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Methods of Reducing Imports

At the very outset, the World Trade Organisation (WTO) having as central aim to free up trade and declaring that ‘ the system’s overriding purpose is to help trade flow as freely as possible’, had following the Doha Development Agenda implemented trade liberalisation measures. As such, the Doha Round was launched, where the ministers placed the needs and interests of the developing countries at the heart of the Work Programme adopted in the Declaration, they said, “We shall continue to make positive efforts designed to ensure that developing countries, and especially the least-developed among them, secure a share in the growth of world trade commensurate with the needs of their economic development. In this context, enhanced market access, balanced rules, and well targeted, sustainably financed technical assistance and capacity-building programmes have important roles to play.” Hence, the developing countries expect that the new round of trade negotiations will target tariff peaks, high tariffs, and tariff acceleration that have been restricting them to push the enhancement of their export market share in world markets in general, and particularly, in developed countries. Furthermore, following the decline of tariff rates resulting from the eight multilateral trade negotiations rounds and trade liberalisation agreements, there has been a rise in the relative importance of Non-Tariff Measures. Definition of Non-Tariff Measures Generally, there is no specific definition of the Non-Tariff Measures (NTMs). Yet, NTMs are defined as encompassing any measures (public or private) other than usual tariffs to liberalise international trade flows. Consequently, in practice, most of the NTMs have been criticised to be impediments to international trade, increasing the price of both imports and import-competing good. Therefore, favouring domestic over foreign supply sources by obliging importers and foreign exporters to charge higher prices or limit the volume of imports. Types of Non-Tariff Measures Accordingly, there are various types of Non-Tariffs Measures, for instance, Laird and Vossenaar (1991), have put forward a broad classification of NTMs, identifying five categories, below are an illustration of these NTMs. Measures to control the volume of imports These measures constitute prohibitions like quotas, quantitative restraint (QRs) on imports with exports restraint agreement (ERAs), voluntary export restraints (VERs), non-automatic licensing, import authorisation and States trading or sole import monopolies. Prohibitions may generally or specifically apply to arms and munitions, military equipments except imported to armed forces, drugs except when imported to health authorities or scientific purposes, plants or animals especially, the endangered species. Thus, if certain standards are met with, the imports may be prohibited. Quotas are restricts the quantity or value of imported goods, which are set for a specific time period and are modified over times. Non-automatic licensing is more expressly a way to administer conditional prohibitions or quotas. VERs are usually informal export restraint arrangements (ERAs) between an exporter and an importer whereby the former agrees to restrict, for a certain time period, the exports of certain goods to the market of the imports to shun the imposition of import quotas. They are often industry-to-industry arrangements, but Governments can be involved on a more or less formal basis. States trading or import monopolies are processes whereby only the government agency has the right to trade or grants that right to a private monopolies. Measures to control the price of imported goods These measures can be further subdivided into tariff-type or para-tariff measures and price NTMs. Para-tariff Measures These comprise of customs surcharges, domestic charges levied on imports, variable levies, anti-dumping duties, countervailing duties, additional charges. Variables levies are special charges on imports of some goods in order to increase their price of domestic target price. Anti-dumping duties are charges imposed on goods from specific trading partner or partners to counterbalance the effect of dumping. Countervailing measures are imposed on goods to offset the effect of bounty or subsidy obtained directly or indirectly on the production. Price Measures Other price measures constitute of voluntary export price restraints, government procurement procedures, where a price preference is attributed for domestic products. As such, the computation of the price preference is made to determine the outcome of public tenders for the supply of products to government agencies. Additionally, other measures under this category raise the cost of imports including deposit requirement (without interest payments), special regulations on foreign exchange and use of credit for imports… Monitoring Measures, including price and volume investigations These measures include automatic licensing and imports surveillance, typically applied to track imports levels preventing import surges. Moreover, there are price surveillance and investigations, anti-dumping and countervailing investigations. Yet, these are viewed as having a ‘harassing’ of ‘chilling’ effect on imports. Following this line of thought it was argued by Messerlin (1988) that antidumping investigations themselves may cause a reduction in imports. Production and Exports Measures Here, measures are taken in assisting or controlling production or exports. As such the principal measures include production and export subsidies and export prohibitions and taxes. Hence, subsides may apply to support domestic production, particularly, in the agricultural sector or be used as a tool of the industrial policy in developing or developed countries. These bounties may be used for services such as, transport, finance needed for the marketing or production. Furthermore, export may be banned for reasons of products are deemed harmful or amount to a security risk. Also, export prohibitions and taxes are mainly applied to conserve natural resources like rare tropical timbers. Technical Barriers These barriers fall under the Standard and Certification Category and are applied at the frontier, including technical regulations and standards to be met by imported products to guarantee that these products conform to the same standards as required by the law for products manufactured in the domestic country. Hence, they constitute of health, sanitary, phytosanitary and safety regulations, marking and packaging requirements, mandatory labeling product standards, production standards and the like. These technical barriers either increase the price of imports or prohibit non-complying imports. On the other hand, Certification consists of Quarantine, General Certification, testing, inspection and among others. Moreover, in addition to the above NTMs category, there is also the Domestic Governance, other form of NTMs which include: Government Assistance, examples are, production and export assistance. Public Procurement issues, examples are General Preferences, Tending systems, Contract conditions Investment Restrictions, examples are foreign equity restrictions, performance requirements/incentives, Trade balancing Distribution Restriction, examples are whole restrictions, retail restrictions Transportation Restriction, examples are restrictive airport regulations, restrictive seaport regulations Intellectual property rights protection, examples are Copyright, Patent and Trademark Law enforcement issues, examples are lack of legal infrastructure, inadequate efforts on trade integrity Negative Impacts of Non-Tariff Measures on Trade Generally, Non-Tariff Measures (NTMs) are applied for legitimate reasons. Yet, the question that can be posed is, do NTMs really met the purpose of the WTO in freeing up international trade or have instead been hampering the flow of trade among countries. As such, the answer to this question is clear that the imposition of most of the NTMs were found to be rather a barrier to trade. Hence, contrary to what was argued in the Doha Round regarding the advantages of adopting trade liberalisation measures that is, NTMs, to enhance trade particularly in developing countries, are now viewed as impediments to trade. Consequently, there are some specific types of NTMs that directly impact on imports of countries, like the para-tariff measures, variables levies, dumping/countervailing duties (investigation and undertakings), import surcharges and deposits, imports surveillance, non-automatic licenses, some price control measures and voluntary export restraints, these NTMs are viewed as having the pronounced restricting impacts on imports. In addition, it was argued by Messerlin (1988) that countervailing investigations may themselves cause a reduction in imports. Also, a survey was carried out to spot and understand the negative impact of NTMs and was found that an initial finding of the ongoing survey indicate that NTMs effects varies from countries, for instance, in Burkina Faso 70% of interviewed companies reported that NTMs strongly affect their daily operations, compared to only 24% in Hong Kong (China). Besides, the survey also put forward from the perspective of an individual company, how NTMs can prove to be barriers to trade, for example, companies may not know about the requirements and the regulations may be so stringent the company cannot abide by them without making significant modification to its production processes or the cost to comply with these measures may be prohibitive, where companies have to test its products in third party country or be forced to show and translate some health certificates which cause delays and expensive compliance processes. Hence, these procedural obstructions include restrictions from administrative burden to time delays to lack of legal protection in home country, export destination and transit countries. Furthermore, it is analysed by Walkenhorst P. that in April 2000 there were around 1708 business complaints about the non-tariff measures in good sectors. As such, ‘Complaints by EU businesses referred to NTMs in 46 different countries, with about 39% of NTM complaints concerning high-income countries and 61% developing countries. More than 40% of all NTMs were encountered by exporters trying to sell into East Asian and Pacific markets, followed by complaints about market access in Eastern Europe and Central Asia (23%) and North America (14%). Machinery, food products, and chemicals are the sectors in which NTM-complaints are most prevalent. However, the absolute number of complaints is an imperfect measure of importance of NTMs across sectors, as the latter vary in economic size. If the number of complaints is related to sectoral export value, the agriculture and food sectors turn out to be the ones with the largest number of NTM-complaints in relative terms, followed by mining and textile. In other words, exporters of natural resource related products seem relatively frequently confronted with NTMs.’ As such, in China, it was found that application of some NTMs have not proved fruitful to the country. Following this line of thought, it was advanced by Kirsten et al (1996) that, ‘for many foreign companies, the biggest barrier to the China market is not high tariffs as much as NTMs, including licensing requirements, import quotas, and certification requirements. Some 300 NTMs remain, thwarting foreign exporters, though 176 NTMs were phased out on December 31, 1995. Both import licenses and quotas were lifted on engine-equipped motor vehicle chassis, for example. Licensing requirements were removed on vehicle bodies, air conditioners, and copy machines, while import quotas were abolished on certain integrated circuits, alcoholic beverages, chemical products, antibiotics, and photographic films. Extrudation machines and mineral casting devices, too, saw their import controls lifted.’ Furthermore, another constraint of NTMs affecting imports are that most of the time, the import requirements set differ among countries, hence, causing further obstructions for both importers and exporters to deal at international level. Following this line of thought, it can be argued that the differences in import requirements between importing countries affect the competitiveness of exporters, where the latter must have the capacity of complying with the regulations and standards at global level. Yet, differing standards and regulations are very often costly. Hence, below is an illustration of how differing NTMs may hamper trade. Morocco Consequently, NTMs adopted in the Moroccan agricultural exports to EU are shipping sanitary measures, including the control of diseases, agrochemicals and other preservatives. Yet, it is generally argued that most problems are faced by Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) measures which set the Maximum Residual Levels (MRL) of these preservatives to be used while exporting. However, the difficulties of the impediment become apparent when acknowledging that MRL differs among countries and changes from year to year. Additionally, exporters have to provide evidence that the products are according to the MRL specifications. Thus, MRL data should be obtained from certified laboratories, which is expensive. Also, products have to be equally up to the quality standards beyond the countries’ public standards related to shape, colour, surface characteristics and product texture like the firmness and freshness. On the other hand, certain NTMs are found to be rather broad in nature like Certification, Standards testing, thus, too wide NTMs restrict imports since usually imported products are found to be not in accordance with the level of class established by the countries. Therefore, the question that surfaces is what repercussion the new certification requirements would have on the small-scale producer-exporters in developing countries? As a consequence, either, they abandon the market or adapt to these regulations, which may lead to a rise in price of the products thereby being less competent to trade. Hence abiding by these stringent rules becomes a complex situation for importers as well as exporters. As such, below is an example of how broad NTMs affect Tunisia. Tunisia Here, the main obstacles faced by the Tunisian exporters are the cost and complexity of abiding by the certification and traceability requirements of private and public institutions. As such, the producers are refusing to change their production system to comply with these measures which are in turn increasing prices since the number of producers providing raw materials to exporters are reducing. Also, there is a short of qualified laboratories to analyse SPS requirements, thus, exporters are unable to guarantees their deliveries to European market. Consequently, the negative effects of these NTMs are increasing prices of direct and indirect costs in production and exports from Tunisia and worse, small firms are disappearing to the advantage of bigger companies. Nevertheless, NTMs are often criticised as a ways of national protection to elude trade liberalisation resulting from decline of tariffs… NTMs may be justified under the provisions or the exceptions provided under the various multilateral agreements governing international trade. On the other hand, certain NTMs are not justified under any of these legal provisions are usually termed as non tariff barriers (NTBs). Unjustified NTMs can deform the prices and quantities of goods and services traded at international level. For all exporters and importers, predominantly in developing and least developing countries, such conditions have disproportionably high adverse outcomes on their ability to supply markets; it impacts on their competitiveness and on their ability to actually enter markets. Moreover, regulations and standards are normally established in the rulings of domestic agri-food production. As such, they have a significant impact on import conditions of these goods. Generally, they address issues on information problems and externalities linked with the societal concerns. Yet, in determining the agri-food trade system, standards and regulations may cause conflicts between importing and exporting countries, as import regulations always impact on exporters’ possibilities to engage in trade. Furthermore, the use of some NTMs are found to be rather hindering flow of trade due to being too strict, wide allowing countries to set quality level of imports to the highest possible standards, thus, these issues prohibits importations of a number of products, hence, causing significant impacts on trade. As such, below is an example showing how NTMs applied in India are considerably hampering the flow of agricultural imports. India It has been argued that the application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) measures have substantive and implementation deficiencies arising from different factors such as, the lack of transparency process for issuing SPS measures, low level of expertise on part of Indian government bureaucracy issuing standards, which may lead to inadvertent consequences like overly broad restrictions or blurred benchmarks and unequal enforcement of SPS standards on domestic and foreign sources. For instance, SPS measures turn to be visibly less restrictive when Indian government determines that market shortages need imports. Due to these drawbacks, the Indian SPS measures create complexity for US exporters in forming consistent and extensive business relationships with Indian customers. In addition, the level of phytosanitary measures that India enforces on agricultural imports is found to be beyond the generally accepted international standards for those goods. Also, the Indian government does not offer a scientifically based and widely accepted justification for the heightened level established. For example, India has set a strict tolerance limit for the presence of weed seed in wheat shipments. However, the US producers have been unsuccessful in abiding by this rule since economically they cannot reach this limit; thus, they failed to prove to the Indian government that wheat imports meeting the US tolerance limits would cause no harm to Indian agriculture. Also, adoption of the State Trading NTMs in India can be argued to be discriminatory vis-à-vis the private Indian importers. Hence, trade is distorted when Indian government enhances the preeminent function of State Trading Enterprises (STEs) in agricultural trade, in addition with their ability to advance government objectives, by granting STEs preferential treatment in the tariff rates applicable to their imports in comparison to private sector Indian importer. For example, there can be fifty percent tariff on private sector wheat imports versus zero percent duty on STE wheat imports. Ultimately, it can be deduced that NTMs which are too broad in nature, stringent and discriminatory may critically obstruct both the imports and exports of product at international level. Positive Impacts of Non-Tariff Measures on Trade Conversely, since tariff measures are constantly being cut such as, customs under multilateral and regional agreements, there is now an increasing role of Non-tariff measures. NTMs do not only negatively impact on trade, but some NTMs are also viewed as being crucial and beneficial to trading. Also, the majority of NTMs aim to protect health (human, plants and animals) and in addition some NTMs may promote and establish trust among trading partners. Accordingly, NTMs like Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) measures, though, contain some drawbacks as discussed above, but are still very important in promoting sound trading internationally, where defected, low quality products are banned, hence resulting in the enhancement of consumers’ safety. Theses NTMs ensure that the imported goods meet the domestic requirements and enable countries to protect themselves from the imports of noxious and contaminated products. Furthermore, the Sanitary and Phytosanitary measures allow countries to enforce trade restrictions for health and safety reasons based on scientific risk assessments. As such, following the use of antibiotics in shrimps, countries impose sturdy controls on shrimp’s imports. Hence two methods were applied, whereby some countries such as the EU countries impose stringent equivalence-based imports system where only countries that have set the uniformity of their food safety procedures with European ones can export to the EU. On the other hand, only certified producers who showed the equality of their safety standards and controls with European ones were given the right to export to EU market. Other countries like Japan or Canada adopt a risk analysis method to ensure the food safety of their seafood imports. Moreover, NTMs like Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) protections are regarded as playing an integral part in the international trade. In this empirical world, use of patents, trademarks and copyrights, geographical indications, industrial designs are of utmost importance in further enhancing trade. Also, its effective use of knowledge contributes greatly in making the national economic prosper. Consequently, most of NTMs are viewed as impeding trade, yet, country having an adequate and effective Intellectual Property Protection, are instead regarded as a plus to trade at international level. As such, Intellectual Property is on priority list of the Indonesian government, since Indonesia form part among the countries with the weakest IP protection, the government wants to persuade the US, their biggest trading partner that Indonesia has a strong IP protection. The main reason behind enforcing powerful protection on intellectual property by Indonesian government is to avoid tariffs trade that could obstruct its economic growth and to curtail foreign investment. Thus, what can be deduced is that in order to be competitive to trade globally, countries must make provisions for strong IP protection. Hence, it can be argued not all NTMs have adverse effect on trade but there are some like IP protections that rather underpin international trade and also motivate firms to be more involved in research and development projects, since they are secured and receive strong protections. Also, NTMs can also be argued to be a way of avoiding terrorism acts within countries, for instance, NTMs like import prohibitions or other measures controlling the volume of imports may ban imports of arms, munitions except to army forces. As such, these NTMs play a major role in promoting the security of the countries and its citizens. Eventually, it can be argued that not all NTMs in all sector hamper trade, instead there are some NTMs that have high contribution in further enhancing the integrity and smoothing trades at global level. Ways to diminish the negative impact of Non-Tariff Measures on trade Since, certain NTMs are seriously causing obstruction to trade, one of the solution to evade these impediments are to decrease the number of NTMs acting as barriers to trade. Thus, by removing NTMs most likely to hinder trade, transacting globally will be further boosted and improved. Hence, according to an economic analysis carried out over the NTMs in EU-US Trade and Investment, it has examined the extent to which NTMs can realistically be reduced (“actionability” of NTMs) on the basis of survey results, views from industry associations and expert opinions. The main conclusion is that there are substantial economic benefits to be reaped from reducing the trade costs of transatlantic regulatory divergences. The headline figures are as follows: For the EU, removing all actionable NTMs would translate into an increase in GDP (€122 billion per year) and exports ( 2.1%). Sector-wise EU benefits would come mainly from gains in motor vehicles, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, food and electrical machinery. ï€ For the US, benefits from removing actionable NTMs are estimated at €41 billion per year for GDP and 6.1% for exports. US benefits would mainly accrue to the electrical machinery, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, financial services and insurance sectors. Moreover, NTMs that are regarded as being too broad like Certification or Standards testing must have a specific acceptable level of quality established globally where all countries have to abide, in this way; countries will be refrained from setting a level that is above the quality set for international trade and thus be prevented from prohibiting imports of products. Conclusion In guise of conclusion, it can be argued that non-tariff measures have both positive and negative impact on international trade, where NTMs can be used as tools for consumer protection and regulation of domestic markets but on the other hand, viewed as obstacles to trade. Consequently, the challenge is to apply these measures without imposing barrier to trade, that is, NTMs is crucial for trading as long as trade is not hampered by these measures. Hence, it is clear that more work still need to be done to limit the consequences of NTMs on trade…
University of South Florida Rebel Without a Cause Cultural Factors Essay.

This paper will focus on cultural/political/social reflection and influence films and actors have had. Students choose one of the following actors and their films listed, watch the film, do some brief research and write about the cultural/political/social impact the star and film had relevant to the film’s era. Why was the actor in this film important? What barriers did both the actor in this film break? Again, this is not entirely a research paper. It is important to see your own reaction to the performance and how you see the effect of the actor/film in regard to cultural/political or social influence. As with Response 1, it’s integral to see the actor in this film through your eyes! Minimum word requirement is 600 to 750 words but feel free to expand if needed. Cite all sources if you use research! James Edwards: The Steel Helmet (1951)Ava Gardner: Showboat (1951), The Night of the Iguana (1964)Vivien Leigh: A Streetcar Named Desire (1951)Marlon Brando: A Streetcar Named Desire (1951), On the Waterfront (1954)Ethel Waters A Member of the Wedding (1952)Donna Reed, Burt Lancaster: From Here to Eternity (1953)Audrey Hepburn: Roman Holiday (1953), Sabrina (1954)Montgomery Clift: From Here to Eternity (1953), The Misfits (1961)James Stewart: Rear Window (1954), Vertigo (1958), Anatomy of a Murder (1959)Dorothy Dandridge Carmen Jones (1954)Pearl Bailey: Carmen Jones (1954), Porgy and Bess (1959)Judy Garland: A Star is Born (1954)Grace Kelly: Rear Window (1954), Dial M for Murder (1955)Ernest Borgnine: Marty (1955)James Dean: Rebel Without a Cause (1955), East of Eden (1955), Giant (1956)Robert Mitchum: The Night of the Hunter (1955)Yul Brenner, Deborah Kerr: The King and I (1956)Rita Moreno: The King and I (1956), West Side Story (1961)Dorothy Malone, Robert Stack: Written on the Wind (1956)Henry Fonda/Lee J. Cobb: 12 Angry Men (1957)Rock Hudson: Giant (1956), Pillow Talk (1959), Seconds (1966)Paul Newman: Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (1958)Elizabeth Taylor: Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (1958), Suddenly Last Summer (1959), Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (1966)Juanita Moore: Imitation of Life (1959)Doris Day: Pillow Talk (1959)Kim Novak: Vertigo (1958)George C. Scott: Anatomy of a Murder (1959), Dr. Strangelove (1964), Patton (1970)Lee Remick: Anatomy of a Murder (1959)Tony Curtis, Marilyn Monroe: Some Like It Hot (1959)Jack Lemmon: Some Like It Hot (1959)Anthony Perkins, Janet Leigh: Psycho (1960)Burt Lancaster, Shirley Jones: Elmer Gantry (1960)Ruby Dee: A Raisin in the Sun (1961)Sidney Poitier: A Raisin in the Sun (1961), In the Heat of the Night (1967) Guess Who’s Coming To Dinner (1967)Sophia Loren: Two Women (1961)Natalie Wood, George Chakiris: West Side Story (1961)Audrey Hepburn: Roman Holiday (1953), Sabrina (1955)Shelley Winters: Lolita (1962)Angela Lansbury: The Manchurian Candidate (1962),Shelley Winters: Lolita (1962)Peter Sellers: Lolita (1962) Dr. Strangelove (1964)Richard Burton: The Night of the Iguana (1964), Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (1966)Rod Steiger: The Pawnbroker (1965), In the Heat of the Night (1967)Brock Peters: The Pawnbroker (1965)Michael Caine: Alfie (1966)Robert Blake: In Cold Blood (1967)Spencer Tracy/Katharine Hepburn: Guess Who’s Coming To Dinner (1967)Warren Beatty: Bonnie and Clyde (1967)Faye Dunaway: Bonnie and Clyde (1967), Chinatown (1967)Dustin Hoffman: The Graduate (1967), Midnight Cowboy (1969) Little Big Man (1970), Straw Dogs (1971), All the President’s Men (1976), Marathon Man (1976)Anne Bancroft: The Graduate (1967)Paul Newman: Cool Hand Luke (1967), Butch Cassidy and The Sundance Kid (1969)Barbra Streisand: Funny Girl (1968), The Way We Were (1973)Mia Farrow, Ruth Gordon: Rosemary’s Baby (1968)Robert Redford: Butch Cassidy and The Sundance Kid (1969), The Way We Were (1973), Three Days of the Condor (1975), All the President’s Men (1976)Paul Newman: Cool Hand Luke (1967), Butch Cassidy and The Sundance Kid (1969)Liza Minelli: The Sterile Cuckoo (1969), Cabaret (1972)Jack Nicholson: Five Easy Pieces (1970), Chinatown (1974), One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest (1975)Maggie Smith: The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie (1969)Jon Voight: Midnight Cowboy (1969), Deliverance (1972)Chief Dan George: Little Big Man (1970)Elliott Gould, Donald Sutherland: M*A*S*H (1970)Ali MacGraw, Ryan O’Neal: Love Story (1970)Malcolm MacDowell: A Clockwork Orange (1971)Jane Fonda: Klute (1971), Fun with Dick and Jane (1977)Clint Eastwood: Dirty Harry (1971), The Outlaw Josey Wales (1976)Topol: Fiddler on the Roof (1971)Cloris Leachman, Jeff Bridges, Timothy Bottoms: The Last Picture Show (1971)Joel Grey: Cabaret (1972)Burt Reynolds: Deliverance (1972), Smokey and the Bandit (1977)Al Pacino: The Godfather (1972), Serpico (1973), Dog Day Afternoon (1975)Cicely Tyson, Paul Winfield: Sounder (1972)Linda Blair: The Exorcist (1973)Ellen Burstyn: The Exorcist (1974), Alice Doesn’t Live Here Anymore (1974)Sissy Spacek: Badlands (1973), Carrie (1976)Martin Sheen: Badlands (1973), Apocalypse Now (1979)Robert Redford: Butch Cassidy and The Sundance Kid (1969), The Way We Were (1973), Three Days of the Condor (1975), All the President’s Men (1976)Louise Fletcher: One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest (1975)Cleavon Little: Blazing Saddles (1974)Gene Hackman: The Conversation (1974)Ellen Burstyn: The Exorcist (1973), Alice Doesn’t Live Here Anymore (1974)Gene Wilder, Richard Pryor: Silver Streak (1976)Chief Dan George: The Outlaw Josey Wales (1976)Gregory Peck, Lee Remick: The Omen (1976)Piper Laurie: Carrie (1976)Robert DeNiro: Taxi Driver (1976), The Deer Hunter (1978)George Segal: Fun with Dick and Jane (1977)John Travolta: Saturday Night Fever (1977)Jill Clayburgh: An Unmarried Woman (1978)Christopher Walken: The Deer Hunter (1978)Robert Duvall: Apocalypse Now (1979)Meryl Streep, Justin Henry: Kramer vs Kramer (1979)Sigourney Weaver: Alien (1979)Sally Field: Norma Rae (1979)
University of South Florida Rebel Without a Cause Cultural Factors Essay

New England College Asymmetric Encryption Paper.

Select one type of cryptography or encryption and explain it in detail. Include the benefits as well as the limitations of this type of encryption. Your summary should be 3 paragraphs in length and uploaded as a TEXT DOCUMENT.What is most important is that you use YOUR OWN WORDS to summarize the news article. It is essential that you do not copy text directly from the Internet. Plagiarism is unacceptable. You can easily avoid this by rephrasing the contents and summarizing it using your own words.Be sure to include your reference citation.
New England College Asymmetric Encryption Paper

Complete a Process Analysis Essay and Discuss the Process and Why

Complete a Process Analysis Essay and Discuss the Process and Why. I’m working on a Writing question and need guidance to help me study.

This work contains two parts. Here are the first one, essay work:
Process Analysis
The following assignment has been excerpted from The Compact Reader: Short Essays by Method and Theme, 6th ed. Ed. Jane E. Aaron. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 1999.
(Read to the end for details!)
What is process analysis?
Process analysis explains how to do something (play a computer game, change a tire), how to make something (a butterfly sanctuary), or how something happens (how the modern firehouse has evolved). Specifically, it explains a sequence of actions with a specified result (the process) by dividing it into its component steps (the analysis). Basically, it answers the question how something happens.
What is the purpose of process analysis?
The main purpose of process analysis is to explain; however, it might also prove something about the process itself (perhaps its ease or difficulty) or evaluate it (perhaps its close parallel to guidelines issued by an authoritative agency).
What varieties of process analysis are available?
Processes might include mechanical (a car engine), natural (cell division), psychological (acquisition of sex roles), or political (the electoral process).
What are the two main types of process analysis?
The two main types are directive or explanatory.
A directive process tells how to door make something: make enchiladas, repair a wagon wheel, negotiate an argument, write an essay. It should outline the individual steps completely so that anyone can duplicate them and achieve the specified result. It permits the use of second-person you, concentrating on words that tell the reader what to do, or the use of imperative (commanding) mood of verbs (“Add an egg and stir vigorously”).
An explanatory process provides the information necessary for readers to understand the process, but more to satisfy their curiosity than to teach them how to do something. Third-person he, she, it, and they is more common with this type process than is second-person.
How is a process analysis usually organized?
All process analyses usually follow a chronological sequence, especially a directive analysis, in which order is important to the desired outcome. For both types of process analysis, however, it is often useful to create phases or stages, which, in turn, can be divided into steps. Both phases/stages and steps should be presented in proper sequence.
The phases or stages for changing a tire may include jacking up the car, removing the flat, putting on the spare, and lowering the car. The steps for just one of those stages—jacking up the car—may be setting the emergency brake, blocking the other wheels, loosening the bolts, positioning the jack, and raising the car.
To ensure that the reader can duplicate the process or understand how it unfolds requires fully detailing each step and specifying the reasons for it. Indeed, the process must make clear to the reader the sequence of steps, their duration, and where they occur. Occasionally, the chronology contains interruptions or modifications to suit it to your subject. For instance, it may require background information, definitions of specialized terms, explanations of how one step relates to a preceding or following step, examples, or explanations of steps that are performed simultaneously.
What kind of thesis is required for a process analysis?
A process analysis thesis should contain two elements: (1) the main point of the analysis and, if possible, (2) the organizational format for exploring the main idea—in this case, process analysis. If possible, it also previews the stages in the process.
Example:
Building a table is a simple, three-stage process of cutting, assembling, and finishing.
In this example, the main point of the process is reflected in the word simple, which suggests the ease of the process. The words cutting, assembling,and assembling obviously suggest the stages. To increase interest and variety, the thesis might also convey other details:

A reason for the process: Changing a tire does not require a mechanic’s skill: on the contrary, a ten-year-old child can do it. (emphasizes its ease)
A more general principle: The process of getting a bill through Congress illustrates majority rule at work. (emphasizes its relation to an important political principle)
An assertion that the process is inefficient or unfair: The overly complicated registration procedure forces students to waste time standing in long lines.

Your Assignment:
Think of a process that falls within your domain of expertise and interest. What do you know how to do that you could explain to someone else? Whatever it is that you claim as your own area of expertise, break down the actions and details that would allow you to show someone else exactly how to do it. Then, write a 750-900 word essay sharing (and analyzing) that process.
The next work is discuss: Which process are you exploring in your second essay? Why did you select it, and what do you hope your readers will learn from you?
Here are all the requirements. Please upload two documents for each of these works. This work must be the original work!
This work is very important to me, so high quality must be ensured. Looking forward to your excellent work!

Complete a Process Analysis Essay and Discuss the Process and Why

User Interface: Complexity, Types and Performance

assignment writer User interface complexity A user interface is the means in which a person controls a software application. A user interface should provide the user with an easy experience, allowing them to interact with the software in a stress-free and natural way. The GUI (graphical user interface) is a program that contains graphical controls which the user can select with a keyboard or mouse. “The GUI complexity is the most important value to consider when selecting a technology for user interface classes. (Rayhan, 2003)”. To decide on the complexity of the user interface it is important to consider all possible user interfaces for the ePS system. We should also reflect on a variety of categories which include simple data input, static view of the data, customisable views, dynamic view of the data and interactive graphs. The simple data input allows the user to enter data into the system. The static view of data can be either a table, tree or graph that is not affected by the changes in the system data. “The customisable view allows the user to customise the appearance of static data without making a new request to the server. The dynamic view of data is automatically refreshed to stay current while the underlying system data changes. The interactive graphs are similar to dynamic views. The graphical view is automatically updated as the underlying system data changes (Rayhan, 2003).” Below is a list of user interfaces for the ePS system: Login user interface: The login user interface allows the user to enter their username and password to gain access to the system. Create E-Prescription user interface: The Create E-Prescription user interface allows the general practitioner user to create an E-Prescription for a patient, view their personal details and view their medical history. Dispense medicine user interface: The dispense medicine user interface allows the pharmacist user to view the patients E-Prescription, check if the medication is in stock and dispense the medicine. Manage ADR report user interface: The manage ADR report user interface will load a ADR report form on a web page for the user to enter in their adverse drug reaction to a particular medicine. Deployment constraints for user interfaces The deployment constraints are as imperative as the complexity of the user interface. When considering deployment constraints it is essential to have categories in which to compare. The following deployment constraints can occur within our ePS system: Any web browser on the internet: This deployment constraint must allow the user interface to perform on any web browser on any computer. The web browser Opera does not support Java which means that all images and much less dynamic HTML, so the user interface would be presented in text form only. Late-Model web browser on the internet: If each web browser is no more than a few generations old then we will also know that the computer is also no more than a few generations old. Number and types of users The number and type of users influence the technology selection in two ways. One influence being that a large number of users can force the technology for the entity, control and lifecycle classes to balance well. A large number of users can also encourage the selection of user interface technology. A larger audience makes straightforwardness of deployment and maintenance costs major factors. Small number of dedicated users: These are a small group of users who can help to outline the system and who profits from the system. Since these groups are willing to invest their own time to learn the system, functionality is the main priority. General use within an organisation: In regards to the system, this group of users are generally much larger, but they can be less motivated. These types of systems tend to support the organisation rather than contributing to the business. For example time tracking and benefits management. Large audience with high interest: The ePS system must have a large audience that are extremely involved. These users may be unconnected from one another. The users may log on to the system to exchange information e.g. the E-Prescriptions or to collaborate information about the patients and the medicine. Huge audience with low interest: In terms of the ePS system, it must attract and serve indecisive audience. If the ePS system runs slowly and wastes the audiences time it will cause the audience to be disengaged. Available bandwidth The bandwidth available is also another crucial factor when selecting technologies. Certain groups of technologies can allow developers to meet low bandwidth restrictions. However, other technologies make bandwidth constraints worse. The categories for bandwidth restrictions are as follows: Dial-Up connection: The dial-up connection is now the least common type of connection to the internet. However, Dial-Up connection is suitable for systems that let users view text, images and to enter data. This would be suitable for the ePS system when the user logs in and loads the ADR report form. The ADR report will load up on a web page. Fast internet connection: Fast internet connections consist of digital transmissions over phone lines, cables and satellite transmissions. This is mainly to enable a quicker internet connection. Dedicated network between client and server: This type of connection will allow the client and serves to exchange data at considerably high speeds. Types of System interface The technology for a system interface is determined by a current outer system. If an external system is not available, you must describe the system interface and then select an applicable private technology. System interfaces are divided into the following three categories: Data transfer: Many system interfaces exist merely to transfer large lumps of information from system to system. These interfaces are referred to as electronic data interchange. Services through a protocol: This system interface will allow a system to make requests through an agreed protocol. The server will allow a system to validate itself and request data by sending predefined codes. Direct access to system services: This system interface will allow a client system to directly call selected methods in the server. The server exposes these certain methods for remote access. Performance and Scalability The performance and scalability requirements are becoming one of the most important features in the selection of technology. Performance must be balanced against data integrity and any multiuser system and there aren’t many single user systems left. The performance and scalability factors are usually found by inspecting the class diagrams and sequence diagrams from the analysis model. The following are the three main categories that may affect the performance and scalability: Read-only: Certain systems only allow the user to view system data, but do not allow them to update it. Isolated updates: In most systems the user is allowed to change the systems data and the changes do no conflict with one and other. Concurrent updates: In some systems many users change the systems data, but with some changes affecting the same data. The following sections below describe the performance and scalability factors for each use case in the ePS system: Create E-Prescription use case: In the Create E-Prescription use case the system retrieves and displays the patient’s record. After the user enters the diagnosis and the system must update the current data with the new data. This use case is described as “Isolated updates” or “Concurrent updates”. Dispense medicine use case: In the dispense medicine use case the system retrieves and displays the patients E-Prescription. After the user checks the stock levels and dispenses the medicine the system must update the status to “Complete”. This use case is either described as “Isolated updates” or “Concurrent updates”. Record ADR use case: In the record ADR use case the system retrieves and displays the ADR entity objects. After the user updates the entities the system must update the data with the new data. This use case is either described as “Isolated updates” or “Concurrent updates”. Login use case: In the login use case the system locates the user entity object that corresponds to the actual user. Once the object is located, the system must determine whether the username and password is valid. The means the systems needs to read the username and password from some sort of persistent store. No data will be updated therefore the “Read-only” description is appropriate.

Survey of Western Civilization I

Survey of Western Civilization I. I need help with a Geography question. All explanations and answers will be used to help me learn.

This discussion focuses on the Code of Hammurabi. Read the two excerpts in the Pearson text at the end of the chapter. The Code maintains that provides justice for the land. Assume the role of a woman, a slave, a freeborn person, a builder, or a noble. From the point of view of your chosen role, what rights do you have under the code? Are you treated the same way under the law for the same crime as those of any other class or sex? If so, how is this the case? If not, explain with clear examples. Based on what you see for this role, is the Code in fact just? Does it provide justice for the land?
What do your reflections suggest that justice is? How would it be defined in Hammurabi’s time? Is this the same notion of justice we have today? Why or why not? Then post two replies to two other roles by Friday.
Survey of Western Civilization I

Help with law question

Help with law question.

Which of the following is required to have a valid agency?

a)     
The agent’s consent to act

b)     
The principal’s agreement to compensate the agent

c)     
A contract

d)     
None of theseThe U.S. Constitution protects private sector employees through provisions for equal protection and due process  true or false
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