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Miami Dade College Chapter 4 Nola J Pender Nursing Discussion Paper

Miami Dade College Chapter 4 Nola J Pender Nursing Discussion Paper.

PART 1: Discuss various theories of health promotion, including Pender’s Health Promotion Model, The Health Belief Model, the Transtheoretical Theory, and the Theory of Reasoned Action. List and discuss health behaviors for health promotion and disease prevention. Apply and discuss the principles of transcultural nursing to community health nursing.Apply and discuss the basic concepts of critical theory to environmental health nursing problems.-> minimum 800 words for part 1PART 2:1. Think about the ethical theories and approaches in Chapter 4 and the moral conflicts you have experienced in the past. Have you used one of these approaches to resolving conflict? Which theory or approach have you used?2. Has there ever been a time when you have experienced the dilemma of having to make a choice that you know will affect the well-being of another individual? Have you ever experienced moral suffering?-> 3 paragraphs per question for part 2. This is chapter 4, let me know if you cannot see it https://learn-us-east-1-prod-fleet01-xythos.s3.ama…APA STYLE. 3 REFERENCES MINIMUM FROM LESS THAN 5 YEARS AGO.
Miami Dade College Chapter 4 Nola J Pender Nursing Discussion Paper

Multiculturalism is the recognition and appreciation of various cultures. It is the integration of various cultures to ensure people live harmoniously. Multiculturalism is what enables people of different backgrounds and cultures to live together in a culturally diverse society. Multiculturalism is about reaching out to new comers and natives of an area and finding a way in which they could both participate in the enhancement of the society. (Perkins, 2011) People who support multiculturalism argue that it allows people to express who they really are in a society. It is a more tolerant way of adapting to the diversity of various people. (Wilson, 2012) Multiculturalism rose after the Second World War. This was when there were rapid changes in the Western societies. The fight for human rights persisted and grew as more and more peoples were advocating for equal treatment for everyone of every race and nationality. It was during the period when the European Colonial System was collapsing as more Asian and Africa countries were fighting for their independence. In America it came with the rise of the Civil Rights Movement. In the West the whole aspect of multiculturalism at that time was seen as a way of protecting minorities from racial discrimination. (Modood, 2007) During the postwar period, multiculturalism was one of the most important developments in American Literature. In the first two and a half century of American history the literature was not multicultural as it did not involve everyone in the society. Even though the society at the time was already diverse with peoples of various origins, the literature was still not as diverse. First of all, the literature was not homogeneous as it was only written by men. Marginalized groups such as Women, Indians, African Americans, French Canadians in New England, Creoles and Cajuns in Louisiana, and Spaniards were doing very little writing and were represented to the public manly through the writing of others. (Perkins, 2011) After the Second World War, most of the marginalized communities’ literature started getting their way into mainstream. Jewish American literature was becoming popular in America. This was spear headed by the two Noble price winners, Saul Bellow and Isaac Bashevis. There was also the third generation of Jewish immigrants who did very good literature. Bernard Malamud, often identified with recent immigrants, was the master of Short stories, his most famous one being The Assistant. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Among the African Americans there were also prolific writers who caught the attention of many people. After Richard Wright there were many other good talented writers that jumped into the scene. Writers such as Ralph Ellison and James Baldwin had established good reputations in this field. In 1946 the novel The Street which was a portrait of Harlem written by Ann Petry was the first work by an African American woman to gain a lot of critical attention. Many others followed after her and helped in presenting the African American society from their own perspective. This includes Dorothy West who wrote about the wealthy black Bostonians in her work in 1948, The Living Is Easy. Paule Marshall was another writer who wrote about the blacks in Brown Girl, Brownstones (1959) which tells of Barbadians living in Brooklyn. Multiculturalism literature increased rapidly in the last third of the twentieth century. As this happened, people became more concerned with the American identity and forgot about the differences of race or ethnicity. This was also seen when the federal government allowed people to declare themselves ‘mixed’ during the 2000 census rather than sticking strictly to Caucasian, Native American, Black, Hispanic or Asian. (UTwatch, 2012) After the Harlem Renaissance and the splendid writing of people like Richard Wright, Gwendolyn Brooks, Ralph Ellison, and James Baldwin the African Americans were able to inherit readership from these literacy accomplishments. Braced by the accomplishments of the civil rights movements the writers of this period were assured of large audiences who were sympathetic. The writers were therefore able to capitalize on this and gain critical attention for their works. During this period there were a number of really good poets who were striving harder than ever to transform the best imaginings into social and political reality. Among the poets that emerged during this period were Amiri Baraka who was a poet and a novelist, Ishmael Reed who was also a poet and a novelist; Gloria Taylor who was best known for The Women of Brewster Place (1982); Alice Walker, who wrote ‘The Color Purple, in 1982 and the author of Brothers and Keepers, John Edgar Wideman in 1982. Other writers include Charles Johnson who wrote about the slave trade in a rather new fashion in his work Middle Passage in 1990. There was also the Nobel Prize winner Toni Morrison who’s 1970 Song of Solomon propelled her to the top, to be recognized among the best of her generation. Among the best of the poets who have come into critical view from the seventies onward are Michael Harper; Rita Dove, a poet laureate of the United States; and Jay Wright, who dismantles stereotypes with his multifaceted allusions and accommodations. (UTwatch, 2012) We will write a custom Essay on History of Multiculturalism Movements specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The multiculturalism movement has mostly been promoted by the oldest inhabitants of America. The new literature of multiculturalism mostly comes from the Native Americans and the other minorities which have been underrepresented in the country over the years. Most of these people have grown rapidly in numbers over the years and are pushing more and more for their voices to be heard. They are doing this through literature and hence coming up with this new multiculturalism literature that is taking over America. The most acclaimed American Indian writer is Louise Erdrich. She has been celebrated for her novels such as Love Medicine from 1984 which talks about the life of Indians in North Dakota. There are other Indian writers who mostly focused on fiction such as Scott Momaday who was from the earlier generation, Leslie Marmon Silko and Michael Doris. (UTwatch, 2012) The Hispanics also had renowned writers such as Rudolfo Anaya who earned his place as a leading Chicano writer with his first novel Bless Me, Ultima (1972). There is also Nash Candelaria who wrote the Memories of the Alhambra which traced a family’s history through various generations. Among the Asian immigrants there have been fictional works that speak about the heritage left behind and the challenges and experiences they had while adjusting to the different ways of Americans. One of the most successful writers in America with a Chinese ancestry is Maxine Hong Kingston. (Perkins, 2011) Works Cited Modood, T. (2007). Multiculturalism: a civic idea. Cambridge: Polity.Print. Perkins. (2011). American Literature: Civil War to Present. New York: Mcgraw Hill.Print. UTwatch. (2012). The “Multiculturalism” Movement and the Making of a Right Wing Counterattack at UT-Austin. Web. Wilson, K. (2012). Multicultural Education. Retrieved from Not sure if you can write a paper on History of Multiculturalism Movements by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More
Saint Thomas University Diagnosis of Geriatric Depression Case Study.

FOLLOW THE RUBRIC ALL THE TIME TO DO THE PAPER A 78-year-old female comes to your office escorted by a neighbor who is a patient of yours. The neighbor, who has lived next door to the older woman for years, relates that a week ago the elderly woman’s sister died and that she had been her caregiver for many years. The neighbor relates that although she would occasionally see the older woman, she did not visit the home. At the funeral last week, she noticed that the woman appeared fatigued, confused, sad, and gaunt in appearance. Later the neighbor approached the woman, inquired about her health, and determined that the woman had a very difficult time the past couple of months, caring alone for her sister until the end when hospice care was initiated. The neighbor convinced the woman to seek medical care and today is the first appointment with a provider that this 78-year-old female has had in 3 years. The older woman states that she is very fatigued and sad over the loss of her sister. Neither her sister nor the patient has been married. A distant niece came to the funeral but lives about 30 miles away. The woman states that she is not taking any prescription medication and relates no medical problems that she is aware of being diagnosed.Vital signs: T 97.6°F, HR 98, RR 22, BP 95/60, BMI 21 Chief Complaint: Fatigue and sadness over the death of her older sister.Discuss the following:1) What additional subjective information will you be asking the patient?2) What additional objective findings would you be examining the patient for?3) What are the differential diagnoses that you are considering?4) What laboratory tests will help you rule out some of the differential diagnoses?5) What screening tools will you select to use on this patient?6) What is your plan of care?7) What additional patient teaching may be needed?8) Will you be looking for a consult?Submission Instructions:Your initial post should be at least 500 words, formatted and cited in current APA style with support from at least 2 academic sources.Follow the rubric all the time Grading Rubric Your assignment will be graded according to the grading rubric.Discussion RubricCriteriaRatingsPointsIdentification of Main Issues, Problems, and Concepts5 pointsDistinguishedIdentify and demonstrate a sophisticated understanding of the issues, problems, and concepts.4 pointsExcellentIdentifies and demonstrate an accomplished understanding of most of issues, problems, and concepts.2 pointsFairIdentifies and demonstrate an acceptable understanding of most of issues, problems, and concepts.1 pointsPoorIdentifies and demonstrate an unacceptable understanding of most of issues, problems, and concepts.5 pointsUse of Citations, Writing Mechanics and APA Formatting Guidelines3 pointsDistinguishedEffectively uses the literature and other resources to inform their work. Exceptional use of citations and extended referencing. High level of APA precision and free of grammar and spelling errors.2 pointsExcellentEffectively uses the literature and other resources to inform their work. Moderate use of citations and extended referencing. Moderate level of APA precision and free of grammar and spelling errors.1 pointFairIneffectively uses the literature and other resources to inform their work. Moderate use of citations and extended referencing. APA style and writing mechanics need more precision and attention to detail.0 pointPoorIneffectively uses the literature and other resources to inform their work. An unacceptable use of citations and extended referencing. APA style and writing mechanics need serious attention.3 pointsResponse to Posts of Peers2 pointsDistinguishedStudent constructively responded to two other posts and either extended, expanded or provided a rebuttal to each.1 pointsFairStudent constructively responded to one other post and either extended, expanded or provided a rebuttal.0 pointPoorStudent provided no response to a peer’s post. 2 points
Saint Thomas University Diagnosis of Geriatric Depression Case Study

calculate the mean, median, and standard deviations, statistics homework help.

the mean, median, and standard deviation for both the sample of new
states in which you will have facilities AND calculate the mean, median
and standard deviation for the national population of median home
prices.  You note that there are 51 observations in the population.
For the population mean construct the 95% confidence interval.
Determine how many of the sample state fall outside the confidence interval and identify the states.
an appropriate hypothesis test to determine if you suspicion is correct
that the new states in which you will be building facilities have
higher average median price for home than the average median price for
the population.
on your conclusion from the hypothesis, is it likely that the firm will
experience a significant increase in its salary cost.

Median Property Value by State: Homes 2010-2012 US Census Report Home Value
Price In Current Dollars
District of Columbia
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
West Virginia

calculate the mean, median, and standard deviations, statistics homework help

Bethel College Moral Intensity in a Healthy Business Case Study

Bethel College Moral Intensity in a Healthy Business Case Study.

Read the scenario and write a narrative essay (minimum 1500 words) in which you address and discuss the questions and statements listed below.Use at least four scholarly sources to demonstrate a thorough understanding of the scenario. Cite your sources in APA format.• Discuss the extent to which the company’s action in this scenario was ethical. • Explore the moral intensity and ethical principles relevant to this incident.• What implications does this have on Team Members?• In your opinion does this infringe on your personal time away from work. ScenarioA large multinational grocery chain that emphasizes healthy lifestyles is recognized as one of the nation’s “greenest” companies, has generous employee benefits, and is perennially rated as one of the best places to work. Employees receive a 20-percent discount on company products. However, those who participate in the company’s voluntary “Healthy Discount Incentive Program” receive up to an additional 10-percent discount on their purchases (i.e., up to a total 30-percent discount). These additional discounts are calculated from employees’ blood pressure, total cholesterol (or LDL) levels, Body Mass Index (BMI), and nicotine-free lifestyle. For example, the full additional 10 percent discount is awarded to those who do not use nicotine products, have 110/70 or lower blood pressure, have cholesterol levels under 150, and have a BMI of less than 24. Employees do not receive the additional discount if they use nicotine products or have any one of the following: blood pressure above 140/90, cholesterol of 195 or higher, or BMI of 30 or higher. In his letter to employees when announcing the plan, the CEO explained that these incentives “encourage our Team Members to be healthier and to lower our healthcare costs.”
Bethel College Moral Intensity in a Healthy Business Case Study

Newcastle College Wk 12 Brown Limited Company Report Essay

assignment writing services Newcastle College Wk 12 Brown Limited Company Report Essay.

Assignment Detail: CASE STUDY: Brown Limited BROWN limited is a UK subsidiary of the Australian MMC Group. The company has been operating in the UK for the past 9 years. BROWN provides financial services to a number of organisations which include SME’s, property developers and investment property funds in the UK and Australia. For the past 9 years, BROWN has been a profit-making firm as it has retained its previous clients, in addition to capturing an increasing share of the market. However, the finance director of BROWN has recently got in touch with your professional consulting firm and has engaged your firm with the mandate to provide them with an explanation of the cash flow problem that BROWN Limited had been facing. The company is also dependent on the parent based in Australia for funds, as and when required. In the past month there has been a number of meetings in London and Australia where it has been agreed that BROWN Limited should do their best to expand the business and raise the required capital in the UK, or perhaps in Europe, so as not to depend so much on cash coming from the parent company all the time. Consequently, the management of BROWN is considering the following projects: The current product that BROWN Limited has to offer mostly to specialist developers and investment funds companies is outdated. The company is looking to invest in a new product and there are two proposals on offer. The details of these two proposals are outlined below. Advanced Suite Draft figures £’000 Year 0 1 2 3 4 5 New Software cost 9,200 Sales Revenue 3,500 5,900 8,000 9,000 9,800 Less: First Module (430) (620) (850) (920) (1,200) Second Module (1,150) (1,500) (1,650) (2,200) (1,800) Overheads (250) (260) (350) (320) (290) All of the above estimates have been prepared in terms of present-day cost and prices. Assume that cash flows arise at the end of each period. In addition Revenues are expected to rise by 4% in price terms per year from year 1 (start of year 2). Overheads are expected to rise by 4% per year from year 1 (start of year 1) The cost of First Module and Second Module are expected to rise in line with inflation of 4% per year from the beginning of year 1. The cost of Technical Experts, who have come from the Australia have not been taken into consideration in the forecast and are as follows: Specialist Developer 1 (SD1): Will be paid £120 per hour and expected number of hours for SD1 are 1,400hrs. The rate paid is expected to rise in line with inflation at 4% per year from year 2 and the number of hours is expected to reduce by 3% per year, every year from year 2 onwards. Specialist Developer 2 (SD2): Will be paid £110 per hour and expected number of hours for SD2 are 1,200hrs. The rate paid is expected to go up in line with inflation at 4% per year from year 2 and the number of hours is expected to reduce by 3% per year, every year from year 2 onwards. If BROWN Limited invests in Advanced Suite, then the discount rate that would be required to assess the NPV would be 10%. The table above shows the estimated outgoings and inflows for the project. General Suite General Suite is the second of two proposals, the expected life of this software will also be 5 years and the cost of the new software, expected revenue, Modules costs and overheads are as follows: Draft figures General Platform £’000 Year 0 1 2 3 4 5 New Software cost 8,000 Sales Revenue 5,700 6,800 9,100 11,000 11,500 Less: First Module (330) (540) (850) (1,100) (1,500) Second Module (1,300) (1,850) (2,200) (2,800) (2,900) Overheads (190) (230) (280) (325) (375) All of the above estimates have been prepared in terms of present-day costs and prices. Assume that cash flows arise at the end of each period. In addition, you need to take into account the costs of Specialist Developers, inflation and the rise in the revenue, and overheads consideration, which are the same for the Advanced Suite. The discount will also be the same as with General Suite. If BROWN Limited invests in General Suite, then the discount rate that would be required to assess the NPV would be 10%. New Centre The manager in charge of sales has just informed your company that they plan to open a centre in the Midlands, and it is hoped that this centre will be opened for business on 1 November 2020. You have also been informed that to start with, the company will only sell 2 software packages, that of Standard Package (SP) and the Expert Package (EP). This will be done to test the market and see if the business will break-even in the same period. These two popular packages will be offered at £310 for SP and £400 for EP. The company has provided you with the following information regarding the costs and estimated sales for the three-month period, starting from 1 November. BROWN Limited plan to put in £5,500 as start-up capital and plan to sell a total of 1200 (combined) of SP and EP for the same period. They are not sure which of the two products will produce the most profits for BROWN. Total budgeted sales for each month are as follows: November 400, December 400 and January 400, of which 30% of each month will be for EP. You will be required to assess the best product combination of sales for the period. To help with the setup of the store, the company has just concluded a deal to get a bank loan of £24,000 on the 1 November. The interest on this loan will be paid every month. The company will be required to make 12 equal payments to repay the loan starting end of December. Financial information As mentioned above the company plans to sell a total of 1200 product packages during these three months. The fixed costs for the period are as below: Rent £ 15,000 Telephone £2,100 Loan Interest £900 Insurance £5,700 Electricity and Gas £3,600 Business Rates £3,900 Fixed cost specific to products SP EP Marketing £25,000 £ 27,000 Administration £7,900 £ 12,300 Staff Salary £ 21,000 £ 24,300 From their costs estimates, the variable costs of the services are £180 for the SP and £210 for the EP. The fixed costs are for the whole period, so they are not affected by the level of service. However, the variable costs will increase with services output (ie sales output multiplied with variable cost per product). Revenue from the sale of SP and EP will be on the basis of 40% cash in the same month, and the remaining 60% credit to be paid the following month. Requirement: You are required to write a management report to the management of BROWN limited directors in which the following points should be discussed. Provide an explanation on the different sources of funding the company can have and their advantages and disadvantages. You should make recommendations as to how the company can manage the same to help in the planned expansion program. Analyse the Investment proposals by using NPV and provide recommendations. You should also briefly comment on other investment proposal techniques that BROWN Limited may use, and the limitations of using those techniques The use of management tools such as Breakeven analysis and Budgets. A computation of your breakeven analysis and the cash budget for the first 3 months. An evaluation of the estimated company performance or position during the same period A detailed Literature Review of the tools you have used such as breakeven analysis and budgets and their importance to business. Other issues for management to consider that you think are vital for them to survive and make a profit. Assignment Guidelines: The rubric by which your report will be assessed is posted separately. It is important that prior to you submitting your work, you read this and objectively assess your response against the rubric. This will ensure that you have done enough to attain the marks you wish to achieve. Layout Your work should be word processed in accordance with the following: Font style, Arial, font size 121.5 line spacing.The page orientation should be ‘portrait’Margins on both sides of the page should be no less than 2.5 cmPages should be numberedYour name should not appear on the script.
Newcastle College Wk 12 Brown Limited Company Report Essay

Brain-to-Brain Interface Experiment Essay

Table of Contents Abstract Goals of the Experiment The Model The Techniques Results of the Experiment Discussion and Conclusion Works Cited Abstract The proponents of the study described the first Brain-to-Brain interface experiment. The focus is on the feasibility and workability of the interface, with respect to transmission times in all stages of signal transmission, creating a basic framework for the creation of and advancement of B2B technologies. The proponents of the study utilized EEG and TMS technologies to record a signal from the “Sender’s” motor cortex, and send it via the Internet to the TMS device placed on the “Receiver’s” motor cortex. The sender’s signal is superimposed upon the brain of the receiver, causing a response that satisfies the principle condition of the game task. However, it is important to point out that the experiment was merely a sophisticated version of the well-known knee jerk reflex experiment. There was no meaningful interaction between “Sender” and “Receiver” to warrant the claim that one human being was able to communicate to another human being without using any form of linguistic device. Nevertheless, the said experiment was a major stepping stone towards the creation of a brain-to-brain interface technology that would allow complex actions, such as, the efficient knowledge and skill transfer between a novice and an expert. Goals of the Experiment The proponents of the study described an experiment by which they test the functionality of a brain-to-brain (B2B) device. This experimental setup involves the use of the technologies of Electroencephalography (EEG) and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) respectively to record, and send encoded brain signals via the Internet. The proponents of the study crafted a proof of concept experiment where they test the question: is it possible to create a connection between two human brains, and therefore create a B2B device? The Model To test their hypothesis, the proponents of the study devised a relatively simple experiment whereby three pairs of respondents were connected to each other using a BBI setup comprised of EEG and TMS. They engaged in a cooperative task in the form of a game. This setup enables the experimenters to not only determine if their prototypical B2B device is a success, but also to assess its performance. The game features either a rocket or a friendly plane flying across the “Sender’s” screen, requiring the “Sender” to move the receiver’s hand by using the B2B device. This enables the sender to decide to use the receiver’s hand to click a button to shoot the rocket. If the “Sender” understands the significance of the supply plane, he refrains from taking any action therefore preventing the transmission of the “shoot to destroy” signal to the “Receiver.” This simple experiment is a manipulation of a response test in which a subject responds to a prompt by clicking the correct button as fast as they can. In this case, it tests the response, and thus the connection between two conscious subjects as they collaborate to complete a task. The Techniques The experiment included three pairs of subjects, and took place in four randomized blocks, two of which were control while the remaining two were experimental. During the control blocks the TMS coil placement was rotated, breaking the circuit to the receiver’s motor cortex whereas during the experimental blocks the BBI circuit was unbroken. The EEG procedure was prefaced by training sessions. The sender subjects had an EEG placed on them, and made to move a one-dimensional cursor by imagining wrist movement. The motor signals are emitted in the mu band (8-12 Hz) and picked up by the EEG to be routed to the receiver. The TMS procedure was also prefaced by training and calibration sessions where the subjects were screened and the TMS machine was calibrated to their individual motor cortex: specifically the coil is placed on top of the part of the cortex that controls the extensor carpi radialis, the muscle that extends the wrist, thereby causing an upward motion of the hand. The game the subjects played forced them to collaborate, and fostered the use of the BBI. Results of the Experiment The “Sender” was able to communicate with the “Receiver” using a non-invasive approach. This capability was confirmed using an ingenious research methodology that includes placing respondents in two different buildings that are located one mile from each other. The considerable distance was the assurance that the “Sender” was unable to use any type of audiovisual signals to communicate with the “Receiver.” The proponents of the study were able to prove that a communication link was established by observing a game task that allowed them to measure the outcomes of the experiment. The validity of the experiment was enhanced, when the experimenter added the control part of the research methodology. With regards to the “control” pair, the “Sender” was still able to send signals to the “Receiver”; however, the “Receiver” was unable to process the signal. It was due to the manipulation of the “Receiver’s” cap, and it prevented the brain from interpreting the signal transmitted by the “Sender.” Thus, the wrist movements were not made in random but as a direct reaction to the signals sent by the “Sender.” In fact, the control pair was unable to record any hits to the missile or the airplane. Discussion and Conclusion The strength and weakness of the experiment can be found in the introduction portion of the document that described the first direct brain-to-brain interface in humans. The introduction portion of the document succeeded in whetting the appetite of the readers creating interest in knowing more about the study. The readers are interested to learn more about the outcome of the study, because the proponents pointed out that “a great deal of the information available to our brain is not introspectively available to our consciousness, and thus cannot be voluntarily put in linguistic form” (Rao et al. 1). They proceeded to enhance the level of interested by implying that the experiment is a stepping stone to solve the problem experienced by master surgeons and expert musicians who are desperately trying to transfer their knowledge and expertise to a novice. However, the aforementioned limitation in communication prevented them from simply telling a student how to exactly “position and move the fingers during execution of critical hand movements” (Rao et al. 1). In other words a successful brain-to-brain communication eliminates the problems that are inherent in linguistic communication. The student and the teacher do not have to grapple with awkward and imperfect human speech. It is a problematic setting especially if one considers the interaction between two people that came from different ethnic and cultural backgrounds. Due to the way the statements were phrased, the readers expected that the said experiment would provide a solution to the aforementioned problem. It seems to have been implied that the proponents of the study were able to develop a foolproof way to demonstrate brain-to-brain interface while performing simple tasks. No one expected that the first brain-to-brain interface would yield dramatic results, such as, the ability to control another human beings actions just through the power of thought. Nevertheless, the expectation was quite high. The expected result was that the “Sender” should have been able to communicate a simple message to the “Receiver.” For example, the “Sender” should have communicated the desire to move a finger or a toe. But a closer examination of the methodology, and the outcome of the experiment revealed that the study was merely a sophisticated rendition of a knee-jerk reflex experiment. In a knee-jerk reflex experiment, the respondent sits cross-legged in a chair while the experimenter taps the knee with a small hammer. The knee-jerk reflex creates an involuntary movement of the muscle causing the top most leg to move forward in a quick jerk like motion. A variation of the knee jerk reflex phenomenon is the use of an electric current to move the lifeless limb of a dead frog. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It can be argued that the brain-to-brain interface experiment described in the study was a sophisticated variant of the knee jerk reflex. But instead of using a hammer to cause the involuntary movement of a body part, the experiment calls for the use of a sophisticated set up that allows the experimenter to send signals directly to the brain. The electric signal sent to the motor-sensory area of the “Receiver’s” brain caused the involuntary movement of the wrist that was interpreted by the mouse pad as a clicking motion. It was considered as the primary evidence that two human beings can communicate with each other using a brain-to-brain interface even in the absence of any type of audiovisual signal coming from the “Sender” or “Receiver.” Although the research design did not lead to the realization of high expectations, the experiment was ground breaking as a stepping-stone towards complex brain-to-brain interaction in the future. The experiment was able to prove that non-invasive interface is possible. This is an important development because “invasive modalities need to implant microelectrode arrays inside the skull within the brain, which involves expert surgeons with high precision skills” (Hassanien and Azar 280). In addition, invasive modalities leads to the scarring of the brain tissue that reduces the efficacy of the transmittal device and increases the health risk to the patient. Aside from demonstrating the efficacy of non-invasive techniques in brain-to-brain interface, this experiment also revealed the advances made when it comes to understanding the different functionalities of different areas of the brain. In this particular experiment, the experimenter knew which area of the brain to manipulate using electric signals to force a voluntary action on another human being. Thus, scientists are not going to start from scratch in creating similar types of experiments. Neuroscientists are encouraged to focus on other areas of the brain such as the area that controls audio and visual perceptions (Richmond, Rees, and Edwards 38). Neuroscientists must develop an experiment to test the viability of sending communication signals directly into these areas to determine if meaningful communication using brain-to-rain interface is possible. It is time to move beyond the knee jerk reflex experiment that characterized this particular study. In the future, state-of-the art BBIs can lead to the creation of a sophisticated teaching tool that enables experts to affect an efficient means of knowledge and skills transfer to their students. Works Cited Hassanien, Aboul and Ahmad Azar. Brain-Computer Interfaces. New York: Springer, 2104. Print. Rao, Rajesh et al. “A Direct Brain-to-Brain Interface in Humans.” PLOS ONE 2014: 1-12. Print. Richmond, Sarah, Geraint Rees, and Sarah Edwards. I Know What You’re Thinking. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012. Print.

Module Assignment Written Assignment This assignment will help you to create your framework using the information provided in this module. 1. Select a topic (according to module 1 and 2) 2. For th

   1. Select a topic (according to module 1 and 2) 2. For this particular case, you will have to select only 3 authors related to your topic  3. Follow the steps to build your literature review.  Remember that a good literature review must have several components, which were explained during this module. The assignment will meet the APA 6th edition format criteria, minimum 2 pages following the structure: 1.     Title page 2.     Body (Use an APA format heading to separate each section) 3.     References (make sure that each reference is cited in the text)