MGT 404 Saudi Electronic University Organization Design & Development Discussion.
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Abstract Real-time applications require guaranteed data delivery within a limited amount of time. Such applications may not tolerate the latency in the retransmission of lost data. Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) is a set of protocols that allow Ethernet networks to guarantee data delivery with low data loss and bounded latency. Network’s setup and configuration are automated, including resource allocation and scheduling of data transmission in such a manner that it guarantees data delivery within a bounded latency. TSN consists of many protocols that are standardized and continuously enhanced. Thus, TSN is adopted widely by industry and implemented in many application domains. This paper introduces the TSN, explains how TSN provides deterministic communication for Ethernet networks. It also shows TSN advantages, some application domains, and the current challenges. Keywords: Time-Sensitive Networking, TSN, Audio Video Bridging, AVB, real-time Ethernet communication, deterministic networking, IEEE 802.1, deterministic Ethernet, stream reservation, TSN applications, TSN challenges Introduction The current advances in computing allowed us to operate autonomous vehicles and establish a multi-domains Internet of Things (IoT) networks such as smart cities, manufacturing, and healthcare. All these applications are time-critical and require reliable communication. Other time-critical applications are audio and video applications, such as vehicular entertainment systems, theatres equipment, and live video streaming. In typical Ethernet networks, data latency and retransmission for lost data may not meet the time requirement for time-critical applications. Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) enables bridged networks to exchange data with guaranteed data delivery, bounded latency, and low data loss [802.1-12b] [wikipedia01]. It allows devices to send and receive many types of data (media and non-media) at the same time [McCarthy16]. Also, TSN employs automatic setup and configuration of the network, reducing the network administration complexity with a large number of devices [Bhattacharjee18]. Many organizations have collaborated to standardize TSN, such as the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), the Avnu Alliance, and the Industrial Internet Consortium [McCarthy16] [ni19]. From a historical perspective, TSN was built mainly for audio and video applications [McCarthy16] [ni19]. The work on supplying time-sensitive audio and video streams started in 2005 under the IEEE 802.1 Audio Video Bridging (AVB) Task Group [802.1-12a] [802.1BA-11 ]. With the continuous enhancement, it expanded to cover broader domains such as industrial and automotive applications. To reflect the expansion, IEEE renamed AVB in 2012 to Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) [802.1-12b]. In 2015, IEEE merged the TSN Task Group and the Internetworking Task Group. This paper is introductory to TSN and intends to answer the following questions. What are the types of devices in the network that comply with TSN? How are these devices connected? What are the protocols and mechanisms that enable deterministic communication? Where can TSN be used? What are the challenges in developing TSN in a variety of application domains? Network Components A time-sensitive network consists of bridges, which manage the exchange of frames, and endpoints (or host nodes), which execute applications [Zurawski17]. Host nodes themselves are connected directly or indirectly through one or more bridges. Bidirectional links connect bridges and endpoints through incoming and outgoing physical ports. Figure 1 shows an example of a bridged network, where A, B, C, D, and E represent bridges, and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 represent endpoints. Figure 1: Example of Time-Sensitive Network Ethernet frames are the only allowed data to be exchanged [Zurawski17]. Figure 2 shows the format of the Ethernet frame. For managing the transfer of data between endpoints, bridges need to perform switching and traffic shaping. For switching, the bridge decides which port to forward the received frame to, based on the MAC (Media Access Control) destination address and the VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) identifier. For forwarding, bridges perform traffic shaping by sequencing the Ethernet frames using the Priority Code Point information in the VLAN tag. The Priority Code Point is three bits size, so eight priorities can be implemented. Before data exchange, the network should be set up, and endpoints should agree on specific configurations [Bhattacharjee18]. Preamble Start of Frame MAC Destination Address MAC Source Address VLAN Tag Type/ Length Payload Frame Check Sequence Interframe Gap Tag Protocol Identifier Priority Code Point Drop Eligible Indicator VLAN Identifier 2B 3b 1b 12b 7B 1B 6B 6B 4B 2B 42 – 1500B 4B 12B Figure 2: TSN Ethernet Frame Setup and Configuration In TSN, the network setup and configuration are automated employing Software-Defined Networking (SDN) [Bhattacharjee18]. SDN is an efficient network management approach that allows dynamic and programmable network configuration [wikipedia03]. TSN uses YANG (Yet Another Next Generation) data modeling language, which defines the format of configuration messages and status reports exchanged between nodes [P802.1Qcp-18]. Before any exchange of data frames, bridges should reserve the required bandwidth and agree on the time synchronization mechanism, scheduling mechanism, and QoS (Quality of Service) metrics. The approaches used for setup and configuration have many advantages. TSN Benefits TSN has many advantages. First, the automatic setup and configuration of TSN reduce the management complexity [electronicdesign01] [Intel18]. It can also improve the security of the network eliminating the attack surface introduced by human errors. Second, devices from different vendors can exchange media and non-media data using different protocols without being limited to one vendor’s devices and protocols. Thus, TSN increases the connectivity of devices. Third, the high compatibility between devices decreases in the use of proprietary protocols. As a result, TSN lessens the overall cost, including network administrator personnel, the number of devices handling multiple kinds of data, and the use of proprietary protocols. Fourth, TSN is a developing open standard, which applies to many domains. Finally, the resource allocation mechanism described in the next section will show how TSN can enhance the scalability of the network. TSN Components As mentioned earlier, before any exchange of data frames and as part of the configuration, bridges should reserve the required bandwidth and agree on the time synchronization mechanism, scheduling mechanism, and QoS metrics. This section discusses how the bandwidth is reserved and the time synchronization mechanism. It also describes how reliability and bounded latency are maintained. Bandwidth Reservation For reserving the bandwidth for a stream of data, a listener (destination) endpoint firstly indicates what streams it expects to receive [Zurawski17] [wikipedia02]. Also, a talker (source) endpoint advertises the streams it will send, which should be supported by the connecting bridges. The talker announces the streams via a message that indicates the specifications of the streams, such as quality of service requirements, and the maximum latency. The bridge then measures the resources necessary and propagates the message to the next bridge until it reached the listener. The listener then replies with “listener ready” signal, which propagates back to the talker. The “listener ready” message means that all connecting bridges have reserved required bandwidth and can guarantee the QoS requirements. If a bridge is not able to provide the bandwidth needed, it raises a “talker failed” message. Stream Reservation Protocol (SRP) is the associated protocol to bandwidth reservation in endpoints to guarantee the QoS level agreed on [Zurawski17]. A stream can be terminated to deallocate the bandwidth. The automated bandwidth reservation configuration adds flexibility to the network that uses TSN and enhances the scalability of the network [electronicdesign01] [TTTech] [Bhattacharjee18]. Adding more endpoints does not compromise the network performance, and allows topologies to be optimized better according to the reserved bandwidth. Another component that contributes to providing deterministic communication is time synchronization. Time Synchronization In TSN, all interconnected devices share an identical time, synchronized to the clock of one node, either a bridge or an endpoint [Zurawski17]. This node is named the grandmaster, and it is selected using the Best Master Clock Algorithm (BMCA). BMCA receives “announce messages” send by capable nodes to be a grandmaster and decides the grandmaster node based on predefined criteria. The time is maintained between nodes using a synchronization spanning tree, where the grandmaster is the root of the tree and broadcasts its time periodically. For applications that need only a shared clock, nodes can synchronize their clocks from an external reference like Global Positioning System (GPS) [Bhattacharjee18]. In addition to time synchronization, the grandmaster node is responsible for measuring forwarding delays in bridges [802.1-12a] [ni19]. The communication delays on each communication link in the network are also measured, and it is called “peer delay” mechanism. Additionally, the relative difference of the clock rates is also measured and should be within ±0.1 parts per million. Shared clock and bounded delays are critical for the scheduled frames to be received at the expected time. An enhancement to the protocol suggests implementing a redundant grandmaster as a clock synchronization fault-tolerance mechanism. Although this mechanism would enlarge the application domain of TSN, it would be too simple for some safety-critical applications to consider. In summary, a grandmaster node is responsible for distributing its time and measuring the delays periodically to maintain the schedule. Fault-tolerance mechanisms for time synchronization are under consideration, and it should be sophisticated enough to include broader application domains. Bandwidth reservation and time synchronization are not enough for providing deterministic communication. TSN should also minimize data loss. Reliability In any network, frame loss is a possibility. However, time-sensitive networks may not tolerate the latency resulted from the retransmission of lost frames [Zurawski17]. TSN reliability defines the mechanisms that prevent the loss of data and hence guarantee data delivery at the expected time [802.1-12a]. In TSN, delivering data is as important as delivering it at the specified [youtube01]. In this section, we introduce the main protocols associated with reliable data delivery. 802.1Qca (Path Control and Reservation) allows the same frame to be sent over multiple paths concurrently to ensure that the frame is delivered. It uses IS-IS (Intermediate System to Intermediate System) for setting up the parallel paths. At the destination node or certain bridges, 802.1CB (Frame Replication and Elimination for Reliability) defines the mechanisms for eliminating the redundant copies according to the sequence number attached to each frame. [802.1-12a] [Zurawski17] 802.1Qci (Per-Stream Filtering and Policing) protocol is responsible for detecting and mitigating disruptive transmissions by other systems in a network through policing and filtering [802.1-12a] [P802.1Qci-17]. Detecting such behavior in the network is crucial because there are no standards that enforce each system in the network to comply with certain configurations for the exchange of frames. Unexpected behavior affects the whole network, not just the misbehaved stream. In summary, TSN allows redundant frames to be sent through multiple paths to guarantee data transfer at the scheduled time. However, endpoints should delete the redundant copies. TSN empowers bridges with detection and resolution mechanisms for any incompliance of the agreed configurations. To bound latency, TSN offers many traffic shaping mechanisms. Bounded Low Latency As mentioned earlier, bridges prioritize frames based on the value of the Priority Code Point in the frame’s VLAN tag [Zurawski17]. As the Ethernet frame allows eight priorities, bridges commonly implement eight queues on each ongoing port. When many frames are ready to be sent from the same port, each one is added to its respective queue and sent one by one. This mechanism is called the strict-priority. This section discusses the limitations of the strict-priority along with alternative approaches. In strict-priority traffic-shaping, priority loses its significance if the number of high priority messages is large enough to make the frames wait in the queue [Zurawski17]. Also, if higher priority messages are always there, the network may not serve low priority applications for a significant amount of time. These applications may not be able to function efficiently. Therefore, more complicated mechanisms are necessary to guarantee the delivery of different priority frames within their bounded latency. TSN provides mechanisms for traffic shaping to provide bounded low latency [Zurawski17]. Standardized approaches are Credit Based Shaper, Time-Aware Shaper, and Asynchronous Traffic Shaping [wikipedia01]. Time-critical traffic implements several priority classes. A credit-based shaper implements mainly two priority classes A and B. The sharper assign Class A the highest priority and dedicates it to stream reservation. The destination endpoint must receive Class A traffic within 125 microseconds with a maximum latency of 2 milliseconds across a maximum of seven hops. The destination endpoint must receive Class B traffic within 250 microseconds with a maximum latency of 50 milliseconds across a maximum of seven hops. The maximum bandwidth agreed on must not be exceeded. Control traffic in the credit-based shaper has the lowest priority. The time-aware shaper introduces a new priority class called CDT (Control Data Traffic). It is for real-time control data and command streams and has higher precedence than Class A traffic. The destination endpoint must receive the CDT traffic within 0.5 milliseconds with a maximum latency of 100 microseconds across a maximum of five hops. The time-aware shaper is believed to be significantly stable. Asynchronous traffic shaper implements different approaches for time synchronization and scheduling priority classes, which this paper will not discuss. In summary, the strict priority traffic-shaping mechanism is not adequate for real-time applications. More sophisticated approaches are Credit-Based Shaper, Asynchronous Traffic Shaper, and Time-Aware Shaper. These mechanisms implement different traffic classes and priorities. Traffic-shaping is the last component to discuss. Summary Before the exchange of the data frame, bridges dynamically reserve the required bandwidth for each stream. Bridges also share a synchronized clock and allow the sending of redundant copies of frames in multiple paths. Additionally, bridges schedule traffic to deliver different traffic classes within a limited amount of time. Many application domains need these requirements. However, deploying such requirements in some applications is challenging. Application Domains and Challenges As mentioned earlier, TSN is adopted widely in many application domains. However, TSN has many challenges to be addressed. This section demonstrates some use cases of TSN and highlights some of the present issues. Application Domains As mentioned earlier, TSN was built mainly for audio and video media applications such as in-car entertainment, audio and video professional equipment, and automotive infotainment [Zurawski17]. Besides audio and video media applications, TSN is useful for non-media applications such as industrial measurement, control, and automation [McCarthy16] [ni19]. Gaj et al. mention that offering low-cost devices with the lowest configuration is a goal for TSN to deploy plug-and-play functionality. Also, Bhattacharjee stated that TSN is designed to provide the low-level, real-time, dynamic, virtualized, and distributed architecture for wired cyber-physical systems [Kovácsházy18]. By simulation, TSN is found to be suitable for specific in-car communications [Gaj17]. Plug-and-play functionality is not useful for in-car communication as the network infrastructure installation is fixed. However, the support of multiple streams decreases the complexity of the network infrastructure. Gaj et al. survey the work on TSN amendments evaluation in in-car communication and concluded that the current redundancy techniques lack flexibility in the stream reconfiguration and automatic stream reservation. Also, implementing TSN raised the network configuration overhead. Finally, it was hard to find fully functioning implementations of TSN to simulate. Challenges Although TSN can reduce the attack surface of human errors, it does not promise security. TSN relies on the IEEE 1588 protocol to achieve time synchronization. So, TSN is subject to IEEE 1588 vulnerabilities [Bhattacharjee18]. All connected devices should implement adequate measures to secure the clock synchronization process. Other security challenges are implementing wire-speed cryptographic security, authentication mechanisms, and integrity check since high-priority scheduled traffic should be immediately transmitted. Lack of authentication or adequate analysis before resending the data allows the injection of unauthenticated malicious traffic. Many devices implementing TSN are currently available and deployed by leading companies such as Intel, Cisco, National Instruments, and Hirschmann [McCarthy16] [ni19]. Previously deployed devices without TSN can still implement time synchronization. However, not all of these devices can have full deterministic communication functionalities depending on the complexity level of the network and platform setup of the application. Summary TSN was intended for audio-video applications and then extended to include non-media applications such as time-critical measurement, control, and safety-critical applications. Vendors should consider implementing extra security measures, and future enhancement should also consider overcoming the existing vulnerabilities. Adding TSN functionalities to existing networks is application-specific. References [Zurawski17] Richard Rawski, “Industrial Communication Technology Handbook,” CRC Press, 2017, ISBN: 1138071811, 9781138071810 (Safari Book) [McCarthy16] Bob McCarthy, “Sound Systems: Design and Optimization: Modern Techniques and Tools for Sound System Design and Alignment,” CRC Press, 2016, ISBN: 1317911091, 9781317911098 (Safari Book) [Bhattacharjee18] Sravani Bhattacharjee, “Practical Industrial Internet of Things Security,” Packt Publishing, 2018, ISBN: 9781788832687, 9781788832687 (Safari Book) [Gaj17] Piotr Gaj, Andrzej Kwiecień, and Michał Sawicki, “Computer Networks: 24th International Conference, CN 2017, Lądek Zdrój, Poland, June 20–23, 2017, Proceedings,” Springer, 2017, ISBN: 3319597671, 9783319597676 (Springer Book) [Kovácsházy18] Tamás Kovácsházy, “Distributed Architecture for Real-time Cyber-physical System, Time-Sensitive Networks,” 19th International Carpathian Control Conference (ICCC), IEEE, 2018, pp. 1-6, https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8399588 [Intel18] “Time-Sensitive Networking: From Theory to Implementation in Industrial Automation,” https://www.intel.com/content/dam/www/programmable/us/en/pdfs/literature/wp/wp-01279-time-sensitive-networking-from-theory-to-implementation-in-industrial-automation.pdf [Intel white paper on TSN] [ni19] “Time Sensitive Networking (TSN) Frequently Asked Questions,” https://www.ni.com/en-us/innovations/white-papers/18/time-sensitive-networking–tsn–frequently-asked-questions.html [National Instruments white paper on TSN] [TTTech] “Time Sensitive Networking (TSN),” https://www.tttech.com/technologies/time-sensitive-networking-tsn/ [TSN overview, key benefits and product line by TTTech companies] [wikipedia01] “Time-Sensitive Networking,” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time-Sensitive_Networking [Standards of time-sensitive transmission of data over deterministic Ethernet networks] [wikipedia02] “Stream Reservation Protocol,” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stream_Reservation_Protocol [Explanation of stream reservation protocol and used mechanisms] [electronicdesign01] “What’s the Difference Between Ethernet and Time-Sensitive Networking?,” https://www.electronicdesign.com/industrial-automation/what-s-difference-between-ethernet-and-time-sensitive-networking [TSN overcome Ethernet limitations in terms of scalability and latency] [youtube01] “Deterministic Networking for Real-Time Systems (Using TSN),” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oxURD2rr4Y4
Introduction Apple Inc. is one of the biggest American multinational company dealing in consumer electronic devices such as iphone and ipod, computer software as well as commercial computer servers the best known being Macintosh computers. The company has created a very exceptional reputation about its consumer electronic market, more specifically in America. If the company wants to enter North Korea, it will have to use one of the many entry methods available. The paper discuses three of these market entry strategies (direct exporting, foreign manufacturing and licensing) are what this paper aims to discuss. Country overview North Korea as a country provides an attractive business opportunities for companies dealing in computer software, computer games, and digital electronic devices (Numakura, 2010, par, 1). The country is going through information technology advancement, because of past isolation and political environment the country still lacks behind when it comes to information technology. However, the country has been opening up its market slowly and has selecting particular areas for private investors. Indeed, Apple Inc. will have an advantage, since the competition, within the industry is not tough as in other markets like America. Direct exporting Macro environment to consider Before entering Korea Apple Inc must first examine the macroeconomic forces of that country, and find out how these forces affect the performance of organizations. The most critical macroeconomic aspects include, the performance of economy, exchange rates, interest rate paid and more important the inflation rate. For instance if the economy is performing poorly, then products from the organization may end up not meeting their sales targets as consumers will not be in a position to spend (Hill and Gareth, 2009, p.64). When Apple Inc decides to use direct export entry strategy, it has to directly participate in marketing and selling of its products in North Korea, this is because the company will be involved in the export work. This will therefore call for formation of an export department within the company that will have to carryout duties like: market contract, market research, export documentations, distribution and pricing of the products. To carry out a direct exporting approach, the company will as well be required to have its representatives in North Korea. The company can achieve this through several ways, as listed below: International sales representatives: Apple Inc can send these representatives to North Korea so as create business contacts as well as to directly negotiate business deals for the company. Local representatives: The Company as well can select local representatives also known as agents. These representatives will promote the company’s products as well as look for potential clients and carry out negotiations on behalf of the company. Independent local distributors: The Company can also use these distributors when directly exporting its products to North Korea market. In this case, the independent distributors will purchase products from the company and resale them on their domestic market, this can be exclusively or non-exclusively. Having creating an alliance with a foreign partner could be hindered by cultural differences among two companies (Child, and Faulkner, 2001, p. 54) This method of market entry carries the following disadvantages to the company, it will have to use more resources in terms of human resources and capital and at the same time it has higher risks. However, it has a number of advantages, these are: Increased volume of sales; better marketing information; better control of its operations in the foreign market; increased understanding and expertise in international business. Foreign manufacturing The direct exporting strategy is only used when the company is producing its products from its domestic location and exporting the products to the foreign markets. However, under some situations the company may realize that it is difficult or unprofitable to supply its products to the foreign markets through domestic production; this could arise for instance when: Transportation expenses involved are very costly for bulky products. Governments of the foreign market prefer local products and may restrict the entry of the company’s products. Custom levies or quotas on the products are higher and makes the products not to compete well with others (particularly produced locally). Any of the above factors could force Apple Inc to build a manufacturing plant in North Korea so as to produces and sale its products there. However, as noted by Michael Porter, the competitiveness of a country heavily relies on innovative capabilities of its industries. Industries get competitive advantage through pressure and competition they face from the leading companies in the world. The cultural aspect of a country its guiding values and the economic systems also offer competitive advantage, thus Apple will only gain competitive advantage in North Korea, if it can master the above aspects and exploit them for its competitiveness (Porter,1988, p. 155). The benefits that comes with foreign manufacturing is that, it can be cheaper to produce products from the local market, the company can enjoy government subsidies, the company can also develop strong relations with local companies and distributors. However, the negative aspects are: the company may use a lot of resources to settle, the cultural aspect of the local people may hinder the company’s operation, in case the company wants to exit from the market, it is very costly. As noted by Rugman (2005, p. 80) companies should have a global presence instead of a global strategy. Global presence helps companies increase their sales. Licensing Licensing can be defined as a strategy of foreign marketing whereby a company operating in a certain country agrees to allow a company in a different country to apply its manufacturing methods, processes, brand name, copy rights, technology and any other know-how offered by the company (licensor). This kind of arrangement is increasingly being used by many smaller companies (Hitt, Ireland
Critical Evaluation Of Contemporary Issues In Hospitality Management Tourism Essay. Hospitality is a dynamic industry that is ever changing as a result of several external factors. The industry has become more competitive than ever before. Some companies often fail while others are very successful. Tanke (2001) argues that successful firms acquire, manage, and develop resources that provide competitive advantage. They also control and build up relationships with a large number of organizations, various stakeholders, and groups. Globalization has intensified the competitiveness and for firms to remain competitive they have to expand their relationship networks and collaborate with each other to remain competitive. Many firms are starting to monitor and manage key indicators to cut on cost and save money. According to Ottenbacher and Gnoth (2005) There are several contemporary issues in the hospitality industry which include, human resource management, strategic management, use of ICT and gastronomy and tourism. Much of changes in issues have been brought about by globalization. For example in the case of human resource, globalization has brought diversity in the human resources. Information communication technology has advanced much in development. The high number of people travelling to foreign lands has brought changes in the gastronomy and tourism. Hospitality businesses must therefore manage all these issues to succeed in their operations. Tanke, (2001) argues that hospitality businesses will need to focus more on brand, human resource, emerging markets and information communication technology. These are the primary determinants of the winners and losers in years to come. Strategic management is thus important in determining the success of these firms. Strategic management has been hailed to provide higher levels of satisfaction than other management tools. Literature Review HRM Issues In the Hotel Industry Globally The importance of valuable human resource management to business success in any use of human resources can give an organization a competitive advantage. The importance of human resources is particularly significant in hospitality industry. Duncan (2005) suggested that there are several main areas of challenge and worry in the global hospitality industry, relating to employment issues, taxation levels and environmental issues. Employee turnover According to Hinkin and Tracey (2000) employee turnover has become one of the challenges in the hospitality industry. The industry globally suffers from high level of staff turnover, which result to intangible costs and high direct expenditure. Riegel (2002) argues that turnover is a result of several factors such as job dissatisfaction, poor working environment, poor supervision and lack of commitment that influence employee attitude and behavior. Iverson and Deery (1997) carried out a research on the labor requirements of the hospitality industry and established that the high turnover rate is one the most difficult issues in human resource management in that context. They reported that the turnover problem in large hotels was much worse than in small hotels. Many hotels are planning to increase the number of people employed simply to cover the turnover situation. Hoque (1999) contends that service quality focuses on the nature of the interaction between the individual employee and the customer at the point of service, in terms of politeness and overall professionalism. Hoque also argues that service quality is the main factor in creating competitive advantage in the hotel industry, and that any hotel that does not make an effort to improve continually its service quality will lose ground. Competitive advantage generated from internal sources includes such characteristics as value rareness, exceptionality, and non-substitutability (Iverson,Critical Evaluation Of Contemporary Issues In Hospitality Management Tourism Essay
MGT 404 Saudi Electronic University Organization Design & Development Discussion
Jomo Kenyatta University Integrated Case Study Discussion
Jomo Kenyatta University Integrated Case Study Discussion.
The purpose of this assignment is to identify and analyze the needs of an EHR in a clinical setting in order to determine a potential solution to an EHR problem.Read the “Integrated Case Study”, “Oncology North: Navigator Intake Paper Form” and “Oncology South: Oncology Navigator Intake Form” resources prior to beginning the assignment and use the information in the resource to write a 750-1,000 word paper that provides answers to the following questions:What are the problems identified in the EHR?What are the gaps resulting from the identified problems?What are some opportunities to expand or develop the capabilities of the EHR?What developments could be made to the clinical workflow setting?What is a potential solution to the identified EHR problem?Cite at least two scholarly, peer-reviewed resources in your analysis.Prepare this assignment according to APA Style
Jomo Kenyatta University Integrated Case Study Discussion
Sustainable Product Design And Materials Recycling Environmental Sciences Essay
research paper help Over the last three decades, environmental issues have become a significant concern for all societies. With growing awareness of environmental issues, for instance, Air Pollution, Global Warming, Water Pollution and Ozone Depletion, sustainability has been gaining increasing attention in recent years. (Roy, R. 2000) However, according to Tseng, M. et al. (2012), currently it is generally not sustainable that models of consumption and the Manufacturing systems which based on traditional activities and business technologies. Therefore, sustainability has captured the attentions of most designers, regardless of their specialism. In other word, designers have to consider the sustainable aspects of their practices in order to adapt to a sustainable future. The choice of recycled materials used to make product is important, allied with the way in which they are used. (Manheim, J. 2009) The literature review is based upon the examples from Internet and books that were found to have relevance to the topic of sustainable product design and recycled materials. And this literature review will aim to bring together the most key examples and developments in recycled materials and sustainable product design from recent years in order to establish what the present state of the art is. (G.D. Hatcher et al., 2011) In the final part, it will demonstrate the significance and limitations of sustainable product design made from recycled materials and from this provide suggestions as to where the research should go next. Sustainable product design and materials recycling A sustainable product design also known as eco-design, “green” design or design for environment, and it depends on two things: what types of designs are made, and in what quantity they are made (Matthew, S. and Andrew, S. 1997). In other words designing with recycled materials is actually depending on the type of waste objects that you have access to. While from the environment aspect, Lennart (2007) suggested that a sustainable product is a product, which will give as little impact on the environment as possible during its life cycle. And sustainable products applying environmental criteria aimed at the prevention of waste and emissions and the minimization of their environmental impact, along the material life cycle of the product. (Weenen, J. C., 1995) Sustainable product design can be characterized by several factors; for instance, recycling materials through the design for environment is one of key factors, which includes design for remanufacturing, design disassembly and for sustainability. Employment of cleaner production principles of preventive strategy and source-oriented approaches are equally essential in sustainable design practices (Tseng, M. 2012). It is generally useful to define a sustainable product or at least to have some measures of “degree of sustainability”. It is agreed that the principles of eco-design can be considered the running of resources in the environment. Recycled materials include collecting a large number of already made products and materials from various sources and reducing them to other standardized raw materials objects; original product form and function is totally discarded or partial changed. The main consideration of sustainable product design made from recycled materials is to facilitate the reduction or changing process, and involves approaches such as (1) modifying the materials mix, (2) recycling for disassembly, (3) designing for recycling process compatibility, and (4) adopting materials coding systems. (Fuller, D.A. and Ottman, J.A. 2004) Designer and artist worked with recycled materials Julia Manheim is a famous designer and having gained an international for her work. In the early 1970s, her concern for the disposal of materials started and found that she was fond of collecting piles of Guardian newspapers and disliked anything to going to waste. (Manheim, J. 2009) She collected various waste materials in her life such as chocolate wrappers, burnt film, toothbrush heads, plastic carrier bags, etc. then made them into creative jewelries. Her research is about how to recycle existing materials in different approaches to give it a second life and a new meaning. Accordingly, this might be achieved by altering it, using it in different ways, cutting it up, adding to it, covering it up, or casting it in another recycled material. These are all methods of reusing and reinterpreting what is here already, rather than having to start from scratch. Also she started to develop a sensibility for looking at and seeking the potential in old product and then changed it into the new one. It seems that intervention can be minimal, and materials do not always need to undergo a total transformation to become to a new thing; they just require handling with sensitivity and an awareness of their inherent properties. The product made from recycled materials can be equally unusual and creative if the recycled elements are easily identifiable. It depends on how inventively the materials are reused and put together. (Lea, V. 1997) Fashion designers are also chasing this eco-trend, take Gary Harvey, for example, he can recycle waste materials from his life such as a piece of old jeans, newspapers, some trench coats, army jackets or wedding dresses and turn them into new amazing dresses with eco-conscious. Gary Harvey is the former Creative designer of Levi Strauss and Dockers Europe director for Levi’s. An impressive creation was made from cans, cardboard boxes and bottle tops. People admire him about designing a surprising dress made from old jeans, newspapers, or even juice packages. Some people may have a question about the wearability of a designing dress out of waste materials. However, this dress is an environmentally friendly dress, which people can be worn for special occasions. It will help people spread the information of helping the environment and with unique style. His most recycled materials were from everyday life which made me consider how everyday domestic objects, found around the house or at a local shop, can be used to make sustainable product. In addition, I started pay attention to the relationship between my recycled objects and fashion. The Nike shoes are successful example of an eco-design product which is environmentally and sustainably. Steve Nash who is the All-Star Guard for the Phoenix Suns and Nike has made up a team to produce the Nike Trash Talk, the first Nike performance basketball shoes completely produced from manufacturing waste materials. The emphasis of this design was aim to create a sustainable, high-performance basketball shoe. Nike used manufacturing waste materials, such as, leather materials and synthetic leather waste from the products factory floor for the upper replace using toxic adhesives; used zigzag stitching to sew the upper together. The mid-sole was made up of scrap-ground foam from factory production materials. Nike recycled waste materials from their own manufacturing-with a low-toxin, environmentally preferred rubber to make an outsole which contains 96% fewer toxins. Even the shoelaces and sock liners were made from environmentally preferred materials. Finally, the shoes were packaged in a fully recycled cardboard shoebox. The company tends to encourage the designers to design more sustainable products. Significance and limitations Girlamy (2008) suggested that recycling materials and transforming them into new sustainable products is a win-win trend. Designers and artists who designing sustainable product out of recycled materials are taking an object at the end of its useful life and changing it into a helpful raw material to make another new object. (Manheim, J. 2009) As a consumer, you are helping the development of eco-friendly environment when you support businesses that remanufacture products such as clothing and furniture made from recycled materials. Scientists are finding our planet’s landfills are filling at an alarming rate; many of the landfills filled with waste materials will remain for thousands of years. As a consequence, it will be disastrous if we do not follow the trend of using sustainable product made from recycled materials. Material recycling reduces the demand for raw materials and thus protecting the environment and preserving resources. It reduces the pollution of air and water allied with energy usage. The consumer in turn is rewarded by gaining some products which are special and exquisite when they choose a sustainable product with recycled materials. This is because, products made from waste materials are often handcrafted and manufactured by a fair trade organization that provides a fair wage and favorable working conditions for their workers. But there are clearly very few truly sustainable designs. As discussed above, humans have received a considerable number of benefits from sustainable product design, and the demand for sustainability to designer is increasing. However, sustainable product design has its limitations. In particular, an eco-friendly advantageous change in one aspect of a Green design may have contrary environmental influences elsewhere in its life cycle which may outweigh any benefits. For example, the avoidance of potentially toxic materials may decrease a design’s lifetime and therefore require it to be replaced more frequent, consequently, eco-designs may consume more energy and generate more pollution than it saves. (Roy, R. 2000) The designers should not only consider the sustainability in their design activities, but also need to grasp the economic, technical, social and cultural background of their designs in various areas. In other words, designers need to consider long-term benefits rather than current benefits. Sustainability should also be of concern not only to the designers, but also to every company or organization. This is because, sustainable product design is an integrated design process driven by whole-system thinking.
Overview of Karl Marx
The philosopher, social scientist, historian and revolutionary, Karl Marx, is without a doubt the most influential socialist thinker to emerge in the 19th century. Although he was largely ignored by scholars in his own lifetime, his social, economic and political ideas gained rapid acceptance in the socialist movement after his death in 1883. Until quite recently almost half the population of the world lived under regimes that claim to be Marxist. This very success, however, has meant that the original ideas of Marx have often been modified and his meanings adapted to a great variety of political circumstances. In addition, the fact that Marx delayed publication of many of his writings meant that is been only recently that scholars had the opportunity to appreciate Marx’s intellectual stature. It is difficult to know what effect this would have on his later philosophy, but we do know that Marx would be antithetical to religious belief, at one time pronouncing it, “the opiate of the masses After schooling in Trier (1830-35), Marx entered Bonn University to study law. At university he spent much of his time socialising and running up large debts. His father was horrified when he discovered that Karl had been wounded in a duel. Heinrich Marx agreed to pay off his son’s debts but insisted that he moved to the more sedate Berlin University. Educated in the best universities in Germany at Bonn, Berlin and Jena, he was greatly influenced by the most prominent scholar of the previous generation, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. As youth turned to middle age, Karl Marx’s views became more radical and finally hardened into the body of thought we know today. His journey to this point took him out of Germany where the newspaper he edited, the Rheinische Zeitung, was suppressed by the Government. He moved to Paris in 1843 and later to Brussels in 1845. Marx himself considered his theory of surplus-value his most important contribution to the progress of economic analysis (Marx, letter to Engels of 24 August 1867). It is through this theory that the wide scope of his sociological and historical thought enables him simultaneously to place the capitalist mode of production in his historical context, and to find the root of its inner economic contradictions and its laws of motion in the specific relations of production on which it is based Marx was partial to Hegel and his theories and was influenced by Hegel’s views that history was a dialectical process. He did not adhere to Hegel’s spirituality . He was also influenced by Fuerbach, Saint-Simon, Proudhon and Bakunin. While living in Paris, he began to associate with the working clasas for the first time. He began to formulate his thought that revolution was the key to achieving balance between the ‘upper class’ and the working class. He wrote and spoke on social change through revolution. He believed that there was great energy between proleterians and capitalists. Marx began to appeal to more of the common people during the early depression days. American educatin became aware of soviet education reforms during the 1920’s and through George S. Counts who visited Russia and brought their educational system of reform to light in America. But only a mere 10 years later, American educators did not think societ education was good. The theory associated with Marxism was developed in mid-19th century Europe by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Although Marx and Engels did not write widely about education, they developed theoretical perspectives on modern societies that have been used to highlight the social functions of education and their concepts and methods have served to both theorize and criticize education in the reproduction of capitalist societies, and to support projects of alternative education. In this study, I will first briefly sketch the classical perspectives of Marx and Engels, highlighting the place of education in their work. Then, I lay out the way that Marxian perspectives on education were developed in the Frankfurt School critical theory, British cultural studies, and other neo-Marxian and post-Marxian approaches grouped under the label of critical pedagogy, that emerged from the work of Paulo Freire and is now global in scope. I argue that Marxism provides influential and robust perspectives on education, still of use, but that classical Marxism has certain omissions and limitations that contemporary theories of society and education need to overcome. The young Marx and Engels thus perceived that without education the working class was condemned to lives of drudgery and death, but that with education they had a chance to create a better life. In their famous 1848 “Communist Manifesto,” Marx and Engels argued that growing economic crises would throw ever more segments of the middle classes, and the older peasant and artisan classes, into the impoverished situation of the proletariat and would thus produce a unified working class, at least one with interests in common. They declared that the bourgeois class is constantly battling against the older feudal powers, among its own segments, and against the foreign bourgeoisie, and thus enlists the proletariat as its ally. Consequently, the proletariat gains education and experience which it can use to fight the ruling class. The Marxist approach to education is broad constuctivist and emphasises activity, collaboration and critique, rather than passive absorption of knowledge, emulation of elders and conformism; it is student-centred rather than teacher centred, but recognises that education cannot transcend the problems and capabilities of the society in which it is located. The Soviet, Chinese, and other Communist states were at most only partly structured along Marxist “classless” lines, and while such Communist leaders as Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, Joseph Stalin, and Mao Zedong staunchly claimed Marxist orthodoxy for their pronouncements, they in fact greatly stretched the doctrine in attempting to mold it to their own uses. The evolution of varied forms of welfare capitalism, the improved condition of workers in industrial societies, and the recent demise of the Communist bloc in Eastern Europe and Central Asia have tended to discredit Marx’s dire and deterministic economic predictions. The Soviet and Chinese Communist regimes did not result in the disappearance of the state, but in the erection of huge, monolithic, and largely inefficient state structures. In recent years, many Western intellectuals have championed Marxism and repudiated Communism, objecting to the manner in which the two terms are often used interchangeably. A number have turned to Marx’s other writings and explored the present-day value of such Marxist concepts as alienation. Among prominent Western Marxists were the Hungarian philosopher György Lukaisand the Italian political philosopher Antonio Gramsci, both of whom viewed Marxism as a liberation from the rule of political economy and believed in its relationship to the social consciousness. Marxism’s influence can be found in disciplines as diverse as economics, history, art, literary criticism, and sociology. German sociologist Max Weber, Frankfurt school theorists such as Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimer, British economist Joan Robinson, German dramatist Bertolt Brecht, British literary critic Frederic Jameson, and the French historians of the Annales school have all produced work drawn from Marxist perspectives.
Troy University Organization Structure Keurig Dr Pepper Case Study
Troy University Organization Structure Keurig Dr Pepper Case Study.
My company is Keuring/Dr Pepper, and I just need to write one part of the project, it isOrganizational StructureOverview of the ProjectGroups will analyze a real company and conduct a Strategic Analysis in increments using the concepts from the text and outside sources, including the company’s own information. The final deliverable will be a Strategic Proposal to the company based on the Group’s total analysis.The approach to the Project should be a White Paper prepared for and delivered to the senior management and Board of Directors of the company that is analyzed.There should be NO definitions or extraneous external research presented that is not immediately germane to and related directly to the company and its industry. Only facts related to the company should be presented, particularly in Deliverables 1 through 4.Deliverables 1 through 4 are analyses of the Current Conditions of the company and the industry; therefore there should be NO proposals or recommendations of any kind regarding what the company should or could do in the future. Any and all such proposals and recommendations must be part of the Final Deliverable only.The Final Deliverable must be presented as ONE paper, not separate papers.For this assignment, the Group will analyze the assigned Company’s current condition. You will use the text chapters 10 and 11 as your framework for the analysis, and will incorporate information from external sources including the company and other credible sites. Your Group deliverable will be presented in APA format, will include appropriate topical headings to organize and segment the paper, with correctly formatted citations and references. This deliverable is due at 11:59 PM CT Tuesday of Week 8.Minimally the report will include the following:Corporate GovernanceOwnership ConcentrationBoard of DirectorsOrganizational StructureOrganizational Controls
Troy University Organization Structure Keurig Dr Pepper Case Study