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Module 3 Critical Thinking

Module 3 Critical Thinking. I’m trying to study for my Business course and I need some help to understand this question.

If you selected Google Cloud for your Portfolio Project, create a free trial account for Google Cloud and review the resources at Build What’s Next (Links to an external site.). Then complete the following:

Provide screenshots that verify the creation of the trial account.
Create a project under the exercise portion of Linux Academy.
Create a one-page summary that discusses lessons learned regarding the creation of a Google cloud account and the ease-of-use of the product.
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Compile all components of this assignment into a single Word document before submitting for grading. Review the rubric below for specific grading criteria.
Module 3 Critical Thinking

write 3 business ideas to start an business plan follow the instructions below within 2 pages. I’m trying to learn for my Business class and I’m stuck. Can you help?

1.The name of your business – be creative
2.Your business idea.

3.A short paragraph where you note what products or services your business will offer.

Use the marketing mix (4 P’s) as a guide.

Ensure you mention your target market.

Do not hesitate to include a picture or link here.

4.A few lines on why you think the business would be successful.

write 3 business ideas to start an business plan follow the instructions below within 2 pages

Psychology homework help. This is a paper that is focusing on the Divine Command Theory of Morality in Plato’s Euthyphro. The paper also provides additional guidelines to use in writing this assignment paper.,Divine Command Theory of Morality in Plato’s Euthyphro,Philosophy papers do more than summarize the material. They analyze and evaluate the claims made in some reading, make some sort of conclusion, and defend the conclusion also called a thesis. The purpose of your paper then is to defend your thesis by providing good evidence either in the form of good reasons or empirical evidence. Any ideas that are not your own should be properly cited in the paper, with a work cited page at the end. Use at least two scholarly secondary sources t,Issues to consider include:,What is the main question(s) your study will address?, Why and how do these questions matter?, What sorts of answers to those questions are worth considering?, How will your study address those questions?, What form will the evidence take?, What are some possible conclusions from the evidence?,Divine Command Theory of Morality in Plato’s Euthyphro,More specifically:, In one sentence, what question does the work answer?, In one sentence, what answer does it give?, Why should we care about the question?, What other answers must we reject if we accept yours?, Why should we prefer yours?, How have you investigated the question?, What arguments and evidence are you presenting for your answers?, Why should we believe your arguments? Your evidence?, If you are right, what general conclusions, should we draw?,Suggested paper topics for Ethics,1. Firstly, explain and evaluate Mary Midgley’s critique of moral relativism in ‘Trying out one’s Sword’,2. Secondly, explain and evaluate the ideas about Divine Command Theory of Morality in Plato’s Euthyphro.,3.  Thirdly, compare Plato’s ‘Ring of Gyges’ story to modern events. Evaluate the idea of justice offered.,4. Fourthly, explain and evaluate John Stuart Mill’s ideas about ethics as promoting the greatest happiness for the greatest amount of people and reducing as much misery as possible.,*Scholarly books or journal articles on the topic only. Many journal articles are available online through the library websites, either JSTOR or Academic Search Premier. Look for most recent articles as they usually incorporate or reference older important work on the topic. Students may cite other sources, too, but they are no substitute for considering what other (modern) experts on the topics have said. The ,Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophyonline, can be a first stop in your research. But, it should only be used to get an overview of the topic! Lecture notes from other scholars posted on the web are not considered scholarly either.,Paper Format:,Papers should be three to five pages, but at least three pages of writing. Give your essay an imaginative title; but do not underline, italicize, or use quotation marks for your title.  Maintain 12-point type size and same font (preferably New Times Roman) throughout your paper.  Indent all paragraphs.  Double space within the paragraphs of your essay and between paragraphs.  Do not double space the heading (above) or within individual bibliography entries.  Provide one-inch margins.  Type your last name and page number on each page.,Use MLA style of format. Namely, cite within the paper every idea not your own and then a work-cited page at the end. For citations you may use an internal short-hand within the paper.  Following a quotation or paraphrase: (Plato, Euthyphro, 82c).  For class lectures: (Mullan,   9/18/20).  You must acknowledge all quoted material, substantial paraphrases, and information not your own—including primary texts, introductory material in the textbook, secondary material found in books or on-line, and course lecture material.,All papers will be checked for plagiarism. If you don’t feel confident about your writing skills, go to the Academic Support or Tutoring center!! Every idea not your own should be cited. But quotations should only be used to support your own ideas.,Other tips to keep in mind:, Quote as little as possible. Rewrite it in your own words and footnote source., If you quote too much or too long, it seems as though you haven’t understood the material., Controversial matters should be directly quoted, though., Never use a word unless you are sure of their meaning, When you are making a claim of some kind, consider whether the premises (evidence) are true? Further, does the conclusion really follow from the premises?, Show unacceptable implications of opposite arguments, Use only relevant examples, Avoid false dilemmas, Address issues that are important to you,Attachments,Click Here To Download,Psychology homework help

Burberry The Well Known Luxurious Brand Marketing Essay

Burberry, the well-known luxurious brand, comes from England. It has existed since 1856, and was originally made by Thomas Burberry, of London. Currently, Burberry is an international brand and their multiple shops are located all over the world. The main office of the company is in London. Burberry was famous for the exquisite coats of its original time; however, nowadays Burberry sells coats, accessories, perfume, glasses (Burberry, 2010) Burberry’s logo (HaiBao, 2010) 1.1.2 Prada Next, Prada is also a luxurious brand from Italy since 1913. Additionally, it started with the high-class leather by Mario Prada. The products of Prada are concerned modern style and trends. Not only the quality of Prada, but also the performance of modernistic art. Prada has been famous, over 100 years due to its handbags. (Prada, 2010) PRADA logo (2010, soutuzi) 1.2 Theory 1.2.1 Market segmentation According to Hall et al (2008), market segmentation is how a Business divides the features-such as geographically, demographically and behaviorally into sub-groups and how it attracts different types of consumers. 1.2.2 Marketing mix Hall et al (2008) reports that market mix also called four ps-products, price, place and promotion. It is the factors of the market that related to the firms’ strategy. 1.3Aims The goal of this report is to analyze the market segments as well as the market mix of Burberry and Prada. After that, Burberry is more affordable than Prada. Finally, it includes the recommendation. 2. Findings

UC Application of Knowledge Theories & Skills of Enterprise Risk Management Essay

best essay writers UC Application of Knowledge Theories & Skills of Enterprise Risk Management Essay.

At UC, it is a priority that students are provided with strong educational programs and courses that allow them to be servant-leaders in their disciplines and communities, linking research with practice and knowledge with ethical decision-making. This assignment is a written assignment where students will demonstrate how this course research has connected and put into practice within their own career. Assignment: Provide a reflection of at least 500 words (or 2 pages double spaced) of how the knowledge, skills, or theories of this course have been applied, or could be applied, in a practical manner to your current work environment. If you are not currently working, share times when you have or could observe these theories and knowledge could be applied to an employment opportunity in your field of study. Requirements:Provide a 500 word (or 2 pages double spaced) minimum reflection.Use of proper APA formatting and citations. If supporting evidence from outside resources is used those must be properly cited.Share a personal connection that identifies specific knowledge and theories from this course.Demonstrate a connection to your current work environment. If you are not employed, demonstrate a connection to your desired work environment. You should NOT, provide an overview of the assignments assigned in the course. The assignment asks that you reflect how the knowledge and skills obtained through meeting course objectives were applied or could be applied in the workplace. Any use of outside sources, including your own prior work, will result in a zero on the activity and a report being filed with Academic Affairs regarding plagiarism (even if self-plagiarism).Reading reference:Montasari, R., & Hill, R. (2019). Next-Generation Digital Forensics: Challenges and Future Paradigms. 2019 IEEE 12th International Conference on Global Security, Safety and Sustainability (ICGS3), Global Security, Safety and Sustainability (ICGS3), 205. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICGS3.2019.8688020Sahinoglu, M., Stockton, S., Barclay, R. M., & Morton, S. (2016). Metrics Based Risk Assessment and Management of Digital Forensics. Defense Acquisition Research Journal: A Publication of the Defense Acquisition University, 23(2), 152–177. https://doi.org/10.22594/dau.16-748.23.02Nnoli, H. Lindskog, D, Zavarsky, P., Aghili, S., & Ruhl, R. (2012). The Governance of Corporate Forensics Using COBIT, NIST and Increased Automated Forensic Approaches, 2012 International Conference on Privacy, Security, Risk and Trust and 2012 International Conference on Social Computing, Amsterdam, 734-741.
UC Application of Knowledge Theories & Skills of Enterprise Risk Management Essay

Justice Favors the Rich Argumentative Essay

Table of Contents Introduction Michael Vick’s Case An Unfair Justice System Conclusion Works Cited Introduction Various stakeholders in the criminal justice system and the general public have frequently debated whether certain persons are above the justice, or whether the criminal justice system treats all persons fairly without any partiality. It is frequently said that the legal system is divided into two: one serves the rich, powerful and/ or the famous, while the second systems serves the rest. One may argue that just like any other system made by man, the legal system has its own flaws, however, the frequency and trend of such flaws raises eyebrows. The rich, famous and/ or the powerful have frequently received preferential treatment under the same legal system we all ascribe to and this can be evidenced by the number of high profile cases that receive lenient judgments. Examples of high-profile persons that have been favored by the lady justice include Paris Hilton, O J Simpson, Rush Limbaugh, Michael Vick, Martha Stewart, Michael Jackson, among many others. Michael Vick’s case displayed just how long the legal system had take long to act on high-profile persons as it would to the rest of the population. Michael Vick’s Case Michael Vick is an NFL player who previously played as an Atlanta Falcons quarterback, and is well known person (celebrity) by any standards. In April 2007, Vick was indicted in an illegal dog-fighting ring that raised dogs for fighting and killed the ones that lost in the various matches. Investigation into the case centered on Vick’s 15-acre property after police suspected that the NFL player was involved in a dog-fighting ring. At the search of his property, police discovered more than 70 dogs, some of which showed signs of injury. Police investigations revealed that Vick’s property contained extensive dog-fighting facilities and the ring had operated for close to five years. Further investigation by federal authorities revealed the existence of an interstate dog-fighting ring, and in some sections, authorities found evidence of drug use and gambling. Gory evidences acquired from the property included abuse, torture and execution of dogs that did not perform to the required standards (Gorant, pp. 211). Consequently, Vick and four other persons were indicted on felony charges. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In November 2008, after several investigations by police, Michael Vick was moved to Virginia to face charges of federal felony dog fighting financing the dog fighting ring, execution of dogs, and gambling. He received a 23-month prison sentence at a federal prison and a 3-year term in the Virginia courts. He also lost his position at the Atlanta Falcons as they cancelled his contract. Later, he filed for a plea agreement and the charge was dropped, and was released on July 2009, having been in jail for 19 months of the 23-month punishment. His federal sentence was dropped due to good behavior and only paid a $2500 fine. The rest of the charges were dropped too due to his plea agreement. Even though the 23-month sentence given to Vick was unfair by means for the crime he committed, a regular citizen would have received a longer penalty. Each of the six charges for which Vick was convicted of carry a maximum sentence of five years for each charge, however, Vick only received a 23-month sentence when all the evidence to a ring that bred dogs for fighting, executed non-performing dogs, and engaged in gambling over the dog fights (Adler, 2011). Vick only received an extended since the legal system was tired of celebrities or the rich acting foolishly in recognition of the fact that they would be pardoned by law. This was a warning to the rest of the rich, famous, or celebrities to bring their act together and recognize that the legal system acts with discretion. In Vick’s case, the judgment was fair, however, the legal system had taken long to act on persons who simply think they can anything and get away with it. An Unfair Justice System Either way, Michael Vick’s brief moment with the law presented a truer picture of the pressure placed on the legal system: the courts and the judges, or jury, when handling a high-profile criminal case. When the justice does not live up to its expectations, public confidence wanes off and the suspicion of a different system for the famous or rich becomes even truer. Consider the case of Martha Stewart, a highly successful American businesswoman who participated in illegal stock trading after having access to insider information. Despite the magnitude of the case, Stewart received preferential treatment at the prison, even taking up a job. She was then released after serving a one –year sentence and placed under house confinement. We will write a custom Essay on Justice Favors the Rich specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The lght sentence was attributed to the fact that “the courts have been tied in knots as prosecutors and judges struggle to find an established legal duty that people violate when they trade on inside information” (Turow, 2004). Stewart’s case was another instance of how “justice is very different for the rich and poor” (Turow, 2004). Conclusion This paper does not advocate for harsher penalties for celebrities, rather, it pushes on the fair treatment of all persons irrespective of the status in the society. If a person is involved in any illegal activity, they should the full force of the law. Michael Vick’s case served to remind us of how long the legal system had taken long to act tough on well-known persons. Works Cited Adler, James. Michael Vick Dogfighting Scandal. 2011. Web. Gorant, Jim. The Lost Dogs: Michael Vick’s Dogs and Their Tale of Rescue and Redemption. NY: Penguin Group USA, 2011. Turow, Scott. Cry no tears for Martha Stewart. The New York Times, May 27. 2004. Web.

Oral Health Problems In Children Health And Social Care Essay

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Dental caries is the most common oral health problem in children. It is not a new phenomenon in children. Dental caries can arise in early childhood as an aggressive tooth decay that affects the primary teeth of infants and toddlers. Caries constitutes the single most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting as many as 40-50% of U.S. and British children (Pitts et al., 2007) and 60-90% of children worldwide between the ages of 2 and 11 years (Donahue et al., 2005). Dental caries is the localised destruction of susceptible dental hard tissues by acidic by-products from bacterial fermentation of dietary carbohydrates (Fejerskov and Kidd, 2003). The signs of the carious demineralisation are seen on the hard dental tissues, but the disease process is initiated within the bacterial biofilm (dental plaque) that covers a tooth surface. Moreover, the very early changes in the enamel are not detected with traditional clinical and radiographic methods. The disease is initially reversible and can be halted at any stage, even when some dentine or enamel is destroyed (cavitation), provided that enough biofilm can be removed. Dental caries is a chronic disease that progresses slowly in most people. The disease can be seen in both the crown (coronal caries) and root (root caries) portions of primary and permanent teeth, and on smooth as well as pitted and fissured surfaces. It can affect enamel, the outer covering of the crown; cementum, the outermost layer of the root; and dentine, the tissue beneath both enamel and cementum. Caries in primary teeth of preschool children is commonly referred to as early childhood caries. ECC is an alarming problem because the disease is so common and widespread amongst young children. Example, study done by (Zahara et al., 2010) prevalence of caries among preschoolers age 6 and 5 in Malaysia was 60%. And at rural Manitoba community the prevalence of ECC was 44% (Schroth and Moffatt, 2005). Previously, caries in the children was described by a variety of terms including nursing bottle caries, nursing caries, baby bottle caries, baby bottle tooth decay, milk bottle syndrome, and prolonged nursing habit caries. But the new terminology, Early Childhood Caries (ECC) helps us to better reflect that this problem is multifactorial etiologic process not only due to inappropriate feedings methods (Warren, 2008; Ismail 2008). Great needs are need for uniformity when diagnosing and reporting the early childhood caries condition, especially for research purposes. In this respect, a workshop was held in April 1999 in Bethesda, Maryland. In a report for this meeting, (Drury et al., 1999) defined the early childhood caries (ECC) as “the presence of 1 or more decayed (noncavitated or cavitated lesions), missing (due to caries), or filled tooth surfaces” in any primary tooth in a child 71 months of age or younger. In children younger than 3 years of age, any sign of smooth-surface caries is indicative of severe early childhood caries (S-ECC). From ages 3 through 5, 1 or more cavitated, missing (due to caries), or filled smooth surfaces in primary maxillary anterior teeth or a decayed, missing, or filled score of ≥4 (age 3), ≥5 (age 4), or ≥6 (age 5) surfaces constitutes S-ECC. 2.2 Etiology of early childhood caries Dental caries is an infectious and transmissible disease. Dental caries is a multifactorial disease that starts with microbiological shifts within the complex biofilm and is affected by salivary flow and composition, exposure to fluoride, consumption of dietary sugars, and by preventive behaviours (cleaning teeth). Caries is the result from prolong imbalance in the demineralisation and remineralisation process in the oral cavity. Dissolution of tooth structure by high level of acid concentration which produced by the metabolism of dietary carbohydrate by oral bacteria will promote a demineralisation of tooth structure when the pH of plaque drops below the critical level (pH 5.5) (Riva and Loveren, 2003). However, occurrence of dental caries is not as simple as that. The natural protective factors will try to repair the mechanism by promote remineralisation. It was helps by saliva which play a major role in protecting the teeth from acid challenge. The protective factors of the saliva are, the effective bicarbonate buffering affect, the flow and oral clearance rate and Ca2 , PO43- and fluoride ion contain in the saliva (Mount and Hume, 1998). Reposition of mineral (remineralisation) will occur after the pH of plaque rises (Riva and Loveren, 2003). Development of dental caries occurs when susceptible tooth surface colonized with cariogenic bacteria and present of dietary source of sucrose or refined sugar is present. (Axelson, 2000, Caufield and Griffen, 2000). Generally, it can illustrate under Figure 2.1 below; ETIOLOGY 001 Figure 2.1: Development of dental caries (Keyes, 1960) 2.2.1 Dental Plaque Dental plaque plays a major role in contributing a dental caries. Dental plaque is an accumulation of bacteria and intercellular matrix that form the biofilm that adheres to the surfaces of teeth and other oral structures in the absence of effective oral hygiene (Harris et al., 2009). 2.2.2 Dietary factor Diet plays an important role in preventing and promoting oral diseases including dental caries. Dental caries is a modern, life style dependent disease because of fermentable of carbohydrate. In populations which highly exposed to high sucrose containing food manifested with most severe forms caries (Caufield and Griffen, 2000). Increase frequency of carbohydrate intake will increase the caries risk especially in populations with poor oral hygiene habits and lack exposure to the fluoride. However, in populations with good oral hygiene and expose to fluoride either systemic or topical, frequency of diet intake will become a weak risk factor (Axelson, 2000). 2.2.3 Microbiologic factor Fitzgerald and Keyes in year 1960, persons who firstly demonstrate that the dental disease is an infectous disease and can be transmissible. The sources of bacteria that cause dental caries derived from bacterial populations in the oral cavity named ‘normal flora’. The most important bacteria in development dental caries are the mutans streptococci. Mutans streptococci are acidogenic and can adhere to tooth surface. It also can produce extracellular and intracellular polysaccharides from sucrose. So, it represent that mutans streptococci fulfill all the requirements of caries to induce bacteria (Axelson, 2000). Mutans streptococci and other bacteria colonies will colonize the oral cavity after emergance of infants first tooth(Caufield and Griffen, 2000). With present of fermentation of carbohydrate, bacteria pathogens will produce lactic acid, and this acid dissolves the hydroxyapatite crystal structure of the tooth (Caufield and Griffen, 2000). Newborn baby usually have a sterile mouth. Transmission of the microbes to the mouth can be derived from water, food, and other nutritious fluid, but the main route is via saliva. Studies have shown that the transmission of oral streptococci and Gram-negative species in children predominantly from the behaviour of mothers and primary caregivers through their intimate contact, sharing and tasting foods on a spoon or pacifier (Caufield et al., 1993). Infants acquired Mutans streptococci at a median age of 26 months. High level of Mutans streptococci in mothers’ saliva will put their infants to be acquired by these bacteria earlier. It is means that infants exhibit levels of Mutans streptococci corresponding to their mothers’ level (Caufield et al., 1993). Because of that, mothers need to be educating on how the caries transmissible and the importance of have good dental practice for themselves their childrens. 2.3 Determinants of oral health in children There were correlation between the etiologic factor in dental caries, determinants of caries (diet, fluoride exposure, microbial species) and involvement of cofounders in dental caries such as socio economic status, education level, knowledge, attitudes and behavior as Figure 2.2 below. fejerkov 001 Figure 2.2: Schematic illustration of the determinants of caries process. (Adapted from Fejeskov and Manji, 1990) 2.3.1 Socioeconomic factors Socioeconomic factors especially educational levels become the most important external factors related to dental caries nowadays (Axelson, 2000). There is a strong correlation between incidence of caries in children and the socioeconomic status of the families of those children. That is, children with caries tend to come from low-income or lower socioeconomic backgrounds and lower parental educational level (Leake et al., 2008, Finlayson et al., 2007, Schroth and Moffatt, 2005). 2.3.2 Behavioural factors Behavioural factors such as frequency of consumption of sugar daily, tooth brushing behaviour (Leake et al., 2008), inappropriate feeding practice either bottle feeding or breast feeding (Schroth and Moffatt, 2005, Mohebbi et al., 2008, Tyagi, 2008) and age of first visit to dental clinic (Rayner, 2003, Schroth and Moffatt, 2005) were related to the risk of dental caries especially in children. Parental attitudes towards oral health especially mother are is important to prevent occurrence of dental caries among children (Saied-Moallemi et al., 2008). 2.3.3 Environmental factors Environmental and cultural factors play a role in the development of caries. In newly industrialized countries, the incidence of dental caries increases when people previously eat a starchy staple foods and now move to refined carbohydrate diet. For most industrialized countries, high risk of caries related to persons in a lower socioeconomic and immigrant groups (Riva and Loveren, 2003). 2.4 The impact of early childhood caries to the children and parents Extensive dental decay among children, if left untreated will impact on both oral and general health, including quality of life. Physical function will affected because of pain, disturbed sleep, and difficulty to eat hard, hot and cold food. Mentally, dental caries cause fear and angry in children. The social functions also disturbed by missing preschool or day care, avoid playing with friends and not interested to join family activity. Emotionally, children disturbed with difficulty to say certain words (Cunnion et al., 2010). In other words, dental caries in children will effects physical, mental, social and emotional well being of the children. And most important things it causes lower quality of life of the children who are in growing stages. The impact of ECC on parents We know that parents contribute in their children oral health. But there are still limited study in investigating the relationship between the parents and their children oral health. (Schroth, 2007) found that parents with a better knowledge and attitude towards their children oral health more likely to have children with better oral health. In this study we are trying to explore the relationship between the parents’ oral health and their children oral health status. 2.5 The availability of children oral health related quality of life assessment Currently, there has been increase research development in measuring oral health related quality of life. The oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) instruments designed and used to investigate the impacts of oral problems in children, and recently have been designed to be use for 6-14 year old children. (Li et al., 2008, Easton et al., 2008, Klaassen et al., 2009, Cunnion et al., 2010). And very few have been developed for use in children mainly specifically for children age less than 6 years old. Child Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (Child-OIDP) were used to assess the prevalence and severity of the oral impacts in children age 10-12 years old. This questionnaire also can be used to assess oral health needs in population surveys, thus making it useful for planning services. The Child-OIDP assesses oral impacts on the following daily performances like eating, speaking, cleaning teeth, smiling, emotional stability, relaxing, doing schoolwork and social contact (Bernabé et al., 2009). Instruments to assess oral health related negative impacts for children aged 3-5 years, recently was developed in the United States, in English language by (Pahel et al., 2007) called the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) which derived from the Childhood Oral Health Quality of Life (COHQoL) instrument developed by (Jokovic et al., 2002). This questionnaire seems to be adequate to measure quality of life of children in the age 3-5 years old and their families. The instrument is short and concise to be completed by the child’s parent or primary caregiver for use in epidemiological surveys to discriminate the quality of life between children with or without dental disease. (Li et al., 2008) was translated the English version of ECOHIS into French version for the questionnaire can be use in the French language population. (Klaassen et al., 2009) use ECOHIS questionnaire to explore whether oral health related quality of life in young children will improve after oral rehabilitation after general anesthesia. They also study any changes towards dental fear. Canadian researchers (Jokovic et al., 2002) have developed the Child Oral a health Quality of Life (COHQoL) questionnaire due to their concern about the measurement of child health status preciously was based on the reports by parents and caregivers. In their questionnaire, there are several questionnaires for parent or caregiver (Parental-Caregiver Perceptions Questionnaires, P-CPQ) and Family Impact Scale (FIS) for children aged 6-14 years and three Child Perceptions Questionnaires for children aged 6 to 7(CPQ6-7), 8 to 10 (CPQ8-10), and 11-14(CPQ11-14) years of age. The Infant Toddler Quality of Life (ITQoL) questionnaire was developed in year 1994 by Landgraf JM. ITQoL was designed to measure a quality of life for children as 2 months up to 5 years old. The ITQOL items and scales developed to measure physical function, growth and development, bodily pain, temperament and moods, behavior and general health perceptions. ITQOL also includes scales to measure parental impact (time and emotions). Study by (Raat et al., 2007), to evaluate feasibility, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and concurrent and discriminative validity of the ITQoL, found five ITQoL scales showed a ceiling affect. They also suggest for developing and evaluating a shortened ITQoL version to reduce respondent burden. (Easton et al., 2008) were tried to ascertain reliability and validity of the ITQoL. They did a study among 2-6 years old Ohio, United State children to evaluate the effect of dental caries related to pain on pediatric quality of life. That study found that it was valid and reliable index among children there. 2.6 The role of parents to the children Children age less than 6 years old still depending on the family members especially their parents to take care of their oral health. Their inability to verbalize their emotions and needs increases their dependence on adult. Parents support and involvement in child’s oral health are important in influencing the dental health of the child. Parents play a key role in attempts to achieve the best oral health outcomes for their young children (Cafferata and Kasper, 1985). Parents need to have an adequate knowledge and attitude towards the important of oral health for their children. Parents need to know the important of baby teeth and primary teeth tooth decay can impact childhood health. (Schroth, 2007) found that parents who believed that baby teeth are important were more likely to have children with better oral health (less decay) compared with those who thought otherwise. And parents of children with ECC were more likely to disagree that dental decay could affect a child’s overall health. Brushing of young children’s teeth is important to prevent caries, but the parents cannot let their children do it by themselves. Parent need to be motivated and supportive enough to brush their child’s teeth. The parents should belief that home oral hygiene is important and it is a parental duty to establish this behaviour with children (Huebner and Riedy, 2010). Their study also found that nearly all (91%) parents thought that brush a child’s teeth twice daily a day was important, but only 55% reported that they did it every day. Parents reported that the most common barriers to tooth brushing were due to lack of time and uncooperative child. 2.4 Oral health related quality of life of the parents Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp

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