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Minimum Spanning Tree Algorithm and Data Structure Essay

Minimum Spanning Tree Algorithm and Data Structure Essay.

I’m working on a algorithms & data structures discussion question and need support to help me learn.

Briefly answer blow questions.1) What is the fundamental connection between building a minimum spanning tree and finding the maximum flow in a flow network?2) Suppose that an employer lists a job to which people respond. The employer only tells those it is interested in to come for an interview (and subsequently tells one he is hired), and never tells some people who apply whether they have been considered or not. Using language theory, qualify the “algorithm” for hiring used by the employer, focusing on acceptance versus deciding.3) How are NP-C problems similar to P problems? How do they differ?
Minimum Spanning Tree Algorithm and Data Structure Essay

Ryan air strategy was to offer low fares with no frills that attract high passengers and also focusing on effective services at the same time. Constituents of Ryan air strategy were low cost, customer services, frequent flights and short haul routes. It’s been define by its agile maturation. It directly passes it cost to customers. In its early years Ryan air was in direct competition with British airways and Aer Lingues. PESTLE ANALYSIS: Pestle analysis involves identifying the political, economical, social, technological, legal and environmental influences on the organization.(Johnson 1999). POLITICAL FACTORS: As specified in the case, EU regulations were introduced to reduce the inconvenience caused to air passengers by delays, cancelations of flights and denied boarding and also EU government abolished the sales of duty free goods. Another issue was security measure due to terror attacks these restrictions were applied to all the passengers and they were not allowed to carry with them liquids and gels in their luggage. One of such issues was carbon emissions in the EU, having great impact on the climate. The company was criticized for refusing to recognize trade union pressure allegedly providing poor working conditions. Ryan air appeal to the Irish Supreme Court over a previous ruling allowing collective bargain by its pilots through the Irish airline pilots associations. ECONOMIC FACTORS: Ryan air was especially affected by the rise in fuel price from 2005. Its low fares policy limited its ability to pass on increased fuel costs to passengers through increased fuel costs to passengers through increased fare. Depreciation of exchange rates was also one of the factors effecting Ryan air, when value of US dollars went down. It was also asked to re pay the subsidies to Belgium regional government. SOCIO-CULTURAL FACTORS: Changes in social trends can impact on the demand for a firm’s products and the availability and willingness of individuals to work. Change in mode of travelling due to terror attacks people might chose other mode of transport like cars and trains and inconvenience caused. At time of recession people go for low budget traveling and therefore business travel increase. The majority percentage of People used to travel in Ryan air were mostly aged between 25-34 and 35-44 having 30.54% and 23.4% respectively. Purpose of traveling was one of the major factors for effecting Ryan air’s profitability like for business purposes, leisure and personnel reasons, it was mostly high for the personnel reason rather than used by business class. TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS: Ryan air introduced internet sales as cost cutting measures for passengers check-in and luggage handling and also by launching its website it made it tickets available only online. Ryan air also introduced a new fleet to its flights and the new technology helped in reducing the carbon emission. LEGAL FACTORS: EU government was always against the merger between Aer Lingues and Ryan air. It was charged by Belgium government for unethically giving the resignation letters to the employees. Another sever issues was that Pilots were forced to sign the contract, were they had to pay euro 15000 for retraining and also have to pay for their uniforms. Ryan air was also charged for misleading advertisements. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES: Green house from carbon emissions especially having great impact on the aviation having 2.6% carbon emissions on EU. And another environmental issue was noise pollution. PORTER FIVE FORCES It elaborates about the threat from new entrants, customer (buyer), supplier, substitutes and also the competitive rivalry. The buyers have high power here over the suppliers and can also choose the better option. Due to high investments, new entrants have several entry barriers for themselves. Substitutes like train and road transport can have great impact due to the budgeted airline system. Competitive rivalries have direct competition amongst them as there are so many rival companies in this field. COMPETITIVE RIVALRY: Ryan air faced competition due to deregulation on routes creating ability amongst the airlines, which played a great role for customers in selecting the airlines and also because of recession Ryan air attracted more customer because of its low cost, people shifted from other traditional high cost airlines switched to Ryan air. Various mergers and acquisition like Air France and KLM gave Ryan air a good competition. Ryan air use to attract its customers by giving specials offers and discounts. Another competitor was a north Atlantic airline which was forced to concentrate on rivalry with European market due to decline in the economy. THREAT OF ENTRY: In European countries a regulation was passed which made easy for other airways to enter into European market. Another threat was economic barrier as they need good financial backing, because may be new entrance may can face loss of money in the beginning of the carrier. Ryan air didn’t face much threat as it was the oldest and most experienced airlines of all. BARRAGING POWER OF SUPPLIERS: The barraging power of suppliers was very low in context to Ryan air as it use to buy from Boeing and as of the number of aircraft suppliers were increased so there was a aggressive rivalry between Airbus and Boeing. Their engineering technology was different from other suppliers. Frequent fluctuation in supply of fuel and also increase in rate of oil price. BARGAINING POWER OF BUYER: Ryan air faced a strong power of buyer as it had the monopoly in the market, they use to cost a lot on additional services like food, check in baggage, provision of wheel chair, which in turn was totally not likable by the customers .Due to direct customer booking and no involvement of travel agents were also a threat to Ryan air as buyers find it easy to do their work through travel agents. The power of buyers was high as Ryan air use to provide low cost. THREAT TO SUBSTITUTES: Ryan air acted as threat to other modes of transport like cars and all sort of road transport as they offered low cost and was much safer to and also was accessible to the places where it was difficult to go by car or any other land transport. Ryan air acted as a treat to all high budget airlines due to its low cost no frills service. STRATEGIC GROUP ANALYSIS: Strategic group analysis aims to identify organizations with similar strategic characteristics, following similar strategies or competing on similar bases. (Johnson et al, 2005) Analysis can be done in three steps firstly to identify the competitors, than evaluating the strategic space and finally evaluating the strategic mobility. STRATEGIC GROUP Like Ryan air, easy jet and virgin express are all low cost airlines following the same strategy. Although these airlines have certain characteristics in common but their certain characteristics made a lot difference between them. Porter five forces already helped in identifying the forces then by doing this analysis various competitors will be outlined. Ryan air the world’s leading international passenger carrier, with over 57.6 million passengers transported during the course of the year, according to IATA STRATEGIC SPACE These spaces are created by changes in the macro-environment- particularly globalization and information technology (Johnson et al, 2005). Ryan air was thinking to diversify and expand its business by buying an airport; it was also thinking to start its own profitable private company like hotel as it noticed that Air Lingus had earned 40% profits from it. Ryan air was to start its 12th European base at Liverpool. MOBILITY BARRIERS This refers to those factors which stops the organization from entering into any other market segment. One of the barriers can be that traditional airlines can stop or act as a hurdle for Ryan air from diversifying into long haul routes. And another barrier which Ryan air would face will be financial back-up. From Oct ’09 easy jet carried 45.4 million passengers with average load factor of 85.7% and on the other hand Ryan air transported 64.1 million passengers with load factor of 82%. STRATEGIC CAPABILITY Strategic capability is the adequacy and suitability of the resources and competences of an organization for it to survive and prosper (Johnson et al, 2008). THRESHOLD RESOURCES: are the productive assets owned by the firm (grant, 2005). TANGIBLE RESOURCES: they are easy to calculate and analyze. Ryan air had total of 35000 employees and also had a consistent growth in its profit from the year 2003 to 2007of € 110557 to €362104 consecutively. Ryan air had newest and quickest fleet by 2010 the average age of fleet was 3years. Ryan air took advantage of low oil price to maintain its fuel price for the year 2010. Being a budget airline Ryan air didn’t do much expenditure on its infrastructure. INTANGIBLE RESOURCES: these are those resources which largely remain invisible but do more than tangible resources. Ryan air does not allow its employees to discuss its information within them; it is unethical that they pass their information to any third party. Every firm has some sort of trade secret and strategy, it was totally impossible for any other airlines to imitate Ryan airs strategy and trade secret. THRESHOLD COMPETENCES: activities and process needed to meet customer minimum requirements and therefore to continue to exists (Johnson et al, 2005). Ryan air use to provide special training to its employees before officially hiring them for the job. And was ranked number 2 in providing best services and product. UNIQUE RESOURCES: resources that underpin competitive advantage and are difficult to imitate or obtain(Johnson et al, 2005). TANGIBLE RESOURCES: Ryan air unique resource was its aircraft it used Boeing 737-800 and it used the newest and quickest aircraft in the whole Europe. It also use to provide lots of ancillary revenues like it use to get commission from the website on every complete sale , use to charge on usage of debit or credit card. It also use to provide in flight services like serving of drinks, food, watches, Bluetooth sets were easy way of making extra revenues. Passengers were also able to buy motor tickets from the flight itself. INTANGIBLE RESOURCES: Ryan air always use to latest and newest technology and always tried to upgrade its system, it was the first airline to change their system totally. It signed a deal with cable and wireless and outsourced the telecommunication technology. Its use to provide value for money and also being the most experienced air lines in this field it had a great brand image which helped Ryan air its defining its capability from others. Its low cost strategy also acted one of the unique resources for the organization. Ryan air strategy of landing its aircraft at secondary airports proved to be very helpful in cutting down the operational cost. CORE COMPETENCES: activities that underpin competitive advantage and are difficult to imitate or obtain (Johnson et al, 2005). The main core competence of Ryan air was its CEO Michael o ‘Leary, Michael Cawley. It also had the advantage of first mover advantage as it was the first low cost airlines and shaped the European airline market. The hedging techniques and policy used by Ryan air used also acted as a core competence for the company even though they never used it hedging techniques up to the mark. The safety records of Ryan air was very good as compared to other airlines as reviewed by its passenger that it does not compromise with its safety and aircraft maintenance. VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS OF RYAN AIR Value chain analysis describes the activities within and around an organization and relates them to an analysis of the competitive strength of the organization. (Johnson et al, 2005). Ryan air tries building relationship with various suppliers for e.g. Boeing and gets deliver the goods on time and also building a strong relationship with them adding value to its chain, thus by building strong relations hip with Boeing they get some additional service at reduce or discounted price which over all reduces the maintenance fares and offering low price to the customers. In order to add value by providing low fares, it tried building relation with airport authority so that at time when plane enters the place it automatically provides a storage hub and gets refueled and reloaded with duty free products at affordable price so that these things can help in quicker turnaround time by adding value. To add more value Ryan air use to provide its pilots and all the crew members’ special training and maintain close relationship with them. Ryan air use to give commission to the aircraft crew on completion of sale of any item by them. Thus all these service added value to Ryan air airlines by proving good services by its crew members to the passengers. Being a low budget airline Ryan air added value to its strategy by always using cheap marketing techniques by giving special discounts and offers through its website or many a times by declaring free fly through the airlines making high publicity stunts and also full utilization of its limited resources, all these factors added value and resulted in giving high productive results. Therefore, Ryan air was European first successful low cost airlines and was quite successful in its efforts taken. CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS: Reduction in operational cost: A company cannot sustain its low cost unless until it maximizes its operational efficiencies. Ryan air used to cut down the cost in following ways by service sayings like low cost and no frills, no expensive office only electronic tickets and no connecting flights. It use to provide point to point service. Its also use to do internet sales on which they use to get commission on debit and credit cards. Ryan air had almost half of the price as compared to the full services airlines. Competitive fares and point to point flights: By removing business class and reconfiguring their aircraft can increase the number of seats on their aircraft. The seat cost is just 40-50% of those of rival aircrafts. Combining the load factor benefit and beneficiary cost, can help in reducing the total cost per passenger by 1/3rd of the traditional airlines. Ryan air had never always come up with idea of connecting flights, it have always provided point to point service. Flying out of secondary airports and giving cut price deals: Low cost airlines chose to land at secondary airports rather than primary airports avoiding the major hub as taking off and landing charges are high. Operational costs at main hubs are competitively high than compared to secondary airports making passenger land near by their destinations. Ryan air always tries to come up with some innovative and useful ideas of how it can cut down the cost attracting high customer traffic towards the airlines. The travel distance is short: The route chosen by low fare airlines are mainly short hauls rotes. Ryan air use to travel short distance and passenger wouldn’t have minded with no luxury on the fight. COMPETITIVE STRATEGY OPTIONS (BOWMAN’S CLOCK) The competitive strategy is the basis on which a SBU might achieve competitive advantage in its market (Johnson et al, 2005). By using bowman’s clock strategy we can easily find out company’s competitive position along with how the competitors are doing against it, in case of Ryan air it proved to be one of the positive signs for the company. The status of the company can be evaluated by 8 options like low price, hybrid, and differentiation, focused differentiation, increased price/standard value, increased price/low price, low values/standard price. As Ryan air always had the first mover advantage it never faced the price war from its competitors, being the very first airlines that came up with such low prices in European market. Even though having so many competitors following the same strategy, Ryan air always earned profit by using its unique strategy. under bowman’s clock Ryan air comes under no frills category as it is a low budget airline with low cost and no frills tag, it use to provide the same service to all the passengers on the flight, which added value to the fares, it was on personal wish of the customers weather they need the extra services. Ryan air combined options from one to five from bowman’s clock making high profits. It never had the risk of losing market share and also didn’t have the monopoly in the market as it had many competitors. It mainly emphasized on low price value and low price differentiation. It targeted some specific segment of the society .Ryan air proved to be good for the people who cannot afford to fly in traditional airlines experiencing no frills at a very lowest cost. Ryan air always tried maintaining its strategy of low price, profits made by Ryan air took its competitors to a sudden shock. One of the causes was increase in Ryan air’s profit within a very short period of time. Ryan air having frequent flights imposed its competitors in the market segment. SUSTAINABILITY: Michael O’Leary was the back bone of Ryan air; therefore Ryan air cannot afford to lose him as he acted as a competitive advantage to the firm. It should also work hard on its hedging techniques and oil price fluctuations. Ryan air should focus on the correct low cost business design as in it should make the best deals with the passengers providing them with best offers and discounted offers. It should use its brand image and experience to gain low cots traffic and attracting the passengers giving competition to traditional aircrafts. Ryan air should not make profit out of the product and service they provide in flight, this may cause inconvenience to customers and also can affect the choice of passengers in switching to other airlines who does not charge for any such thing. Ryan air should also focus on the customer services and human resources management. Ryan air should also focus on its auxiliary revenues, the main revenue use to come from those who paid more for the flight tickets or extra like on board charges or refreshments Ryan air use to make money not from its operations but from the auxiliary revenues like hotel-bookings, booking-fees for E-Tickets, excess-baggage,-sponsor-revenues from Chamber of commerce budgets, sodas and sandwiches.. 1/3 of the revenues are collected by the non used tickets, people do not turn up or bother for taking their money back as Ryan air makes it more difficult. Ryan air charged Credit card fees for paying online. It should also take advantage of first movers in the market as it was the first airlines to come up with such idea of low cost and no frills. Having its own strategy and own trade secrets it’s difficult for the other organizations to imitate it. It should focus on the customer’s choice and behavior, giving all the services through net and may act as hinder to organization. Lastly it should not charge extra charges while booking its tickets online and also should make proper use of advertising revenues and proper focus on business online. References (function() { var scribd = document.createElement(“script”); scribd.type = “text/javascript”; scribd.async = true; scribd.src = “”; var s = document.getElementsByTagName(“script”)[0]; s.parentNode.insertBefore(scribd, s); })() Aircraft In Fleet Orders Options Passengers (Economy) Boeing 737-800 223 109 84 189 Appendix SWOT ANALYSIS FOR RYANAIR STRENGTH WEAKNESSES -Low cost strategy -cost structure -Brand and reputation -use of old aircrafts -First mover advantage -relationship with employees and passengers -Value for money -outsourcing of IT -Innovative and resourceful – relationship with trade union -Ancillary services OPPORTUNITIES THREAT -American government allowed Ryan air to enter – fluctuation in exchange rates Its market . -Ryan air wanted to lunch new planes for – fluctuations in oil price increasing its revenues. -Wants to attract business class by offering Special Services and offers. -Focus on long hauls routes. APPENDIX PORTER FIVE FORCES APPENDIX STRATEGIC CAPABILITY Strategic Capabilities and Competitive Advantage (Johnson et al. 2008) APPENDIX VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS FOR RYAN AIR HEAD- QUARTERS Training Crew Management Control In House Performance Contracts Marketing Internet Website Information IS Online Sales N/A Relationship with suppliers Outsourcing Internal Low Cost Effective Promotion Quality training No Frills Quick Turnaround Controversial Publicity Narrow Resources Low cost suppliers Consistent Service Low Cost Airport Contracts Online Sales High productivity Margin Inbound operations outbound logistics marketing and sales services. logistics APPENDIX Critical successful factor CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS Quick turn around No overnight staff One class Internet banking Cut price deals Point to point flights Personnel cost and incentives One aircraft types
George Brown College Wk 15 Childrens Literature Discussion Questions.

I’m working on a writing question and need an explanation to help me study.

Please answer the questions after going through the article.What’s the point of reading? Why is it worthwhile? Can it help us in any way to better understand the world? What does the research say?If you weren’t a reader before this class, did anything you learned help you to consider the importance of reading? Or make you think about becoming a lifelong reader? Let our last article be about reading and how it can help us navigate the world. Thanks for reading with me on Actively Learn this semester! Please let me know which one article from the second half you would like me to count for your grade.Reading fiction has been said to increase people’s empathy and compassion.QUESTION 2We’ve studied literature all semester. Based on what you learned, why do you think reading literature might increase someone’s empathy and compassion?But does the research really bear that out?Every day more than 1.8 million books are sold in the US and another half a million books are sold in the UK. Despite all the other easy distractions available to us today, there’s no doubt that many people still love reading. Books can teach us plenty about the world, of course, as well as improving our vocabularies and writing skills. But can fiction also make us better people?3The claims for fiction are great. It’s been credited with everything from an increase in volunteering and charitable giving to the tendency to vote – and even with the gradual decrease in violence over the centuries.This exercise in perspective-taking is like a training course in understanding others. The Canadian cognitive psychologist Keith Oatley calls fiction “the mind’s flight simulator”. Just as pilots can practise flying without leaving the ground, people who read fiction may improve their social skills each time they open a novel. In his research, he has found that as we begin to identify with the characters, we start to consider their goals and desires instead of our own. When they are in danger, our hearts start to race. We might even gasp. But we read with luxury of knowing that none of this is happening to us. We don’t wet ourselves with terror or jump out of windows to escape.QUESTION 4Which character did you empathize most with this semester, and why?6Having said that, some of the neural mechanisms the brain uses to make sense of narratives in stories do share similarities with those used in real-life situations. If we read the word “kick”, for example, areas of the brain related to physically kicking are activated. If we read that a character pulled a light cord, activity increases in the region of the brain associated with grasping.7To follow a plot, we need to know who knows what, how they feel about it and what each character believes others might be thinking. This requires the skill known as “theory of mind”. When people read about a character’s thoughts, areas of the brain associated with theory of mind are activated.8With all this practise in empathising with other people through reading, you would think it would be possible to demonstrate that those who read fiction have better social skills than those who read mostly non-fiction or don’t read at all.9The difficulty with conducting this kind of research is that many of us have a tendency to exaggerate the number of books we’ve read. To get around this, Oatley and colleagues gave students a list of fiction and non-fiction writers and asked them to indicate which writers they had heard of. They warned them that a few fake names had been thrown in to check they weren’t lying. The number of writers people have heard of turns out to be a good proxy for how much they actually read.10Next, Oatley’s team gave people the “Mind in the Eyes” test, where you are given a series of photographs of pairs of eyes. From the eyes and surrounding skin alone, your task is to divine which emotion a person is feeling. You are given a short list of options like shy, guilty, daydreaming or worried. The expressions are subtle and at first glance might appear neutral, so it’s harder than it sounds. But those deemed to have read more fiction than non-fiction scored higher on this test – as well as on a scale measuring interpersonal sensitivity.11At the Princeton Social Neuroscience Lab, psychologist Diana Tamir has demonstrated that people who often read fiction have better social cognition. In other words, they’re more skilled at working out what other people are thinking and feeling. Using brain scans, she has found that while reading fiction, there is more activity in parts of the default mode network of the brain that are involved in simulating what other people are thinking.12People who read novels appear to be better than average at reading other people’s emotions, but does that necessarily make them better people? To test this, researchers at used a method many a psychology student has tried at some point, where you “accidentally” drop a bunch of pens on the floor and then see who offers to help you gather them up. Before the pen-drop took place participants were given a mood questionnaire interspersed with questions measuring empathy. Then they read a short story and answered a series of questions about to the extent they had felt transported while reading the story. Did they have a vivid mental picture of the characters? Did they want to learn more about the characters after they’d finished the story?The experimenters then said they needed to fetch something from another room and, oops, dropped six pens on the way out. It worked: the people who felt the most transported by the story and expressed the most empathy for the characters were more likely to help retrieve the pens.14You might be wondering whether the people who cared the most about the characters in the story were the kinder people in the first place – as in, the type of people who would offer to help others. But the authors of the study took into account people’s scores for empathy and found that, regardless, those who were most transported by the story behaved more altruistically.15Of course, experiments are one thing. Before we extrapolate to wider society we need to be careful about the direction of causality. There is always the possibility that in real life, people who are more empathic in the first place are more interested in other people’s interior lives and that this interest draws them towards reading fiction. It’s not an easy topic to research: the ideal study would involving measuring people’s empathy levels, randomly allocating them either to read numerous novels or none at all for many years, and then measuring their empathy levels again to see whether reading novels had made any difference.16Instead, short-term studies have been done. For example, Dutch researchers arranged for students to read either newspaper articles about riots in Greece and liberation day in the Netherlands or the first chapter from Nobel Prize winner Jose Saramago’s novel Blindness. In this story, a man is waiting in his car at traffic lights when he suddenly goes blind. His passengers bring him home and a passer-by promises to drive his car home for him, but instead he steals it. When students read the story, not only did their empathy levels rise immediately afterwards, but provided they had felt emotionally transported by the story, a week later they scored even higher on empathy than they did right after reading.17Of course, you could argue that fiction isn’t alone in this. We can empathise with people we see in news stories too, and hopefully we often do. But fiction has at least three advantages. We have access to the character’s interior world in a way we normally do not with journalism, and we are more likely to willingly suspend disbelief without questioning the veracity of what people are saying. Finally, novels allow us to do something that is hard to do in our own lives, which is to view a character’s life over many years.18So the research shows that perhaps reading fiction does make people behave better. Certainly some institutions consider the effects of reading to be so significant that they now include modules on literature. At the University of California Irvine, for example, Johanna Shapiro from the Department of Family Medicine firmly believes that reading fiction results in better doctors and has led the establishment of a humanities programme to train medical students.19It sounds as though it’s time to lose the stereotype of the shy bookworm whose nose is always in a book because they find it difficult to deal with real people. In fact, these bookworms might be better than everyone else at understanding human beings.2021QUESTION 6We’ve learned so much about children’s literature this semester. Can you identify one thing that you learned that will stay with you after the course is over? Why do you think this particular idea will stay with you? That is, what is it about this idea that stands out more than anything else we learned?
George Brown College Wk 15 Childrens Literature Discussion Questions

Electronic waste, popularly known as e-waste can be defined as electronic equipment or products connecting with power plug or batteries which have become obsolete due to advancement in technology, changes in fashion, style and status. “E-waste is a popular, informal name for electronic products nearing the end of their useful life” (Hawari and Hassan, 2008). This includes discarded computers, televisions, VCRs, stereos, copiers, fax machines, electric lamps, cell phones, audio equipment and batteries. Electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) is one of the most emerging issues that has caught the attention of various parties including policy makers, non-governmental organization (NGO) and the general public globally. This growing concern is due to the ever increasing volume of e-waste being generated resulting in activities such as collecting, dismantling and disposal of e-waste that has caused environmental pollutions and adverse impact on public health (Rosnani, 2010). “E-waste in Malaysia is being regulated under the Environmental Quality Act (Scheduled Wastes) Regulations 2005 that came into effect on 15 August 2005” (Rosnani, 2010). The inclusion of e-waste the 2005 regulation is to adequately control the management of these wastes generated in the country as well as to enable Malaysia to disallow importation of used electrical and electronic equipment either for refurbishment or recovery only for short term usage, following which equipment is disposed off. Today, it is frequently cheaper and more convenient to buy new machine to accommodate the newer generations of technology than it is to upgrade the old. Expanding e-waste especially mobile phone and computer in all kind of sectors causing the increasing of the quantity of e-waste. E-waste contains significant quantities of toxic waste. “Each computer or television display monitor contains an average of 4-8 pounds of lead. Monitor glass contain about 20% lead by weight. About 70% of heavy materials like mercury and cadmium found in landfill come from electronic equipment discard” (Hawari and Hassan, 2008). These heavy metals and other hazardous substances found in electronic can contaminate groundwater and pose other environmental and public health. Moreover, “the health impacts of the mixtures and material combination in the products often are not known” (Noraida, 2010). The production of semiconductors printed circuit board, disk drives and monitors used particularly hazardous chemical. Therefore, one of the objective of this study is to find out the applicable management of e-waste around the world and their effects to human health. There are various issues of concerns with regard to e-waste disposal and recycling. This research proposal overview the issues specifically related to the export for recycling. Particularly, it discusses documented effects on human health and the environment that have been tied to unsafe recycling practices in developing countries. It also provides an overview of various factors necessary to be understand why e-waste disposal has become a concern on each countries. Therefore, it is important to have a good e-waste management in order to ensure that it will not harm to human and environment. If we not do the recycling, these e-waste will be disposed off. There are several methods to dispose e-waste either landfill or incinerator or open burning. However, if we look at to it closely, all this method will give negative impacts to human and environment. Other than that, problem related to facilities and location of e-waste disposal is occurring. “When we landfill the e-waste, it will contaminate groundwater. If we incinerate e-waste, it will produce hazardous smelt and left hazardous residue. If we recycle the e-waste, it will harm the recycle team. Lastly, we export the e-waste to other country” (Noraida, 2010). Now, we have no choice and scientist today should do more research on these problem. E-waste management need to fulfill different objectives which go beyond pure technical implementation. Especially in developing countries and countries in transition, which a lacking legal and institutional framework, as well as missing infrastructure, e-waste management demands for a comprehensive and structural approach. This has been echoed by various international organizations and initiatives, including the United Nation Developing Organization (UNIDO), the United Nation Environment Programmed (UNEP), the Basel convention, the Solving the e-Waste Problem (StEP). Several development cooperation project adopted a three step approach. [1] Understand the current framework condition Developing a structured strategy in a multi-stakeholder approach Implementing the strategy through a roadmap with assigned responsibilities and a timeframe The research will give beneficial to all community. Government can either try to avoid all the methods that can give negative impacts or if not, just look for the better management we have around the world that also included in this proposal. It also can give public awareness for those concerns. . It is hoped that these research proposal will assist in the better understanding and management of e-waste and a prompt action can be taken by the government to improve what we have now before it is too late. Objective to find out the issues and challenges on developing and implementing e-waste management To find out the applicable management of e-waste around the world and their effects to human health. To study the recommended actions that can be taken to tackles the e-waste issues Literature review Examining E-waste Related Legislations and Regulations In its list of recommendations to combat illegal dumping of E-waste, the Basel Action Network (BAN) “urges governments to pressure manufacturers to remove toxic chemicals from products as soon as possible. BAN also calls on strict enforcement of the Basel Convention [2] and lauds Australia for its efforts in that regard” (Michael, 2012). Regarding issues in Australia, it requires full testing of electronic waste to certify that it complies with the Basel Convention before it is exported. The BAN report on dumping in Lagos calls the U.S. “the worst actor” among developed countries that perpetuate dumping of hazardous waste in developing nations. Other place, “Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection state that cathode ray tube no longer be accepted at transfer stations, landfills or landfill operators or a penalty of USD 25000 for each offense” (Iswalah, 2008). Transboundary movement of hazardous waste is con-trolled by the Basel Convention, which entered into forcein 1992. [3] In Malaysia, government legislations have been introduce to control this situation. First under Environment Quality Act !974 Sect. 18(1). There are; E-Waste classified as Scheduled Waste and given the code of SW 110 E-Waste can only be handled by licensed contractors. Act enforced by Department of Environment. Enforcement-oriented rather than Facilitation-oriented. (PEWOG, 2009) [4] Second is under ‘Public Cleansing and Solid Waste Management Act (2007), it state that all waste belongs to the government or its contractor’ (PEWOG, 2009). The question is the present of collection and processing activities illegal because all waste belongs to the government or its contractors. Then, confusion and uncertainty begin to float. Besides using the Environmental Quality Act (1974) to manage these wastes, the DOE is also using the “Custom Order (Prohibiton of Import/Export) Order 2008 to control the importation and export of e waste” (Ong, 2009). 2. Issues And Challenges On Developing And Implementing 3R (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle) There are several methods to manage all these e-waste materials. “The most safe, encourage and cheapest is by 3R that are reduce, reuse and recycling”. it can be summarized as follows (Hawari and Hassan, 2008) : • Reduce: attempt to reduce the amount of waste generated reduce/eliminate use of toxic substances like lead and mercury. • Reuse: repeated use of items or parts of items which are still usable • Recycle: use of waste itself as resource Since e-waste recycling is largely unregulated, accurate data regarding the end markets, both domestic and abroad, are not publicly available. Therefore, it is difficult to know how much e-waste that is collected for recycling is actually exported for processing (Linda, 2010). In the waste management hierarchy, 3R is high on the priority list and country analysis paper by Malaysia in one of its forum [5] state that Malaysia is capitalizing on technologies which are environmentally friendly, proven and cost effective to enhances its 3R programmers and activities in the country. The analysis paper also state that the construction, operation and maintenance of plants using such technologies involves high capital and cost. The banking sector is quite reluctant to provide the financial support especially when new technologies are involved. We still have weakness in recycling system around the world. The infrastructure like network of waste collection, transportation, and sorting activities is still being developed. Then proceed to the actual processing on the e-waste, if compared to recycling of paper, glass, and plastic, the process is more costly and expensive. Most local authorities in Malaysia did not have a sound financial resources to pay for all the new technologies carried out to treat and dispose the waste. Without the federal government intervention or commitment to provide the bridging finance, the introduction of environmentally friendly and modern technology will face an uphill task. [6] Then other problem on the situation when e-waste may be processed domestically after collection is also limited. “A company that operates as a “recycler” may actually be a waste consolidator that sends the waste to another vendor.” Those downstream vendors may separate the units for reuse, ship whole units abroad for processing, or process it domestically to some other uses (Linda, 2010). Good news is the electronics manufacturers are currently driven by various forces to make their products more easily recyclable and with fewer hazardous constituents. [7] “Any future changes to electronic devices have no impact, however, on the hundreds of millions of devices currently in use or obsolete devices currently in storage” (Linda, 2010). Eventually those devices will make their way to the disposal or recycling markets. Disposal (Incineration, Open Burning Or Landfilling) Incineration means destroy something especially waste material by burning. It is “associated with a major risk of generating and dispersing contaminants and toxic substances” (Mathias, 2010). The gases released during the burning and the residue ash is often toxic. Municipal solid waste (MSW) state that incineration plants have shown that copper, which is present in printed circuit boards and cables, “act as catalyst for dioxin formation when flame retardants are incinerated” (Gongkia, 2000). At this time incineration of toxic e-waste is taking place without much restriction around the world, especially in poorer countries. Incineration of electronic waste should be the last resort and should be at a minimum if not completely banned (April, 2010). Same goes to open burning which releases many pollutants into environment Since open fires burn at relatively low temperatures, they release many more smoke than in a controlled incineration process (Hawari and Hassan, 2010) When we landfill the e-waste, the problems comes by the leachate produces. It is often contains heavy metals and other toxic substances which can contaminate ground and water resources. Even state-of-the-art landfills which are sealed to prevent toxins from entering the ground are not completely tight in the long-term (Singh et al., 2012). Significant impacts from landfilling could be avoided by conditioning hazardous materials from e-waste separately and by landfilling only those fractions for which there are “no further recycling possibilities and ensure that they are in state-of-the-art landfills that respect environmentally sound technical standards” (Gongkia, 2000) Export “In America, according to National Safety Council (1999), currently the cheapest e-waste recycling option in the US is to send e-waste overseas” (McCarthy, 2002). According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), up to 80% of American recycle e-waste is exported to poorer countries. “However , how it is used or disposed of there is largely unknown” (McCarthy, 2002). Example in Guiyu [8] , China, the PCs and peripherals forming mountain and overflowing into streets, with its people making a living stripping away PC part with their bare hands. Ministry of environment in India showed no results concerning report of e-waste, but the ministry admits that a 100% controls of the borders is not possible. What complicate the problem is that computer waste, which does not have any resale or reuse value, is openly burnt or disposed off in landfills. Although it is difficult to know exactly how much e-waste collected for recycling is exported, it appears that India or developing countries in Asia or Africa are most likely to receive e-waste. In these area, children and adults are not wearing safety to dismantle the e-waste in order to sell salvageable items. The rest of the materials are burned or buried. In Ghana, China and India, many of the workers are children, maybe substantially exposed to these hazardous materials (Kevin, 2007) [9] . 3. Management of E-waste in Malaysia. Malaysia has been putting a lot of effort to eradicate this problem before it gets persistent and out of control. “The ‘Recycle PC’ campaign, spearheaded by the Association of the Computer and Multimedia Industry of Malaysia (PIKOM) and waste management company Alam Flora Sdn. Bhd [10] , is picking up steam since its launch in march 2005″ (Vatis, 2005). This campaign aims to create environmental awareness by encouraging the public and organisations to recycle PCs and the peripherals. Between the period of March 10 and April 30, 2005, Alam Flora has collected 816 computers and peripherals. This includes 194 computer monitors, 147 central processing units (CPUs) 428 printers, and 47 miscellaneous PC components (Karim, 2005) Panasonic Malaysia Sdn. Bhd. is among the first corporations to answer the call to recycle when it handed over 60 used PCs and laptops to Alam Flora within a week from launching the PC recycling campaign. The Japanese technology giant also pledged to donate more PCs to the Recycle PC campaign each time its embarks on a PC upgrading exercise. Alam Flora has assigned collection points and recycling centers all over the country for people to drop off their old PCs (Hawari and Hassan, 2008). Malaysia is not a destination for others countries put their e-waste. The non-systematic exporting and disposal of e-waste will give threat to our environment. Because of that, Department of Environmental is undergoing a research on ‘take back policy’ specifically for encourage the producer companies to take back the electric and electronic that do not want to be used anymore for being recycle or dispose in safety ways (Douglas, 2010). Scrap computer/ television/ mobile phone and other e-waste Free/ sell Scrap collector Middlemen/ junkshops Recycling centres 2nd hand item Disposal facility Sell e-waste recylers Pre-treatment (separation) Scrap plastics/ others Raw materials Main board Electronic component Export market/ reassembling Local market Re-furnish/ recondition recycling Figure 1 : Materials flows of e-waste in Malaysia (Japan International Cooperation Agency, 2005) Currently, “there are 138 e-waste recovery facilities in Malaysia. 16 out of them are the full recovery facilities and the other are the partial recovery facilities” (Rahman, 2008). The main technology employed to recover e-wastes in terms of precious metal in Malaysia is still limited to wet chemical processes and electrolysis. State Partial recovery facility Full recovery facility Johor 17 3 Kedah 12 1 Melaka 12 3 Negeri Sembilan 5 1 Perak 4 0 Pulau Pinang 37 6 Sarawak 5 0 Selangor 25 2 Wilayah persekutuan 5 0 Total 122 16 Grand total 138 Table 1 : distribution of e-waste recovery facilities in Malaysia. (Rahman, 2008) But some of them that do not going to recycle are required to be transported by licensed contractors and dispose off in the centralized scheduled waste treatment and disposal facility in Bukit Nanas, Negeri Sembilan. (Theng, L. C., 2008) [11] The Bukit Nanas Waste Management Centre in Bukit Pelanduk, Negeri Sembilan, has the country’s sole landfill for hazardous waste. Here waste that has been treated, stabilized and packed in drums or durable plastic bags are buried in the landfill. 4. Effects On Environment And Human Health According to Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), more than 3.2 million tons of e-waste ended up in us landfills. European studies estimate that the volume of e-waste is rising by 3% to 5% per year, almost three times faster than municipal waste stream. Therefore, early action needs in order to tackle this problem before it is going up in our country. From Basel Action Network (BAN), estimate that the 500 million computers in the world contain 2.87 billion kilogram of plastics, 716.7 million kilogram of lead and 286700 kilogram of mercury. Table 2 shows some of the hazardous material that contain in the computer and their effects to human and the environment. Hazardous material Location Effects Lead Soldering of printed circuit boards and other electronic component Glass panels in computer monitors (cathode rays tube) Damage to the central and peripheral nervous system, blood system and kidney in human. effects to the endocrine system negative effects on the development of the brain in children have been well documented (Howell, 2001). Cadmium SMD chip resistors, infrared detectors and semiconductors. Possible risk of irreversible effects on human health (Howell, 2001). Easily be accumulated in amounts that cause symptoms of poisoning Mercury Batteries, switches/ housing, and printed wiring board. Causes chronic damage to the brain. Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Cabling and computer housing. Cause of dioxin [12] formation. Brominated Flame Retardant Printed circuit board act as endocrine disrupters cause an increased risk of cancer to the digestive and lymph systems reduce levels of the hormone thyroxin [13] in exposed animals. Table 2 : toxic chemicals contain and their effects (Hawari and Hassan, 2008). Various scientific observations indicate that polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDE) might act as endocrine disrupters. The levels of PBDEs in “human breast milk are doubling every five years and this has prompted concern because of the effect of these chemicals in young animals” (Howell, 2001) In addition, organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development in 1993 state that hexavalent chromium also exists in some of e-waste. It can easily pass through membranes of cells. It causes strong allergic reactions even in small concentrations. Asthmatic bronchitis is another allergic reaction “linked to chromium VI. Chromium VI may also cause DNA damage” (Howell, 2001) The incineration, land-filling, and illegal dumping of electronic wastes all contribute toxic chemicals to the environment. Environmental impacts includes contamination of all local environmental media like soil, air, surface water and ground water. For example, the primary hazardous recycling operations in Guiyu involve; Metal recovery that involves in open burning of wires to obtain steel and copper, cathode ray tube cracking to obtain copper-laden yokes, disordering and burning of circuit boards to remove solder and chips, and acid stripping chips for gold. Plastic recycling through chipping and melting; and dumping of materials that cannot be further processed (such as leaded CRT glass and burned circuit boards) and residues from recycling operations such as ashes from open burn operations, spent acid baths, and sludges (Yan, et al, 2009). Children in Guiyu were found to have blood lead levels (BLL) that were significantly higher than those in the neighboring village. Elevated BLLs in Guiyu children were common as a result of exposure to lead contamination caused by primitive e-waste recycling activities (Xia, 2007). . Prevents Options To Tackle The E-wastes In this section, some actions that can be adopted are reviewed. Almost all of these actions have to be carried out simultaneously. Someof them are targeted to create a wider awareness amongst the end-users. Binding purchasing with take-back product responsibility The aim of extended producer responsibility is to encourage producers to “prevent pollution and reduce resource and energy use in each stage of the product life cycle through changes in product design and process technology ” (Hawari and Hassan, 2008). Hence, the producers have a great deal of responsibility to take back their products and recycle them at the end of the products’ operational lives. It puts full financial responsibility on producers to set up collection, recycling and disposal systems. In Malaysia, suitable “take scheme on e-waste will enhance the management of e-waste” (Rahman, 2008). He state that Voluntary take back scheme of e-wastes has not been implemented widely by the producer/ importer of electronic and electrical equipment, hence a compulsory requirement of take back scheme through legislation is required. Campaign to increase awareness If E-waste causes problems, the first priority should be to reduce its generation. In this regard, “consumers in exporting countries should change their lifestyles” (Moriguchi et al, 2006) Other we can do by giving some “reward to the public to encourage them involve in 3R and the reward is not necessary in kind of money” (Iswalah, 2008). The end-user should contact the local or state government representatives, “explain to them why he or she is concerned and ask them to get involved in developing solutions” (Hawari and Hassan, 2008). “By donating used electronics, schools, non-profit organizations, and lower-income families can afford to use equipment that they otherwise could not afford” (Hawari and Hassan, 2008). Swiss Association for the Information, Communication and Organizational Technologies (SWICO) system This system compared to other is one of the most best management of e-waste nowadays.The system considers material flows related to electronic equipment from the point where it becomes waste until the point where the fractions resulting from sorting, dismantling, recycling and disposal processes become secondary raw materials or are disposed of in a landfill (Doka, 2003). So, how its work? According to Muller and Esther (2009), Manual dismantling is the first step, more traditional way to separate hazardous materials from recyclable materials, and to generate recyclable materials from electronic waste. In a pre-sorting process, the incoming e-waste first is separated into the different categories. Then, mechanical dismantling, the typical components of it plant crushing units, shredders, magnetic separators and air separators. The exhaust gases are clean up in waste gas purification plants and the dust generated collected with dust filters. And for refining, it is included mechanical, thermal and chemical processes and typically performed for fractions such as batteries, ferrous and non-ferrous metal, recyclable plastic and printed boards. Methodology Most of the methodology of my research proposal is by doing library and internet research. It is important to get background information and to study the past research. It is also useful to make the literature review. I will go through some of the journals, articles, reports and projects there. To get better understanding, I will get some interviews with the workers at Department of Environtment (DOE) to get details data about how e-waste is managing in Malaysia and generally around the world.. I also will go for interview with Prof. Aghamuthu [14] (lecturer in UM) for his opinions. By using recorder, all the conversations and dialogues will be recorded. Survey is also useful to get the information. It will be distributed them to the workers that work in landfill site especially in Bukit Nanas, Negeri Sembilan. The survey contain more on investigating their body’s health and to be related with the symptoms due to toxic discarded from e-waste. Site visit also involved in my methodology. It will take up to a fully day for me to see all the process. It is also to make sure that i will not left behind all the important information. Along the visit, camera will be used to take photos there to help me get a better analysis. Expected output There still a lot of issues that should be consider in managing the e-waste. . Work Plan The work plan start in week three and it takes about 11 weeks to finish it. Weeks Actions 3 Choose the title To make sure that the title is not to narrowed or broad, and to make sure it can be done on the time given. 4-7 Library and internet research By collected, take note, and borrows the materials from them before further analyse. 8-10 review and Analyse data Organize all the information into the structure of research proposal and relate the information of one reading to another. 11-13 Presentation work Prepare the slide that summarize the research proposal. 14 Submit report Do some repair on the lack and comment from presentation. Budget Estimated budget: Item Price (RM) Transportation – for fuel and public transportation 100.00 Prints – for survey’s paper, and all the reading materials that cannot be borrowed. 20.00 Gift – for interviewers 30.00 total 150.00

The Marginalisation of Women in Animation Roles

The Marginalisation of Women in Animation Roles. The relationship between modes of production, and individual practice in women’s independent animation. Feminist film critics such as Laura Mulvey have suggested that classical film narration has always had a male perspective and positioned the viewer as male. Her 1975 essay “Cinema Visual Pleasure and Narrative,” is a key work in feminist film theory and a turning point in the understanding of the representation of women in film and animation. She highlighted the lack of female filmmakers, writers and protagonists in Hollywood films. She contends that a female voice is sorely absent from mainstream cinema. Thus the depictions of women and the female identity in film are always a male interpretation. Further more she suggests that the language of film itself is masculine. The essay asserts claims that classical film narration assumes that the audience is male through objectifying female subjects within the frame. She contests that a position of power is almost always given to the male subject through a series of looks. The male characters are in possession of the ‘look,’ while the females are looked at. They are often objectified by focusing on specific parts of the anatomy. The woman is thereby idealised and sexualised into a male fantasy or marginalized into a stereotype or narrative function. This marginalisation of women is evident in Animation from the same period with figures such as Minnie Mouse, who dutifully played house wife to Mickey. The overtly sexual, (and disturbingly child-like,) Betty Boop. Or the extremely curvaceous Red Hot Riding Hood, who was a prototype for Jessica Rabbit. The identification of this imbalance provoked an immediate reaction to address it. “At this point the main demand was to replace on female role model by another, stronger and more independent. Or to find images of women that were realistic and relevant to women’s real life experience.” (Mulvey, 1978, p204) After WW2 16mm equipment that had been used to make newsreels, became available cheaply, and progress in sound technology in the sixties made synchronised sound recording much easier. The end result was to give people outside the commercial arena the ability to make films. This independent scene emerged at a highly politicised time and gave people the opportunity to make politicised films which addressed issues of the time such as the women’s movement. Not only feminist filmmakers emerged, but feminist readings of unconsciously feminist art. As Sharon Couzin’s definition demonstrates, the defining parameters are very broad. “Feminist art is which acknowledges that difference of being a women – i.e. what it is to be a woman – and then integrates that consciousness into the art.” (Law, 1997, p 67) Mulvey points to the avant-garde as genre through which feminist filmmakers and animators could express their concerns free from classical Hollywood representation. In her own words; “the avant-garde poses certain questions which consciously confront traditional practice, often with a political motivation, working on ways to alter modes of representation and expectations in consumption.” (Mulvey, 1978, p200) By breaking away from traditional and accepted systems of narration, the audience is forced to decipher the meaning of the films from the films aesthetics and semiotic signifiers, thus foregrounding the films intended message in the minds of the spectators. Animation has a lot in common with the avant-garde in as much as it is a largely abstract form of representation and expression. That is that unlike live action cinematography, which tends towards mimesis (the desire to accurately reproduce the ‘real’ world,) animation is usually concerned with the suggestion of concepts and the representation of ideas. The processes of animation allow Mulvey’s concerns to be addressed directly. The flexibility of the medium for using different drawing styles, colour schemes, animation techniques lend animation an immense imaginative potential that is only limited by the imaginations of the animators themselves. Animators can use these techniques to challenge dominant modes of narration and aesthetic expression. Secondly animation has been described as an auteurist medium. The vast degree of collaboration necessary to make a photographic film is greatly reduced in an animated medium. Indeed it is possible for animators to create completely individually and in doing so, create art with an entirely subjective perspective and articulate feminist concerns unfettered. A fine example of both these principles in action is Karen Watson’s Daddy’s Little Piece of Dresden China. In the film Watson marries scratch animation, line drawings, collage and puppetry to tell a deeply subjective story about domestic abuse. The different puppets are made from different materials to symbolise their characters. The father is metallic with a razor blade mouth and glass head. He is drunk, cold, dangerous and extremely harmful. The mother is made of a wooden spoon and dried flowers; this shows her domestic role and her bygone fertility. The daughter is bandaged and has a china head. She is damaged, though not yet broken but extremely delicate. The use of puppets removes the spectator from full identification with the characters, leaving them to quietly ruminate on the effects of domestic abuse on real people. Although the film is essentially one extremely powerful account of one woman’s own unspeakable domestic problems, the use of collage places the events in a wider social context and makes the spectator wonder about the greater extent of such problems. Alison de Vere’s film The Black Dog is devoid of any dialogue, and is entirely reliant on aesthetic symbolism and visual narration. The flexibility of the medium allows visual shifts in landscape which invite comparisons with stream-of-consciousness narration. The spectator is invited to come along with the protagonist’s through the wilderness on a journey of spiritual death and rebirth. Her walk through the desolate wilderness is apparently ended when an oasis appears in the form of the complex fata, a small complex comprising of boutique, a club and a restaurant. In the boutique she is dressed and adorned to make her ‘beautiful’ before going to the club. It is her where she becomes the object of desire for a room full of lecherous men. She catches sight of her self in a mirror, and decides to reject her designated engendered role, and false identity of seductress within the microcosm of the complex. At this point she finds that the price she pays for leaving of staying is her brain, her heart and her hands. The implication is that a woman must betray her own intelligence, desires and abilities to conform to the engendered roles that society expects of her. Death becomes a recurring motif of the complex such as the butchering of animals in the kitchens; the use of animal furs in the boutique; and drunken brawls that escalate into murder in the night club. All these images paint a portrait of a brutal and uncaring society and also serve as a visual motif that matches the protagonists fall from innocence and brief loss of individual identity. She flees the complex by diving into a river and being rescued by the eponymous Black Dog. The imagery here suggests a loss of innocence and an attempt of cleansing through water. The malleability of the medium is often explored through metamorphosis of characters of objects from one thing to another. In his book Understanding Animation (1998) Paul Wells argues that the use of metamorphosis is a ‘particular device which is unique to the animated form, and some would argue is the constituent core of animation itself.’ (Wells, 1998, p69) However computer animation techniques have been blended with ‘real’ footage to achieve the same effect in ‘live-action’ cinema, blurring the distinction between the two art forms. Meaning is derived from the fluid change of one form to another in the same way that Eisenstein creates meaning from editing one photographed image with another. ‘Metamorphosis also legitimizes the process of connecting apparently unrelated images, forging original relationships between lines, objects, and disrupting established notions of classical story-telling.’ (Wells, 1998, p69) It is a way of connecting abstract ideas into a narrative form. Joanna Quinn’s films Girls Night Out and Body Beautiful use metamorphosis to directly confront the issue of the sexualized female aesthetic, and reclaim the female form as something to be appreciated in all shapes and sizes. However it does so by using the method within the confines of a traditional narrative structure. The protagonist of both films is a large, working class woman called Beryl, who is completely at odds with the Betty Boop and Red Hot Riding Hood figures. Quinn uses line drawings with immense kinetic energy. The lines are dynamic allowing them to fluidly change shape. The fluid movement of the lines of Beryl’s body extenuates her generous curves, and the wobble of her breasts is particularly prominent as an expression of femininity. In this way her shape and size are celebrated through the animation process. In contrast her husband is completely static, bored, uninterested and uninteresting, a completely unsympathetic character. In Body Beautiful the dynamic lines are used to completely morph Beryl’s shape into symbolic expressions of her subjective experience. These metamorphoses are determined by her own perception of her self. When looking at the models in a fashion magazine she disappears into thin air, as a representation of her marginalization. She does not conform to societies given values of female beauty and as such feels negated. In a scene where Vince is commenting on her appearance she transforms into a pig. She is publicly humiliated and made to feel ashamed of herself, and as such reluctantly accepts the ‘fat pig’ mantle that is forced upon her. The film resolves itself with Beryl learning to appreciate her own figure on her own terms, during a rap song she lists a multitude of body types and transforms into them one by one. She rejects all of them and literally steps out of them as an affirmation of her own femininity. Beryl is representing all the women who do not have the perfect hour-glass figure and as such she is a figure to be identified with as opposed to one who is objectified. She is a celebration of the female body as opposed to a fetishist examination. She is desexualised as a male fantasy of female perfection, but re-sexualised in terms of her gender and defined by her feminine figure. In contrast to Joanna Quinn’s kinetic line, Candy Guard uses a simple, economical and direct aesthetic style in her animated films such as Wishful Thinking and What about me? In both these films two women ask each other questions about their, own appearance, but are never satisfied by the answers they are given and continue to worry and obsess over the matter, to the point of near torture. The figures themselves are comprised of a handful of black lines, they are largely shapeless and aesthetically at least, virtually androgynous. The characters are identified as female through voice and dialogue. In the mouth of Bernard manning jokes about women worrying about clothes or hair may come across as sexist, offensive and dismissive of women. But Guard is showing us how these women are torturing themselves in their attempts to conform to the modes of conduct and appearance that society enforces upon them. The women themselves are complicit in their own torture by their attempts to conform to preset notions of beauty. They never challenge the expectations put upon them and as such they are doomed to forever be enslaved by their own attempts to conform. Guard breaks from narrative tradition by having no resolution to her films. The women of the film will continue to worry about their appearance, just as the female spectators of the film have felt pressure to look their best. It is here where the realism lost aesthetically is regained, as the realism resonates emotionally. The uber-simplistic 2d line drawing style is also thematically fitting, by attempting to conform to societies given notions of female beauty the women are caricaturing themselves. The films discussed in detail here all offer different perspectives on issues of female identity, and engendered roles within society but they all “explore, through their use of imagery, the existence of the female form as something that is malleable and whose femaleness can be enhanced or reduced. They illustrate that femininity, as it is traditionally represented, something that can be put on and taken off at will.” (Furniss, 1978, p243) This demonstrates that despite differences in subjective experience all the animators discussed were expressing the need to break away from the rigid definitions enforced by classical film narration. We can see clearly that the various modes of practice available to animators have allowed female practitioners a platform on which to address feminist concerns of cinematic representation, as well as commenting upon the lager problems facing women within a modern patriarchal society. Paul Wells has neatly summarized the properties of Animation that have made it an ideal medium with which to redress the balance. “Animation has the capability of rendering the body in a way which blurs traditional notions of gender, species and indigenous identity further complicating debates concerning the primary political agendas of men and women, and enabling revisionist readings which use the ambivalence and ambiguity of the animated form to support the view that traditional orthodoxies in society itself must be necessarily challenged.” (Wells, 1998, p188) Of course an all encompassing feminist definition of ‘women’s experience’ or femininity is impossible and any attempt to do so is every bit as false as the fantasy representation offered by classical Hollywood. As Maureen Furniss explains in her own theories on representation. “One can argue that the media is dominated by images representing the priorities of a white male culture, but how does one go about depicting an alternative? How does one define ‘women’s experience’? And, even if it were possible to come up with a definition, could it encompass the realities of women across the world?” (Furniss, 1998 p 243) What these animators have been able to do is break the masculine bias of film narration and spectatorship, and contribute to the woman’s movement by creating a feminine aesthetic based upon individual subjective experience as opposed to tired patriarchal stereotypes. Bibliography Furniss, Maureen. ”Isuues of Representation”(Chapter 12), in: Art in Motion. Animation Aesthetics. London: John Libbey, 1998, pgs.231-249 Law, Sandra. ”Putting Themselves in the Pictures. Images of Women in the Work of Joanna Quinn, Candy Guard and Alison De Vere”, in: Pilling, Jayne(ed.) A Reader in Animation Studies. London: John Libbey, 1997, pgs. 49-70 Mulvey, Laura: “Cinema Visual Pleasure and Narrative” 1975 in Penley, C. Feminisim and film theory. London: BFI 1988, pgs, 57-68. Mulvey, Laura: ”Film, Feminism and the Avant-Garde”, in O’Pray Michael. The British Avant’Garde Film 1926-1995. Luton: Luton UniversityThe Marginalisation of Women in Animation Roles

HI 375 Marymount University The Decameron Story Writing

essay order HI 375 Marymount University The Decameron Story Writing.

Writing Assignment #1: “Story Writing During Quarantine” Purpose: When the Black Death broke out in Italy in 1348, the poet Giovanni Bocaccio left the city of Florence to quarantine himself in the countryside. While in quarantine he wrote his masterpiece, The Decameron, which included 100 comedic and tragic tales involving common individuals. The purpose of Writing Assignment #1 will be to write an additional story that would fit with Bocaccio’s 100 tales. This is a creative writing assignment based on your knowledge of medieval literature. Directions: 1) Read The Decameron (selections) by Bocaccio that is attached here. When reading make sure to keep in mind the following questions: What are some common themes? What does humor mean for the late medieval audience? What does drama mean? Who are the good and bad characters? How are they portrayed? 2) Since you, like Boccaccio in 1348, are in quarantine this summer, your task will be to write the 101st story of The Decameron. To do so, you must become familiar with the sort of tales in the collection from the selection provided by your professors. Get creative! Your story must include the following elements: It must be set in an Italian city-state in the Renaissance (e.g. Florence, Venice, Rome, Milan, Urbino, etc…)It must either be a comedic story, a tragic tale, or a love story.It must have at least 3 characters described physically, intellectually, and social status or job.It must include one element of wit (e.g. characters outsmarting or tricking each other).A conclusion that has a lesson.
HI 375 Marymount University The Decameron Story Writing

Media Management Norms in the Industry Essay

Alabarran, Chan-Olmsted and Wirth (2006, 275) believe that media management stands alone as a distinct field of management for two major reasons. The first reason is the unique position that media organizations as well as their output occupy in the cultural and political life of societies and nations where they operate in (Cook 1998, 122; Sparrow 1999, 46; Golding

help me with my anthropology lab

help me with my anthropology lab.

I’m working on a anthropology exercise and need support to help me study.

Instructions and data sheet for the lab are found in the document below (available as pdf and Word document):Link to the primate behavior video: will also need this behavior guide:Read the instructions carefully. To submit your work do one of the following:Print out this packet, and write your answers directly on the sheets. Scan pages, save as a pdf document and upload to Canvas.If you are not able to print the packet, write your answers on blank pages, making sure to copy the two data tables, and number your answers. Scan or take photos of all pages, save as a pdf document and upload to Canvas.Or download as Word doc, type in your responses, save and upload to Canvas.
help me with my anthropology lab