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mgt322- logistic

mgt322- logistic. I’m studying for my Management class and need an explanation.

Critical Thinking
The purpose of this assignment is to identify and apply Logistics and Supply Chain Management concepts/tools to suggest logistics performance priorities. To this purpose, you should review about these companies through secondary available information. Think about how you can apply the concepts/tools that you learned in this course.
Logistics outsourcing has attracted the attention of lots of Supply chain industrialist in recent years. As firms enlarge their global reach, they often find that they need to reconsider their internal capabilities in managing the global supply chain. In many cases firms decide to outsource this function in whole or in part to agents or outsourcing firms (Trent & Roberts, 2009).
Using this concept of outsourcing you should answer the following questions by taking any Saudi company or any Multinational company of your choice.
Question:
1. What are outsourcing firms?
2. Assess the reasons for using outsourcing logistics service in Saudi Arabia/any company of your choice? Using some good examples.
3. Reasons why outsourcing logistics arrangement are not always successful?
The Answer should be 3- 4 pages in length including the cover and appendices, with 1″ margins on all sides, double-spacing, and 12 point font. The cover of the answer should include title, course code and name, your full name, and your University id number.
The Answer must follow the outline points below:

Outsourcing Companies
Their Main functions
Any local example
Reasons with suitable Examples
Reference

mgt322- logistic

CSCI 1320 Columbus Community College Database Fundamentals Project Report.

Columbus State maintains a system for the displaying of the schedule of classes for a given semester. You can see the existing system on the CSCC website. (Link to schedule page here.)There are two screens involved with this system on the CSCI website.Screen 1The following screen allows you to select the course subject for which you wish to see the schedule:Screen 2In the following screen, we have selected the Computer Science Department, and can see the list of classes for the subject.For this assignment, you have the data for both the Computer Science and Info. Tech. Support Technician courses.Obviously, this web page relies on a backend database. For this exam you are given the schedule of classes for two departments for a semester as a CSV (comma separated value) file.Your work is to prepare a report detailing how you would design a database system to accommodate the data you see in the list.AssignmentThis assignment requires you design (not create and not implement) a database based on the data provided you. You have no information other than what is contained in the data file. You must understand that data for yourself, and build your design around that understanding.Database DesignThe following is the minimum requirements for the design of your database. You can add additional features and functionality to your design, but this serves as the minimum requirements:Accommodate unlimited classes and departments. The data with which you have been provided contains the class listings for only two departments, but a well-functioning system should be able to handle any number of classes across any number of departments.Ability to track instructors. The new database must be capable of tracking instructors allowing for the creation of reports detailing which class or classes have been assigned to a single instructor. Handle multiple instructors per class. While it is common to list only one instructor per class this system must be capable of assigning more than one instructor to an individual class.Handle course section reporting. The new database should have the ability to easily report each course (like CSCI-1320) and report all the sections of this particular class that are running, including such information as buildings, rooms, instructors, days, and times.Handle classroom reporting. The new database should have the ability to easily report on individual classrooms detailing the classes that will be taught in a physical space and on what days/times.Your SubmissionYou will write a report as a Word document that exhibits all the following:Write a well-formed paragraph that demonstrates your knowledge of the data you have received. What do you see in the data that raises questions that should be answered? Are there any issues with the data itself (specific columns) that you wish would be formatted differently, if possible? Are there any columns where the data does not make sense or where the data should be presented differently than what it currently is? Are there any columns of data that are not needed? Which ones and why? This paragraph should demonstrate that you really understand the data contained in the list and should define the meaning of CSV or flat-file.Ideally, you would want to gather additional information about this list and the school’s specific needs around the database. Of course, this assignment doesn’t provide you this luxury. But, if it did what would you want to know? Formulate a list of 10 questions that you would want to ask in interviews and identify the people with whom you would want to conduct such an interview. Refer to chapter 2 from Harrington on requirements analysis. When identifying the people whom you would interview, identify the college positions (not necessarily the names) of those whom might have the information you need.Choose one other method of requirements gathering (observation, questionnaires, focus groups, and brainstorming sessions), also from chapter 2 of Harrington, that you would conduct. After identifying one of the above four methods write a well-formed paragraph in which you provide the design for the methodology you have chosen: who will be involved, what questions will be asked, what you hope to gain from this particular requirement gathering session.Create a graphical design (refer to chapter 4 from Harrington) using Draw.IO of your database design. You need to design the database to meet the minimum requirements as listed above. Your design must include the tables, their attributes (columns), the primary key for each, and the relationships between tables (refer to chapter 5 from Harrington). Make sure to export the image from Draw.IO and insert it into your Word document.Important: Make sure you read the above steps carefully. When you are finished with all steps above—submit only your Word document to BlackboardExample DataImportant: The above image does not capture all the rows or columns. You will have to use a text editor like Notepad or Notepad++ to open this file.Notepad++ is an excellent upgrade from the standard Notepad text editor. It’s free and open source. And it’s a tool you should have in your toolbelt. (Link to Notepad++ website and downloads.)CSV Data The above Example Data is taken from a CSV file to which you have access.(Link to CSV data here.)
CSCI 1320 Columbus Community College Database Fundamentals Project Report

Apple: SWOT, PESTLE and Porter’s Five Analysis

Apple: SWOT, PESTLE and Porter’s Five Analysis. 1. Executive Summary The mobile telecommunications market, until recently was an assortment of various manufacturers such as Nokia, Siemens, Sony Ericsson, Samsung etc. The market has moved away from the endless number of mobile telephone manufacturers and four major players now control the industry, Samsung, HTC, RIM and Apple. While Apple’s market share has been steady over the past few years, operating profit has increased. The main reason behind the slow growth in market share is due mainly to the high price of the iPhone. By introducing an entry and mid-level iPhone, Apple will exploit an untapped market. Apple would see an increase in market share, gained from new customers who previously would not have bought an iPhone due to price. Apple would also benefit from the enterprise market currently dominated by Research in Motion (RIM), who currently provide most smartphones to business users. This market development strategy is uncharted territory to Apple and could prove very lucrative if the operating system is developed to the needs of businesses as the iPhone’s ease of use would make it preferable to the Blackberry. In the following report, we have conducted internal and external analyses to enable us to formulate a suitable strategy in- line with Apple’s mission statement to allow Apple to create a sustainable competitive advantage. If Apple are able to successfully implement these strategies to increase market share, as the market matures, the iPhone will become a ‘cash cow’, indicated by high market share and low market growth, providing a steady stream of income for Apple. Apple has been building up a very big reputation and a very strong brand, I suppose that Apple is within the most expensive brands on earth (Osnews staff, 2018). Everybody associates automatically Apple with innovation, design, quality, being different, etc (Osnews staff, 2018). Apple cannot deliver products that are not innovative, well designed or top-notch quality, they would only destroy their own brand and reduce sales figures dramatically (Osnews staff, 2018). Innovation and quality are related with high price, the high price guarantees the customer that he is buying an excellent product, this is psychologically as well as from the business side, a typical business model (Osnews staff, 2018). The human psychology says that the higher the price, the better the product and otherwise. Apple have enjoyed growing market share over the past 5 years and each new product release is seen as an upgrade on the previous technology meaning that at any one time, Apple essentially has one mobile telephone in the market, i.e. the latest iPhone, unlike other manufacturers who release new products to sell alongside older models (Academiaedu, 2018). While some may see this as a disadvantage, there is always huge demand when Apple releases their latest iPhone and previous models of the iPhone still sell strong to ‘late adopters’ who want to own an iPhone but are dissuaded by the high price of the latest model (Academiaedu, 2018). To cut costs, Apple eliminated some accessories from the 20GB package, including the dock, which is a $39 extra. The device is $299 and it adopts the iPod Mini’s intuitive Click Wheel, thus improving battery life and incorporating some key firmware enhancements. 1.1 Introduction Apple Inc was started by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak in 1976 by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak. Apple became a famous brand and grew rapidly in the 1980’s, gained high profits, but had a drastic drop in 1996. Steve jobs who became the CEO then transformed Apple Inc. into a success story by introducing innovative and classy non-PC products in 2000’s, and from then on Apple became one of the largest successful start-ups in the US market. Apple Inc now manufactures, and markets mobile communication and media devices, personal computers (PCs), and portable digital music players, and sells a variety of related software, services, accessories, networking solutions, and third-party digital content and applications. Apple’s product portfolio includes iPhone, iPad, Mac, iPod, Apple Watch, Apple TV. Its portfolio of consumer and expert software applications include iOS, macOS, watchOS and tvOS operating systems, iCloud, Apple Pay and a variety of accessory, service and support offerings. Apple sells and delivers digital content and applications through the iTunes Store, App Store, Mac App Store, TV App Store, iBooks Store and Apple Music. The company operates globally across the US, Europe and Asia Pacific. It is headquartered in Cupertino, California. (reference) Apple as a stable worldwide market share, and has had a high profit share in the smartphone market (Forbes). Walkley (Forbes) estimates starting in 2013 are: 2013: 62% 2014: 77% 2015: 90% (iPhone 6 and 6 Plus were launched in September 2014) 2016: 83% 2017 1st quarter: 83% As can be seen above, Apple captured almost all the industry’s smartphone profits in 2015, and although there was a decrease, Apple still produces most of them. (Forbes) 1.1 Apple Inc SWOT Analysis (S)trengths Apple has a strong brand image and a very successful marketing strategy which has made them to be a market leader in several products and services. Apple has a large and loyal customer base, with high profit margins on their products. Innovation and a sophisticated supply chain has made Apple a financially strong company. Great product quality. (W)eaknesses Apple products are premium priced, made for high end market, which means they are not affordable to everyone. The products also have a closed operating system, which makes them in-compatible with other brands. They have a very narrow product range compared to their competitors. (O)pportunities In the industry that Apple competes, technology is advancing at a fast pace, so the company’s capacity to compete is heavily dependent on its potential to have a consistent and timely flow of competitive products, services and technologies into the marketplace. The company has an opportunity to continue developing new technologies and improving its existing products by increasing their product range contribution through Research and development, licencing of intellectual property and third-party business and technology acquisitions. Apple made a successful acquisition when they bought Beats by Dre. (T)hreats There is an intense rise in competition from other brands, and imitations of their new products being sold at cheaper prices by competitors, which makes it very tough to keep their position as the market leader. Other brands offering low prices for products similar to Apple products poses a threat to their customer base. 1.2 Apple Porter’s Five Forces Apple has achieved success as one of the most valuable companies in the world. Porter’s Five Forces analysis gives insights about the external factors influencing the firm (Panmorecom, 2015). Apple’s Five Forces analysis also sheds light on what the company does to ensure leadership despite the negative effects of external factors in the competitive landscape (Panmorecom, 2015). Though Apple had lows when it started up, when Steve Jobs became the CEO, the company flourished until it became an industry leader. Based on Porter’s five forces analysis, one of the most significant external factors that has a strong impact on the firm is the bargaining power of buyers (Panmorecom, 2015). Also, the five forces analysis shows an indications of the places Apple needs to focus on in order to keep their position as the market leader in the industry (Panmorecom, 2015). Apple’s threat of new entrant’s competitors is moderate. Apple is one of the world’s dominant IT, there is a strong focus on niche market i.e. high income consumers, and this makes it difficult for new entrants to hold market share, especially when just an iPhone alone needs about $100 million investment. Apple also uses contract manufacturing strategy which saves unnecessary cost and expense (reference). What lowers their threat is also because they have copyrights, patents and high switching cost. (reference) Apple’s substitute product pressure is high-moderate. For almost every product Apple has, competitors have a substitute. Although that is the case, Apple’s Operating system still proves to be a strong area of Apple which is not having any near substitute. Apple also their own app store, iTunes and iClouds. Suppliers bargaining power is moderate because of their unique capability to manufacture product for Apple (Scribdcom, 2018). But, Apple had a very well diversified supplier numbers; they aren’t manufacturing everything from one supplier and one place (Scribdcom, 2018). Apple buys thins in bulk, so this gives them a high buying power (Scribdcom, 2018). There competitive rivalry is high because Apple’s product range is narrow. Apple’s product differentiation to other brands is high. The competitors have wide range of selection, but Apple’s limited product line which is simple and user friendly has increased their customer base. Apples distribution channels online and direct outlets is strong and helps Apple position its products. There is a need for Apple to increase investment in mobile, computer and software because of the strong competition (http://panmore.com/apple-inc-pestel-pestle-analysis-recommendations). 1.3 Sales trends and forecasts Apple published its Q3 FY’17 results on Tuesday, reporting its strongest levels of revenue growth (7.2% year-over-year) in about seven quarters, driven by a surging services business and growth across its key hardware product categories (Trefis team, 2018). In this note, we take a look at some of the significant trends from the earnings release (Trefis team, 2018). (https://www.forbes.com/sites/greatspeculations/2017/08/02/the-key-trends-from-apples-q3-earnings/#598330477733 – last accessed 20 January 2018) Q4 2017 summary Revenue of $52.579bn, up from $46.852bn in the same quarter a year ago Earnings per diluted share of $2.07, up from $1.67 in the year-ago quarter Gross margin of 37.9%, compared to 38.51% in the same quarter of 2016 Operating expenses of $6.811bn, compared to $6.052bn in the year-ago quarter iPhone unit sales up 3%, revenue up 2% year-on-year iPad unit sales up 11%, revenue up 14% year-on-year Mac sales up 10%, revenue up 25% year-on-year Services revenue up 34% Other products revenue up 36% This is all at the upper end of Apple’s predictions (Macworldcouk, 2018). While reporting on Q3, the company provided the following estimates for its fiscal 2017 fourth quarter: Revenue between $49 billion and $52 billion Gross margin between 37.5 percent and 38 percent Operating expenses between $6.7 billion and $6.8 billion Other income/(expense) of $500 million Tax rate of 25.5 percent Other income/expense was $797 million in the fourth quarter, rather than the $500 predicted (Macworldcouk, 2018). (https://www.macworld.co.uk/news/apple/apple-financial-results-iphone-ipad-mac-sales-3581769/ – last accessed 20 January 2018) 2. Business proposition My proposal to Apple Inc is to re-enact the iPod shuffle as another Apple wearable device. The new iPod shuffle will still be portable and workout friendly as the old one but it will have more advanced features. It will allow be user friendly and give users a great working out experience. The new iPod shuffle will be an all-in-one gadget, as it will be able to record your workout progress and other health statistics. This will also have Bluetooth and WiFi, so it can integrate with your phone. 2.1. Objectives 2.1.1 Profitability Increase revenues by limiting expenses Increase sales through introducing a new product line 2.1.2 Growth Introduce a new product to the market Advancement in existing technology 2.1.3 Customer service Reduce customer complaints by 25 percent within a year 2.2. Target Market This new iPod shuffle will be designed for those in the health and fitness category. Wearable devices have become not only trendy but a health monitoring device (Berkowitz, 2018). It will not be limited to only those who go to the gym, but those who do outdoor activities such as Hikers, cyclist, etc. 2.3. Strategy Statement We will develop the simplest yet life changing wearable device that will make your fitness experience worthwhile. We will do this by incorporating all our technological expertise into developing the best wearable device to suit your needs. 3. Action Plan 3.1. Product The new iPod will have the following features: Touch screen Voice recognition Bluetooth and Wifi connection Workout progress check Access to music apps More storage capacity Wearable Various colour selection 3.2. Price As Laurent (2003) stated, a good marketer should set the right price for a product or service. Nowadays the price of a product is usually pre-fixed with set tax charges (Saint-Laurent, P. 2003, vol. 6, no. 7, pp. 35.). Apple does premium pricing, so the price range will be as follows: Range from £350 for 8GB to £450 for 15GB 3.3. Place The new iPod shuffle will be available in all Apple stores around the world. Most Apple store are located in a 3.4. Promotion The new product will be advertised on media channels like Television networks, over the internet and in magazines. 4. Evaluation The market research will not be all that is needed to bring this new product to the market, PESTLE analysis will be used to assess the external factors that could affect Apple’s growth, profit and reputation. 4.1. (P)olitical Since Apple Inc. has contract suppliers around the world, it is open to several political difficulties. Therefore, this means that some of the important factors for Apple are: Improve their free trade policies Stable politics in developed countries (http://panmore.com/apple-inc-five-forces-analysis-porters-model-case-study accessed 15 Jan 2018) 4.2. (E)conomic The economic feature of the Pestle analysis specifies the market and industry conditions that impact the company (International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, United Kingdom). Most of the economic external factors in Apple’s remote or macro-environment create opportunities. The most distinct external factors to Apple economically are: Rapid growth of developing countries Stable economies of developed countries The economic stability of most developed countries creates opportunities for companies like Apple to expand their businesses. However, the rapid growth of developing countries is more significant. For instance, the high economic growth rates of Asian countries are major opportunities for Apple to increase revenues through sales in these foreign markets. Based on this part of the PESTEL/PESTLE analysis model, Apple must ensure that it effectively exploits these economic opportunities. Speed and effectiveness are important because competitors are also targeting these high-growth economies (http://panmore.com/apple-inc-five-forces-analysis-porters-model-case-study acced 15 Jan 2018). 4.3. (S)ocial Apple has been making innovative changes to their products in pursuit to satisfy their customers needs. One of their most successful acquisitions has been Beats by Dr Dre, and also alliances like Sony and Phillips. Sales of Apple products increased by a good percentage in India in 2013, which forced the firm to open franchises and make investments in India, which makes it evident that Apple’s growth strategy is paying off (http://panmore.com/apple-inc-five-forces-analysis-porters-model-case-study acced 15 Jan 2018). 4.4. (T)echnology Information technology is highest earner for past a decade but only those companies have earned well who had innovated. Current technological changes have had an impact on Apple. Although Apple has been a trend setter, some of the most significant technological external factors are: Cloud computing trend Technological integration Growing apps market Cloud computing is becoming popular among individuals and organizations. Apple can exploit this opportunity by offering cloud-friendly devices and apps. On the other hand, technological integration of devices is a major trend. Apple can take advantage of this opportunity by continuing its strategy of providing products that can be seamlessly connected to each other. In addition, the apps market is growing, Apple could grow its App Store. However, Apple needs to invest more and more in RApple: SWOT, PESTLE and Porter’s Five Analysis

ILS 4180 Johnson and Wales University 21st Century Witchcraft Hollywood Sorcery Analysis

assignment helper ILS 4180 Johnson and Wales University 21st Century Witchcraft Hollywood Sorcery Analysis.

Here’s a outline for the paper, you don’t have to follow the outline completely, but please fit the topic given.For your final, you will use three or more of the academic approaches we have been utilizing throughout the course to perform an in depth analysis on witches. This is a research paper and you will be expected to write a clear and precise thesis statement and find at least three scholarly sources that support your ideas. Depending on the quality of your sources, it is likely that you will want more than three to support your thesis.Paper should be 6-10 pages long double spaced using 12 point font in either Times New Roman or CalibriFormatting should follow MLA formatting guidelinesYou must use at least 3 scholarly sources for your paper
ILS 4180 Johnson and Wales University 21st Century Witchcraft Hollywood Sorcery Analysis

Berkeley College US Producers Lose from The Japanese Subsidies or Dumping Discussion

Berkeley College US Producers Lose from The Japanese Subsidies or Dumping Discussion.

1.If the United States is a net importer of a product that is being subsidized or dumped by Japan, not only do U.S. consumers gain, but they also gain more than U.S. producers lose from the Japanese subsidies or dumping. Explain why this is or is not true. Discuss the concept(s) relating to the above question. In your analyses, use some of the terms and theories to support your argument(s).2.The European Union is home to more than 500 million (mostly well-heeled) consumers, making it one of the largest and most attractive markets worldwide. As firms contemplate selling goods in the EU, they conduct market research using secondary data. An excellent source of secondary data and site for learning about the EU is http://europa.eu, the official website of the EU. Visit the various links at this site and develop a profile of consumers in one (1) of the EU countries.
Berkeley College US Producers Lose from The Japanese Subsidies or Dumping Discussion

Looking At Classroom Etiquette English Language Essay

A classroom environment is different from most social environments that a student may encounter in his academic life. What is expected of me? is a question most commonly asked by every student. Students who differ in personality, interests, learning styles, and levels of thinking can be seen in any class. In such a situation and for the smooth running of a class, certain rules, regulations, moral standards, and procedures are created and have to be strictly followed by students in classrooms. The guidelines that have to be followed by students to maintain acceptable classroom environment are known as “Classroom Etiquettes”. Classroom rules can be made by the institution or by the instructor; however, it is always helpful to maintain appropriate classroom situations. As a student, this is expected of you irrespective of: Who you are Where you are from What your ability is What your motivational level is What your personality is A student is expected to maintain and follow rules and regulations which are put forward for the best of all. Top Classroom Etiquettes Arrive to Class on Time There are always going to be days when a previous professor keeps you late, or you wake up late, or it takes you too long to find a parking space, but the point here is do not be habitually late to class. Whether you mean it or not, regularly arriving late to the class, signals a level of disrespect to the class and the teacher. If you have problems getting to class on time, find a way to solve them. And on those rare days when you do arrive late, remember to enter the room by excusing yourself softly and quietly and not make a big scene. Turn Off Your Cell Phone Most beepers and cell phones can be set to vibrate rather than produce a sound, so they should be less of a problem. These devices should be turned off if they cannot be set to a silent mode. Some phones are pretty noisy even on vibrate. Of course, you should not answer your cell phone during class. If you are expecting a really important call (e.g., wife going into labor, call for an interview), then it might be a good idea to inform the instructor before class so it’s less of a distraction if you leave the classroom to take the call. You should also sit near a door so you can make an unobtrusive exit. Computers and recording equipment Few students ask permission to take their class notes on a laptop or to record the lectures. This depends on the circumstances and you should definitely ask the instructor in advance. Researchers have found that it has been impractical in most cases to use a computer to take meeting notes and it would not be allowed to record most meetings. Thus, learning to take good notes is an important skill to have even outside the classroom. More students seem to be using laptops for class. Unfortunately, if a wireless connection is available in classrooms, the students may surf websites or perform tasks other than taking class notes with their laptops. Again, such activities are likely distracting to those around the student (e.g., those sitting behind who see something unrelated to the course on the computer screen) as well as the instructor. Be Attentive in Class If you are going to make the effort to arrive on time and be in class, you should also make the effort to stay actively engaged in class. Some professors report observing students reading the student newspaper or even reading a textbook for a different class; some report seeing students completing homework for their next class. Flaunting your boredom or disinterest in the class is rude — and very inappropriate. Finally, avoid falling asleep in class or staring out the window. Sitting in the Class Inappropriate ways of sitting is another poor etiquette shown by students. Some students stretch as if they are out of bed. Putting legs apart is very annoying. Laying with the head on the desk, as if somebody is reading a bedtime story. Yawning, is equal to saying to the instructor, please cut off I cannot stand your boring class. Do Not Bring Food or Drink to Class In many classroom buildings, food is not even allowed, so you’re not only displaying poor etiquette, but actually breaking a rule. Make time outside of class to have a meal or a snack — not in class. Many professors do tolerate drinks, such as water, coffee, soda — but make certain of the professor’s policy before bringing your drink to class. Contribute to the Class Discussion When Appropriate Just about all professors appreciate a strong dialogue in the classroom, but not when the comments are unwanted or inappropriate. Do respond when the professor seeks input or asks for questions or discussion. Don’t interrupt the professor or another student, and don’t dominate the discussion — let other people have a chance to talk and contribute to the dialogue. Talking in Class There are two aspects to this. First, conversations need to stop when the instructor is ready to begin class. This certainly doesn’t mean that there has to be dead silence the second the instructor enters the room. Most instructors take a few moments to arrange books and notes, check or prepare computer or other equipment, or have brief conversations with teaching assistants or students. Even so, when the instructor makes it clear that class is starting, other conversations should be quickly finished. Second, there may be times when one needs to ask a question of a person sitting nearby. Brief, and quiet, comments along the lines of “What was that point?” or “Was that argument correct?” are certainly understandable. You should not, however, carry on conversations in class. This is true even if they happen to be related to the topic. Even if such conversations are relatively quiet and do not seem to disturb anyone nearby, they can be distracting to the instructor, not to mention rude. Dress code There are particular problems in classes related to the dress. This is not always about the fashion, but about the local culture. No dress that may disrespect the culture and values of the nation should be worn by a student. The dress should not signal any disrespect to the instructor. No micro/minis or revealing clothes for the females and no boxer shorts or shorts above the knees and half selves’ tea-shirts revealing their arm pits are allowed in the classrooms. ADU has a clear dress code that students must follow. Therefore, any style of dress that violates the University’s dress code policy should be avoided. Addressing the Professor Properly Many faculties are insulted when students do not address them properly. Many full-time university faculty members have a doctorate degree and have earned the right to be addressed as “Dr.” Smith rather than “Mr.” or “Ms.” Smith, but “Mr.” or “Ms.” should mainly be used for those without a PhD or other doctorate. This will mostly apply to TAs or new faculty who may not have finished their degree. “Doctor” will be correct for anyone with a doctorate. “Professor” is correct for anyone with a doctorate on the faculty. That will include all ranks of professor (assistant, associate, full, and visiting). The choice between “Doctor” and “Professor” is mainly a matter of personal choice. Your best clue will likely be how the person lists his or her name on the syllabus or during an initial introduction. Also, many TAs will invite you to refer to them by their first names. (Professors might as well.) That’s fine, but until you are invited to do so be a bit more formal. Better to be invited to be less formal than to be corrected for being overly familiar. Stay for the Entire Class There may be times when you need to leave class early, but do not make a habit of doing so. If you do need to leave class early, the best solution is to alert the professor ahead of time and then discretely leave the classroom so as not to disturb the other students. If you do need to leave early pick a seat close to the door to make a quick and quiet exit. Avoid Signaling, Sending Signs That Class Time is up Students must not attempt to signal that class is over by shutting their books loudly, unzipping and zipping their bags and otherwise making noises that class time is complete. Some students actually get up and walk out of class. Of course, some professors make a habit of going over class time, but most of them know how to tell time — and most of them have a watch or other ways to tell time. It is presumptuous and rude for the student to tell the professor that class is over. If your professor does seem to have a problem with ending class on time, chat with him or her outside of class — especially if it is making you late for your next class. Contact the Professor When You Have to Miss Class When you have to miss class for legitimate reasons or when you miss class because of illness, try to contact the professor and inform him/her of your absence. You may even be able to obtain copies of lecture notes or schedule a meeting during office hours to discuss what you missed. Do not, however, ask the professor in class to go over material you missed (for whatever reasons). And when alerting the professor about having to miss a class, do not begin the conversation with the awful question, “are we doing anything important in the next class because I have to miss it?” (If the professor was not planning to do anything, the class would probably be canceled, right?) Proper classroom etiquette should be common sense for most students. Being courteous will predispose the professor to like/respect you — and set an example for other less-informed students. *******************************************

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