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Miami Discuss Cyber Forensic Relevance by Solving Cyber Forensic Incident Questions

Miami Discuss Cyber Forensic Relevance by Solving Cyber Forensic Incident Questions.

please follow the requirements with using a simple language to paraphrase the assignment. because I´m an international student try to be as simple as you can with your paraphrasing with avoiding academic words. in addition please be careful with plagrism i will attach the form for the questions to follow up with the answers. just the answers what need to be paraphrase. A1 A2 means the answers for the questions posted in the attached docTechniques (1.2): Discuss File, Memory, Network and Email Forensic Techniques in solving the above cyber forensic incident.Questions:1. Describe the file forensics technique in terms of the tasks that it performs, the file forensics process, and describe file encryption. A1:1) File forensic incidents leave a forensic “footprint” on the file system. 2) Cyber forensics deals with hidden files, deleted files, corrupted files, and encrypted files. 3) Cyber forensics software is used to make a forensic image of the hard disk drive. 4) A file forensics software is used to analyze this image to collect digital evidence. Specifically, the software analyzes all details about the files that were deleted: names, sizes, dates, and assess the extent and seriousness of the inflicted damages. 1) An encrypted file is obtained through encryption. 2) Encryption is a process that encodes a file so that it can only be read by certain people. 3) Encryption uses an algorithm to encrypt data, and then uses a secret key or password for the receiving party to decrypt the information. 4) If the private key is lost, file decryption becomes very difficult. 2.Discuss any limitations of the file forensics technique, that cyber criminals might exploit to avoid detection. A2:1) Cyber attackers increasingly try to hide their malware; so that it does not leave any traces on the suspect hard disk drive. 2) Disk damage, due to force, fire or water, makes file forensics difficult. 3) Some malware is specifically designed to avoid detection by Antivirus software.3.Describe the digital memory forensic technique in terms of why is it important, how is it done, and discuss how memory and file digital evidences complement one another. 1) Memory forensics involves the analysis of volatile data (all running processes) in a computer’s memory. Memory forensics uses the collected evidence to investigate cyber crimes and hacking. 2) Forensics software is used to create an image of the Memory (memory dump). Memory forensics software is used to analyze the memory dump (all running processes) to collect evidence. 3) Volatile data is the set of processes that run in memory (CPU registers, RAM). Examples include Running processes, Logged on users, Closed text and doc files, Chat/Email messages, Open files.4.Discuss any limitations of the digital memory forensics, that cyber criminals might exploit to avoid detection. 1. Some malware programs can: 1) Hide processes in the events log (For example, a malware program will not show in the list of events) 2) Change the ID of processes 3) Change the security access rights of processes (For example, malware can change the access rights of a certain process; so that it is now able to write to a file) 2. If a memory dump is taken using a memory forensics software, that is not up-to-date with regards to the operating system, the memory image can be either corrupted or incomplete.5.Describe the network forensics technique in terms of why is network forensics important, how is it done, and describe Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS). A5:1) Network forensics is a sub-branch of cyber forensics that gathers digital evidence that is acceptable in the court of law, and fixes damages inflicted by cyber attacks. 2) Network forensics is important because it helps you to safeguard your network against both internal and external threats, hackers, and malware attacks. Specifically, it helps you to find out: 1. Who is behind the incident? 2. What actually happened? 3. When did it happen? 4. Which resources were compromised? 5. Why was it done? 6. How was it done? 3) Network Forensics detects cyber crimes through the investigative analysis of: 1. Network Packets: That hold valuable information such as source IP, destination IP, ports, protocols (TCP, UDP), and data. 2. Firewall and Router Logs: That contain valuable information such as source IP, destination IP, ports, protocols (TCP, UDP), and dates. 3. Server Logs: That consist of valuable information such as source IP, destination IP, ports, protocols (TCP, UDP), and dates6.Discuss any limitations of the network forensics technique, that cyber criminals might exploit to avoid detection. A6:1. Hackers can find ways to sneak malware into the network through the firewall. To fix this limitation: 1) Install an IPS behind the firewall 2) Ensure the firewall and IPS policies are robust and updated. 2. Attackers try to modify the data in the logs to hide their intrusion footprints.7.Describe the email forensics technique in terms of why is email forensics important, how is it done, and describe the consequences of an email phishing attack. 1) Email forensics is a branch of cyber forensic science. It investigates cyber crimes by extracting digital evidence from email messages.2) Email forensics is performed through the analysis of email header, which produces the following digital evidence: 1) Sender email and IP address 2) Email servers the mail passed through 3) Date and time information 4) Client information8.Discuss any limitations of the email forensics technique, that cyber criminals might exploit to avoid detection. The main limitation of email forensics is related to the fact cyber criminals often operate underground by hiding their true identity to evade any legal action against them. They accomplish this by means of: 1) Email and IP spoofing (modified source IP address) 2) Compromised networks 3) Proxy servers 4) Untraceable internet connections9.Illustrate the use of file, memory, network, and email forensics by means of a short scenario (application or real-world). email:You can give a similar scenario to the one given in this example. You might want to change some of the given details, such as the name of the company and the type of digital evidences. For example, you can include the following digital evidences: Phishing attack, IP address, and date and time information. network :You can give a similar scenario to the one given in this example. You might want to change some of the given details, such as the name of the company and the type of digital evidences. For example, you can include the following digital evidences: Network Packets, router and server logs that contain: source IP, destination IP, ports, protocols (TCP, UDP), data, and dates.file :You can give a similar scenario to the one given in this example. You might want to change some of the given details, such as the name of company and the type of digital evidences. For example, you can include digital evidences related to file forensic techniques, such as deleted, damaged and hidden files. memory :You can give a similar scenario to the one given in this example. You might want to change some of the given details, such as the name of company and the type of digital evidences. For example, you can include digital evidences related to the following types of volatile data: Date and time, Running processes, Logged on users, Closed text and doc files, Chat/Email messages, Open files, Executable programs, Web browsing history, Photos, IP addresses, Account Usernames and Passwords.Techniques (1.2): Discuss File, Memory, Network and Email Forensic Techniques in solving the above cyber forensic incident. Questions:1. Describe the file forensics technique in terms of the tasks that it performs, the file forensics process, and describe file encryption. A1:1) File forensic incidents leave a forensic “footprint” on the file system. 2) Cyber forensics deals with hidden files, deleted files, corrupted files, and encrypted files. 3) Cyber forensics software is used to make a forensic image of the hard disk drive. 4) A file forensics software is used to analyze this image to collect digital evidence. Specifically, the software analyzes all details about the files that were deleted: names, sizes, dates, and assess the extent and seriousness of the inflicted damages. 1) An encrypted file is obtained through encryption. 2) Encryption is a process that encodes a file so that it can only be read by certain people. 3) Encryption uses an algorithm to encrypt data, and then uses a secret key or password for the receiving party to decrypt the information. 4) If the private key is lost, file decryption becomes very difficult. 2.Discuss any limitations of the file forensics technique, that cyber criminals might exploit to avoid detection. A2:1) Cyber attackers increasingly try to hide their malware; so that it does not leave any traces on the suspect hard disk drive. 2) Disk damage, due to force, fire or water, makes file forensics difficult. 3) Some malware is specifically designed to avoid detection by Antivirus software.3.Describe the digital memory forensic technique in terms of why is it important, how is it done, and discuss how memory and file digital evidences complement one another. 1) Memory forensics involves the analysis of volatile data (all running processes) in a computer’s memory. Memory forensics uses the collected evidence to investigate cyber crimes and hacking. 2) Forensics software is used to create an image of the Memory (memory dump). Memory forensics software is used to analyze the memory dump (all running processes) to collect evidence. 3) Volatile data is the set of processes that run in memory (CPU registers, RAM). Examples include Running processes, Logged on users, Closed text and doc files, Chat/Email messages, Open files.4.Discuss any limitations of the digital memory forensics, that cyber criminals might exploit to avoid detection. 1. Some malware programs can: 1) Hide processes in the events log (For example, a malware program will not show in the list of events) 2) Change the ID of processes 3) Change the security access rights of processes (For example, malware can change the access rights of a certain process; so that it is now able to write to a file) 2. If a memory dump is taken using a memory forensics software, that is not up-to-date with regards to the operating system, the memory image can be either corrupted or incomplete.5.Describe the network forensics technique in terms of why is network forensics important, how is it done, and describe Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS). A5:1) Network forensics is a sub-branch of cyber forensics that gathers digital evidence that is acceptable in the court of law, and fixes damages inflicted by cyber attacks. 2) Network forensics is important because it helps you to safeguard your network against both internal and external threats, hackers, and malware attacks. Specifically, it helps you to find out: 1. Who is behind the incident? 2. What actually happened? 3. When did it happen? 4. Which resources were compromised? 5. Why was it done? 6. How was it done? 3) Network Forensics detects cyber crimes through the investigative analysis of: 1. Network Packets: That hold valuable information such as source IP, destination IP, ports, protocols (TCP, UDP), and data. 2. Firewall and Router Logs: That contain valuable information such as source IP, destination IP, ports, protocols (TCP, UDP), and dates. 3. Server Logs: That consist of valuable information such as source IP, destination IP, ports, protocols (TCP, UDP), and dates6.Discuss any limitations of the network forensics technique, that cyber criminals might exploit to avoid detection. A6:1. Hackers can find ways to sneak malware into the network through the firewall. To fix this limitation: 1) Install an IPS behind the firewall 2) Ensure the firewall and IPS policies are robust and updated. 2. Attackers try to modify the data in the logs to hide their intrusion footprints.7.Describe the email forensics technique in terms of why is email forensics important, how is it done, and describe the consequences of an email phishing attack. 1) Email forensics is a branch of cyber forensic science. It investigates cyber crimes by extracting digital evidence from email messages.2) Email forensics is performed through the analysis of email header, which produces the following digital evidence: 1) Sender email and IP address 2) Email servers the mail passed through 3) Date and time information 4) Client information8.Discuss any limitations of the email forensics technique, that cyber criminals might exploit to avoid detection. The main limitation of email forensics is related to the fact cyber criminals often operate underground by hiding their true identity to evade any legal action against them. They accomplish this by means of: 1) Email and IP spoofing (modified source IP address) 2) Compromised networks 3) Proxy servers 4) Untraceable internet connections9.Illustrate the use of file, memory, network, and email forensics by means of a short scenario (application or real-world). email:You can give a similar scenario to the one given in this example. You might want to change some of the given details, such as the name of the company and the type of digital evidences. For example, you can include the following digital evidences: Phishing attack, IP address, and date and time information. network :You can give a similar scenario to the one given in this example. You might want to change some of the given details, such as the name of the company and the type of digital evidences. For example, you can include the following digital evidences: Network Packets, router and server logs that contain: source IP, destination IP, ports, protocols (TCP, UDP), data, and dates.file :You can give a similar scenario to the one given in this example. You might want to change some of the given details, such as the name of company and the type of digital evidences. For example, you can include digital evidences related to file forensic techniques, such as deleted, damaged and hidden files. memory :You can give a similar scenario to the one given in this example. You might want to change some of the given details, such as the name of company and the type of digital evidences. For example, you can include digital evidences related to the following types of volatile data: Date and time, Running processes, Logged on users, Closed text and doc files, Chat/Email messages, Open files, Executable programs, Web browsing history, Photos, IP addresses, Account Usernames and Passwords. 1. Identify three technical applications of cyber forensics in this incident (Identify three things that cyber forensics can be used for, or can do). 1) Search the proof of a cyber crime2) looking for all the bad activities (Deletion of files and infection with a virus)3) Assess and fix the damages caused by the above bad activities2. Identify three real-world applications of cyber forensics. 1- Fraud, murder.2- False accusations, threats, harassment.3- Disclosing corporate information without permission.3. Describe the potential evidences available in this incident. A phishing attack took place.1) A phishing attack took place.2) A virus and spyware processes were running.3) An unauthorized access to the database server.4. Discuss how reliable are cyber forensics, and the digital evidences.1) Cyber forensics is reliable cause it uses dependable scientific methodsand standards, and computer technology to investigate cyber crimes.2) The evidences mentioned are reliable enough to prove that a cyber crimewas committed. Techniques (1.2): Discuss cyber forensic Incident Response Techniques in investigating the above cyber forensic incident.Questions: 1. Describe the cyber forensic incident response techniques: Identification, imaging, hashing and analysis.Identification Who are the prime suspects? What are the best sources of digital evidence to be further investigated? Ensure that no essential evidence is missed, that might affect a case. The investigation costs can be estimated in advance. The scope of the case can be adjusted: Local, national or international.- Imaging1. After successfully seizing the suspect device, a forensic image (duplicate orlogical copy) of the evidence is created from the physical device for furtheranalysis.2. In the case of a hard disk drive, a write-blockingdevice is used to allow only read-access to thedrive, and thus prevents any changes to it.-5. Hashing: Computation1. Every file or medium (e.g. hard disk) has a unique hash value (H).2. The hash value (H) is computed as: H = File or Medium + Hashing Algorithm.3. Meaning: H is computed by applying a Hashing Algorithm to the file or medium(e.g. hard disk, forensic image of the hard disk).4. To ensure the image copy is the same as the source data, a hash value iscreated for every forensic image using various hashing algorithms such as:MD5 (Message Digest 5) | SHA1 (Secure Hash Algorithm) | SHA25- Analysis1. After the process of imaging and hashing, the evidence is analyzed by a forensicsexpert to either support or oppose the hypotheses in the investigation.2. During the analysis, the forensics expert shouldmaintain the integrity of the digital evidence.3. The Analysis is performed by using appropriateforensics techniques and forensics software2. Illustrate with a cyber forensic scenario example.A healthcare company suspected an incident during their routine internal security auditing. As a digital forensicexpert, you were called to investigate this incident. Using forensics software and tools, your forensicsinvestigations found the following pieces of evidence:1) A virus program was installed.2) Network security settings were changed.3) Some files were damaged3. Discuss the limitations of seizure and imaging, that might be exploited by attackers to avoid detection.Seizure Limitations: Equipment might be destroyed, damaged or even hidden in an unknown location.
Miami Discuss Cyber Forensic Relevance by Solving Cyber Forensic Incident Questions

Analysis of Risk

Analysis of Risk. The aim of this essay is to introduce the aspect of risk and some highlighting on the theories that support this aspect of risk assessment and will briefly discuss existing risk assessment schedules and at the end it will critically analyze national and local reports related to risk assessment (Faisal). Royal Society (1983) states that, risk assessment which axiom as the probability that a particular adverse event occurs and social services has been concerned predominate with risk assessment to prevent harm. They may also suffer further if they have to deal with seeing their perpetrator on a regular basis, and may be subject to further assaults in retaliation of their initial complaint. In addition to the risks to existing victims, poor responses may result in increasing numbers of people being abused. The Oxford Dictionary define ‘risk’ as meaning a hazard, a dangerous, exposure to mischance or peril, as verb it also similar which means ”hazard, to danger, to expose to the chance of injury or loss”( Parsloe, 2005). Risk is closely linked to dangerousness, resulting in harm which seems to be agreed means harm to self or others and extend of harm which constitutes a risk in various situations especially adult with learning disabilities. Every human being becomes vulnerable during their lifetime for many of reasons they all respond differently to events that happen to them because of who they are and the lack of support that they have around them (Jacki, 2001). People with learning disabilities are one of the most vulnerable groups in the society (Department of Health 2001). Learning disabilities may be more at risk not only because their own difficulties in understanding or communication but also because of the way they receive services and the fact that they may be actively targeted or taken advantages (Jean and Anthea, 1997). Increasingly responding to the risks of others, preventing risks to vulnerable adults or running risks to themselves is all in day’s work for the busy practitioners and manager in the field of social care (Brearley, 1982). “Any criminal offence which is perceived to be motivated because of a person’s disability or perceived disability, by the victim or any other person.” [Association of Chief Police Officers]. According to Home Office—– Any incident, this constitutes a criminal offence, which is perceived by the victim or any other person as being motivated by prejudice or hate. People with learning disabilities are subject to risk all time due to their vulnerability they sometimes abused by those who have control over them or by those who realize that they are vulnerable because of their disabilities they often find it very much more difficult to assess risk the way most of social carer and services do (Vaughn and Fuchs, 2003). However, take risks because they feel vulnerable to a point approaching hopelessness (Fischhoff et al., 2000). In either case, these perceptions can prompt adults to make poor decisions that can put them at risk and leave them vulnerable to physical or psychological harm that may have a negative impact on their long-term health and viability. According to Kemshall and Pritchard (2001) states that, there has been much debate about a welfare model or a criminal justice model should be adopted. In order to fully appreciate the process of risk assessment, here identify the one of particular serous case review murder of Steven Hoskin after the recent death 39year’s young man who has been dead by numbers people. Adult’s vulnerable protection systems are likely to come under close scrutiny (Jacki, 2001). Steven Hoskin had learning disabilities and he was 39 young man who was been killed and his body was found at the base of the St Austell railway viaduct on 6th of July 2006. Two principal perpetrators, Darren Stewart (aged 29 years) and Sarah Bullock (aged 16 years), and the manslaughter conviction of Martin Pollard (aged 21 years). Steven Hoskin was 39 years old. Born to a single woman who herself had a learning disability, Steven’s learning disability became apparent in his early childhood. At 12 years of age he left a local primary school and became a weekly boarder at Pencalenick special school, returning to his mother (on the Lanhydrock Estate, outside Bodmin) at weekends. Steven did not read. After leaving school at 16, Steven was unable to secure employment and was admitted as an inpatient to Westheath House, an NHS ‘Assessment and Treatment’ unit for people with learning disabilities and mental health problems. Although he remained there for 14 months, the therapeutic purpose of his stay is unknown. While at Westheath House, Steven participated in youth training activities in the Bodmin area. This was an unhappy time for Steven as he was ‘victimised by the other trainees.'(ref…) Steven’s relationship with his mother deteriorated and ultimately became characterised by conflict and violent outbursts. In September 2003, Steven was charged and convicted with common assault and he was subject to a Probation Order. An Adult Protection Plan confirmed that Steven’s mother should move.(ref…) Even the initial meeting of the Serious Case Review Panel confirmed there was no lack of information about Steven and his circumstances and that with better inter-agency working; Steven Hoskin would have been spared the destructive impacts of unrestrained physical, financial and emotional abuse in his own home. While this knowledge cannot change, erase or soften what happened to Steven, it was an impetus for Cornwall Adult Protection Committee and its partner agencies to analyse what went so badly wrong. As uncomfortable as this process has been, it leads to learning, i.e. our purpose has not been one of judgement but of correction and improvement (Dixon 1999). It is important that adult protection is triggered when someone is believed to be at risk of harm/abuse and not only at the point where there is demonstrable evidence of harm. In order to conform to their obligations under human rights law, agencies have to be proactive in undertaking risk assessments (e.g. Monahan et al 2001) to ensure that preventive action is taken wherever practicable. The Disability Rights Commission (2005) confirmed that the health of people with learning disabilities is likely to be worse than that of other people, (even before taking into account specific health needs or disability related barriers to accessing health care), as they are likely to live in poverty and are exceptionally socially excluded. Young People and Adults have to ‘look out’ for young people. They must be alert to the possibility that the same young people may be harming those more vulnerable than themselves (ref….). Valuing People (2001) identified Independence as a key principle and helpfully confirmed that: While people’s individual needs will differ, the starting presumption should be one of independence, rather than dependence, with public services providing the support needed to maximize this. Independence in this context does not mean doing everything unaided (p23). It is essential that health and social care services review the implications of acceding to people’s ‘choice’ if the latter is not to be construed as abandonment (e.g. Flynn, Keywood and Fovargue 2003). Steven’s murder has confirmed that the choices of adults with learning disabilities in relation to their health care decision-making (Flynn, Keywood and Fovargue, 2003). Valuing People (2001) defines ‘choice’ as follows: `Like other people, people with learning disabilities want a real say in where they live, what work they should do and who looks after them. But for too many people with learning disabilities, these are currently unattainable goals. We believe that everyone should be able to make choices. This includes people with severe and profound disabilities who, with the right help and support, can make important choices and express preferences about their day to day lives’. (p24). Protecting ‘Vulnerable Adults,’ Valuing People states: `People with learning disabilities are entitled to at least the same level of support and intervention from abuse and harm as other citizens. This needs to be provided in a way that respects their own choices and decisions’. (p 93) The difficulty for people with learning disabilities is that carers often do feel often they are expected to make these choices for them. The law of negligence can appear to inhibit decision making ‘personal freedom and choice sit uncomfortably next to the concepts of duty of care and professional liability’ (Fuchs, 2003). The police reported Steven’s circumstances in the months preceding his murder as follows: `Steven Hoskin had lost all control of his own life within his home. He had no say, choice or control over who stayed or visited the flat. He had no voice or influence over what happened within the premises. Darren Stewart had recognised the clear vulnerability of Steven Hoskin and had ‘moved in’ on him…he recognised the opportunity for accommodation and removed from Steven Hoskin the little ability he had to make his own choices and decisions. Darren Stewart was fully aware of Steven’s vulnerability and learning difficulties and took advantage of those facts to control both Steven and the premises’. Margaret (2007) identifies the following factors in what went wrong for Steven: Youths use Steven’s bedsit to drink and take drugs where they steal his money and assault him. Steven cancels his weekly community care assistant service. Tortured after admitting their involvement in shoplifting. Assaulted, made to wear dog collar, cigarettes stubbed out on him .Forced to falsely confess to being paedophile and to swallow 70 painkillers. Marched to top of viaduct and forced over edge – falls to his death. Safeguarding adults: To be vulnerable is to be in circumstances defined by the continuous possibility of harm or threat (e.g. Flynn 2005). ‘No Secrets’ makes it clear that monitoring safety is a multi agency responsibility. The key to protecting and safeguarding vulnerable adults is sharing information, so any professional – who comes into contact with a vulnerable adult should be able to determine immediately if, and when, other agencies are involved and has a duty to share concerns. There were no such consequences arising from the numerous instances when Steven and Darren came to the notice of NHS services or the police. Flynn (1989) confirmed that adults with learning disabilities living in their own tenancies were vulnerable to victimisation, most particularly in localities of ‘hard to let’ tenancies; that these men and woman were wary and scared of young people; and that most experienced loneliness and isolation. Departments of Adult Social Care cannot be expected to ‘look out’ for all citizens with learning disabilities without the resources to do so. Fair Access to Care criteria are known to be rendering more and more vulnerable adults ineligible for ongoing support (ref…) It forcibly brings the commissioners and providers of health services and the police to the foreground. They were Darren’s first port of call and, perhaps under his influence, they became Steven’s as well. Steven’s murder presses the case for ever-greater investment in partnership working in safeguarding adults (Perkins et al., 2007). The stated primary aim of No Secrets (2007) is ‘to create a framework for action within which all responsible agencies work together to ensure a coherent policy for the protection of vulnerable adults at risk of abuse and a consistent and effective response to any circumstances giving ground for concern or formal complaints or expressions of anxiety. The agencies’ primary aim should be to prevent abuse where possible but, if the preventive strategy fails, agencies should ensure that robust procedures are in place for dealing with incidents of abuse.(p….)’ This statement clearly indicated that No Secrets was intended to encompass both a safeguarding ‘preventative’ approach, in addition to an adult protection ‘intervention’ one; although we would acknowledge that the intervention role has taken precedence in reality (ref….). Risks change constantly and people grow, change, and develop. It is important to review risk assessment regularly, and aim always to increase choice and freedom for the people with learning disability (Sellars, 2003 p.155). In considering the effectiveness of No Secrets as a mechanism to provide a level of intervention that could protect adults at risk of abuse, it would seem sensible to consider what has failed to work successfully within adult protection, whether such failures were a consequence of the nature of guidance or instead insufficient/inappropriate application of that guidance, and whether such failings could only be overcome by the introduction of legislation. An obvious mechanism that could be used as part of this evaluation process would be the consideration of Serious Case Reviews relating to adults.(ref…). People may make an informed choice to accept a particular risk today, but circumstances and people change. A risk considered acceptable today, may be a problem tomorrow, and statutory agencies have a consequent responsibility to regularly monitor and respond to changing circumstances. Personalisation does not mean a statutory agency has permanently discharged its duty of care on the basis of an informed decision taken at a single point in time. This was a key point of the Serious Case Review into the death of Steven Hoskin, ‘Steven wanted friends. He did not see that the friendship he had so prized was starkly exploitative, devoid of reciprocity and instrumental in obstructing his relationships with those who would have safeguarded him.'(ref….) ‘Disability hate crime’ fails to recognise the duration of Steven’s contact with his persecutors; the counterfeit friendship; the background to Steven’s perilous disclosures to Darren; the joyless enslavement; or the motivations of all of his persecutors. Steven’s murder has profound implications for the support of vulnerable adults in our communities. It challenges the ‘principle’, or dogma, of ‘choice’ for adults who are apparently ‘able;’ it unstitches some certainties about communities -their capacity to ‘look out’ for others, their familiarity and permanence; and it requires us to question why the ever- tightening eligibility criteria of services are rendering very vulnerable men and women so unprotected. The fact that individuals in all agencies knew that Steven was a vulnerable adult did not prevent his torture and murder (ref…). This does not imply that these agencies are without merits or strengths or that they are wholly culpable, but is intended to convey their acknowledgement of their individual and collective under-performance, and what has to change in the light of the magnitude of cruelty experienced by Steven (ref…). There is the role of care providers in adult protection intervention work, how they are engaged in investigations, and what role commissioning has in the overall process. And the commissioning role can be crucial, as noted by the joint investigation into the Cornwall Partnership NHS Trust, which stated, ‘The trust has blamed the three PCTs in Cornwall for failing to commission appropriate services for people with learning disabilities and, while this does not lessen the trust’s culpability, the criticism is accurate’. This is the other side of the coin; we are inclined to believe that ‘it won’t happen’, even when the objective statistics suggest otherwise the difficulty that now exists for people with learning disabilities, especially those with greater disability, and those who care for and support them, is that the law specifies that many such people are vulnerable, and not able to make this choice for themselves (Daniel, 2003). The onus of assessing risk and making the decision therefore often rests with carers. Because it is such a difficult decision to make for someone else, carers often take the simple way out, and avoid letting situations arise where learning-disabled people in their care have the opportunity to develop sexual relationships: if a person cannot make an ‘informed choice’ then perhaps it is easier not to offer them that choice (Lindsay 2004). This is the current dilemma for those who work in community care situations. According to David J. Thompson,(2000) the issue of sexual relationships is perhaps the most difficult and complex, but this problem of balancing risk and choice is a constant one for carers and professionals, in relation to many aspects of everyday life. In the background is the ogre of the law (and/or local management), ready to jump on the unwary, should they get it wrong. No wonder, perhaps that many are cautious about enabling such choices to be made. Get higher in the information of vulnerable adults referred to them for the reason that they are at risk of physical and sexual mistreatment, in addition to financial fraud, a study has found in Social services departments have seen (Simon, 1997. So where adult with learning disabilities have more complex problems, such as behaviour problem, mental illness, or others any physical or mental disorder they will need additional care and support to cope with their everyday lives (Hawks, 1998). Sometimes these problems impose additional risks, and these do need to taken into account when assessing and managing risks for each person/adult. Analysis of Risk

Healthcare System Issues: Price and Secretiveness

write my term paper Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp I have never had to deal with medical problems, my mother has always insured that I had the best medical insurance because I am prone to becoming seriously injured. But in America the healthcare system is not the best, the lower-class struggle with finding insurance or even possessing medical insurance and are penalized for not having medical insurance on their taxes. The problem with the outdated insurance-based model we call the American healthcare system is that it does not have to be absurdly expensive and secretive to get a check up from a local doctor. Healthcare in America is absurdly expensive. If you have ever looked at the uninsured bill for a hospital visit it is probably in the thousand if not tens of thousands. In most cases the actual physical cost of the visit will be in the hundreds and only hit the low thousands. But the hospitals know that if they keep their normal uninsured rates high, then when insurance companies make deal with them they have more room to negotiate and make money to further treatment or treat people who can’t pay immediately. But with cost this high you are paying way more then you should for something that effectively is a mass produced inexpensive commodity; for example, if you just go in for a IV the bill could come out to hundreds if not thousands. For what effectively could be 200 dollars in labor and 10 bucks for the saline solution. But your punishment for not paying the thousands of dollars a year for medical insurance is paying the difference. [1] This is a problem for those who are just visiting America or are new citizens. This lack of affordable healthcare can put people into large amounts of debt for something that isn’t even their fault. This model of government enforced lack of choice forces people to make life altering choices when they are severely injured or sick.[2] The second problem with American healthcare is its secretiveness. If you call a hospital or most primary care doctors and ask for the price of a procedure, odds are you will get led on and you will not get a solid dollar amount until after you receive the procedure. This is a problem for those whose insurance doesn’t cover the procedure and want to find the best deal on it. This is a problem for people who need lifesaving procedures but know that they can’t afford it, because they can’t find the best option or even a hospital that is willing to work with them on the price because of secretiveness Problem is, to do so would force hospitals to show what they charge for each of their services and disposable items which is not in their best interest because it would cause competition amongst hospitals which would lower cost causing the need for medical insurance to dwindle. Every hospital has a charge book which is kept secret and only a handful of people know where it is and the amounts, most of it is just plugged into spread sheet and used to output the bill. [3] To solve this issue it is simple, take away government subsidies and incentives to buy medical insurance and force hospitals to be transparent about the costs of common procedures, allowing for competition will allow for bills to be less and for hospitals to make more money then they are taking deals with the current insurance companies. Naysayers will claim that if someone who can’t pay receives medical treatment it will bankrupt hospitals or that it will collapse the economy which heavily relies on insurance and the employment that the companies provide. Well to that I say, there are precedents available to observe, if you can not pay for a procedure you get a bill in the mail. This would not change. If you do not pay, the same charges and processes will be followed, and in the case of collapsing economy and massive job loss, countries like France and Switzerland[4] have adopted a combination of both universal healthcare system and our outdated insurance model this allows for competition, price transparency and the right for the consumer to choose where he or she would like the procedure or routine medical check up to be done. These countries have solved all of the problems that exist in out current model of health care and address it in a way that allows for insurance companies to keep jobs, the economy to stay stable, and the person who was just severely injured to have the choice between extremely debt or slightly less debt.[5] Bibliography Bodenheimer, Thomas. “High and rising health care costs. Part 1: seeking an explanation.” Annals of internal medicine142, no. 10 (2005): 847-854. Belk MD, David. http://truecostofhealthcare.org/hospitalization/. “Forbes Welcome”. 2018. Forbes.Com. https://www.forbes.com/sites/rickungar/2013/05/08/the-great-american-hospital-pricing-scam-exposed-we-now-know-why-healthcare-costs-are-so-artificially-high/#674319423bff. Herzlinger, Regina E., and Ramin Parsa-Parsi. “Consumer-driven health care: lessons from Switzerland.” Jama 292, no. 10 (2004): 1213-1220. Field, Robert I. “Government as the crucible for free market health care: Regulation, reimbursement, and reform.” University of Pennsylvania Law Review (2011): 1669-1726. [1] Bodenheimer, Thomas. “High and rising health care costs. Part 1: seeking an explanation.” Annals of internal medicine142, no. 10 (2005): 847-854. [2] Belk MD, David. http://truecostofhealthcare.org/hospitalization/. [3] “Forbes Welcome”. 2018. Forbes.Com. https://www.forbes.com/sites/rickungar/2013/05/08/the-great-american-hospital-pricing-scam-exposed-we-now-know-why-healthcare-costs-are-so-artificially-high/#674319423bff. [4] Herzlinger, Regina E., and Ramin Parsa-Parsi. “Consumer-driven health care: lessons from Switzerland.” Jama 292, no. 10 (2004): 1213-1220. [5] Field, Robert I. “Government as the crucible for free market health care: Regulation, reimbursement, and reform.” University of Pennsylvania Law Review (2011): 1669-1726. Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp

Relationship Between Architecture and Human Behaviour: Eldon Building

Relationship Between Architecture and Human Behaviour: Eldon Building. 1.0 Introduction A major issue faced by most architects is the ability of their designs to meet the specifications and comfort of the intended users. And sometimes these can be made more difficult as the attitude, behaviours and psychology of the end users are supposed to be taken into consideration. From the psychology of human behaviour, people are influenced by what they do and what they feel, and so structures in an environment can influence how people think, react and adapt to the environment (Skinner, 2014). This essay explains how the architecture of the Eldon building in the University of Portsmouth influences human behaviour. The essay is divided into three parts; the first section used theories to explain the relationship between architecture and the human behaviour. The second part of the essay introduces the case study ELDON BUILDING and why it was selected for this essay, while the last part of the essay adopts characteristics from Eldon building to explain how the architecture of a building can affect human behaviour. 2.0 Theories that explain the relationship between architecture and human behaviour According to the definition from the oxford dictionary, Theories are described as a supposition or a system of ideas intended to explain something, especially one based on general principles independent of the thing to be explained and an example is the Darwin theory of evolution. This essay adopts two theories which are the Hannah Arendt theory and the James Gibson’s ecological theory of perception to explain the relationship between architecture and human behaviour. The Hannah Arendt theory states that men are viewed as programmable forces with the capability to influence the environment that they come in contact with and can be conditioned by the nature of their surroundings. Hannah Arendt went further to say and I quote ‘‘whatever touches or enters a sustained relationship with human life immediately assumes the character of a condition of human existence’’ (Mah, 2013). Accordingly, this is the reason why men will always remain conditioned beings because they are always affected by what they do and the environment around them. Hannah Arendt went further to justify his theory by stating that, Men do not stand alone as a conditioning force but rather are also conditioned by the objects in their environment which makes up the existence of their well-being. As such, what this means is that there is a mutual relationship between man and their environment which allows man to become a conditioned entity as much as he is the conditioning force, and the environment takes the role of the conditioning force as much as it is the conditioned unit. Another perspective in understanding how individuals react to their environment was explained by the James Gibson in his ecological theory of perception. According to the theory, James Gibson said and I quote ‘’ whereby the observer human or animal productively engages with the environment through movement and visual perception, the environment is no longer perceived as a seen object or ‘thing’. But an ‘Affordance of a stimulus which holds the capacity to offer meaning to the observer, thus stimulating the observer to productively respond and engage with the environment” (Mah, 2013). What this means is that an object present in a social environment cannot be treated as an abstract entity as they have the potential to affect how individuals interact with their environment (Mah, 2013). It is also interesting to note that Gibson’s theory was derived from a different field of study to that of Arendt’s, but the two theories tend to intertwine in supporting the general perception that individuals are influenced by their built environment. The theories also helped understand how Arendt’s connected the human condition and their built environment which means there is reciprocal relationship between individuals and their environment. Gibson’s theory acknowledges the environment as a stimulus that drives the observer to react to it according to the way the individual perceives it, thus the environment assumes the role of a conditioning force (Mah, 2013). In addition, because movement and the sensory use of vision is fundamental for perception to occur, it can be inferred that Gibson’s observer is always in visual and physical contact with his environment. Hence, reverting to Arendt’s theory, Gibson’s observer, who comes into contact with the environment and is conditioned by it, is also Arendt’s conditioned being. But from an architectural point of view, if there is any doubt on the impact of a built environment on the human psychology or behaviour, it should be noted that all architecture is a careful combination of barriers, apertures, horizontal and vertical planes constructed out of dormant, non-living materials inert and indifferent to the existence of humans and their mentality. Hence, as long as individuals remain influenced by the materials used in an architectural design, so will their behaviours continue to be affected by the built environment around them (Mah, 2013). 3.0 Eldon Building as a case study Eldon building is located at Winston Churchill avenue, in Portsmouth, UK as shown in Fig 3.1 and was built to be part of a long term strategic plan to foster arts and creativity in the region in conjunction with regional local authorities, businesses and employers, creating a central hub which has diverse talented students at its core. The Eldon building was built as an extension to the existing art building, and was designed by a London based award-winning firm of architects PenoyreRelationship Between Architecture and Human Behaviour: Eldon Building

Advanced Practice Nurse Roles Essay

Table of Contents Introduction Four APN Roles The rationale for Choosing the CNP Role Plans for Clinical Practice Role Transition Conclusion References Introduction Advanced practice nurses are among the key players in the primary care environment, as they usually have a broader scope of responsibilities than other nurses. Besides delivering care to patients, APNs are engaged in developing treatment plans and supervise other healthcare staff (Gyin, Sottas, Odermatt,