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Mental Health Concerns for First Responders

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Abstract The importance of helping professions has been recognised world-wide for its valuable contribution in promoting the physical and emotional welfare of the population. During crisis situations, a variety of professions are called upon to be first responders at a scene. The term first responders (FR) refers to professionals such as rescue workers, firefighters, emergency medical technicians (EMTs), police and paramedics (Benedek et al., 2007). Unlike other health professionals, first responders are likely to be first on scene following traumatic events such as car crashes, violent attacks and natural disasters etc. Due to the nature of this role, paramedics and other first-responder professions are likely to experience significant job-related stressors and traumatic exposures which may increase risk for mental health morbidities. Within the first responder professions, paramedics have been found to display higher rates of early retirement on the grounds of mental and physical health compared to other health care staff (Rodgers, 1998). Paramedics are also likely to have a significantly shorter career tenure compared to other health staff, averaging at 2 -4 years (reference).Retirement and tenure data suggest that paramedics are especially susceptible to mental health concerns and shorter career lifespans, highlighting an increased need for support, awareness and interventions within this profession. A range of studies have also found that paramedics are at increased risk for mental health concerns due to high pressure job scenarios, witnessing critical incidents and difficulties with circadian rhythms due to shift work. This has been hypothesized to increase the risk of developing a trauma related disorders (Post traumatic Stress Disorder), mood disorders (Anxiety and Depression), substance use disorders and disrupted circadian cycles. The relevant studies and articles pertaining to each of the aforementioned symptoms will be described below. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Due to frequent and recurrent vicarious trauma exposure, a range of studies have highlighted the increased risk that paramedics and other FR’s have in witnessing traumatic events and becoming personally affected by these events (reference). Of particular concern in these professions, is the development of trauma symptoms, as in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) defines PTSD based on exposure to trauma and symptoms related to the trauma such as intrusive symptoms, avoidance, negative alternations in cognition and mood, and heightened arousal and reactivity, with symptoms persisting for longer than a month. Given the criteria definition and the nature of paramedic roles, studies have unsurprisingly found that emergency personnel have a higher occupational risk of developing PTSD due to ongoing exposure to life-threatening situations, death and crisis (reference). A wide range of research has been conducted on the prevalence rate of PTSD across a number of countries, with PTSD prevalence ranging from 4-30% in paramedic populations across the globe. Lowest PTSD prevalence rates were found by Michael and Streb (2016) which investigated the prevalence of PTSD symptoms and threat type in a sample of 1363 paramedics in Switzerland. Results found that 4.34% met the criteria for clinical PTSD diagnosis, whilst 9.58% met the criteria for a partial diagnosis, furthermore 23-29 % of participants reported suffering from intrusion, avoidance or heightened arousal symptoms. Similar prevalence rates have been found by Berger et al. (2007) which found that 5.6% of ambulance workers in Brazil met the criteria for a full PTSD diagnosis, whilst a higher 20% met the criteria for a partial diagnosis. Higher prevalence findings in partial diagnosis may reflect a lack on consensus on what constitutes a partial diagnosis, as this guideline is not specifically discussed in the DSM 5 and is based on subjective researcher opinion. It is also important to note that Switzerland has relatively low PTSD prevalence rate in the general population (1.9%), therefore rates found in paramedic populations indicates a significant heightened rate. Contrastingly, PTSD prevalence in Brazil is relatively unknown, however rates are assumed to be higher due to political conflict, corruption and violence. (reference) found that 90% of Brazilian participants interviewed experienced a life-time traumatic event, however symptom descriptions indicated a higher co-morbidity with anxiety disorders rather that PTSD, even in participants who has experienced 3 or more traumatic events. Findings suggest that cultural differences may influence manifestation and expression of trauma symptoms. Threat type in relation to PTSD symptoms was also examined by Michael and Streb (2016) which found that 33% of paramedics reported experiencing indirect threats, whilst 66% reported experiencing direct threats. Participants which experienced direct threats were also more likely to exhibit higher levels of cognitive distortions and PTSD symptoms. This finding is also consistent with Piotrkowski and Brannen (2002) who found that direct threats significantly increased cognitive, intrusion and avoidance symptoms of PTSD. Higher rates of PTSD prevalence have been found by Bennett (2004) who examined a sample of 617 UK paramedics and found that 22% of participants met the criteria for PTSD, the study also found that 10% and 22% met the criteria for clinical depression and anxiety respectively. Given that the general population rates for PTSD in the UK is 4-5%, findings indicate a significant increased risk for paramedics. High rates of PTSD symptoms were also found in 110 Scottish ambulance workers (Alexander
ENG 124 Grossmont College Machiavelli the Qualities of The Prince Essay.

Answer the questions based on the uploaded pdf. the last one (journal response) should be 1 and a half page.Pre-reading QuestionsWhy does Machiavelli praise skill in warfare in his opening pages? How does that skill aid a prince?Is it better for a prince to be loved or to be feared?Questions for Critical ReadingThe usual criticism of Machiavelli is that he advises his prince to be unscrupulous. Find examples for and against this claim.Why do you agree or disagree with Machiavelli when he asserts that the great majority of people that are not good? Does our government assume that to be true too?Politicians-especially heads of state. Are the contemporary counter-parts of the prince? To what extent should successful heads of modern states show kill in war? Is modern war similar to wars in Machiavelli’s era? If so, in what ways?Clarify the advice Machiavelli gives concerning liberality and stinginess. Is this still good advice?Are modern politicians likely to succeed by following all or most of Machiavelli’s recommendations? Why or why not?Calendar Questions:1.Define the terms ends and means, and explain why they are important.2.Compare Machiavelli’s advice with the behavior of a specific politician – past or present.3.Under what political circumstances might the ends justify the means?Journal Response: this response should be 1 and a half page longThis will be your thoughtful first-person response to the text. Do not write a book report that regurgitates what the piece says. What did you glean/learn from the piece? What is your interpretation and analysis? How is it applicable to today’s times? Can you find any correlations between this piece and other pieces you’ve read of viewed in our class thus far?
ENG 124 Grossmont College Machiavelli the Qualities of The Prince Essay

IT 242 SEU Financial Organization Evolutionary Software Development Worksheet.

You must submit two separate copies (one Word file and one PDF file) using the Assignment Template on Blackboard via the allocated folder. These files must not be in compressed format.It is your responsibility to check and make sure that you have uploaded both the correct files.Zero mark will be given if you try to bypass the SafeAssign (e.g. misspell words, remove spaces between words, hide characters, use different character sets or languages other than English or any kind of manipulation).Email submission will not be accepted.You are advised to make your work clear and well-presented. This includes filling your information on the cover page.You must use this template, failing which will result in zero mark.You MUST show all your work, and text must not be converted into an image, unless specified otherwise by the question.Late submission will result in ZERO mark.The work should be your own, copying from students or other resources will result in ZERO mark.Use Times New Roman font for all your answers.
IT 242 SEU Financial Organization Evolutionary Software Development Worksheet

NYU Middle Eastern British Policy and The Palestine Mandate Discussion

NYU Middle Eastern British Policy and The Palestine Mandate Discussion.

I’m working on a middle eastern studies project and need support to help me study.

Please respond to THREE of the following four responses with an essay of 300-450 words per response—no more, no less. Your essay will show an understanding of the material and demonstrate your ability to contextualize. Your essays MUST make specific citations to any of the assigned textbooks for the course, as well as class lectures and/or discussions. An excellent essay will develop a clear line of argument and/or narrative using concrete examples from our course material.*Please be sure to answer the question as it was asked*Please submit your essay via email to both of us, in .doc or .docx formatThe prompts are as follows:1: In what ways did British policy contribute to growing instability in the Palestine mandate during the interwar period? Your answer should consider wartime promises, immigration policies, and socio/political factors on the ground. It should also identify and characterize at least two concrete examples of events that illustrate your points.2: Describe the emergence of modern Turkey from the Ottoman Empire. Your answer should explain the role of nationalism and its tragic consequences on minority populations, describe/characterize and key individuals, and discuss some of the key steps taken after the establishment of the republic3: Explain the circumstances that enabled the rise of Gamal Abd al-Nasir in Egyptian politics, describe and characterize the nature of his rule in Egypt, his evolving position within the region, and the characteristics of “Nasserism”4: What are the origins of contemporary Islamic extremist fundamentalism, which have been described as Salafist Jihadism?Describe the origins of these schools in 19th century Egyptian reform, and in the 18th century Arabian peninsula. In both cases, follow the developments up into the 20th century in each cultural area, and then show them meeting in Saudi Arabia in the mid-to late 20th century. Then, describe several mutations and reconfigurations of these Salafist Jihadist groups, and their impacts up to the present.
NYU Middle Eastern British Policy and The Palestine Mandate Discussion


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Gender Issues in Art History and Production

Gender Issues in Art History and Production. Describe How Issues of Gender Are Important to the Production of Art and the Writing of Art History Feminism has given new and important insights into the production of art and the study of art history. It has not only helped us to discover the work of neglected women artists but has also given us a new approach to the study of art as a whole. Feminists built upon the earlier insights of Marxism. Traditional art history holds that works of art are the creations of individual genius – that they are forms of self- expression – but Marx argued that art is a product satisfying a demand, supporting the ideology of the ruling class. Part of that ideology included the subjection of women, who tended to be depicted in a subordinate role. These are the kind of arguments that Rozsika Parker and Griselda Pollock put forward in their book Old Mistresses: “Art is neither pure nor neutral. It is, as we have shown, an ideological practice, secured within power structures” (Parker 157). Power structures are not just those of sexism, they are also those of racism and class distinction; and thus feminism is closely bound up with the social history of art. With respect to gender distinctions, it seems clear that “femininity” and “masculinity” are to some extent social constructs. They are behaviour traits learned in childhood to satisfy the demands of society. Feminists have shown that the individual artistic “genius” is not a universal phenomenon but rather a feature of western art since the Renaissance. In other parts of the world, and in Medieval Europe, artists were often anonymous craftworkers. In the Middle Ages, both men and women worked at producing beautiful objects for the Church: illuminated manuscripts, carvings, embroideries. There was no distinction between “art” and “craft”, which was a distinction that arose during the Renaissance. The twentieth-century saw a partial end to this rather artificial division between “art” and “craft”. We have not yet seen “the death of painting”, but it is now rivalled in importance by other media. This rise in the status of the crafts has tended to benefit women artists, since women have always been closely involved with craftwork. The development of abstract art in the twentieth-century owes something to women’s knowledge of the abstract patterns on textiles and embroidery. Sonia Delaunay and Sophie Taeuber-Arp, for example, were both fashion designers as well as painters (Chadwick 271). The split between “art” and “craft” which arose during the Renaissance was furthered by the new interest in the biographies of individual artists, as distinct from anonymous craftworkers. Vasari wrote a series of Lives of the Artists. The artist, unlike the craftworker, was expected to know about the rules of perspective and about history and the classics, which provided subjects for paintings. This kind of knowledge was usually denied to women, who had a restricted access to education, and this helps to explain why there were few female artists in the Renaissance – although artists’ daughters sometimes learned to paint, and there are examples of aristocratic lady artists, such as the painter Sofonisba Anguissola and the sculptor Properzia de Rossi. A myth developed that the true artist must be a temperamental “genius”, a rebel, a bohemian – as exemplified in the career of a painter like Caravaggio – and this meant that women’s work was not taken seriously, because a bohemian lifestyle would have been deemed inappropriate for a woman (Parker 99). Thus, because of restricted opportunities and the prejudices of society, it came about that no women were deemed to belong to the ranks of the “great artists”. Not surprisingly, feminists debunk the myth of the “great artist”, although it is also true that feminist art history itself still relies heavily on the biographies of individual women artists and seeks to demonstrate that their work has been undervalued. Germaine Greer makes the important point that overemphasis on “great artists” detracts our attention from the myriad of so-called “minor” talents: “The seven wonders of the world are not the only things worth looking at” (Greer 150). Indeed, artistic taste is something very personal, and the gallery visitor may find that she or he prefers the work of a “minor” painter to that of a far more famous name. “Great artists” are usually seen as innovators – Caravaggio’s use of dramatic light and shadow, for example – while “minor” artists are thought of as their followers. There are many examples of women as innovators: Sofonisba Anguissola helped to develop the new form of the domestic “conversation piece”; Rosalba Carriera popularised the new medium of pastel; Angelica Kauffman helped to introduce the Neo-Classical style to England; Helen Frankenthaler developed a new staining technique for producing abstract paintings. It may be true, however, that – until recently – women’s work has tended to be conservative rather than innovatory, and Germaine Greer provides a possible reason for this: The fact that so many gifted women strangled themselves in archconservatism is not some sort of secondary sexual characteristic working its way out, as if women are with necessity born with corsets on the mind. It comes of the very insecurity that these women felt upon entering into competition with men who seemed to have made all the running so far (Greer 131). There were also barriers to prevent women from competing with men in the first place. For example, women were usually excluded from art academies in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and denied the chance to copy the nude, which was the basis of the most prestigious art form, that of “history painting”. Women’s social lives were also restricted. Griselda Pollock points out that Baudelaire’s “flaneur” who wanders the streets of Paris is a male figure – a woman would not have been able to roam freely in this way (Pollock 70-72). This limited the subjects available for women to paint, and helps to explain why the Impressionist painter Berthe Morisot concentrated on domestic interiors. In order to visit the Paris horse market for her painting The Horse Fair, Rosa Bonheur had to disguise herself as a man (Parker 37). Women’s restricted opportunities meant that they tended to concentrate on “lesser” genres like portraiture and still-life. But the idea that there is a hierarchy in painting is now completely discredited, because there is obviously no link between the subject of a picture and its aesthetic quality. The flower paintings of seventeenth century Holland – many of which are by women – include some of the most beautiful works of art ever made. The academic hierarchy of genres broke down in the later nineteenth century, as Parker and Pollock explain: When avant-garde artists rejected academic theories and hierarchies, they took up the hitherto less prestigious fields of portraiture, landscape and still-life. Women could and did take full part in avant-garde movements based in these, for them, familiar areas of art (Parker 35). Berthe Morisot and Mary Cassatt, for example, were important in the new movement of Impressionism. The subject of gender and the visual arts also includes the ways in which gender roles are depicted. Up until the end of the eighteenth century, the male nude was probably more important than the female nude as a subject for art. One only needs to think of Greek sculpture and Michelangelo. But the female nude was also important, and these female nudes tend to depict women in a humiliating way, as objects of male fantasy. Carol Duncan argues that even the distorted nudes of avant-garde Modernism – such as Picasso’s Les Demoiselles d’Avignon – continue this way of portraying women into the twentieth century (Duncan 47-52). She is certainly correct to point out that it is strange that modern art, which is often said to move way from representation, still contains a surprisingly large number of female nudes. John Berger has demonstrated that the nudes in “old master” paintings often bear a surprising resemblance to the nudes in modern advertising images and porn magazines (Berger 55). Berger points out that the nude is essentially dehumanising because “a naked body has to be seen as an object in order to become a nude” (Berger 54). It seems that Kenneth Clark, a traditionalist of the old school, would agree with Berger to some extent, since Clark writes of Manet’s Olympia that “to place on a naked body a head with so much individual character is to jeopardize the whole premise of the nude” (Clark 225). This rather dehumanising quality of the nude is, however, a quality that Clark admires, because he sees the nude as a vehicle for expressing a sense of ideal form, divorced from life to some degree; whereas Berger and the feminists are interested in showing how art reflects and constructs the attitudes and injustices of society. Paula Modersohn-Becker’s famous nude Self-Portrait of herself was an important and original contribution because of the individuality she gave to her features, subverting the whole tradition of the nude. Feminist artists seek to actively change society, and one of their achievements has been to draw attention to the stereotyped gender roles which appear in art, advertising and the media. Barbara Kruger’s famous print entitled Your Gaze Hits the Side of My Face draws attention to the fact that the male gaze can be a means of expressing dominance or hostility, a form of harassment. Cindy Sherman photographed herself in poses derived from stereotypical advertising and media images of women. Sylvia Sleigh painted a series of pictures showing male nudes in the kind of poses usually given to women, to demonstrate their absurdity. (The above examples from Kruger, Sherman and Sleigh are taken from Chadwick, chapter 13). Yet women’s art is concerned with much more than issues of gender and sexism. It may, indeed, be a mistake to consider women’s art as separate from men’s because it risks placing women’s art in a separate category, a kind of “ghetto” area. Works of art themselves have no gender. In this Postmodern era we should now do more to stress the individual contributions of individual women artists, who are much more than just representatives of their gender. Works Cited Berger, John. Ways of Seeing. London: Penguin, 1972. Chadwick, Whitney. Women, Art and Society. London: ThamesGender Issues in Art History and Production

Nature vs. Nurture

Introduction Intelligence is a very common subject in psychology but as common as it is, there is no complete way of defining intelligence in it’s constitute. Some psychologists have suggested that intelligence is an ability that is general as well as single. Others have come to believe that intelligence is made up of different skills, aptitudes as well as talents. There are many theories that have been in existence as from the early 1900s in their attempt to define intelligence or to look at what really constitutes intelligence. General Intelligence by Charles Spearman Charles Spearman was a British psychologist who lived from 1863 to 1945. He introduced the general intelligence concept or the g factor to the psychology body of knowledge (Currie, 1995). He made use of a technique referred to as factor analysis to examine some mental aptitude tests. His results showed him that the scores he got on the mental aptitude tests were surprisingly so similar. If a person performs well in one cognitive test, he or she also performs well on other tests administered and this was the trend. Those who had bad scores in the cognitive tests also had bad scores on the other tests that were administered. His conclusion after numerous tests and research was that intelligence is general cognitive ability that could be measured and numerically expressed (Moore, 2003) The Primary Abilities by Louis L. Thurstone “Intelligence, considered as a mental trait, is the capacity to make impulses focal at their early, unfinished stage of formation. Intelligence is therefore the capacity for abstraction which is an inhibitory process” (Thurstone, 1924). The psychologist Louis L. Thurstone (1887-1955) came up with a different theory on intelligence whose main focus was the primary mental abilities. This challenged Spearman’s theory then existing theory whose main focus was the g factor. He did not take intelligence to be a single entity whose ability is general but rather decided to focus on seven different “primary mental abilities” (Gazzaniga, 1994). The primary mental abilities on which this theory focused on include: • Reasoning: – When a person can reason something out then the person is said to be intelligent. This is why human beings are referred to as intelligent beings even in biology. In ITC the machines that can do a job that a human being should do in terms of sensing and adjusting to the environment in which it exists is referred to as an intelligent machine. • Associative memory: – Humans tend to remember things by associating the thing to another that they know very well. This is seen as intelligence according to Thurstone’s theory. • Verbal comprehension: – The way a person articulates any language is a very important measure of intelligence. • Numerical ability: – The ability to manipulate numbers also plays a key role in establishing a human being’s intelligence. • Spatial visualization: – This is the ability of the human mind to play around with 2-dimensional as well as 3-dimensional figures. This was measured using simple cognitive tests. • Perpetual speed: – This factor was also identified by Thurstone to contribute to intelligence. There is a lot of debate as to whether perpetual speed contributes to intelligence. Some psychologists have come to disagree with the idea that perpetual speed contributes to intelligence. • Word Fluency: – The ease with which a person has to communicate using words also measures a person’s intelligence. Thurstone is also responsible for the development of a statistical technique referred to as the multiple-factor analysis. He has made major contributions to psychology that has formed a base for other psychologist to add on to the existing knowledge that psychology has so far accumulated. Thurstone’s argument regarding the theory by Spearman was that the g-factor was a mathematical result of the procedures of a mathematical nature used to study it. His tests show that people with different IQ scores had different profiles when it came to the primary abilities. His tests however revealed the g factor when he administered the same tests to a group of heterogeneous children. He finally reorganized his theory to include the g factor as well as the seven primary abilities. This was a very important base for future psychologists who came up with theories. Multiple Intelligences by Howard Gardner Gardner, 1993 asserted that human intelligence needs to entail a comprehensive set of skill both leanrt and acquired that aid him in solving a myriad of problems. Knowledge in indeed the food of the mind that keeps the mind motivated and challenged. Therefore, human intelligence directly depends on what the human mind is exposed to in terms of knowledge. The theory of multiple intelligences is the name of the theory by Gardner (Novartis Foundation, 2001). Further tests indicate that normal children as well as adults are both gifted and intelligent enough thus have reduced chances of brain damage. This is also true for individuals who are virtuosos and experts as well as people from different cultures. He proposed that just because a human being has the ability to tackle tests and also answer numerical questions may not be a full description or measure of intelligence (Stenberg

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