NO MATCHING!!!!! NO PLAGIARISM!!! NO PLAGIARISM!!! The Assignment must be submitted on Blackboard (WORD format only) via allocated folder. Assignments submitted through email will not be accepted. Students are advised to make their work clear and well presented, marks may be reduced for poor presentation. This includes filling your information on the cover page. Students must mention question number clearly in their answer. Late submission will NOT be accepted. Avoid plagiarism, the work should be in your own words, copying from students or other resources without proper referencing will result in ZERO marks. No exceptions. All answered must be typed using Times New Roman (size 12, double-spaced) font. No pictures containing text will be accepted and will be considered plagiarism). Submissions without this cover page will NOT be accepted. Use APA style if you need write referencesAssignment Workload: This Assignment comprise of a Case Study. Assignment is to be submitted by each student individually.Assignment Purposes/Learning Outcomes: After completion of Assignment-1 students will able to understand the 1. Demonstrate a deep understanding of project management concepts and theories as well as approaches to project management (L.O-1.1)2. Demonstrate an understanding of the project budgeting and cost control in project management (L.O-1.6, 4.1)3. The ability to write a coherent report on project management case studies or new themes. (L.O-4.5)
MGT 323 Saudi Electronic University The Home Improvement Project Discussion
Write an essay of at least 500 words discussing how database auditing and monitoring fit within a SOX compliance framework.Do not copy without providing proper attribution. This paper will be evaluated through SafeAssign.Write in essay format not in outline, bulleted, numbered or other list format.Use the five paragraph format. Each paragraph must have at least five sentences. Include 3 quotes with quotation marks and cited in-line and in a list of references. Include an interesting meaninful title.Include at least one quote from each of 3 different articles, place the words you copied (do not alter or paraphrase the words) in quotation marks and cite in-line (as all work copied from another should be handled). The quotes should be full sentences (no more, less) and should be incorporated in your discussion (they do not replace your discussion) to illustrate or emphasize your ideas.Cite your sources in a clickable reference list at the end. Do not copy without providing proper attribution (quotation marks and in-line citations).
The Creative Concepts Of Thomas Chad Commerce Essay
custom essay Chad’s Creative Concepts is the brainchild of Thomas Chad. The company is an American designer and manufacturer of wooden furniture for vacation cabins. The company began by manufacturing custom made wooden furniture which was immensely popular and the company garnered a reputation for excellent workmanship and innovative design. As the company expanded, a decision was made to diversify operations by manufacturing standard furniture. This decision was made because as the company’s reputation grew it was able to sell some of its more popular designs to retailers around the region. At the same time, this allowed the company to penetrate a new customer segment that is more price-sensitive. In spite of the relatively high prices of custom made furniture, they still constitute the bulk of customer order because customers are able to choose the type of wood and design they like. Even though the company is growing rapidly, it is beginning to experience some problems. All of Chad’s furniture is manufactured at the same plant using the same equipment, which means that both lines of furniture must compete for the same resources. Since the profit margin and sales volume of custom made furniture is higher, the equipment and labour are shifted towards the manufacture of this furniture, even though the production of standard furniture is scheduled. As a result, the production of standard furniture is slowed down, causing quantities of work in progress to accumulate. Orders take longer to process and manufacture and customers end up waiting longer than promised. In addition, the quality of the standard furniture suffered as a result of shoddy workmanship. These problems are growing especially acute. Thomas Chad is aware that the production problems need to be overcome. Also, the company does not use much information technology and this puts it at a disadvantage in the long run as IT is a useful tool in helping a business to achieve its goals. This report examines some of the critical issues at Chad’s Creative Concepts. It adopts a holistic view on solving these problems by going beyond the functional areas. 2.0 Main Issues 2.1 Capacity Constraints Many organizations operate at below their maximum processing capacity, either because there is insufficient demand to completely fill their capacity or as a deliberate policy so that the operation can respond quickly to every new order (Shore, 1994). Often, though, organizations find themselves with some parts of their operation operating below their capacity while other parts are at their capacity ceiling. This is what is happening at Chad’s. It is the parts of the operation which are operating at their capacity ceiling which are the capacity constraint for the whole operating. Decisions made in capacity planning and control affect costs, revenues, working capital, quality, speed, dependability and flexibility performance (Srihan and LaForge, 1994). The first step in the capacity planning and control task is to understand and measure the likely fluctuations in demand and the extent of available capacity in the organization. Forecasting demand is characterized by high levels of uncertainty, whereas measuring capacity is characterized by high levels of complexity. The most common type of demand fluctuation which operations have to cope with is that due to seasonality. Seasonality affects may different types of operation and can be caused by climatic, economic, social, political and festive factors. Some operations also have shorter-cycle seasonality type fluctuations in demand over a month, week or even on an hourly basis. The second step of capacity planning and control is to identify the plans for coping with demand fluctuation. The third step in capacity planning and control is deciding which of the approaches to capacity planning are appropriate. Two techniques are useful in this task. The first is cumulative representations, which allow demand and capacity to be compared for feasibility. The second is the queuing theory, which is able to evaluate the consequences of capacity decisions in many queuing type service operations. At Chad’s the capacity constraints are caused by the limited number of employees and equipment. Even though sales are improving, the company maintains the same production workforce which is insufficient to cater to growing demand. The company should consider hiring more employees and buying more equipment. 2.2 Ineffective Supply Chain Management A supply chain is a strand or chain of operations within an organization’s supply network which passes through the organization. Supply chain management is a broad and strategically important concept which includes the entire supply chain from the supply of raw materials, through manufacture, assembly and distribution to the end customer (Nolden, 1987). It includes the strategic and long-term consideration of supply chain management issues as well as the shorter term control of flow throughout the supply chain. 2.3 Poor Quality Control for Standard Line Good quality control is essential for any organization. A business must ensure the quality and uniformity of its products and services to ensure customer loyalty. While the quality of its custom made furniture is not compromised, the same cannot be said for the standard line of furniture at Chad’s. The lack of quality may cost the company potential customers. 2.4 Poor Usage of Information Technology It is unfortunate that Chad’s Creative Concepts has such a low usage of information technology (IT). As pointed out in the case, many businesses have turned towards e-business to gain competitive advantage. Since Thomas Chad is ignorant of the matter, he should find out more information to comprehend just how effective and useful IT can be for a business. 3.0 Recommendations At face value, the problems faced by Chad’s Creative Concepts seem to revolve around operations management. However, if we dig deeper, we find other fundamental flaws in the whole business. Hence, while some of the following recommendations serve to solve the problems associated with operations management, others are directed towards overcoming weaknesses in the core business. 3.1 Implement a Just-in-Time (JIT) System The materials procurement process at Chad’s is inefficient, particularly for the standard line of furniture. The overall aim of just-in-time (JIT) operations is to meet demand instantaneously with perfect quality and no waste. It must be stressed however that this is an aim rather than a short term realistic target (Karmakar, 1989). Nevertheless, JIT does aim to produce parts and products just in time for them to be needed by customers and not earlier than they need them nor later than they need them. The central justification for just in time delivery is that the low inventory levels it produces not only save working capital but also have a significant impact on the ability of an operation to improve its intrinsic efficiency. This leads to a broader definition of JIT which can be seen as an operation’s philosophy which attacks all kinds of waste in the operations. JIT can be seen both as an overall philosophy of operations and also as a collection of tools and methods which supports its aims. As a philosophy, JIT can be summarized as concerning three overlapping elements (Zipkin, 1991). These are the elimination of waste in all its forms, the inclusion of all staff in the operation in its improvement and the idea that all improvement should be on a continuous basis. 3.2 Improve Scheduling Scheduling involves the timing and coordination of operations. Such activities are fundamental to virtually every organization. Chad’s could use Gantt charts to help managers visualize workloads and they are useful for describing and analyzing sequencing alternatives (Stevenson, 1999). In addition, both heuristic and optimizing methods are used to develop loading and sequencing plans. 3.3 Reconfigure the Value Chain The value chain is defined as a sequence of activities that should contribute more to the ultimate value of the product than to its cost (Atkinson et al, 2007). When value is added in the form of the value chain, it can be utilized to develop Chad’s sustainable competitive advantage. All organizations consist of activities that are linked together to develop the value of the business, and together these activities form the organization’s value chain. Value chain analysis is a useful tool for companies to identify the key activities within the organization which form the value chain and have the potential of achieving a significant and lasting competitive advantage for Chad’s Creative Concepts. Short term cost advantages can also be obtained by reconfiguring the value chain. This can be done at Chad’s by making structural changes in the value chain such making improvements in its capacity utilization, reducing processing time, and enhancing vertical integration. As a result, costs are lowered and value is added (Huff et al, 2009). All these result in lower costs, competitive furniture prices and greater customer satisfaction. 3.4 Maximize the Impact of Information Technology Chad’s has very low utilization in its operations. It should overcome this weakness as the internet has the potential to create new opportunities for it to achieve low cost leadership by allowing it to manage costs and achieve better efficiencies. Transaction costs are greatly lowered through IT. Paperless transactions reduce procurement and other paper costs. Transaction costs can also be lowered by removing intermediaries that add costs. Collaborative design efforts that employer internet technology can link designers, suppliers and customers, thus reducing costs and speeding the process of new ideas generation. Chad’s can go one step further by introducing more applications and e-business. One way this can be done is through the extended value chain by using IT to link the company’s own value chain with the value chains of suppliers and customers. As a result, value is added not just through Chad’s own value creating activities, but those for its suppliers and customers as well. This is also part of the virtuous business cycle. However, Chad’s should be aware of the pitfalls of using this strategy. The main threat is imitation by competitors, especially when business is done online. This is because many of the advantages related to connecting directly on a real time basis to the customers, such as software can be easily duplicated by others without any real threat of copyright infringement (Dess et al, 2008). Another pitfall is that companies become so enchanted with using the internet to cut costs that they lose sight of the big picture. When one business activity such as cutting costs is given a priority over others, then the whole organization will suffer from lopsided and myopic strategic planning (Timmons and Spinelli, 2009). 3.5 Deleting the Standard Line of Furniture If Chad’s is unable to overcome its production problems, it must seriously consider whether it should continue with the standard furniture line. After all, this range accounts for a mere 40% of volume and 25% of sales. Plus, the profit margin is considerably lower compared with that for custom made furniture. Therefore, the company should consider deleting this line if it proves to be unprofitable. Ultimately, the decision to determine whether or not to delete the standard line of furniture must be based on sound management accounting principles. It must be remembered that some fixed costs are unavoidable costs and in fact, the contribution earned from an unprofitable division can be used to offset these fixed costs. Therefore, Chad’s must determine whether the loss in revenue from the deletion of standard furniture would lead to improved overall profitability. 3.6 Rethinking the Business Model All businesses have some form of business model. Some take great pains to craft it while others improvise as they go along. However, a business model is the heart and soul of the company for it is what directs all the company’s actions. Therefore, Thomas Chad should ask himself, “What is my business model?” Is it to specialize in custom made wooden furniture or to be a manufacturer of all types of wooden furniture? Once, this is clear, the company is than able to formulate its strategies towards achieving this goal. If a company has a haphazard and confused notion of what it stands for, it will not succeed in the long term. When strategic moves are contemplated by a company, they normally involve some variation of Porter’s generic strategies or other approaches. One approach that is increasingly popular now is rethinking the business model. According to a recent survey, nearly 70% of American companies are trying to create innovative business models whereas 98% are in the midst of modifying existing models (Casadesus-Masanell and Ricart, 2011). Still a majority of these companies view the creation and evaluation of business models as an isolated activity, devoid from how they will impact the business and how they will connect with the business models of rivals (Huff et al, 2009). Consequently, companies fail to achieve their strategic goals. In addition, many companies are oblivious that virtuous business cycles can be created through business models, in the manner of high technology companies like Microsoft, Google and Facebook. Competitive advantage is reinforced when these cycles are aligned with company goals. When the right choices are made, a company can strengthen the virtuous cycle of its business, transform rivals into complementary enterprises or even weaken rivals (Burns and Mitchell, 2006). This strategy is using business models to gain competitive advantage. A good business model has three characteristics (Casadesus-Masanell and Ricart, 2011). One, it is aligned with company goals. When designing a business model, the choices made should reflect the outcomes that help a company achieve its targets. Two, it must be self reinforcing. Each of the choices made through a business model must reflect each other. There must be internal consistency. For example, if AirAsia were to decide to provide a level of comfort comparable to that offered by a full fare carrier such as Malaysian Airlines, the change would require reducing the number of seats on each plane and offering food and drinks. These choices would undermine the company’s low cost structure and wreck its profits. If there is weak reinforcement, the business model should be tweaked by discarding certain choices and adopting new ones. Three, a good business model is robust. It must be able to maintain its effectiveness over a long period by shaking off four main threats. They are imitation (whether competitors can replicate the company’s business model), holdup (the ability of customers, suppliers or other players to capture the value that is created by taking advantage of their bargaining power), slack (complacency within the company) and substitution (whether alternative products or services can lower the perceived value customers have about the company’s products or services). Even though the period of effectiveness is shorter nowadays than it once was, robustness is still a critical parameter. Based on these criteria, Chad’s Creative Concepts should rethink its business model. It must display enough humility to know that all is not perfect and find ways to overcome weaknesses. 3.7 Reinventing the Business All businesses, even the most successful ones, will inevitably stop growing. There are many reasons why this could happen. A company could stray from its core business activity or stay with it for too long. It may have difficulty in realizing its strategy, or customer tastes could change, or the company could obsessively cut costs just for the sake of cutting costs. As a result, they need to reinvent themselves from time to time (Pearce and Robinson, 2000). The ability to move from a maturity stage of one type of business to the growth stage of another type of business is what separates the long term success stories and the ‘one hit’ failures. All businesses undergo what can be described as a financial S curve, which is similar to the product life cycle curve (Nunes and Breene, 2011). This occurs when a company grows slowly at first then experiences a period of rapid growth before facing a period of decline. Most companies focus far too much on one S curve without realizing that they should actually create multiple S curves in order to stay competitive. This means that a company should move from one financial S curve which is its maturity or decline stage to another which is in the growth stage (Atkinson et al, 2007). Such an approach is most prevalent in the mobile phone industry in which companies periodically reinvent their product offering. On the other hand, successful companies like Google seemed stuck in a trap in which it cannot move from its existing business model and strategy, though it is not for want of trying. To move from one S curve to another, Chad’s needs to be aware of some ‘hidden’ curves (Nunes and Breene, 2011). While this may seem premature for a company that may not even have crossed its first S curve, the company needs to stay ahead of the game and think for the long term. The first is the hidden competition curve. This means that a company’s competitors constantly change from the time it was founded to when it achieves peak profitability. Successful companies realize that there are shifts in customer needs and wants and therefore create the next platform for new competition. The second hidden curve is the capabilities curve. Each successful company has its own sets of capabilities that permit it to succeed at business. These can range from production methods, employment of IT and human resource. Here, it is worth noting that its workforce is an invaluable asset at Chad’s. The employees are extremely loyal and show great dedication. There is excellent teamwork and members are free to exchange ideas. The company should build up on this major strength and unleash the full potential of its human capital. However, the competitive advantage attained from these capabilities is not permanent so companies need to formulate new capabilities to jump on to the next S curve. The third hidden curve is the talent curve. Many companies make the fatal mistake by not retaining critical talent at a time when it matters most. For example, when companies are approaching their peak, they might opt for a leaner structure and eliminate many employees. As a result, they could lose talented people who might be needed in helping the company move on to its next S curve. Luckily, this is a mistake Chad’s avoided making even during the worst times of the financial crisis. To succeed at reinventing its business, Chad’s Creative Concepts needs to balance its short-term and long term thinking. It needs to realize that measures that may be successful in the short term may not necessarily be the best to sustain long term growth. It needs to organize its strategies well to prevent overload. Tasks and responsibilities should be delegated to the extent possible and the company should not overburden top executives as that will impair their strategic thinking abilities. Business reinvention also calls for taking advantage of surplus talent (Robbins and Judge, 2007). As mentioned earlier, Chad’s has a strong workforce of talented and capable people and it is a waste to leave such talent unutilized. All too often, talented individuals feel stifled when they are not allowed to harness their talents and may move to another organization. These people may be the ones who are crucial to the company’s ability to move to the next level. For this purpose, employee development programs are essential to bring out the best in everybody. 4.0 Conclusion Chad’s Creative Concepts is a growing company that is experiencing growing pains. When it first started out business on a small scale, it faced few problems. However, as it expanded and diversified operations, the company finds itself facing a myriad of problems. From an ineffective business model to poor inventory management, the company finds itself at a critical crossroad, even though it is growing rapidly. To overcome these problems, the company needs to do some soul searching. It must be able to articulate its raison d’etre and formulate its strategy from there.
Healthcare Architecture Origin and Development
Healthcare Architecture Origin and Development. Chapter 1: Healthcare Architecture History that Time Forgot To trace back the history of healthcare and hospitals were unknown as there were many evidences of origination for earliest hospitals across different continent, and all historical healthcare serve under as religious influenced. Physicians back than consists of religious figure from gods and witch doctor to monks and priest. Around 430BC, temples in Athens were dedicated to “healing gods”, Asclepius for treating the sick spread throughout Greece. These holy temples were known as the very first hospitals in the history of western civilization. Dream interpretations was the process of healing where priests would interpret the dreams visited by the god, is also known as incubation. Priest would take a holistic approach to treatment which include, mud, herbal remedies, psychotherapy massage, bathing treatments, set dislocated bones and opium to calm agony of patient which were prescribed according to the dreams they experience. One of the oldest architecture evidence of a healthcare centre which dated back to the 9th century AD at Mihintale, Sri Lanka were Buddhist monasteries. There is evidence of patient ward which measured 4m x 4m. These evidence Medicinal trough roughly 7 feet long and 30 inches wide have been found by archaeologist. It was suggested that it was used with mineral water and medicinal oil for hydrotherapy. Healthcare influenced by social environment Roman Warfare Era “Many of mankind’s greatest discoveries have been made within the frame of warfare.” The Roman Empire was built upon the success of its legions, and the foundation of that success lies in the innovations and discoveries of Roman medicine in the battlefield. In the first century AD, the Roman Empire was in constant warfare with neighbouring country but the Roman legions did not have any organized medical units. It was only when the Roman Empire expanded to Greece that many Greek physicians came to Italy and Rome, because it was only during warfare that physician are able to practice and flourish their medical skill by performing surgeries and treating wounded soldiers. “He who desires to practice surgery must go to war.” Hippocrates (c. 460-377 B.C.) a famous Greek physician During the first and second century AD, Emperor Trajan established the Roman Military Hospitals, or valetudinarium after recognizing the importance of medical treatment to reduce wounded and sick soldiers during long military campaigns. Trained Roman medical officer would travel together soldiers To the battlefield and set up temporary groups of small tents and fortresses. Over time, the Roman ethic of military improvement reform temporary Military Hospital into permanent facilities. Roman military hospitals were originally built near river for the access of clean water and adequate sewerage for sanitation purposes. Later in order to have an effective army, the military hospital was incorporated into part of Roman fort architecture and were put near the other wall, so that soldiers could get treated and be back into the battlefield. The architecture of a standard Roman Military Hospitals is similar to most healthcare centre today, rectangular in shape and consist of four corridors connected by an entrance hall. Each corridors consists of number of small ward with ante room and large ward that holds three bed off the end. Other spaces in the valetudinarium include a reception ward, staff quarters, kitchen, dispensary, large hall and medicine facilities. Religion Influence Era But unlike modern hospitals, these military hospitals were only reserve for sick and wounded Roman soldiers as Roman soldiers were usually treated with respect and honour in daily life. Unfortunately, the poor receive no sort of medical care which raises the issue social stigma. Even slaves and gladiator receive medical care. After 310 AD, the concept of healthcare available to only soldiers and the rich changes when the Roman’s adopted Christianity as religion, which promoted a caring and social community, revolutionizing morality and social behaviour. Christianity contributed an immense role in expanding healthcare provisions for the public. Many churches and monastery were built not only as place for spiritual worship, but to cater for travellers, the poor and the sick. St. Basil of Caesarea founded the first large-scale hospital in 369 AD. The hospital consists of 300 bed to care for victims of the plague. It was during the late 8th centuries in the Dark Ages, which Emperor Charlemagne that a hospital must be built attached each cathedral and monastery. Benedictine Abbey of Cluny was founded in 910 became a dominant factor in hospital work. “To help them as would Christ” was the principle founded by the monastic hospitals. Patients ward would be placed near the altar The Cluny order had an enormous influence on the culture and Romanesque architecture during the time. The monastery was form by cloister of buildings to form an open central space. The cross shaped plan in the abbey was where patient ward were place, where light and fresh is easily penetrate into the whole plan. Patients is able to gain spiritual healing in assisting with their recovery in front of the altar. Danger of bad design Healthcare Architecture Hotel-Dieu was the oldest hospital in Paris founded in the 7th century situated next to the Seine river and serve originally as a refuge for the homeless and sick. It was during the 17th century, Hotel-Dieu became hospices where the poor and sick is treated. With 1,200 beds in total and over 100 beds in some ward, Hotel-Dieu was the largest hospital ever built at the time. Although being the largest hospital, the hospital was designed poorly. Most of the wards in Hotel-Dieu does not have adequate ventilation, it was also maintained poorly and unsanitary. During plague epidemics, it was the only place that provided healthcare facilities for the sick. The hospital was faced with problem of overcrowding when it requires to house 3500 patients at the same time during the period, which the hospital was inadequately able to provide. Up to six patients were force to share a single hospital bed and infectious airborne diseases were able to spread easily across the hospital. Poor architecture design combined with uncontrollable spread of disease resulted in a high mortality rate of one death in four patients. In 1785 numerous discussion, design modifications and reformation to the Paris hospital system were made when a large part of the Hotel-Dieu was burned down by fire in 1772. Dr Jacques Tenon was appointed with drawing up proposals for improving the hospitals of Paris. He visited forty hospitals during his time in England to detailed spatial, sanitary and administrative elements of it. During his visit in Greenwich, it was when Jacques Tenon paid unusual attention on the functions and service arrangement. Documenting every architectural element detail from dining rooms, cabins bed, woollen mattress, feather pillow, the distance between the corridors, fire precautions, iron doors, alarm bells and many more. Jacques Tenon’s published the book “Memoirs on the hospitals of Paris” based on his records. Jacques Tenon and Bernard Poyet (architect) came up for the design for the new Hotel-Dieu in 1785 next to Notre Dame Cathedral after the approval of scheme by the Academy of Sciences. The hospital introduces a circular design with wards radiating from the centre point. The design was prioritized on improving the ventilation and hygiene of the building. Although the radial design for the new Hotel-Dieu receive complimentary for its effort. The death rate remained unchanged in the hospital due to most of the city’s serious accidents were admitted to the new Hotel-Dieu. There are still several issues regarding to the design of it. Radial design provides insufficient space to cater for all patient; ventilation and sun light is unable to penetrate efficiently into most of the wards room. The Turning Point of Hospital The modernization of hospital design began to flourish during the age of enlightenments. In the mid-18th century, hospitals were introduced to the pavilion design. With the improvement of medical facilities and knowledge, isolation and containing airborne infections has been the main focus in reducing mortality rate. “taking the quest for the separation of pathologies and the desire to prevent contagion effects to the extreme” The first Pavilion type hospital in England was the Royal Herbert Hospital designed by Sir Douglas Galton which was recommended by Florence Nightingale in 1865. Sidney Herbert which was the leader of War Office wishes to reduce military mortality rate of British veterans of the Crimean War. The main intention of the pavilion design was to improved sanitation, cleanliness and fire prevention. Semi- detached building separates the hospital into isolated complex. Each complex contains ward connected by a central corridor to all other parts of the hospital. All wards are raised from the ground to maximise cross ventilation (fresh air) and natural lighting (daylight penetration). The central complex is where the administration and services located. The pavilion plan spatial layout is an excellence respond to the lack natural ventilation and separation of contagious diseases. During an epidemic outbreak in the hospital, it is able to quickly shut down the infected block, isolating it from the rest of the building. The rectangular form of the Royal Herbert Hospital provides better efficiency in plate ratio maximizing number of wards in the hospital. The sharp decline in hospital mortality rates and rise in public health make the “pavilion principle” a trend for modern hospital design. Political Influence Healthcare Buildings In 1938 the Finsbury Health centre designed by Berthold Lubetkin was opened with his allegation that “nothing was too good for ordinary people”. The development of the NHS was an essential crossroads in British Social History, and the Finsbury Health Centre was that monument of a socialist idealism. Finsbury was once a thickly stuffed ghetto relieved by green space and filled with epidemic disease. Given the circumstances, local politicians were determined to redeveloped Finsbury into a model of social progress. Things had to be improved, housing, education, hygiene and health. The principle of Finsbury Health Centre was to make healthcare available for free at a single point of delivery and the spatial arrangement of the healthcare building was designed to accommodating many different kinds of medical treatment, as opposed to being scattered all through the borough. After six decades of National Health Service, many of Finsbury principle has been adopted which led to the belief of Berthold Lubetkin that the building serves as an instrument of social improvement. The form of the Healthcare centre is design in a letter H with public spaces located in the ground floor plan. Core public spaces such as the reception, lecture theatre and services are located in the centre section of the building with ramped services provided from the garden entrance. Both wings on the side of the building are flexibly planned clinical accommodation with different healthcare spaces. The floor plates of the building is extended from ground floor to first floor. Emergency patients can access independently to the basement floor from the rear service courtyard. The building is built from reinforced concrete frame with glass block and curtain wall infill, tiled wall surrounds and asphalt roof. Built EnvironmentHealthcare Architecture Origin and Development
Skills Required for Counselling
Skills Required for Counselling. Counselling offers a chance for a client to talk privately to a councilor about unknown emotions, issues with relationship, individual problems, and a councilor will be allowed to investigate your actual sentiments and be underpinned without judgment. Since everybody is diverse, a counsellor does not just relegate counsel (BACP, 2013). The exchanges in guiding are gone for helping you comprehend what is continuing for you and what would help you best. Suppressed sentiments, for example, outrage, uneasiness, melancholy and humiliation can get to be exceptionally extreme and directing offers a chance to investigate them, with the likelihood of making them simpler to understand oneself. A successful councilor has to attain certain skills to have a good counseling session (BAPC, 2013). The fundamental skill in a one to one counseling session, a counselor should genuinely and actively listen to client’s problem. Actively listening contributes to the counselling session in various ways. Listening makes a client feel safe, trusted, and a sense of acceptance. Expressing their inner world and fears will be easier to be verbalized. When a councilor actively listens the client’s defensiveness may reduce, it provides a foundation for contributing well timed challenges that encourage clients to bear responsibility then to keep away from the responsibilities. According to Jones the aptitudes of listening to and understanding clients is focused around deciding to recognize the separateness between “me” and “you” by getting inside customer’s inner edge of reference rather than staying in your outside casing of reference. Great motions, for example, little nods to show proceeded with consideration and bigger nods ones to demonstrate assertions (Jones, 2013). In a counselling relationship, attending skills in which the client who is looking for help ought to be the center of consideration. It can be occupying for the client on the off chance that they are attempting to discuss an issue and they begin to think their councilor is not by any stretch of the imagination giving careful consideration. There are along these lines two sides to the skill attending to, internal and external. At an internal level, the councilor needs to be truthfully focused to the client, instead of engrossed with some other matters. At an external level, the nature of the counsellor’s consideration needs to be passed on to the client. A portion of the routes in which going to can be passed on are through a slight forward lean, facial expression and motions that are receptive to the client, fitting eye contact. According Allen Ivey has depicted as ‘minimal encouragers’-sounds or one word statement such as ‘mmm’ or ‘yes’ (Mc.Leod, 2011) Questioning skills, reasonable addressing can help clients better evaluate, clarify and comprehend their interior casings of reference (Jones, 2008).Councilor has to be considerate in asking questions, it is best to ask clients as if its analyzing their problems. Actual questions could be to expand a counselor and client’s understanding of problems and problematic skills pattern. Councilor should be more focused on client’s present situation then past, however the past could give a clue of the present so it is not to be totally excluded. Questioning can also identify the root cause of the problem is which client is not aware of, tactical ways of questioning can tap the underlying roots problems which the client’s try to avoid. There are challengers to ongoing flow of the client’s story. The client might have lost their concentration and try to answer the councilor’s question. In this there is a possibility that question can be altering client’s process in an unhelpful manner (Mc Leod, 2011). Paraphrasing skills during counseling, the counselor rephrases the content of the client’s message in a simpler term. This is a way of expressing to client that the councilor had understood the client. It will also guide client to have the simplest understanding, concentration and also give her an opportunity to run through every details to focus. This may encourage the client to verbalize more on the situation or crisis. To the councilor it gives a scout the exactness of observations. The advantage of paraphrasing is to compile together numerous components of client’s messages, to distinguish a typical subject or example interferes with extreme confusions. This skill could be used to begin a session, end a session, pace a session, to audit advance and serve as an issue when changing points (Theoretical Approaches). Limitations, the standards for successful counselling ought to dependably be maintained. Be that as it may, we ought not to deny the councilors regularly confront limits that hinder their adequacy in their preparation and practice. The accompanying have been seen to present troubles for councilors. Knowledge those enter the trait of counselling regularly encounter the debilitation of not being satisfactorily outfitted with sufficient information in directing .There are the individuals who have experienced a degree program in social work or psychology who still express a requirement for further preparing in advising as their educational module. Universities should have more practice sessions for councilors to have a broader view of the subject but no skills to practice completely. Younger councilors may be constrained by the draught absence of mix of hypothesis to practice circumstances. Skills this could be effortlessly managed in the event that they secure more involvement with supervision from senior workers. Absence of introduction to a wide mixture of customer issues may be an alternate components restricting the councilor in his insight into issues and the essential aptitudes to work with them. Counsellors can take up social and family services to get more exposure to various type of counselling. This can help to build up the skills under proper supervision. Universities should have more practice and trial sessions for students to be opened to different scenarios of counselling. Rigid view of helping. There are the individuals who experience preparing in one modality or theoretical framework in counseling. As an issue, they get to be obstinate and run about their work with evangelistic seal, demanding that there is one and only viable method for helping people. A brisk review of the guiding order and many-sided quality of accommodating conduct ought to easily dispersed such a thought and help the guide embrace a more adaptable and open methodology. In the event that one is effortlessly inspired by research information to backing any specific school of thought or system, it serves to realize that essentially every supporter of a specific methodology guarantees his to be the best. What’s more there are no less than one hundred and fifty separate methodologies I guiding. Nobody methodology gives the response to the scope of human issues experience by directing. Experience, some clients would want a councilor to be experience in the area of counselling where the councilor has been exposed to many situations. Many years experienced councilor should be versatile in new trends and know the culture of the younger generation this is one limitation that the older experienced councilor can overcome. Matured councilor should not be over confident in his expertize. They should always respect their clients and not to overpower their client. In Asian standard clients prefers matured experience councilors. Age is another factor, nevertheless some clients may want to be counselled by similar age to feel comfortable. Experience could be for those who have gone through certain life cycles such as marriage, children and various challenges. This limits the councilor for who have not gone through this life cycle challenges. Individuals have their own challengers to face in the terms of life cycle changes. A councilor can overcome this by adapting an openness to life, to be able to learn experiences from seniors and with those with experience in different stages of life. Broken boundaries is a challenge that counselors face nowadays, diverse individuals come to process bunches with distinctive encounters and demeanor towards trust and classifiedness. Not everybody is, or could potentially be relied upon to be, in agreement with respect to these issues. Moreover, despite the fact that councilor have a tendency to verbally resolve to admiration the private nature of the methodology, numerous dangerous elements that develop later in the gathering point to ruptures of trust and classifiedness. Fears and Vulnerabilities not everybody is open to uncovering viewpoints that create fear and uneasiness most people abstain from recognizing, without taking into consideration discussing their own particular shadow selves. One upshot of this mental without a doubt at first, clients have a tendency to abstain from discussing issues that are truly disturbing them. Normally, customers will discuss the burdens of traversing the circumstances, regularly utilizing these themes as hidden references to see the issue. At the point when this example continues for a really long time the councilor will probably perceive and remark on it. Unexpressed Feeling It generally takes a while for some individuals to communicate with genuineness in a gathering setting where openness and input from others is supported. Uncovering upbeat feelings of individual triumphs can be simple, however this is frequently not the situation where negative or uncomfortable feelings are the primary centering. Despite the fact that issues of trust, classifiedness, and the benefit of offering considerations and feelings are empowered and discussed, it doesn’t mean counselor will have a simple time communicating. Some individuals will discover the fearlessness to open up after various sessions, and this may disappoint other people who try in discussing their apprehensions and weaknesses. In fruitful procedure assembles, the activities of gathering parts have a tendency to have a thump on impact; when hesitant parts watch that others are reliably taking the plunge to uncover themselves in the midst of emotions of powerlessness, they feel swayed to do likewise. Nonetheless, it takes a while for everybody to make a move, which can hamper the viability of the gathering. Emotional and behavioural issue get to be obvious when the understudy shows a redundant effect. Tireless example of conduct that brings about the huge interruption in different understudies. Such aggravations may cause critical impedances in scholastic, social, as well as word related working. Such a conduct example is predictable all through the singular’s life. There can be much trouble with these kids. These kids can now and again require more help than a standard classroom can give. Frequently more backing is required, however it can be troublesome discovering a harmony between getting the kid help and not restricting the kid’s right to gain entrance to the standard environment. In conclusion the aim of counselling is to help clients perceive chances to help them live in additionally fulfilling and remunerating routes as individuals and as parts of society. The Counsellor can be included in determining particular issues which could include settling on choices and helping a client adapt when in an emergency circumstance. The Counsellor can help a client resolve relationship issues, through helping them raise their mindfulness. To do this they will likewise need to work with the client emotions, considerations and observations and be mindful of both internal and external conflicts. Transcript Interviewed on 22nd November 2014 at 12.15pm. My client David who is 37years old. Married with two children girls aged 2 and 4. Client has lost lots of money because of addiction to soccer betting. Wife wants to end the marriage. David needed counselling as he was distress with the current situation. Work is also affected by the addiction. Councillor: Lavannya Client: David No Councillor Lavannya Client David Skills administered 1 Hello David Hi Attending Skills 2 Please take a seat and make yourself comfortable Yes thank you Attending Skills 3 How was your day today? Not good.(no eye contact just looking down) Questioning Skills 4 I am sure you are aware of with your visit here with me today? Yes I am. (looked up gave me a quick eye contact) Questioning Skills 5 Could you be comfortable to share more about yourself? I am 37yrs this year, working as a Navy regular with the SAF for the past 18yrs. No promotion for the past 7yrs.(paused for a while) Questioning Skills 6 Well how about your private family life? (Tighten lips, a small smile emerged).I am married for the past 5years wonderful wife and two children age 2 and 4. My family is my world. (speech began to stumble) Questioning Skills 7 It looks like you have a well settled family. Yes and I have ruined that happiness totally.(covered his face with his palms cracking voice)I have ruined it totally. Responding Skills 8 It seems like you are very much devastated. Please take your time. Go on when you are ready. (Silence for 5 min).took a sip of water. Gave me an eye contact took a deep breathe in. I have been in this online gambling for past 10 years. Started with $20 to $50 a day. Eventually it rise to $500 to $1000. The much I won double was the amount I lost. I used up all my savings. There was one time that I had lost so much money that I had to pawn my wife’s jewellery to pay to the bookie. I tried to stop. It’s online gambling soccer betting. Now I am still working in SAF but all the guys are also in this habit even if I want to kick out this habit it never happens. Now my children and wife have left the house and gone to her mother’s home. She wants to divorce me. Responding Skills 9 I can sense that you are going through a difficult situation at the moment. I also can understand that your wife has been very supportive to go through this with you. Nods silently. Yes she gave me lots of chances but I was really helpless .I got too influenced by it . Now it has gone too far that I am losing my family who are the world to me. I feel lost. Responding Skills 10 Let me recap gambling issue for 10years, tried to come out of it but influenced by camp friends. The hardest impact on you is that your wife is asking for a divorce. (Nods with saddened eyes).Could you please help me in a soft voice. I have not spoken to anyone about this not even to my wife on how I feel so frustrated. Paraphrasing skills 11 Well I would very much want to help you. I would suggest for you to meet your wife privately and speak to her about how you feel about all this. If you don’t mind I would like to call upon a rehabilitation councillor who is an expert in this gambling in your next session. Yes I would try to talk to her yes please thank you I would very much like to see an expert who can guide me into quitting. I feel hopeful now. Limitations and challenges 12 Good that you are feeling that way. I will get you a referral and also source out for other ways of quitting the habit. As for your wife the way you expressed she really cares for you .Probably you should open up your feeling to her. Yes thank you I will take try to speak to her.(smiles) Limitations and challenges 13 Good to hear that .I wish you could open up to your wife and let her understand the obstacle you are facing Yes I will do that as soon as I end the session. Thank you so much for taking your time. I sense some relieve. Attending skills 14 Its my pleasure I will do the necessary arrangement for you.I will call you tomorrow for the next session. Please feedback to me on your meeting with your wife. Yes thank you so much.(hand shake and left the room) Skills Required for Counselling