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Models of Nursing for Safeguarding Vulnerable Adults

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp The articles chosen to be evaluated, compared, analyse and reflected upon are Nursing models and Contemporary Nursing: their development, uses and limitations, Nursing models and contemporary nursing: can they raise standards of care and lastly Safeguarding vulnerable adults. The reasons for selecting the topics above are based on exposure to the subject matter in university and familiarity with the safeguarding vulnerable adults during the many years spent working as a Health Care support worker within the community. Most of all, the ultimate reason choosing these topics is sheer interest in finding out how effective the usage of these integral topics can improve holistic nursing practice and give the service user or patients a better experience. Supporting evidence for this report were sourced from various mediums i.e. Through the internet and from credible websites such as the Royal College of Nursing, Nursing Times and article catalogue banks such as CINHL and Medline. Murphy, F; Williams, A and Pridmore, J (2010) Nursing models and contemporary nursing 1: their development, uses and limitation. Nursing Times 15 June, 2010, vol 106, No 23pp18-20. Pridmore J et al (2010 Nursing models and contemporary nursing 2: can they raise standards of care? Nursing Times 21st June, 2010 Vol 106, Number 24. These articles are suitable for the education, training and informing Healthcare Professionals about the prominence of their field. The articles are presented in a good and coherent fashion, this makes the reading experience enjoyable. The two-part series analyses the worth of nursing models and deliberates whether the essential concepts, principles and ethics about nursing in these models are pertinent to contemporary procedures. This first article provided an outline of nursing models; how and why they were established; and some poignant criticisms. The second article examined the models in the framework of modern nursing practice, with specific attention placed on current initiatives intended to reform nursing and to improve the standards of care. The authors of these articles are experienced and seasoned professionals in their fields of expertise. Fiona Murphy, for example, is a nurse who has held clinical positions as a Sister, staff nurse and clinical teacher in acute hospitals nursing all over the United Kingdom. She has taught and lectured at the University of Swansea since 1992 and worked on a variety of undergraduate and post graduate nursing and midwifery programmes. (Dockerty, 2013) Julia Pridmore, is also a Nurse Lecturer and programme manager for BSc (Hons) Health and Social Care at the University of Swansea. Julia has been a practicing nurse since the 1980s. She specialises on quality improvement, governance and patient safety (Pridmore, 2010). Their experience in practice and teaching combined, validates their knowledge of the subject and also authenticate the issues raised in the articles. The authors, gave a very insightful historical background about the technological boom which triggered the development of nursing models in the early 1960’s in the United States, but it failed to examine the reasons why it took more than a decade for the same to be adopted in the United Kingdom. One could be identified with the difficulty in acclimatizing to an entirely different concept, but the impediment to change as described by (Kenny 1993) ‘reflecting on the approach and attitude towards change and the bureaucratic environment of the NHS, also questioned if models really stood any chance at all’. This statement speaks a lot of volumes but completely void of proofs or facts. The National Health Service have been a driver for change and modification since inception. The Nurses Act of 1949, for example was established to modernise the role of nursing by providing the catalyst for modification to nursing education and training, 1940s and 50s saw nurses uniform begin to become more standardised, in 1955 the nursing auxiliary or nursing assistant role achieved formal recognition and Enoch Powell’s Hospital Plan recommended that teaching hospitals should act as district general hospitals and that student should be taught where patients required treatment in 1962. Prior to the adaptation of models in the United States the National Health Service was in its twentieth year of reformation, one can conclude Kenny 1993 quote on attitude to change and bureaucracy within the environment of the NHS is possibly a hypothesis. Secondly, there were numerous complications in developing the models, the smallest of which was an absence of a definition of nursing. This led to Henderson’s description being regularly quoted, and it shaped the foundation of vast majority of deliberations. There were also calls to go back to the ideas of Florence Nightingale. Henderson defines both the independent and the co-dependent features of nursing practice, and stipulates the affiliation between nursing and medicine. This difference between independent and co-dependent practice is vital to appreciating the intricacy of nursing and its specific influence inside the multi-disciplinary teams within a health care setting. Nightingale’s emphasis on the advancement of health and healing as separate from the treatment of disease, and the harmony of the individual, well-being and the atmosphere, remain essential to contemporary explanations of nursing. Both philosophies and ideas resounds clearly in the models, a good indication of the advancements and strides made since the days of Florence Nightingale. In hind sight, going back on the ideas to reflect the idle of Florence Nightingale would be a complete retrogression, but rather using models as a framework to guide and reform the delivery of care and will directly improve the experience of the patient thereby affirming the professional outlook of the nurse within the healthcare setting. Betts V; Marks-Maran, D and Morris-Thompson, T (2014) Safeguarding vulnerable adults. Nursing Standard. 28, 38 P37-41. This article is suitable for the teaching, preparation and informing Healthcare Professionals about the importance and efficacy of safeguarding the vulnerable within the confines of the hospital and beyond. The article is presented in clear and comprehensible manner, this makes the reading experience very pleasant. The article examines more or less the matters surrounding safeguarding vulnerable adults, it reviews some of the correlated legislation and literature, and outlines the responsibilities of authorities or those who care for these patient groups. The article reveals how one hospital that is specialised in caring for individuals with early-onset dementia, Huntingdon’s disease and alcohol-related brain damage who need supplementary care, has provided staff with fitting evidence-based facts about safeguarding adults. The authors of this article are knowledgeable and experienced authorities in their fields. Virginia Betts Previously a staff nurse at Forest Hospital, Nottingham and presently health visitor student at Derby University, Diane Marks-Maran is an honorary professor of nursing at Kingston University, London and St George’s, University of London, lastly, Trish Morris-Thompson director of quality and clinical governance at Barchester Healthcare, London. Their involvement in practice and education authenticates their understanding of the theme being examined i.e. Safeguarding Vulnerable Adults and also substantiate the issues raised in the article. This is an evidence based literature which draws lessons and references from current events in Winterbourne View Hospital and Mid Staffordshire NHS Foundation Trust. This article failed to explore in to details the avenues of trainings, retraining, and refresher courses to ensure staff and healthcare professional are constantly reminded of the importance of safeguarding the vulnerable. Although, Nesbit’s warning that no structure or system of safeguarding would be able to pledge with certainty that abuse would certainly not transpire (Nesbit 2013) is completely a valid argument. It also very important to raise, continuous trainings and adequate reminders are the key to keeping this all important subject current and relevant to the healthcare professional. With the view of avoiding a repeat of the happening of Winterbourne View and Mid Staffordshire NHS Foundation Trust, the issue of training, retraining and refresher courses cannot be over emphasised. Research and policy guidance advocates compulsory trainings for care home proprietors and executives in view of safeguarding responsibilities. ‘No secrets’ (DH/Home Office, 2000) also mentioned that all organisations must train all employees and volunteers at all levels of hierarchy within their agencies, organisation or companies, with respect to their responsibilities in the adult safeguarding procedures and processes. Kalaga and Kingston (2007) referred to the commendations of the enquiry into the delivery of services for individuals with learning difficulties at the Cornwall Partnership NHS Trust which specified that the Trust must: ‘as a priority, develop a programme of training, supervision and support for all staff which helps them deliver care in accordance with the principles of the Valuing People strategy’. (CSCI/Healthcare Commission, 2006, p 69) Organisations must ensure a safe environment in which all employees are trained in safeguarding, and authorities such as managers, supervisors and even team leaders be responsible for systematic official checks of the organisation’s safeguarding procedures, policies, processes and practices. In essence, the evidence presented for Forest Hospital in Nottingham inaugurated in 2013 to deliver expert care for individuals with early-onset dementia, Huntingdon’s disease and alcohol-related brain injury is exemplary, the institution have gone through a great deal of meticulous planning to encourage the retention of information and training pertaining to safeguarding. All employees new to the establishment obtain an information guide and commence e-learning induction sections on safeguarding vulnerable adults, followed by team deliberations on some of the subjects raised on the materials and guides given, and the sections. Throughout the segments and group studies, employees are familiarised with and well-versed on safeguarding vulnerable adults. Responses, feedbacks and questions are given in writing and verbally from employees and shown that employees who had never worked in care homes or anything similar to care found the training on safeguarding adults educational and easy to comprehend. Employees identified that they valued the chance to utilize the learning tools on safeguarding adults in group discussions. They also mentioned that it was extremely beneficial having a written document to which references could be made when needed. This method of training is entirely innovative and worthy of emulation by every institution and NHS Trusts. The only criticism about the training method in Forest Hospital is the fact the authors provided no detail concerning its frequency. It is vital to note, some of the issues in Mid Staffordshire NHS Trust according to the HealthCare Commission was not due to lack of training but rather lack of adequate training. As a firm believer in learning, unlearn and relearning, training a healthcare professional once or maybe twice in his or her career is not enough. Safeguarding just like manual handling require expiration in its certification. This will enable a continuous assessment of employee knowledge and practical skills with respect to safeguarding thereby delivering exceptional service to the patient. In retrospect, one could say the article on Safeguarding focused mainly on physical abuse by so doing leaving a lot of safeguarding issues unaddressed. Abuse may be physical, psychological, financial or material, sexual, discriminatory, or an act of neglect or an omission to act. For example the involvement of exploitation and mistreatment is likely to have a major impact on a person’s health and wellbeing. By the very nature exploitation and utter abuse of power by one person over another has an enormous impact on a person’s independence and most times depresses their individualities, which are a breach of the rudimentary ethos of the Healthcare profession. Neglect on the other hand, was not mentioned, but it can stop an individual who is reliant on others for their fundamental necessities, exercising choice and control over the basic needs of life and can cause embarrassment, humiliation and loss of self-respect. All vulnerable adults have the right to be assisted to make their own choices and to give or deny consent on whatever they please, be it activities or even services. Consent is a strong sign of a readiness to partake in an activity or to receive a service. It may be gestured, verbal agreement, or in writing. No individual can or should give, or refuse, consent on behalf of a different adult except exceptional provision for specific purposes have been made and it generally by law. The main struggle dealing with abuse of vulnerable adults is knowing that it exists, because it’s multifaceted nature. DeHart et al (2009) cross-examined nursing home employees, policy makers and health care professionals to detect training needs of employees. They discovered that those at risk of abuse were residents who are silent, confused and incapable to communicating or those who have few visitors, as well as those who are non-compliant or with challenging behaviours. They proposed that one of the employees capabilities must be the skill ‘to identify residents’ vulnerabilities that increase the risk of their being mistreated’. A key United Kingdom survey of more than 2000 individuals of age 66 and over living in private accommodations and households discovered a variety of risk factors, precise to the category of abuse: The risk factors for neglect encompassed being female from 85 years of age, in bad health or depression and the prospect of being in receipt of, or in touch with, services. The risk of financial abuse amplified for individual living alone, in receipt of services, in bad or very bad health, older men, and women who were divorced or separated, or lonely. The risk of relational abuse (physical, psychological and sexual abuse combined) was greater in women aged 66–74 (O’Keefe et al, 2007). O’Dowd (2007), in reporting on the above research, recommended the discoveries on risk factors, citing that it should be used by local authorities to observe and act on abuse by directing assistance where it is wanted most. Appointing full-time safeguarding leads or introducing training for all staff i.e. relevant training for all new staff, from auxiliary to consultant level, as part of its induction programme, and another where training is consolidated at handover times to keep it refreshed and serve as a constant reminder at all time. On the Aspect of Nursing Models, Nurses do require a theoretical framework to serve as a guide and support. This is predominantly so now that we confronted economic, demographic and communal variation that will possibly “value the nurse out of the market”. Devoid of using theory to define what nursing is and does, it would extremely stress-free to demote the role of the Nurse to nothing else but just elementary tasks, when nursing is as a matter of fact, a multifaceted, vibrant and thought-provoking role demanding the mixture of understanding , knowledge, skills, familiarity and theory. The usage of nursing theories such as models assist nurses to make the difference amongst the contributions of the medical, nursing and other healthcare professionals and establish the worth of the nurse. Nurses are acquainted with problem-solving methods such as ASPIRE (Assessment, Systematic nursing diagnosis, Planning, Implementation, Recheck and Evaluation). However, methods like this guides in care planning, they are short on detail on how to do it. For example, a problem-solving procedure is less likely to outline questions needs asking in the course of an assessment or the interventions to be made. Nursing model can drastically improve the methods of assessment and deliver better care. (Barrett et al, 2012) Models can play a variety of roles in the career of the nurse. Take for example, the newly qualified nurse, a model will be a very import framework for the care planning process. A proficient nurse will have the ability cultivate their own diverse model, grounded on the fundamentals of different theories that fits their methodology and framework of care. In conclusion, nursing continue to offer challenging roles in dynamic, evolving healthcare environments. However, the competitive workforce means that in order to first attract and then retain nurses, Authorities in Healthcare needs to ensure that practices are contemporary and innovative. It is also important to recognise that Nurses are part of a broader healthcare team and it is appropriate that to consider and assess the best way to work with other healthcare providers to provide quality patient care now and into the future. Safeguarding adults is everybody’s business. Statutory agencies and all who work with Vulnerable Adults have the responsibility to safeguard the wellbeing and safety of Vulnerable Adults in different ways. “Safeguarding” when viewed in its wider sense of promoting the safety, wellbeing and opportunities of adults forms part of core business for all statutory agencies, for example, ensuring health and patient safety is the NHS responsibility, promoting independence and wellbeing is the responsibility of Adult Social Care, and protecting people from harm is the responsibility of the Police. For all professionals, “safeguarding” in its wider sense is part and parcel of everyday working life. However, it also refers to a very specific area of work- the reactive inter-agency response to protect Vulnerable Adults who are at risk of significant harm through abuse by another person or persons. Empowerment and choice need to be at the core of safeguarding policy and practice; this means working to enable adults at risk to recognise and protect themselves from abuse. It also means taking a risk enabling approach within services and ensuring that people who use services have genuine choice both of and within services. Bibliography Dockerty, R. (2013). Swansea nurse lecturer writes ‘Major Works’ book.Swansea University, Swansea nurse lecturer writes ‘Major Works’ book. [Online]. Available at: http://www.swansea.ac.uk/humanandhealthsciences/news-and-events/latest-news/swanseanurselecturerwritesmajorworksbook.php [Accessed: 6 November 2014]. Pridmore, J. (2010). Julia Pridmore. Nursing Times, Julia Pridmore | Nursing Times. [Online]. Available at: http://www.nursingtimes.net/julia- /148596.publicprofile [Accessed: 6 November 2014]. Choi, N.G. and Mayer, J. (2000) ‘Elder abuse, neglect, and exploitation – risk factors and prevention strategies’, Journal of Gerontological Social Work, vol 33, no 2, pp 5–26. DeHart, D., Webb, J. and Cornman, C. (2009) ‘Prevention of elder mistreatment in nursing homes: competencies for direct-care staff’, Journal of Elder Abuse

PAD 515: Leadership and Conflict Resolution, management homework help

PAD 515: Leadership and Conflict Resolution, management homework help.

Assignment 1: Theories of LeadershipDue Week 4 and worth 150 pointsFor all assignments, assume that the City Manager has hired you as the Chief of Staff for your local government. The City Manager has tasked you with developing and implementing the government’s new million dollar grant funded Public Leadership Academy. The mission of the Public Leadership Academy is to provide ongoing training and development of the local government’s current and prospective public leaders. This program was developed in an effort to build and sustain world class public leadership that exemplifies exceptional leadership traits and skills, while fostering long-term relationships internal and external stakeholders and constituents. In the upcoming weeks, you will deliver your first presentation to the government’s local councilpersons, in which you address the type of public leadership model(s) that is both needed within the local government for its public leaders and required to fulfil the mission of the Public Leadership Academy.After careful review and analysis of the steps needed to meet your goal, your first assignment is to revisit the theories and styles of leadership. You will examine the theories and styles that support the role of the public leader.You may use the Internet and / or Strayer databases to complete any additional research.Note: You may create and / or make all necessary assumptions needed for the completion of this assignment.Use the basic outline below to draft your paper. Organize your responses to each question (except Question 4) under the following section headings:Defining The Public Leader (for Question 1)Leadership Theories (for Question 2)Leadership Styles (for Question 3)Write a four to five (4-5) page paper in which you:Determine two (2) leadership theories and two (2) leadership styles that support the definition of a public leader. Provide a rationale for your response.Assess the effectiveness of the two (2) leadership theories from Question 1. Provide two (2) examples for each leadership theory.Assess the effectiveness of the two (2) leadership styles from Question 1. Provide two (2) examples for each leadership style.Include at least four (4) peer-reviewed references (no more than five [5] years old) from material outside the textbook. Note: Appropriate peer-reviewed references include scholarly articles and governmental Websites. Wikipedia, other wikis, and any other websites ending in anything other than “.gov” do not qualify as academic resources. Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:Evaluate the theories and models of public leadership.Differentiate among the styles of public leadership.Use technology and information resources to research issues in public leadership and conflict resolution.Write clearly and concisely about issues in public leadership and conflict resolution using proper writing mechanics.
PAD 515: Leadership and Conflict Resolution, management homework help

Importance of Early Childhood Education Research Paper

term paper help Introduction Early childhood stage is an important part of a child’s intellectual development. During this stage, the brain tends to absorb anything from the immediate environment. This initial stage of growth plays a significant role in motivating and preparing a child to embrace education. It is important to recognize the contribution that early childhood education plays in an individual’s life and how it affects personal growth process. Children often learn social and interaction skills through formal education and social activities. Importance of Early Childhood Education Traditionally, children were considered to be unable to distinguish between right and wrong. Therefore, people never saw the need to impart knowledge during their early stages. This outdated school of thought might hold some truth to some extent. However, it is vital to mention that children often accommodate everything in their immediate environment. The mind of a developing child operates like a sponge. Therefore, early childhood education is essential (McGowan, 2012). The social capability of a child is critical in the overall social growth of a child. However, it is important to mention that children who are enrolled in early schooling programs can utilize their memories so well in the entire process of development. Moreover, the learning potential of children who have gone through early childhood education is greatly enhanced even when they reach higher levels of education. In other words, early childhood education sets the right foundation for acquiring education and the overall learning ability. Early childhood stage refers to the first eight years of a child after birth. Research carried out on a child’s brain capacity indicates that eighty five percent of the brain develops at the age of five and that the brain of a child at the age of three functions two and a half times more effective than the brain of an adult (Whitfield, 2010). Brain cell connections are strengthened by continuous stimulation from the environment (Whitfield, 2010). The first three years of a child are considered the prime time where the brain absorbs new information easily (Whitfield, 2010). The academic, mental and social growth of a child can be developed rapidly and effectively when a proper learning foundation is adopted. For instance, it is interesting to mention that children who are below ten years have the best opportunity to learn a lot due to their memory abilities. This stage is important in the academic and mental development of an individual. Learning new vocabulary in language is possible with a child who is just three years old. However, if such a child has not been enrolled in an inclusive early childhood education, this reality cannot be achieved. This stage is considered to be the foundation of literacy (Whitfield, 2010). Whitfield carried out research studies to determine the importance of language skills development in early childhood. Interesting findings were gathered from the study. From the study, it was found out that educators in daycare services have several opportunities of stimulating practical skills that help children acquire language skills at the age of five (Rigby, 2007). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Even though the early childhood stage does not require any professional training, it is interesting to mention that children usually undergo language training skills when they are enrolled in early childhood education programs. This may happen subconsciously. Educators can provide the most important guidance to young children when taking them through language classes. The ability to build strong and sensible vocabularies can be enhanced when a child goes through early childhood education. In cases whereby the educator adjusted the child’s language registered few improvements as compared to when educators waited and listened (Ricker, 2011). This is also the same stage when children tend to learn the aspects of reading and writing. They particularly build a large volume of vocabulary with special preference to common words and daily experiences. However, this was a different case in groups where the educators made corrections when wrong grammar was used. The children in this category failed to use any new vocabulary in constructing sentences and some were not showing any signs of starting to talk any time soon. In this research, it was clear that children tend to learn from their surrounding environment. Their language skills can be improved by simple structural changes and practice (Mayse, 2004). The emotional development of a child, cordial relationship building, academic development and other superb attributes are enhanced when a child undergoes early childhood education. People tend to think that children develop their ego during their adolescent stage, which is not usually the case. Before a child attains the age of ten years, early childhood education assists in the realization of personal identity as well as the ability to differentiate between right and wrong. The expected roles to be played by each gender is also learned effectively when a child is taken through a rigorous early childhood education. In addition, they keenly monitor the immediate environment and create a binding experience with other learners. Children also acquire their social skills through play and education. A child’s academic and language skills are not merely education-oriented. These skills can be developed through directed play and proper interaction with children (Snapp, 2012). The latter author carried out an experiment to show the difference between child- directed play whereby children decide what they want to do and express them, and adult directed play whereby a parent or an educator dictates what the child should play. In some of the research studies conducted on early childhood development, it is evident that children tend to socialize better with other children. Hence, early childhood education assists in rapid brain development of a child when it is appropriately directed by an instructor. In other, early childhood education plays a critical role in shaping certain desirable attributes in a child. In this experiment, the conclusion was that child directed plays establish egos and practice on how to express and control emotions (Hechinger, 1990). We will write a custom Research Paper on Importance of Early Childhood Education specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They also tend to learn a lot when interacting with the environment. It is necessary for education stakeholders such as teachers and parents to acknowledge the fact that children have their unique thinking patterns that can be nurtured from the very early stage of development. The society ought to contribute towards the proper development of a child by providing productive programs to both children and caregivers. This could go along way in promoting a child’s mental and intellectual development. Such an initiative is a crucial investment in any society. Early childhood education is considered as the initial step towards formal education. Early childhood education is also integrated with primary, secondary, and tertiary education to form a complete spectrum of learning program. The period between birth and the eighth year of a child ought to be utilized properly to the benefit of a child. The external environment should favor the positive growth of a child. In order to achieve this broad objective, a safe and accommodating environment with abundant sensory stimulation should be made available to the child during the early stages of development. Children who experience extreme stress during their early childhood stages tend to develop cognitive and behavioral difficulties. These effects often extend into a child’s later development and performance at school. Children raised in humble backgrounds often achieve lower level of education compared to their counterparts raised in middle-class families due to reduced ability to learn in school. Early childhood education should also be accompanied by effective healthcare delivery. Good nutrition, consistent care from family members and constant encouragement of a child may assist a child to perform quite well in school. For any government, organization or community that aims at achieving high return on investments so that it can offer education, there is need to prioritize healthy social, cognitive, and emotional development of children. This can be attained by incorporating proper education with good health nutrition, water and sanitation in order to bring up children in a holistic manner. Governments should invest in ECD programs to provide the essential learning foundation for children during their first critical eight years (Blackburn, 2010). In conclusion, the roles played by the early childhood education program are fundamental in setting the right pace in education. When children are enrolled in early childhood education program, they secure the best chance of performing well academically even when they reach higher learning levels. Not sure if you can write a paper on Importance of Early Childhood Education by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The cognitive ability of a child is also enhanced significantly when early childhood education is implemented at the right time. The ability to think critically and make proper judgment is also possible among children who have been taken through a professional early childhood curriculum. Therefore, early childhood education has myriads of benefits that should not be ignored by stakeholders in education. References Blackburn, J. (2010). Summits focus on importance of early childhood programs. Web. Hechinger, F. M. (1990). Cost, importance of early childhood education rising. Web Mayse, J. (2004). Importance of early childhood education touted at owensboro. Web. McGowan, M. (2012). Local advocates talk early childhood education in Raleigh. Web. Ricker, N. (2011). Leaders stress importance of early education to business. Web. Rigby, E. (2007). Same policy area, different politics: How characteristics of policy tools alter the determinants of early childhood education policy. Policy Studies Journal, 35(4), 653-669. Snapp, B. (2012). OKCEO summit stressed the importance of early childhood education. Web. Whitfield, J. (2010). Educator exemplifies the importance of education. Web.

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Logistics In Supply Chain Management In Walmart Management Essay

Wal-Mart is the one of the largest supermarket chain in the US and globally. Their main activities are to offer groceries, Non-foods, home supplies, electronics, Jewellery and Pharmacy. In order to operate a retail store, Wal-Mart pushes their products to the consumers. However, Wal-Mart is striving to gain competitive advantages through bringing the price affordable to customers by selling in volume. Wal-Mart took direct control of its factories in January 2003, for direct bring in products. Therefore, Wal-Mart changes their strategy to empowering their suppliers and developed inventory management. In order to uninterrupted supply to all their stores which are spread in all over the US, they have established own private fleet to deliver the products to the stores smoothly. They have got 6,900 driver and 5,600 truck in 48 states( www.wal-mart.com) as well as essential transport for Wal-Mart logistics with their logistics partners Wal-Mart’s logistic partner SAM’S Club. Furthermore, Wal-Mart’s private fleet provides delivery with efficient transportations and devoted services to the stores. At present, the Wal-Mart private fleet transportation operates in 28 states with 36 transportation office. The warehousing and transporting of Wal-Mart has 30,000 associates divisions and they have handled more 2 billions cases of freight which is worth of $85 billion. Wal-Mart is having 20 regional distribution centert for freight distrubutions across the country such as Tennessee, Shelbyville, Georgia, New York, Florida and Carrolton etc. The truck drivers of the Wal-Mart move thier trailers with the products from the warehouse or distribution centres to the retail stores. In order to efficiency in thieir logistics, they have set the timing of arrival and departure of the truck. The process of the timing usually at night which will not make any inconvinience to the customers. In order to efficiency in thier logistic, they have brought new track device to track thier truck to find out wherabout, Furhthermore, the RFID (Radio Frequency Identification Tags) is imbedded in each product which will provide a signal to the ware house about its presence or sold out. Therefore, logistic within the Wal-Mart is very efficient includes proper plan, manage , movement of goods with the flow of information can optimize the whole supply chain management which enhance custoemrs satisfaction. ii)How improving procurment practices and logistics Logistics can be defined as it is the maintenance, procurement, replacement of materials and distribution, it means final product at the right time, at the right cost and at the right place. In addition, according to CSCMP., (2005), Logistic is termed as the implement, plan and controls of the flow of storage goods, services move forward or reverse and associated information between the delivery and consumption in order to fulfil consumer’s needs. One of the enabling factors of effective logistics management is the effective use of information technology. The goal of the logistics manager within Dell’s, therefore must be to link the end customers, the channels of distribution, the production processes and the procurement activity in such a way that customers’ service expectations are exceeded and yet at a lower total cost than the competition (Closs, et. al., 1997). “Information has always been central to the efficient management of logistics but now, enabled by technology, it is providing the driving force for competitive logistics strategy.” (Hammant, 1995). As a retailer, Dell’s experiences margin erosion and the need forever improving levels of customer service are both instrumental in increasing the levels of IT investment to support supply chain improvements. Recent investments in technologies such as electronic data interchange (EDI) and electronic funds transfer (EFTPOS), have facilitated further reductions in supply chain stock levels and forged stronger supply chain linkages between both their suppliers and customers (Closs, et. al., 1997). As a worldwide company, Dell’s have experimented with global sourcing and JIT processes, which further contributed to the need for investment. In particular, Dell’s has invested in technologies to support product ordering, enjoying a low lead time of 2 weeks. However, this practice is not spread throughout the organisation, as interaction with smaller suppliers requires manual orders to be processed. There are a variety of technological trends and innovations which have an impact on the use of technology in logistics, which may be grouped into three themes: Integration and flexibility EDI Hardware The following figure proposes the total logistics information system: Figure 8 : Logistic Information system (Source: Wolf, 2005) iii) Recommendations to NewG The competitive environment for the firms has changed dramatically in the past 10 years. Customers in geographically dispersed, emerging and established global markets now demand higher quality products at lower cost in a shorter time. As a result, firms have been forced to reorganize their logistics activities and realign their global strategies. Organisations have moved from a centralized, vertically integrated, single-site facilities to geographically dispersed networks of resources. The following are the recommendations to NewG to improve procurement and logistics practices. NewG’s needs to implement a companywide POS system that is accessible by senior management in all parts of the world. This strategy will enable the company to track sales and forecast demand and NewG can procurement their products. In turn, management at all levels will be able to establish stock needed. A systematic use of a generic EDI system will allow NewG’s to interact with suppliers, as well as enable instantaneous order placement, to ensure little expense is spared, in line with JIT practices in place. In order to efficiency in thier logistic, they could have usied new track device to track thier products to find out wherabout, Furhthermore, the RFID (Radio Frequency Identification Tags) is imbedded in each product which will provide a signal to the ware house about its presence or sold out. Therefore, logistic within the NewG is very efficient includes proper plan, manage , movement of goods with the flow of information can optimize the whole supply chain management which enhance custoemrs satisfaction. Task 6 ‘NewG Furniture – Supply Chain Strategy, 2011 and beyond’ how the strategy will improve NewG’s supply chain Supply chain strategies are undergoing tremendous changes in response to these pressures. Outsourcing and partnering with other enterprises are becoming more commonplace as companies seek to share the burden of demand for more complex products and more responsive services (Prokesch, 2010). With the enablement of new technologies such as the Internet, new channel structures have rapidly emerged to satisfy these demands. Companies are recognizing that supply chain innovations can be not only be a driver of cost reduction, but importantly, a catalyst for revenue growth by achieving greater levels of customer satisfaction(Bitran et al, 2007). As we look into the post 2000 era, we see another major evolution in supply chain strategy ­ supply chain design and operations will drive, as well as continue to be driven by corporate strategy and shareholder value. We call the new generation of supply chain strategy, Synchronized Supply Chains. Synchronized Supply Chains encompass three major structural changes in how NewG could improve and manage supply chain operations: Companies will collaborate with supply chain partners and synchronize operations Technology and the world wide web will be key enablers of innovative supply chain strategy Supply chain organizations will be restructured and reskilled to achieve these goals Synchronized Supply Chains will have a major impact on creating value for a company and supply chain partners. This will be accomplished by increasing shareholder value through profitable revenue enhancement, cost reduction and improved asset productivity by synchronizing company and channel partner’s supply chains. Success in designing and implementing a Synchronized Supply Chain strategy requires a coordinated set of actions involving all relevant supply chain partners (Coyle et al, 1996). Unlike traditional supply chain strategies which focus on improving operations inside a company, Synchronized Supply Chain strategies require coordinated cross­functional and multiple partner decision making throughout the entire supply chain (Figure 5 details the four key building blocks of a successful strategy). Like any other large scale change, it is important to build the business capabilities not just in the business processes, but also to support them with changes to the organizational structure and enabling technologies. Only then can the strategy be effected. Likewise, the strategy and the initiatives chosen need to be in alignment with capabilities that can be realistically achieved in each of these three areas. The core competencies with which a firm begins must be taken into account(Hammer, 2001). Figure 9: Synthesized supply chain (Source: Free, 2008) Assess how a supply chain improvement strategy will benefit overall business performance of NewG The main reason for Wal-mart’s success is their incorporation of new technology into their supply chain. Not only did Wal-mart pioneer the use of new technology, as they grew they demanded the implementation of technology throughout their supply chain. Therefore, information technology is one of factor behind supply chain improvement strategy and will benefited the following business performance of NewG: This technology’s specific purpose is to eliminate the need for NewG to manage its inventory. The way it works is as follows: As soon as a UPC is scanned at the register of a NewG anywhere in the world, the technology driving the supply chain is started. At the point-of-sale NewG’s computer databases are updated immediately to reflect a change in inventory. At the same time electronic data interchange (EDI) sends the sales data over the internet to the respective suppliers of the goods sold. An early benefit of supply chain improvement efforts included project work by teams that reduced purchasing costs, inventories, logistical costs, and freight costs. As the focus is placed on specific supply chain projects such as mainly clerical, order-pacing activities and in which personnel tend to adopt only a short-term, hand-to-mouth approach, merely reacting to contingencies as they arise. The benefit of SCM for manufacturers is the quick change in supply chain and introduce new products to meet the turbulent conditions of the market. Inventory becomes obsolete. In the long run, there seems to be general support for the view that in rapid changing world markets, product innovation is an essential ingredient in the capability of firms to sustain a competitive advantage. Linkage with suppliers and the relationships that are forged with them can help to stimulate technological changes that can benefit both parties. Explain how barriers will be overcome in NewG Furniture when implementing a supply chain improvement strategy. NewG has main objective to sales furniture through cost effective solutions and selling through its direct sales model. NewG’s stock configurations will not command their accustomed price premium while sitting on retail shelves because they are insufficiently differentiated from competitors’ offerings. Worse, NewG will experience a sizable increase in its capital costs, as it has to maintain finished goods inventory for the channel, whereas before it needed no finished goods inventory. However, there is a bright side to it as well as company’s reputation will help it to gain retailer confidence and form strategic relationships with them. Additionally, being a furniture company, it is not difficult for the company to invest in and to maintain a high standard product innovation team to meet its deliberate strategy. In addition, Conclusions As customer needs are constantly changing, markets are getting more difficult to predict and consequently hitting the target group’s desires become more challenging as well. Organisations have to respond to their changing environment while maintaining a focus on a long term idea of integrating core competencies into the supply chain. Possessing core competencies are no longer enough to obtain a competitive advantage, in fact only the adequate implementation of the core competencies into the supply chain will be able to make a company sustainably competitive and bring out the maximum gaining’s of time and cost. Hence, the NewG furniture company would benefit through the proper implementation of the supply chain management.