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Use font Times New Roman, 12 font sizeUse 1.5 line spacing with adjusting to all paragraphs (alignment).Use the footer function to insert the page number.Ensure that you follow the APA style in your project and references.The minimum number of required references is 5.Your project report length Part 1 & Part 2 should be between 2500 to 3000 words in total. You must check the spelling and grammar mistakes before submitting the assignment.Up to 20% of the total grade will be deducted for providing a poor structure of assignment. The structure includes these elements paper style, free of spelling and grammar mistakes, referencing and word count. The assignment must be in Word format only no PDF Your file should be saved as Word doc
MIS 201 Saudi Electronic University Wells Fargo Management Information Project
Jose’s authentic Mexican restaurant
Synopsis of Case: Jose’s Authentic Mexican Restaurant is a small, 58-seat restaurant that offers a reasonably broad range of Mexican food and prepared and presented in a traditional Mexican style. It is located in New England in a grown-up business district on the edge of a large metropolitan area. The restaurants interior decoration promotes the Mexican style theme. The atmosphere of Jose’s allows for people to have a real taste for Mexican food and Mexican background music. The set of choices consists of twenty three main entrees which are assembled from eight basic stocks and variety of other ingredients. The restaurant is restricted in seating and free off-street parking. The Mexican tasty foods and Mexican music make up for the wait. The customer is usually immediate except for Friday and Saturday nights when waits of as long as 45 minutes can be encountered because space inside for waiting is very limited and there is no separate waiting area. Another problem is the restaurant does not take advance booking. The usually amount of time needed to complete a meal once it has been ordered is twelve minutes. A good portion of this time is for final cooking. According to customer surveys during rush time on Friday and Saturday nights, the most of customer were satisfied with the overall dinning experience. Only sixteen customers said the dinning experience was not worth the money and other side sixty seven customers said it was worth the cost. According to customer surveys most of customer not happy on the delivery time of their food on the table. Major Issues Discussed: This report concerns the operational aspect of Jose’s Authentic Mexican Restaurant which is currently operated in the UK market. Currently they are operated their restaurant business with poor quality. This report covers the relevant issues and factors including the food process and associated supply chain and customer satisfactory issues. It also looks at the location of the restaurant, staffing and also the quality issues that will give the restaurant the competitive advantage. This report highlights a number of strategically focused issues include: Time maintains: Jose’s Authentic Mexican restaurant management is facing difficulties with food service. And another problem is waiting long time. Even though the Jose’s authentic Mexican restaurant do not have waiting area after that Purchasers they do not mind to wait for seat also they are agree to wait roughly 45 minutes. In this restaurant case another remarkable problem is food preparation time taking longer. In this situation make a complete meal taking long time to serve to customer. Whether regular processing time is 12 minutes, now it is taking 20 minutes. Due to delay from the kitchen, customer service is hampered. Though consumers does not tell anything but they can be bit unhappy. And result is recently declining tips. Quality Issues: Quality is the term used by the customer to describe their general satisfaction with a service or product. Customers, internal or external, are satisfied when their expectations regarding a service or product have been met or exceeded. (Krajewski et al, 2010, p.198) The Quality Management is a philosophy that stresses three principles for achieving high levels of process performance and quality: customer satisfaction, employee involvement and continuous improvement in performance.(Krajewski et al, 2010, p.198) Quality management can be considered to have three main components: quality control, quality assurance and quality improvement. Quality management is focused not only once obtaining quality, but also the means to achieve it for consistently. Quality management therefore uses quality assurance and control of processes as well as products to achieve more consistent quality. To maintain the standard it mainly focuses on the quality of the management and the focal point is customer satisfaction. Here the customers are the people and restaurant needs to make them satisfied by finding out the problems and solving them. Finding out problems can be carried out by asking customers to fill out forms or marking multiple choice questions or by asking them for their opinion. Once the problem can be find out then the next thing is to know how this is happening and solve the problem and continuously improve them by improving standard of the service of the stuff by team building. The quality of food is very improtant issues for a success restaursnt business. Jose’s has problem about the quality of food the chef gets from the external suppliers. If the food is not good and fresh then the total taste of the food will not be what the costomer wants. The cook at Jose’s is stressed out and not happy with the quality of food that has been getting from the external supplier. The food in the Jose’s restaurant should be better quality and fresh. Prepared the good food to meet customer needs and delivered to customers on time to the table. One of the rules of manager should be check the quality food. Food hygiene and spotlessness is another essential characteristic of quality in the restaurant. We could use Six Sigma Improvement Model for improve the quality of food in Jose’s Authentic Mexican Restaurant on busy time. We can use it only for Friday and Saturday nights. Six Sigma which relies heavily on the principles of total quality management, is a comprehensive and flexible system for achieving, sustaining, and maximizing business success by minimizing defects and variability in processes. It is driven by a close understanding of customer needs and diligent attention to managing, improving, and reinventing business processes. Process variability causes customer dissatisfaction. Six Sigma is a rigorous approach to align processes with the restaurant target performance measures with low variability. The Six Sigma Improvement Model has five steps procedure that leads to improvements in process performance. The following steps comprise the model: Define – Determine the characteristics of the process’s output that are critical to Joes’s customer satisfaction and identify any problem between the customer and the process capabilities. Measure – Quantify the work the process does that affects the problem. Analyze – Use the data on measures to perform process analysis and determine where improvements are necessary or not. Improve – Redesign existing methods to implement the changes. Control – Monitor the process to make sure that high standard levels are maintained. Supply chain: The concept of supply chain reinforces the link between processes and performance, which includes a restaurant’s internal processes as well as those of its external customers and suppliers. It also focuses attention on the two main types of processes in the supply chain, namely core processes and support processes. Core processes: A core process is a set of activities that delivers value to external customer. Managers of these processes and their employees interact with external customers and build relationships with them, develop new services and products, interact with external suppliers and produce the service or product for external customers. Supplier relationship process: It is most important to make a good relationship between employee and supplier. Jose’s restaurant has problem about the quality of food the chef receives from the suppliers.. The cook at Jose’s is stressed out and not happy with the quality of food that has been getting from the external supplier. Good quality food come form good suppliers. If the food is not good then the total flavour of the meal will not be what the external customer needs. The result of these entire problems in Jose’s Authentic Mexican Restaurant will lose business. Employees in the supplier relationship process select the suppliers of services, materials and information and facilitate the timely and efficient flow of these items into the Jose’s restaurant. Working effectively with suppliers can add significant value to the services or products of the restaurant. For example: – negotiating for better quality food, scheduling on time deliveries and gaining ideas and insights from critical suppliers etc. Order fulfilment process: The order fulfilment process includes the activities required to produce and deliver the service or product to the external customer. The customer order fulfilment is also important for a success restaurant business. Time maintains is big deal at Jose’s Authentic Mexican Restaurant. The customers are not happy because the cook takes more time for meals on the dinning table. The external customer will be happy if the cook hit their twelve minutes target. Customer relationship process: Customer relationship process sometimes referred to as customer relationship management. Employees involved in the customer relationship process identify, attract, and build relationships with external customers and facilitates the placement of orders by customers. Jose’s manager could be walk through the restaurant and talk to the customer in order to listen feedback. Also more surveys could be help for getting better quality to assess the condition at Jose’s Authentic Mexican Restaurant. Capacity: The Jose’s Authentic Mexican restaurant’ interior decoration promotes the Mexican theme with 58 seats. The wall appear to be made of adobe and are draped with serapes, the furniture is Spanish- Mexican style, and flamenco guitar and mariachi alternate as background music without waiting area. This restaurant has very good demand but shortage of capacity they losing more sales. They have another problem with parking but still their demand is high. Reservation problem is showing that capacity is main problem and waiting area also. Due to shortage of capacity customer have their drinks on stand on bar some are outside especially in Friday and Saturday. Customer Satisfaction: Quality has multiple dimensions in the mind of customer, which cut across the nine competitive priorities. Another way customers define quality is through value, or how well the product serves its intended purpose at a price customers are willing to pay. The product development process plays a role here, as do the restaurant’s competitive priorities relating to top quality versus low cost operations. When the good quality food coming to Jose’s then the preparation time for the food will be reduce and the cook should be able to hit the twelve minute target. The customer will be more satisfy and happy if Jose’s is able to manage to the twelve minutes preparation time for the food instead of twenty minutes. Customer satisfaction is another key of success business. Questions and Answers Question 1: How should quality be defined at this restaurant? The quality is the important and big issue in the restaurant business. Restaurant’s quality should consist of making customers feel happy. Make sure the restaurant meet the customer standards. The customers should be reception greeted by cheerful faces and seated in a friendly manner. The environment in a good restaurant is very important of the dinning knowledge. Making confident that the restaurants interior decoration promotes the Mexican style theme. The environment allows for people to get an actual taste for Mexican meal and Mexican background music. The staffs and administration in the good restaurant should be well behave and more friendly so that the customer will be happy and good dinning experience. Also it is very important to make a good relationship with the valuable customers. The food in the restaurant should be better condition and fresh. Prepared the good food to meet customer needs and delivered to customers on time to the table. Food hygiene and spotlessness is another essential characteristic of quality in the restaurant. Question 2: What are the restaurant’s costs of poor quality? The key of a successful restaurant business is always keep high standard environment and serve fresh good quality foods. Also make happy and satisfied customer that will want to come back and will tell others of their good dinning experience. Time maintains is very important in a good successful business. Customer will not come back if the preparation time and the release time for the meals do not improve at Jose’s Authentic Mexican Restaurant. Restaurant will be lost their customers if the stay time to be seated does not reduce. Another important is the quality of food and customers always want fresh and tasty food. If the food is not good then the total flavour of the meal will not be what the external customer needs. The result of these entire problems in Jose’s Authentic Mexican Restaurant will lose business. When the customers are not happy with the food and management then the whole restaurant suffers and possibly having to shut down. Karetski and other waiters do not get their tips because the poor quality of food. The customer will not give tips well if they have a bad dinning experience and they will not tell others. So the restaurant will be lose their customer and business will be down. Question 3: Use some of the tools for improving quality to assess the situation at Jose’s. There are lots of roads that Jose’s Authentic Mexican Restaurant could be improve their overall Jose’s dinning experience for their valuable customers. Some of the equipment for recovering quality to assess the situation at Jose’s Authentic Mexican Restaurant below: The Quality of Food The Restaurant’s Seating Capacity Take- Way System The Preparation time Reduce The Quality of Food: The quality of food is the biggest problem at Jose’s Authentic Mexican Restaurant. The quality of food is very important for the cook at Jose’s. He is not happy and stressful for the food supplier. The manager at Jose’s needs to try to improve the quality of their food and also needs to contact the supplier according to this problem. The manager at Jose’s could have someone that check the food which has been coming in from the supplier and make sure they are getting fresh and the best quality possible. If the cook and the manager find out that the quality of the food continues to coming in at Jose’s in poor situation then Jose’s would be need to get a new supplier who can supply the best quality and fresh food. More quality food is more success in their restaurant business. The Restaurant’s Seating Capacity: Jose’s Authentic Mexican Restaurant is a small 58-seat restaurant. The customer wait time will be improve and reduce if Jose’s could providing more seating. One of the better ideas for improving the restaurant is to develop on its current size and add a relaxing waiting area so that the customer does not have to wait outside. If Jose’s continues to be a success and grow in a larger restaurant then the customer waiting line will be slowly generate big. So Jose’s would need to be hiring extra employee like cook and waiters that the customer waiting time will be improve and reduce. Take- Way System: Take -Way system is the external customers can order their food and pick up the order at the restaurant. So Jose’s could be starting offering take -way to the customer that the customer still get taste Jose’s Mexican food without waiting on the queue long time and without the whole dinning experience. Customer relationship is important in a successful business. Jose’s manager could be walk through the restaurant and talk to the customer in order to listen feedback. Also more surveys could be help for recovering better quality to consider the condition at Jose’s Authentic Mexican Restaurant. The Preparation time Reduce: Time maintains is big deal at Jose’s Authentic Mexican Restaurant. The customers are not happy because the cook takes more time for meals on the dinning table. The cook takes more time for meal because the poor quality of food. When the good quality food coming to Jose’s then the preparation time for the food will be reduce and the cook should be able to hit the twelve minute target. The customer will be more satisfy and happy if Jose’s is able to manage to the twelve minutes preparation time for the food instead of twenty minutes. If Jose’s Authentic Mexican Restaurant able to make these changes then the customer will be happier and leave better tips for waiters. Karetski and other waiters also will be happier for these changes. When the customer will be enjoy the overall Jose’s dinning experience and tell others then Jose’s will be more success restaurant business in New England. More customers will come in and get taste of the Mexican food.
IT 253 New Hampshire University Policy of the Environmental Protection Discussion
essay helper free IT 253 New Hampshire University Policy of the Environmental Protection Discussion.
OverviewIn this module, you explored policies and practices used by organizations to protect information. There are a variety of policies that are intended to improve the security posture of an organization. These policies include but are not limited to: acceptable use policies, privacy policies, authorized access policies, change and configuration management policies, human resource policies, codes of ethics, organizational security policies, password policies, user education and awareness policies, and user management policies, among many others. Many of the aforementioned policies live within an organization’s overarching information security policy, although they can stand alone, depending on the size of the organization. The size of the organization can also affect the ways in which roles and responsibilities are determined. For example, a smaller organization could have an IT department of one, where a larger organization will have dedicated roles with distinct skill sets and responsibilities that no other role takes ownership of.For the purposes of this activity, you will review a general information security policy of a government organization. Although information security policies can be lengthy, the policy you will be reviewing is considered brief. It is 13 pages long. Be mindful of the time it will take to not only read the policy but to review specific sections in order to address all of the activity questions.For this week’s activity:Read the information security policy and the resources provided in the Supporting Materials section.Consider how laws and regulation influence organizational policies, and the various IT roles that might be included in an information security policy.Respond to the provided activity questions.PromptMost privately owned and publicly traded firms give their employees access only to security policies and private information. Security policies typically remain for internal use only due to the sensitive nature of their contents. However, many education entities, nonprofits, and government-affiliated institutions make these documents available to the public via their websites. Read the Information Security Policy of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and respond to the provided activity questions. To access the policy in full for the purposes of this activity, click on the “Information Security Policy (PDF)” in the link just provided. The Supporting Materials section contains resources that will help you understand the elements of a good policy.Supporting MaterialsThese resources will provide you with greater insight into what elements make up a good security policy and help you prepare for your response to the activity questions:Ten Security Policy Writing Mistakes You Cannot Afford to MakeHow to Create a Good Security PolicyKey Elements of an Information Security PolicyWhat Is FISMA Compliance?Guidelines for SubmissionRespond to the activity questions below related to the Module Three Activity. Your submission should be 1 to 2 pages, double-spaced, and submitted as a Word document (.docx). Resources must be appropriately cited using APA style. You are allowed, though not required, to use resources outside of those provided within Module Three and the Supporting Materials section.Your responses should be in complete paragraphs and should contain the following:Answer all of the activity questions thoroughly and completely. Write out the questions in your submission.Make direct connections between the information security policy and the concepts covered in the provided resources in Module Three, as well as in the Supporting Materials.Support your answers with appropriate examples drawn from the information security policy.Use correct grammar, sentence structure, and spelling, and demonstrate an understanding of audience and purpose.Activity QuestionsDo you think the law or regulation has influenced the development of this policy? How?How do the listed IT roles and responsibilities support and improve the EPA’s security posture?What audience do you think the policy was intended for? Why?Are there elements that you would recommend to enhance this policy?
IT 253 New Hampshire University Policy of the Environmental Protection Discussion
Capitalism: A Love Story: A Reflective Paper Response Essay
The paper will start by giving an overall impression of the documentary, followed by an examination of what the documentary meant to me. This will be followed by an analysis of whether I agree with Moore’s message in the movie or not, and why. The conclusion will be a discussion on whether the movie has in any way changed my perception on capitalism. There will be included a bibliography page citing the resources used in the paper. If you cut out the drama, the people-bashing and the over-simplification of complex economic systems in Michael Moore’s documentary movie ‘Capitalism: a Love Story’, you can still find substance in there. Having had reviews to both extremes; with others claiming that Moore should have stopped making movies at ‘Roger and Me’, and the other half exclaiming that it was an eye-opener, it was with mixed expectations that I watched the documentary. I admit it was at first difficult to follow the storyline, but by the middle of the movie, I could see clearly the point that Moore was trying to put across. Moore was presenting the social and economic inequalities that have been the result of decades of capitalism. He pointed out at institutions such as Wall Street and Goldman Sachs as being the major culprits (Dargis n.p). He argued that politics and the corporate world are too closely tied in America, and this undermines democratic practice. Who suffers for this? It is the small people, who, ironically make up 99% of the population and only own 5% of America’s wealth (Dargis n.p). A broad definition of capitalism is an economic system where business enterprises are privately owned while the rules and policies that run market conditions are determined by a central government (Bowles 5). After watching Moore’s movie, I had to rethink my understanding on the benefits of capitalism. Capitalism, as it was argued for by its earliest advocates: Max, Smith and others in their league, is that it stimulates economic growth. This is generally accepted as fact to date. A more important but less considered question, is, who does the economic growth benefit. Or rather, what percentage of a population does capitalism benefit? Moore’s movie provides a clear answer for that; in America, which is considered one of the wealthiest nations in the world, 1% of the population own 95% of country’s resources (Gritten n.p). Is that not shocking? In a country that preaches constantly freedom, equality, democracy and human rights, something close to neo-slavery is being practiced. For in this materialistic age, are you not owned by the person who owns the material resources? Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Democracy is hampered, as Moore illustrates, because the process of elections and voting has become compromised; the corporations contribute to the campaigns for those candidates who they feel will best serve their needs, the candidate with the biggest campaign stash wins the election (Dargis n.p). And the 1% remain at the top of the game, getting off lightly for crimes such as the ‘pheasant insurance’ or the 700 billion dollar tax write off awarded to sustain failing financial institutions after the most recent economic downturn (Dargis n.p). I agree with the movie to a large extent.The facts may be presented with some pomp and circumstance but they are still facts. Just because there are myriad facts involved in the foreclosure does not change the fact that a home in America is foreclosed every seven minutes (Gritten n.p). There are still thousands of people losing their jobs monthly, there are thousands more who cannot afford insurance cover. Moore is right in his message; there are a select few who have abused the American capitalistic system and made a ‘plutonomy’ out of the system (Dargis n.p). Conclusion The movie changes my view of capitalism in the sense of ‘unregulated capitalism’. Every social theory has its time, Karl Max evolved capitalism because the time was right for it, and the people, at that point in time, were ripe for the capitalistic revolution. But for every period in history there are systems that work, as well as others that simply do not. From Moore’s movie, I see that perhaps it is time that not only the U.S, but also the rest of the world, reviewed how capitalism is put to work. With or without the blaster in Moore’s movie, the cold, hard facts do not change that there is a gross imbalance in the distribution of resources, as was intended in the first place, and that perhaps, it is about time there was a post-capitalism revolution. Works Cited Bowles, Paul. Capitalism. London: Pearson
The Battle Of Waterloo History Essay
Napoleon was a man of military genius. He is recognized the world over and his principles form a part of study of military history as well as principles of war. Despite all his success, Napoleon also had certain weaknesses, which led to his ultimate defect at WATERLOO, in his last battle. 2. Carryout analyses of the battle of WATERLOO bringing out the weaknesses of Napoleon’s Army in that battle which ultimately lead to his defeat. THE BATTLE OF WATERLOO INTRODUCTION 1. “Men of genius are meteors intended to burn to light their century”, and thus with these words of Napoleon himself we venture into the world of a mil genius. Osward said “Napoleon’s life was an immense toil, not for himself, not for France, but for the further”. The conduct of war is an art based on ageless fundamental concepts that have remained valid irrespective of the prevailing means and methods of warfare. Waterloo was the site of Napoleon’s last battle, which albeit he lost, nevertheless provokes us to study it analytically to deduce and learn imp lessons from it. But, surely without historic truth to lt us through the past, it is vain to form judgments on it, or to seek to deduce lessons for the future. 2. The Battle of waterloo was the final and decisive action of the Napoleonic Wars that eff ended French domination of the European continent and brought about drastic changes in the political boundaries and the power bal of Europe. Fought on 18th Jun 1815, near Waterloo, the battle ranks as a great turning pt in modern history. For a student of mil history, this battle is not only full of enthralling action and captivating events, but its careful analysis can reveal imp lessons which can benefit us even today. AIM 3. To carry out analytical study and highlight the weaknesses which lead to Napoleon defeat in the Battle of Waterloo. Scheme of Presentation 4. The Battle of Waterloo is covered in the fol seq:- a. Backgr. b. Face of the Battle Field. c. Opposing Forces. d. Opposing Plans. e. Conduct. (1) Attk on Hougoumont. (2) D’Erlon’s Attk. (3) Battle for La Haye-Sainte and Planchenoit. (4) The Gds Attk. f. Weaknesses and Factors Lead to Defeat. Analysis Concl. BACKGR 5. After raising France to a posn of pre-eminence in Europe from 1804 to 1813, Napoleon met defeat in 1814 by a coalition of maj powers, notably Prussia, Russia, Britain, and Austria was then deposed and exiled to the island of Elba, and Louis XVIII was made ruler of France. In Feb 1815, Napoleon escaped from Elba and returned to France. There may veterans of his former campaigns flocked to his stander, and in Mar 1815, he again ascended the throne. The Congress of Vienna, alarmed by Napoleon’s return to power, had reacted quick to the crisis Austria, Great Britain, Prussia and Russia each agreed to contribute 150,000 tps to an invasion to be assembled in Belgium near the France border. A majority of other nations present at the congress also pledged tps for the invasion of France, which was to be launched on 1 Jul 1815. 6. In Paris, Napoleon, learning of the invasion plan, quickly determined to attk the allies on their own gr before army could take shape. He mob within two months a massive army of trained soldiers. He deployed some of these tps within France as a security force and grouped the remainder into attk units. 7. On Jun 14, 1815, Napoleon, moving with the utmost speed and secrecy, reached the Franco-Belgian border with 124,000 of his tps. Another 56,000 men were lt behind in sdry or sp posns. Napoleon’s grand strat for the coming campaign was typically audacious. Facing him beyond the Belgian border were two separate allied armies. The larger army, a force of 116,000 Prussians, led by the Prussian Fd Marshal Blucher, was based at Namur. Adv elements of Blucher’s army were stationed as far west as Charleroi. A force of 93,000 British, Dutch, Belgian and German tps was based at Brussels, with an outpost in the vill of Quatre-Bras. The ldr of this army, British Gen Arthur Wellesley, 1st duke of Wellington, was also comd in chief of the allied forces. Napoleon planned to attk both armies with the aim of splitting and destroying them. To carry out this plan he divided his force into attk wings and a start res, which consisted of trusted veterans known as the Old Gd. Face of Battle field 8. The B fd of waterloo is extremely small in area. The opposing forces occupied two low ridges separated by a gentle valley extending over a dist of about 1500 yds. In width the battle zone barely extended over 5000 yds stretching from the chateau og hougoumont in the west to the town of appellate in the East. From the center of the French posns from the small hamlet of La Bell Alliance, the Brussels to Charlerio highway traversed the area of gr separating the two armies. This entered Wellington’s fwd posns at La Haye Ssainte before breasting the crest and running down the reverse slope towards mont-St-Jean beyond. This rd in fact, neatly bisected the B fd and provide the French with their main axis of adv. OPPOSING FORCES 9. COMPOSN Composn of diff forces of the theatre is as under:- a. The French Army (1) Comd-in-Chief. Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte (2) Comd Lt Wing. Marshal Michel Ney (3) Comd Rt Wing. Marshal Grouchy (4) Army Composn. (a) Imperial Gd (b) I Corps (c) II Coorps (d) III Corps (e) IV Corps (f) V Corps (g) VI Corps I Cavalry Corps (j) II Cavalry Corps (k) III Cavalry Corps (l) IV Cavalry Corps (m) Total: 124,000 Men, 366 guns The Anglo-Allied Army (1) Comd-in-Chief: Fd Marshal Arthur Wellesley, Duke Of Wellington Army Composn. I Corps II Corps Gen Res Res Cav Hanovrain Res Corps (f) Exiled Bourbon French (g) Total: 93, 000 Men, 216 Guns The Prussian Army (1) Comd-in-Chief : Fd Marshal Blucher Army Str I Corps II Corps III Corps IV Corps Total : 116,00 Men, 312 guns 10. Disposn. Into an area of barely three sq miles were crowded two sizeable armies with hundred of guns and thousands in cavalry. French tps were deployed in arrays having full view of the allied army to gain max psychological advantage. On the other side of the valley allied comd Wellington was also deploying his fmns to meet the impending fury. French Army To the east of Brussels rd stood I Corps, and towards west was II Corps. Some little way to the rear of these corps was massed the bulk of the French Cavalry in adv posns. Centrally placed behind these masses of inf and cavalry was VI Corps and two further divs of cavalry. In the rear stood the Imperial Gds. b. Allied Army The gen shape of Allied disposns resembled a wedge with bulk of the forces massed on rt. The lt was lightly held intentionally as the arrival of Blucher was being relied upon. The main posns of Allies lay mostly to the north of Braine I’Alleud- Ohain rd running between high banks and gen fol the line of Mont.-St-Jean crest. Bulk of the main forces was drawn up on the reverse slope behind the rd, considerably protected from French arty fire. About a mile west, Brain’ Alleud was held in strength. Party of I Corps, a res div and some cavalry was on the extreme lt. Most of res cavalry was drawn up in rear of the rt center. However, some cavalry took post close to Mont.-St-Jean. In addition, Wellington placed some tps in adv posns occupying the chateau of hougoumont and La Haye Sainte. Prussian Army Prussian forces were under comd Blucher, which were presently engaged at Warve in the east. They were to region the main Allied forces and reinforce the eastern flank. While advancing towards Waterloo, he lt behind III Corps at Wavre. OPPOSING PLANS French Plan 11. The French paln was simple and concise, revealing the Emperor was determined not to waste any time in fancy mnvrs. Wellington was to be crushed by a series of unsophisticated frontal blows. Details of the plan are as fol : A feint attk by prince jeromi’s div of II Corps would be conducted on the allied adv posn at Hougoumont with a view to force Wellington to mov his res from the center to the lt flank. Thereby weakening the sec behind which he would receive the maj blow. As soon as possible the Army is formed up, Marshal Ney will attk on Mont-St-Jean in order to seize the cross rds at the place. To this end arty of II and IV Corps will mass with that of the I Corps. The guns will bombard the tps holding Mont-St-=Jean and I Corps will begin its attk. II Corps will also adv keeping abreast with the I Corps Coy of Engrs belonging to IO Corps will hold themselves in readiness to fortify Mont-St-Jean as soon it is taken. Allied Plan 12. Wellington plan was to be rested napoleon until Blucher forces could arrive. The two Armies would join each other south of waterloo, On Blucher arrival, The Prussian Army would out flank. The Emperors night attk and overrun the hole French Line. MAIN FEATURES OF CONDUCT Attk on Hougoumont 13. Rains on the preceding day of the battle made the gr sodden and delayed opening of the battle. The battle started at 11.30 am by an attk on the allied adv posn at Hougoumont by price jermi’s div of II Corps. 14. At this stage instead of calling off the attk and instead using arty, he asked for rfts. D’ Erlon’s Attk 15. Napoleon delayed the main battle to allow for the gr to dry. He massed his arty and at about 1: pm opened a hvy and substantial fire to blast a gap in the allied center prep to D’Erlon’s 16. Although French inf fought bravely but they were swept back. M any were cut down by the opposing cavalry and more the 3000 surrendered and very soon two third of D’Erlon’s shattered men were running down the slope in complete disarray. Battle for La Haye Sainte and Plancheniot 17. At this stage Napoleon had no hope of Grouchy reaching. Waterloo. Napoleon could now either call off the battle or fling everything at Wellington in the hope of destroying him before the Prussian assistance became eff. 18. Without ref to the emperors he ordered a full-scale pursuit hoping to convert the apparent allied retreat into a full-scale rout without further delay. In excitement the scale of cavalry attk escalated out of proportion and by 5 pm no less than 5000 French cavalry assault the slope towards the center of allied force. However the sodden gr rescued speed of adv to a slow trot. 19. However, the emperor considered the Prussian’s threat to his first pri and ordered his final res to form a line facing plachenoit. Planchenoit was in French hands in no time. The mov thus stabilized Napoleon’s flank. The Gd’s Attk 20. Reassured for the being about his rt Napoleon was last able to return his attention to the affairs of center. He had one last trump card to play nine battalions of the Imerial Gd that had returned into res and were now aval. The gds were ordered to mov ahead in comd of Emperor himself upto 600 yds of allied front before he relinquished the comd to Ney. 21. The Imperial gd mov fwd but Wellington was ready. His rft of center was complete by arrival of tps from East, which was by now in posn. The Prussian I Corps was on the pt of arriving from Northeast and on Wellington’s order, lay down behind the banks of the Ohain rd. 22. The French lost all impetus and in a short span of time were recoiling down the slope. With defeat staring in their face, the French stood momentarily against the onslaught. Sensing his opportunity, Willington waved jis hat and 40,000 allied tps swept fwd from Mont-St-Jean. A moment later, the cohesion of the French Army snapped and unit after unit, dissolved into a horde of undisciplined fugitives. ANALYSIS 23. The Plan To the plan Marshal Ney had added a pencil note that the attk will be first delivered from lt instead of beginning from rt. This aspect was revealing in fol aspects. First, it was clear that the Emperor was entrusting the actual handling of the battle to Marshal Ney. Sec, There was no specific mention of the need to launch an all out attk on Hougoumont by II Corps. Third, the instrs for sappers reveal that Napoleon was determined to cut the rd to Brussels, Wellington’s line of retreat. The Plan showed a single massive offensive sp by the merest handful of prelim attk. However, there was no mention of any emergency action or adaptation to meet the arrival of addl Prussian forces. Some critics also claim that French should have attempted to turn Wellington’s rt flank rather than indulge in so straight fwd an aslt but Napoleon needed a quick victory while the sodden char of the gr would inevitably have delayed any elaborate mnvr. 24. Attk on Hougoumont. By allowing action around Hougoumont into a maj struggle, jeromi committed the first tac blunder. Willington only mov one bde whereas the decisive eff of the action was that greater part of the French II Corps was tied down for most of the battle. Thus at the very outset the French plan of battle was jeopardized and thrown off bal by the unrealistic determination of a div comd who failed to aprc his true msn. 25. Protection of Rt Flank In order to protect his rt flank Napoleon ordered part of VI Corps to the threatened sec. Which drew up in a line East of between planchenoit creating a sec front. If he had placed his force in the rea of D’Erlon’s Corps, he would have been able to sp D’Erlon’s 2 pm attk and taking post to repel or check Prussian adv also. 26. D’Erlon’s Attk a. Wellington could be congratulated on routing D’Erlon’s poorly coord and ill org attk for a loss of some 4000 inf. However, D’Erlon’s adoption of an outdated of adv was a tac blunder, which allowed Wellington to route the effort. b. Although prep bombardment by art was restored to but there was no attempt to provide adequate cavalry sp to the inf attk and properly coord a bal attk. On these counts, D’Erlon’s chances of success were jeopardized from the beginning. 27. Ney’s 1st Cavalry on La Haye Sainte. This aslt was also as badly planned and handled as D’Erlon’s earlier offensive. This dir of attk was it self an error. The Cavalry should not have been lunched prior to the caputre of La-Haye-Sainte. The cavalry adv with out any arty or inf sp and once again the principle of proper coord was neglected. The absence of French Horse arty in close sp meant that the allied were not subj to an eff pt blank fire during the charge. 28. Shortcomings of Napoleon’s Marshals. During the yrs of exile at St. Helena the fallen Emperor made great efforts to place the resp for the cataclysm on his immediate subordinates. Grouchy can certainly be criticised for failing to march towards the sounds of the guns on the late morning of 18th and delaying his pursuit of the Prussian Army. Ney’s inability as an efficient fd comd is shown by repeated launching of inadequately sp attks of a piecemeal nature and his failure to use resources readily aval in order to ensure success. 29. Deterioration in Napoleon’s Overall Ability. The chief resp for the shortcomings can only be laid at the door of the Emperor himself. The original strat conception was brilliant but there were great flaws undermining the entire effort. There are some undeniable indications of deterioration in his overall ability. Napoleon proved to be obstinate, arrogant overconfident. He appt sec rate men to key appts, when better were aval. He tended to underestimate the powers of his opponents. He ignored Blucher’s sense of loyalty and definitely discounted Wellington’s ability as gen. His health was also not in its prime and during the battle her was being treated for piles. e. These factors led him to delay opening of the battle on 18th jun and to refuse Ney vital rfts at the critical moment in the battle. f. Preoccupation with the sdry battle on his eastern flank accts for his lapse of judgment. 30. Lack of Comd and Con. Throughout the battle Napoleon failed to ex sufficient con over his subordinates. While it is not the resp of the comd in chief to interfere excessively in the details of the battle at tac lvl, his overall supervision is vital to ensure that the plan is exec with a min delay and confusion. This insufficient comd and con led to permitting the fol: a. Jeromi to turn a feint attk into a maj effort. b. D’Erlon’s to adopt an outdated fmn. c. Ney to throw away the Cavalry d. Grouchy to mov away beyond recall. 31. Napoleon should never have allowed these mistakes to happen. A high deg of con was possible on such a rest B fd as Waterloo. The Emperor may have been unfortunate in the weather of the preceding twelve hrs, but this factor does not remove one iota of resp for the lapses he displayed at diff critical moments during the days. 32. Allied Comds. Credit here also goes to Wellington on the way he handled the battle, chose the excellent def posn and conducted its def in the most tenacious and praise worthy manner. His men too deserve praise; allied army was a hybrid collection of multinational fmns yet fought magnificently throughout the long and exhausting day. 33. Finally honor must be paid to Fd Marshal Blucher and his Prussian soldiers whose arrival at the opportune moment at the French rt flank undoubtedly swung the fortune of the day. LESSONS LEARNT 34. Looking back, as one considers the ldrship, forces, mnvrs and engagements of those days, one is struck by the unpredictable nature of the series of successes and failures, influenced by such factors as “Chance and Friction” to use language of Clausewitz. With analytical study of mil history, certain lessons can always be drawn which have implications not restd to a particular sit or battle only. The invaluable lessons obtained from analysis of the battle of Waterloo are equally applicable to the present. These lessons are: a. Surprise and initiative. When on the early morning of the 15th of Jun the French Army crossed the frontier into Belgium, Napoleon had achieved complete surprise over Blucher and Wellington. Their armies were too widely scattered to offer series resistance. In all his yrs as comd in Chief there is no more striking example of how to seize the initiative against superior forces and with it threaten their prompt destruction. b. Availing Opportunities. During the course of any battle, many opportunities might arise for either side. At such times quick analysis, timely decisions coupled with prompt action are req to eff avail these chances. Several chances were presented to the French who were unable to benefit from them, Such as : In the afternoon Jun 16th, at ligancy Napoleon was able to defeat Blucher after an action lasting three hrs. At twilight the Prussians withdrew, because of D’Erlons’s failure to enter the fighting, however. The main body of Bluchers army, about 70,0000 men, was able to return in good order. At quatre-Bras. Ney had unaccountably waited several hrs to begin his attk on the anglo-Dutch posn, and this delay enable Wellington to reinforce Quatre-Bras with several divs of cavalry and inf. On wellington retreat from Quatre Bas, Napoleon sent msgs to Ney at Frasnes ordering him to engage Wellington immediately. Ney, who was not aware of Wellington retreat, failed to obey these orders. This was an ideal opportunity to eff destroy Wellington forces, which were not ready for def. Napoleon’s preoccupation with the Eastern flank cost him a decisive attk to Wellington center when Ney had finally succeeded in making a headway. c. Sound Planning. Napoleon’s rapid assy of forces, camouflaging the conc of his army, surprise breakout; all these reflected a sound plan. It was exactly how a weaker force confronted by a stronger en should act : trying to prevent Wellington and Blucher joining up forces and aiming at the defeat of their two armies singly. d. Eff Comd and Con. While it is not the resp of the comd in chief to interfere excessively in the details of the battle at tac lvl. His overall supervision is vital to ensure that the master plan is put into exec with a min delay and confusion. A high deg of con was possible on such a restd B fd as Waterloo, but throughout the battle Napoleon failed to ex sufficient con over his subordinates. This resulted in:- Jerome turned a feint attk into a maj effort. (2) D’Erlon’s adopted an outdated fmn. Ney threw away the cavalry. Grouchy mov away beyond recall. e. Maint of Aim. Napoleon’s use of the army was, at the beginning, completely in accordance with his principle. But the final phase of the battle shows Napoleon doing the complete opposite to what required for success. The opponent who should have been broken up was able, despite defeat, to unify his forces and bring them into action to his own op advantage. The attacker, on the other hand, had divided his forces and was unable to reunite them. Consequently, Napoleon found himself at a disadvantage and in no posn to recover him. f. Correct use of Gr and Weather. In any tac sit correct evaluation and use of gr and weather are of prime imp. Terrain. Wellington had sel his posons after careful deliberation and minute exam of the gr and detailed considerations of advantages it could afford. In addition to these, Wellington also placed some trps in adv posns occupying the chateau of Hougoumont and La Haye Sainte as strong pts, which had many well-built farms and barns with short encircling walls. g. Weather. Rain on the previous ni of the battle had caused the gr to become sodden. While careful choice of gr gave the advantage of weather to Wellington, the opposite was true for Napoleon. h. Conc. Wellington had det 17000 of his tps to his rt at Hal and Tubize, thereby willfully reducing his Army to a numerical inferiority to that of Napoleon. Napoleon’s calc was erroneous in not having brought against Wellington every man and horse that it was possible for him to collect. It was not absolutely nec to make such a large det under Grouchery and affect the numerical bal of forces. The contingent of men lt at Charleroi should have been conc with the main force. j. Speed. The time avail to the en to prep his defs must be kept to a min. Moreover time lost in attk is time gained for strengthening of def for the opponent, and time lost in pursuit is time taken to consolidate the posn. The battle was delayed from hr to hr to allow for drying of of the gr while Prussians came closer and closer. Gropuchy’s delay to make contact with Blucher Proved fatal for the French, asd Blucher was able to arrive and save the day for the Allied. Delay in the attk of Imperial Gds in assistance of Ney was delayed and this caused the chance of victory to vanish. k. Fire Power. The imp of conc firepower when req should not be undermined: (1) At Waterloo, the English possessed a considerable advantage over their opponents. The British had recently adopted the two rank firing systems in place of the older three rank firing systems. This eff firepower by 50%. (2) The French after experimenting with the two rank system had stuck with the older three rank system. The British muskets were motre accurate than the French. (3) Furthermore, the British were in passion of mob fd arty guns which were superior in fire power than those possessed by the French. l. Coop and Coord. When the gr and tac site permit, Inf-armr coop and coord between sp arms is a maj deciding factor in favour of the attacker. An abundance of good cavalry was aval for D’erlon’s attk, but was p[poorly used. Where the horsemen did appear, their success underlined the mistake of not sending them in force. Had they arrived there just before the inf, Wellington’s men would have had to form sqs fro def and their fire power would have been reduced to a fraction. The French inf went fwd unprotected, and were confronted with every musket in line to meet them. m. Correct Assessment of sit. Prior to any battle, correct aprc is nec. Also, accurate assessment of tac sits as and when they arise during the battle is vital. (1) Accurate Vis. On the French side Napoleon as well as his subordinates, showed an inc deg of mistaken assessment, uncertainty and negligence which, under such testing conditions, had serious consequences. (2) Under Estimating The En. Napoleon underestimated the powers of his opponents. He ignored Blucher’s sense of loyalty and discounted Wellington’s ability as a gen. Maint of Momentum. The successes of the attk on the French flank, and the achievements of bringing up the exhausted Prussian tps to the B fd were largely due to Blucher’s energy. o. Morale. By comparison, the allied armies seemed as if they had suddenly shaken out of a deep sleep. For all their losses and exhaustion, there was no loss of morale in the Allied and Prussian Armies; rather there was a will to cont the fight. CONCL 35. The overall mil sit facing France after waterloo was not as poor as it has sometime been represented. Both sides had taken a severe pounding during the pd 15th -18th Jun and although the French naturally suffered most in terms of case, morale and prestige, the allies had by no means escaped lightly. Napoleon passed his remaining days of life at St-Helena. The flt of the eagle was over at last, and an exhausted Europe settled down once more to attempt a return to former ways of life and govt. But the shade of Napoleon lingered on irresistibly for many yrs after his death in 1821.