variations allowed Bandura to establish that in order for effective modelling to take place the following conditions must occur: Attention – various factors increase or decrease the amount of attention paid. Includes distinctiveness, affective valence, prevalence, complexity, functional value. One’s characteristics (e.g. sensory capacities, arousal level, perceptual set, past reinforcement) affect attention. Retention – remembering what you paid attention to. Includes symbolic coding, mental images, cognitive organization, symbolic rehearsal, motor rehearsal Reproduction – reproducing the image. Including physical capabilities, and self-observation of reproduction. Motivation – having a good reason to imitate. Includes motives such as past (i.e. traditional 4behaviourism), promised (imagined incentives) and vicarious (seeing and recalling the reinforced model) [] However, it is hard to know whether without children hearing/seeing aggressive behaviour, if they are still able to show aggression as I am unable to know whether or not a child has been subject to aggressive content. If we presume a child has not been involved in hearing/seeing any aggressive behaviour, would the outcome of this situation still occur..? Two young children are at playschool and one is playing with a toy that the other wants to play with, so the other child snatches the toy but the other child tries to keep it by pulling it back towards him/her making the other child fall over… In my opinion I still believe this would happen if the child had not witnessed any aggressive activity in their life, which leads me to question whether or not the Social Learning Theory is 100% accurate. The theory itself, in many people’s opinion is that it is one of the most important in recent history. This is because the theory actually makes a lot of sense because we all know that young children copy their adults to learn skills such as walking, talking and eating- so why not aggression? This makes the theory highly viable. To conclude, I believe that the Social Learning Theory is the theory that most successfully explains behaviour. The Frustration, Aggression Theory is an interesting angle to take too, but ultimately, I feel because I believe that there are other ways of becoming aggressive other than frustration, such as depression and annoyance; Bandura’s theory is more accepted. I also feel that it is possible to be aggressive when you are just angry, it is a normal human emotion that you can show without feeling frustrated and should be looked upon that way. Bandura’s Social Learning Theory is, in my opinion, very valid and reliable, due to the fact that children can imitate many things from learning to ride a bike, to leaving the vegetables on the side of their plates if an elder sibling does the same- so why not aggression. This was proved during the bobo doll experiment, and even though the study does have its flaws, I believe it still gives a good impression on how prone children are to copying their elders to learn the many behaviours there are in human life. Critically evaluate two theories of aggression

MGT 311 SEU Circular Economy Business Models and Operations Management Questions

MGT 311 SEU Circular Economy Business Models and Operations Management Questions.

Instructions – PLEASE READ THEM CAREFULLY The Assignment must be submitted on Blackboard (WORD format only) via allocated folder.Assignments submitted through email will not be accepted.Students are advised to make their work clear and well presented, marks may be reduced for poor presentation. This includes filling your information on the cover page.Students must mention question number clearly in their answer.Late submission will NOT be accepted.Avoid plagiarism, the work should be in your own words, copying from students or other resources without proper referencing will result in ZERO marks. No exceptions. All answered must be typed using Times New Roman (size 12, double-spaced) font. No pictures containing text will be accepted and will be considered plagiarism).Submissions without this cover page will NOT be accepted.
MGT 311 SEU Circular Economy Business Models and Operations Management Questions

ENG 102 Module 4 SLP/Case

ENG 102 Module 4 SLP/Case. I’m trying to learn for my English class and I’m stuck. Can you help?

Note: Module 4 SLP should be completed before the Module 4 Case.
Prepare a rough draft for the essay assigned for the Module 4 Case. Prepare a References Page for the essay assigned for the Module 4 Case.
Module 4 Case is a Persuasive essay in which the writer encourages the reader to give in some way to a worthy cause. The writer must first select a licensed not-for-profit organization with a web presence before identifying a specific audience and appeal(s). Please note that giving comes in all shapes and sizes and not just financial contributions.
A significant part of persuasive writing is appeal. Various appeals in your essay may be used to encourage your target audience to act. It may be helpful to imagine you’re writing a persuasive speech in which you must capture your audience’s attention, reel them in with specific details (and appeals), and then seal the deal with the close in which you leave them with a lasting impression.
As always, a well-organized essay has a beginning, middle, and an end. The beginning, or introduction, should include an opening sentence to grab your reader’s attention. Follow the opening sentence with a brief background on the organization or cause. The last sentence of the introduction is the thesis statement. The thesis statement would likely be the ways in which your reader can “give.”
A well-supported essay includes supporting points, details, and examples. For this essay, you must decide the best way to organize the body of the paper. Each body paragraph must have a topic sentence that states the main point of the paragraph. Perhaps each paragraph could explain in detail the specific ways to give.
This essay must include no less than FOUR SOURCES (the organization’s website may be one).
This essay must include no less than EIGHT citations and should be a combination of direct quotations and paraphrased quotations with or without the author’s name.
Please note that copying information word-for-word from a website is plagiarism. It is important that you use the information and cite accordingly. Plagiarism is a serious offense and grounds for failure. Please ask any questions before submitting questionable work.
The conclusion typically summarizes the main points of the essay and/or closes with a lasting impression. This might be a great place to explain to your reader the value of giving as well as provide contact information to get involved.
The essay must also include a Reference List that includes the website used (as well as others, if applicable)
Papers must be double-spaced in Times or Times New Roman font (12 cpi) with standard one-inch margins.
While the first person “I” is not typically used in a formal essay, it may be used if you have a personal connection to the organization as credibility can be an effective tool in persuasion.

Write a persuasive essay (no less than SIX pages in length) that encourages the reader to “give.”
Demonstrate the ability to make and support a Persuasive claim in a well-supported, organized, and cohesive essay.
Demonstrate an understanding of audience appeals and the ability to use appeals effectively in persuading the reader

ENG 102 Module 4 SLP/Case