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Media Representations Of Mental Illness Sociology Essay

Media Representations Of Mental Illness Sociology Essay. Mass Media plays an important role in the way society perceive mental illness and the people suffering from it. This essay will examine how mass media in the United Kingdom reports and portrays mental illness and how this representation negatively and positively affects society’s perceptions of people suffering with mental illness. There are various definitions of mental illness. Judge Lawton (1974 ) describes mental illness as a word without proper definition linked to legal significance. Rogers and Pilgrim (2005) outlined that there is no proper definition brought by the legal framework of psychiatry. This frame emphasise mental disorder as linked to various criminal acts. The meaning of mental illness has become a controversial debate, with some sociologists arguing that it is about illness rather than being social deviance. In British law the notion of mental illness has come from the notion of mental disorders. The British Law does not give a clear definition regarding mental illness. It defines mental illness as a mental disorder as” an impairment of or disturbance in the functioning of the mind or brain resulting from any disability or disorder of the mind or brain” (Department of Health, 2004, p3, 5 cited in Rogers and Pilgrim2005, p8). Baker and Menken, (2001) cited in Rogers and Pilgrim (2005) argue that reject the notion of regarding brain disorders as being a mental illness as misleading people to acquire knowledge about some brain disorders which are not physical ailment. Mass media refers to a range of media which convey information to the general population including radio, television, newspapers and all forms of publications in global age. Giddens (2006) distinguishes variety forms of mass media such as the press, cinema. In the report by Harris (2004), Anderson (2003), a British sociologist, claims that there has been an increase in mass media interest on issues relating to community care for the past decade and that there has been a growth of mass media interest on the institutionalisation of people with mental illness. He argues that newspapers have a great influence when reporting violent incidents of people with mental illness. Philo et al (1994) emphasizes that media has an impact on the public view of mental illness as people beliefs are based on their past experiences and judgements. Mass media has significant role to play in the stigmatisation of people with mental illness. Theoretically, the current mass media give a very bad image to people with mental illness by labelling them as being dangerous, violent and criminals. Cutcliffe and Hannigan (2001, p315) argues that the inappropriate representation of mental illness in mass media increases stigma, harassment and victimisation of individuals by the public. This has led to some theorists like Goffman, (1961) cited in Busfied (2001. p10) to define mental illness as “process of rejection, stigmatisation and social exclusion”. Mass media may provoke strong passions which lead to a number of homicide over last forty years (Clutcliffe and Hannigan ( 2001). They also argue that government policy such as legislation concerning care has no clear provision of the care of people with mental illness in the society. As a result people with mental illness remain institutionalised. According to Anderson (2003, p298) survey shows that there is high incidents of homicides involving a person suffering of mental illness. He claims that mass media is the most powerful form in portraying those incidents. The newspaper report in 1994 of Stephen Laudat‘s case who was suffering from schizophrenia is one of the example how media portrays people with mental health. The media identifies him as “killer who should not have gone to jail”( Anderson, 2003, p298). Anderson claims that newspapers have great influence to the wider society when reporting violent incidents of people with mental illness. Some of the studies and researches carried by some psychiatrics draw the idea that people are strongly influenced by the language the mass media use in reporting incidents of people with mental illness. Apple and Wessley(1988) cited in Cutcliffe and Hannigan (2001) suggest that situations as real have a linkage to the style the information is represented and they become real in their consequences. Mass media represent negative effects of mental illness to the wider society, mainly dominated by episodes of violence (Giddens 2006). Violence can be defined as “a threat or use of force directed against the self or others in which physical harm or death is involved”. Harns (2004, p19). He argues that there are imbalances of press coverage of mental health issues reinforcing stigma and disempowering the quality of life to the sufferers. MIND, one of the leading organisation of people with mental disorders in the UK also argues that press coverage such as in the Sun newspaper convey strong messages to the public and give biased information which gives people negative view of people with mental health problems. According to a 1993 survey carried by Scottish Mental Health Working group it has been found that within five categories of mass media,” violence to others was 62%, harm to self 13%, sympathetic to others 18%, criticism of accepted definition of mental illness (1%) and comic images 2%” (Cutcliff and Hannigan2001 p316). It can be noted that in the above survey, violence coverage came up with the highest percentage which significantly means that people’s beliefs are based on what the media convey to them. However, Mackeown and Clancy (1995) cited in Anderson (2003)) emphasize that media have different degree of intensity on people who once have mental illness. Media may provoke strong passions and lead to violence. On the other hand it maybe relative minor information conveyed by media and have only limited relevance to every day life. In addition, Signorielli (1989 and Wahl 1992 cited in Cutcliffe and Hannigan 2001) claims that media labelling people with mental illness as dangerous and violence gives a bad reputation to mentally ill people and reinforces the public view of fear and anxiety ( Busfied 2001). The media interpretation of people with mental illness has a strong impact on the general public because of negative reports contribute to different attitudes towards the mental ill ( Anderson 2003). Bhugra (1989) believes that mental illness is linked to negative attitudes such a cruel treatment of mentally ill people. Negative attitude which the media portrays encourage pessimistic attitudes to the public. Repper (1997cited in Busfied 2001) outlined three things which some of the public are ignorant in understanding mental illness. For instance, people do not have strong background knowledge of the diagnoses, ignorant of the types of behaviours and emotional attitudes which are acceptable towards people with mental illness. Mass media therefore plays a pivotal role in filling this gap of ignorance and people tend to learn mental health illnesses from reports from the media therefore making them vulnerable to negative reports which emanate from the media. According to Giddens (2006) there is now a wide variety of mass media in the United Kingdom but newspapers have become one of the biggest forms of media. In fact, newspapers have become a subsequent link between criminality, violence and mental ill health (Ward, 1997 cited in Andrew, 2007). Focusing on the newspapers which are dominating cultural interactive in the United Kingdom in this modern time, research reports it have proved that news reporting in newspapers has strong predominates coverage about mental illness (Busfied, 2001). Essentially, newspapers do not focus on the clear meaning of the undifferentiated terms, such as lunatic ,psycho, schizo, mental patient, mental ill, all these meanings become different when general public interpret them ( Harris, 2004). Most newspapers report incidents of people with mental illness using terms such as dangerous and violent. Harris (2004) describes the reports in newspapers as a classical institutional trait which has common norms, rules, beliefs, and knowledge and that they all share behavioural patterns on the concept of dangerousness. According to various sociologists the notion of dangerousness is used to characterise situations. This notion of newspapers constructing meanings represent negative attitudes to mental ill people. Busfied (2001, p135) refer dangerous” as harm to self or others”. This dangerousness reveals to the public that mental ill people should stay away from the society. To the society point of view this particularly brings a close link between badness and illness. Newspapers interpret deviant behaviour, which is a behaviour that people so label. According to (Haralambos and Holborn) 1991, labelling is an “act of naming, the development of language to confer and fix the meaning of behaviour and symbolic internationalism and the phenomenology”. Moreover, according to Fulcher and Scott (2007), labelling theory claims that deviance and conforming result not much from what people do but from how others respond to those actions, it highlight social responses to mass media and deviance. Murder is one way that individual is labelled in a negative rather in a positive way (Anderson, 2003). Apple and Wesley (1988 cited in Anderson, 2003) cited the Hungerford massacre which outlined the story of Michael Ryan who committed a horrific homicide but there was no diagnosis of mental illness. Therefore sometimes people have wrong interpretations of horrific incidents and assumptions that violent incidents are only done by people with mental illness and their beliefs are constructed by the language used by newspapers. This leads to stigmatisation of people with mental illness and this is a negative social label which changes a person’s self concept and social identity. According to Scheff (1984) stigmatising people often leads to retrospective labelling which he describes as the interpretation of someone’s past consistent with the present deviance. Retrospective labelling distorts a person’s biography in prejudicial way guided by stigma than attempt to be fair. In order to reduce and tackle this stigmatising the Department of Health (1999b) initiated current mental healthcare policy which works towards promoting health to people with mental illness. (Anderson, 2003). Signorielli (1989) pointed out that films are another form of mass media which is culturally dominated in portraying the public life. Many films give a negative view of people with mental illness, for example films such as the Hollywood broadcast some vivid images which reveal negative effects to the public( Hyler,1988). In addition, films such as “psycho, (1960), One Flew over the Cuckoo’s Nest (1975) remained the greatest example in presenting madness (Hyler et al, 1991). The main issue in all these films is mainly based on the experience of mental ill people. Byrne (2000 cited in Anderson, 2003) mentioned some films such as “Shine (1989), Voices (2000) outlined that the synopsis of these films have great consequences to the lives of people with mental illness. For example the film Jack Nicolson’s R.P MacMurghy (1970) refused to admission to mental institution as he was not having any problems related to mental illness but later lived in a mental institution. This shows how society’s viewpoint can impact on each individual’s view. The contemporary films draw people to fear resulting in a change of behaviour towards people with mental illness. Watching films like “Halloween (1978)and Psycho(1960) have horrific themes” which arouse people’s anxiety and create fear of people with mental illness because violent actions influence the way people see things (Anderson 2003,p229). Cutcliffe and Hannigan (2001) argue that films stereotype people with mental illness which in turn contribute to the stigmatisation of people with mental illness. This is supported by Hyler,et al.(1991) who points out that film stereotypes and illness linked to violence and psychiatry and mental illness still dominates synopsis in films. Films present wrong interpretation to the public about mental illness by showing images of violence and dangerous people. Philo, et al (1994) also says that the images of mental health people which the film broadcast and the emotional language seem to have a lot of stereotypes. Therefore, films publications help to give mental illness its shape. Although there are various forms of media, television is the main worldwide source form of media which produces information mostly in images across different countries, especially in economically developed countries (Cutcliff and Hannigan (2001). Television also broadcast images, dramas, cartoons and international news, presenting clearly mental illness in the context of violence and harm to others. (Anderson, 2003). According to the survey carried out by Glasgow Media Group in Scotland, 1993, it has been found that television is a typical form of mass media which primarily focus most of its programmes on people with mental illness. Furthermore, it has judgemental attitudes which have negative impact towards people with mental health problems and the wider society. In a nutshell, television has great consequences to mentally ill people and draws attention of the wider society to exclude them in social life. From the above analysis, it is evident that mass media is enormously influential in directing attention towards the relative and somewhat arbitrary nature of dominant definition of mental illness in Britain. There is uniformity in the way mass media represent people with mental illness. Different forms of media have great impact to the public by the way they convey their message to the public. Mass media is therefore misleading people by relating mental illness to violence and dangerousness. Media Representations Of Mental Illness Sociology Essay
STR 581 Brigham Young Wk 2 Chipotle Mexican Grills Restaurant Case Study Analysis.

I’m working on a business writing question and need support to help me study.

Assignment ContentRead “Case 12: Chipotle Mexican Grill’s Strategy in 2018: Will the New CEO Be Able to Rebuild Customer Trust and Revive Sales Growth?” in your Connect textbook.Write a 350- to 700-word response that addresses the following questions:What factors contributed to the loss of confidence in the Chipotle brand?Do the actions taken to-date present a strategy that would improve consumer trust? Why or why not?Consider Chipotle’s competitors. How does Chipotle’s internal environment compare to the internal environment of one of its competitors? Based on this analysis, what is the probability that the strategic moves implemented by Chipotle would lead to a sustainable competitive advantage? Explain.What additional recommendations would you make for Chipotle to gain consumer trust and reclaim a leadership role in the fast-food industry? Provide justification for your response.Based on the information presented in this case study, what kind of business strategy would you suggest to help Chipotle achieve a competitive advantage?Submit your assignment.
STR 581 Brigham Young Wk 2 Chipotle Mexican Grills Restaurant Case Study Analysis

TUTA Left Ventricular Assist Device Heart Failure Question.

I’m working on a nursing question and need a sample draft to help me study.

This purpose of this assignment is for the student to present a complete picture of interdisciplinary care using specific
therapeutic modalities in the care of a complex adult health client. The student will demonstrate clinical reasoning skills
and will discuss interdisciplinary care that had been incorporated and/or anticipated using a healthcare technology or
therapeutic modality for the care of the complex health client.1) Choose a therapeutic modality or healthcare technology: left ventricular assist device (LVAD)2) Write a 4-5 page paper (not including the title page or reference page) using APA format. 3) For APA, formatting, or grammar assistance visit the APA Citation and Writing page in the online library.4) Include the following sections (detailed criteria listed below and in the Grading Rubric): a. a.Introduction – 5 points/5% The chosen therapeutic modality or healthcare technology meets one of the following criteria: o Has been introduced recently at the bedside for care of the complex adult patient. o Is a non-traditional modality for very ill patients in special circumstances. o Is being used in a new way to treat a patient with complex needs. o Requires specific training above and beyond general entry-level nursing education. • Introduce the therapeutic modality or healthcare technology. Name the therapeutic modality or healthcare technology. • A brief fictional case is used to illustrate the therapeutic modality or healthcare technology. b. Explanation and Background– 15 points/15% Include a clear description of the therapeutic modality or healthcare technology. Discuss how the therapeutic modality or healthcare technology works. • Describe the patient population it is used for. • Include medication, safety, and cost considerations as applicable. c. Risks and Benefits– 15 points/15% • Describe how the therapeutic modality or healthcare technology can benefit the patient. • Discuss ways to promote positive outcomes. • Explain the complications that may arise. Discuss considerations for preventing complications. d. Interdisciplinary team’s Roles and Responsibilities– 20 points/20% Identify all interdisciplinary team members caring for the patient, such as respiratory therapy, assistive personnel, providers, case managers, clinical nurse specialists, and researchers. Describe the roles and responsibilities of each member of the healthcare team that is involved in the use of the therapeutic modality or healthcare technology. Discuss the roles and responsibilities of the nurse as a member of the interdisciplinary team caring for the patiente. Nursing Scope of Practice – 15 points/15% Discuss the knowledge needed for the Registered Nurse to provide care for the patient using the therapeutic modality or healthcare technology. Describe skills needed for the Registered Nurse to provide care for the patient using therapeutic modality or healthcare technology. • Discuss attitudes needed for the Registered Nurse to provide care for the patient using therapeutic modality or healthcare technology. f. Patient Education – 20 points/20% • Describe the information to be taught to the patient and/or family. • Discuss how the information will be taught. • Explain how the effectiveness of the teaching will be evaluated. g. Conclusion – 5 points/5% • Provide a summary of the paper. No new information is introduced. Include additional resources for further learning. h. APA Style and Organization – 5 points/5% References are submitted with the paper. Uses the current APA format and is free of errors. Grammar and mechanics are free of errors. At least three (3), nursing, scholarly, peer-reviewed, primary sources from the last 5 years, excluding the textbook, are provided.
TUTA Left Ventricular Assist Device Heart Failure Question

BBA 4951 Columbia Southern University Management of Walt Disney Company Case Study.

I’m working on a business question and need guidance to help me study.

This was the questionCompany is walt Disney Company pg 481 ofDavid, F. R., & David, F. R. (2017). Strategic management: A competitive advantage approach, concepts and cases (16th ed.). Pearson. is a 3-part assignment with 3 separate assignments that are a continuation project of one another. Please follow instructions carefully and use the book listed above and attached study guides as resources.Assignment #1: 2 page case studyImplementation Plan: Part 1During
Unit IV, VI, and VIII, you will be working on an implementation plan
for a business. The components within these three units combined will
create this plan.Please take a look at the 30 case studies
located in your textbook on pages 370–625. There are multiple
corporations that provide a large array of services and products. Please
select one of these 30 organizations that interests you. You will use
this company for the Unit VI and Unit VIII assignments, as well.For
Part 1, describe the company that you selected, the products/services
they offer, and the history of the company. Next, analyze the company’s
strategy, mission, and organizational structure. In your analysis,
include the information below.What does the strategy, mission, and organizational structure say about the company?What are the positive aspects of the strategy, mission, and organizational structure?What are the company’s short-term and long-term goals?What are ways to improve the strategy, mission, and organizational structure?You
will need to reference your textbook and at least one outside source
for this assignment. You are encouraged to utilize the CSU Online
Library, but you may also use external sources, as long as the source is
reliable.Your project must be a minimum of two full pages in
length, not counting the title and reference pages. Include an
introduction paragraph.Assignment #2: 3 page projectImplementation Plan: Part 2In
Unit IV, you started to create an implementation plan. You selected a
company and analyzed their strategy and mission. In Unit VI, we will
continue your work with this company and develop a SWOT analysis.Remember
that a SWOT analysis identifies strengths, weaknesses, opportunities,
and threats of an organization. This is an important analysis for any
organization as it can be used for strategic planning. Your SWOT
analysis must be a minimum of two pages in length. Once you have
completed your SWOT analysis, write a minimum of one page, explaining
how this information could be used by the company.Please use the
template below to complete the SWOT analysis and explanation. Save the
template using your last name and student ID. For example, John Smith
whose student ID is 12345 would save his assignment as Smith12345. The
information you need to complete this analysis can be found in the case
studies located in your textbook on pages 370-625. You will need to
reference your textbook and at least one outside source for this
assignment. You are encouraged to utilize the CSU Online Library, but
you may also use external sources, as long as the source is reliable.Click here to access the Unit VI Project Template. (will attach in comments)Assignment #3: 3 page projectImplementation Plan: Part 3For
the final assignment of this course, you will continue your work with
the company you used in Unit IV and Unit VI. For the Unit VIII Project,
you will complete the final components of your implementation plan.For Part 3, you will focus on the following points:internal and external issues,competition,future outlook for the organization, andimplementation of tools for measuring business success.Much
of the information you will need to complete this segment can be found
in the case study in the textbook. However, you will also need to
conduct some outside research. For the future of the organization, you
may be creative and add your own insight on where you see the company
going. You will need to reference your textbook and at least one outside
source for this assignment. You are encouraged to utilize the CSU
Online Library, but you may also use external sources, as long as the
source is reliable.Your project must be a minimum of three full
pages in length, not counting the title and reference pages. Make
certain to include an introductory paragraph.These were the professors responsesAssignment 1 has several grammar and technical errors. I corrected
most of them and attached an edited version. With that said, there were
also missing components to the assignment which I have listed below.What does the strategy, mission, and organizational structure say about the company? mission is listed twice but they are different?What are the positive aspects of the strategy, mission, and organizational structure? NOT MENTIONEDWhat are ways to improve the strategy, mission, and organizational structure? Limited details…please expandInclude a conclusion paragraphAssignment 2#SWOT ANALYSIS – needs to be 2 pages long…HOW INFO WILL BE USED – needs to reference the textbook at least oncecreate a separate document to include the references for just this assignmentAssignment #3review grammar and technical errorsEach of the sections are a little weak and need to be expandedcurrently is less than 2 pages and needs to be a minimum of 3 full pagesneeds an intro and conclusionAlso each of the 3 assignments needs to be in separate documents APA format with title and reference pgattached is the documents for the first 3 assignments and the mini-edited assignment 1
BBA 4951 Columbia Southern University Management of Walt Disney Company Case Study

Complete Psychology Task (UOP)

Complete Psychology Task (UOP). I’m trying to study for my Psychology course and I need some help to understand this question.

Consider the following: Many products, diets, and services are marketed to parents as beneficial to infant or toddler development. In order to increase sales to parents and caretakers, some companies use marketing strategies that make exaggerated, unfounded, or unrealistic claims about the effects of their product(s) on child development.
Select one claim that you suspect to be exaggerated or false (your research may in fact show the claim has validity). Describe in detail what the advertised product, diet, or service is supposed to do. Some examples include:

Educational videos related to language development
Effects of classical music on cognitive development
Benefits of soy diet or organic food diet on physical and cognitive development
Service promising to teach your 18-month-old how to read
Any other claim made by a manufacturer or service provider, aimed at enhancing infant or toddler development

Write a 1,050- to 1,400-word paper addressing the following:

What area or areas of development does the product, diet, or service claim to enhance?
Use the University Library to investigate the claim. What does the published literature say about the issue you are investigating? What does the research reveal about how to promote healthy development in this area? What does this reveal about the necessity and actual benefits of the product, diet, or service?
Is there any evidence to support the claim? Why or why not?
Imagine that a licensed psychologist in your state publically endorsed a product with no empirical evidence supporting its claims. It was later discovered that the psychologist was receiving a percentage of money from the sale of the product to parents. Is this a violation of the APA Code of Ethics? Explain. Be sure to cite the appropriate section or sections of the Code in your response.

Investigate the claim using your textbook and a minimum of four additional scholarly sources (such as peer reviewed journal articles).
Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.
Note: You may not find a peer-reviewed journal article on a specific product, diet, or service. However, you will most likely be able to find peer-reviewed journal articles on the general issue that you are investigating. For example, if you are investigating educational videos that claim that cognitive skills in infancy are enhanced by using a particular approach or method, you can then review and evaluate studies that focus on enhancing cognitive skills in infancy. Review the evidence for and against the use of specific techniques and summarize your findings.
Complete Psychology Task (UOP)

I need the answers now to question below ca

programming assignment help I need the answers now to question below ca.

should be a meaningful response to the topic(s) in your own words, referencing
what you have discovered in your required reading and other learning activities
I need the answers now to question below ca

CNUAS Epidemiologic Statistics & Disparities Uncontrolled Use of Tobacco Exam Practice

CNUAS Epidemiologic Statistics & Disparities Uncontrolled Use of Tobacco Exam Practice.

QUIZ #2: Chapters 6 and 7. Choose and select one of the short answer essay prompts to respond to. Use the text as your only reference to respond to the prompt of choice. Answers using sources outside of the text will not be accepted.PROMPT AReview, discuss and provide two descriptive epidemiologic statistics and describe two disparities (differences) in tobacco use across the populationThe Tobacco Control Act (TCA) was a was a game-changer in the tobacco industry regulation.When did the TCA go into effect, and what was the goal of implementation?Describe and discuss two of the point-of-sale strategies the act focused on at the retail level.Include and discuss one additional federal marketing and packaging legislation and key provision Name one reason for political opposition to tobacco control policy effortsInclude an APA citation and reference for the text material used. Answer the question as best as you can. Be clear and concise. You do not need to go beyond what the question is asking of you.ORPROMPT BReview, discuss and provide two descriptive epidemiologic statistics and describe two disparities (differences) relative to obesity that are illustrated in the populationList three factors that influence the obesogenic environment (hint: view figure 7.3)Review the case of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs).Discuss two main points of why taxation would be beneficial for the populationDiscuss two aspects of industry opposition to SSBsDiscuss two aspects of public support for SSBs
CNUAS Epidemiologic Statistics & Disparities Uncontrolled Use of Tobacco Exam Practice

Impact of High College Tuitions on Poor Students

The cost of college education in the past 2-3 years has increased by as much as 3 percent in public and private colleges. This new development has resulted in the incapacitation and disadvantaging of low income and middle –income students who want to join those institutions of higher learning. This has created necessitude of more reliance on Pell Grants or scholarships. Therefore, high school administrators have an obligation to assist low and middle-income students to apply for these grants or scholarships. Due to the rise in the cost of college education, low and middle-income students are compelled to take more loans. Therefore, it becomes imperative for high schools to offer a compulsory personal finance class to students before they graduate. This is helpful to the economy since as a matter of fact, those with enormous student debt have no substantial income to clear the accrued debts (Schneider 7). Defaulters of student debt are a negative force in the economy and an effort to reduce the number of nonpayers much welcome. The paper will highlight the problem of high tuition cost in public and private colleges and give suggestions on how the problem can be solved. In the United States, there is a problem of college access due to high costs of tuition. Most students join college only to drop out after their first year largely because of financial problems. This is a problem that requires to be addressed. It is common knowledge students do not join college so that they can drop out after their first year. On the contrary, this join college so as to lay a foundations for their careers. Consequently, college education plays a big role in shaping the economy especially the job market and research. States and the government incur not less than $53 billion in expenditure in a bid to make colleges more accessible. As a matter of fact, college involves colossal amounts of funds. A great proportion of these funds are unmodified exchange accrued as a result of another cadre of students who do not require financial assistance to go to school. There is a college education crisis characterized by mounting financial pressures vis-à-vis expanded public enrollments. Moreover, governments have reneged on their dedication to maintaining tuition cost at affordable levels (Kane 345).There is a completion problem whereby a great percentage of students do not graduate mainly due to financial problems. This situation can be adjusted through the disclosure of family information and the cost of the program. This information should cover the four years that students attend college. There is a direct link between the state of the economy of a country and the nature of college education. Colleges produce the skilled workforce that drives the economy. It is the students enrolling at the public and private colleges that will make the professionals deal with economic concerns in the near future. It is the prerogative of the federal government to make sure that the professional aspirations of these young people are not derailed. The problem of high tuition costs that make access to college and completion difficult should be dealt with (Lillis 70). Financial information on the program should be released covering the four years. Students should be assisted to understand just how much they will be required to pay in the four years that they will be attending college. Despite the fact that $53 billion is spent by the government and states annually to fund college education annually many of the students from low income or middle-income families go through a lot of challenges in order to make their dreams come true. One of the problems we are having for lowest and middle-level students in raising adequate tuition for their college of choice is the diminishing incomes for lowest and middle-income families (Cabrera 5-22). Despite the fact that tuition fee for college has been increasing steadily in the past few years tuition fee for college is not increasing rapidly. However, tuition for college students has not diminished slowly but it has been high all the time. Due to the decrease in the average earning of the majority of low and middle-class families it has become very difficult for parents to take their children to colleges of their wish. In the years between 2002 and 2013, it was reported by Vox that household earnings had gone down with the exception of the country’s top 5%. Between the year 9163 and 1964, the median public college cost for a four-year course which was inclusive of fees, tuition, room, and accommodation, totaled 6,966 dollars. In comparison to the cost of attending college in the 1980s, putting inflation into consideration, a year will cost three and a half times at a public university compared to what it cost thirty years ago. For the families with the lowest incomes in the 1980s, tuition for two-year public college took 6% of their family incomes. In the 2000s tuition at such colleges took 12% of family income for the families with the lowest household incomes. Also, for the colleges and universities taking four years courses, tuition took 13% of the earnings of families with lowest incomes in 1980. In the year 2000 tuition took 25% of the incomes of lowest income families. Lower class and middle-class families would not afford to take their children to college due to the rising cost of tuition, leaving the rich to pursue their studies since they can afford to compensate for the college costs. Poverty issue can stay forever in the United States since the rich will continue to be rich. Arne Duncan said that as a country they needed more graduates from college in order to be able to compete favorably in the world economy. However, if the tuition costs keep on rising and especially at a time when family incomes are disappointing, the college will continue to become unaffordable for the low and middle class. This is a major problem for our country and as such, it needs to be addressed urgently. Middle and low-income college students are facing these big educational challenges and they require more assistance to be able to pursue their courses with minimal challenges as compared to those college students from families that earn high incomes. With rising numbers of students from low-income families, the public system of education is finding challenges in providing care, attention and the resources required by the students. At times the students are forced to scramble for resources due to the shortage of finance by the institutions of higher learning to provide adequate learning resources that are required. This shortage of finance by colleges and universities comes as a result of failure by some students to pay for their fees and tuition. The students are being affected by these challenges. Students from households with low incomes require education opportunities which are very important in breaking the cycle of poverty from one generation to another (Choy 110). With these students not able to afford college fees they have a limitation in picking a college of their choice. Another challenge facing the students from low and middle-income families is the rearrangement of income from state funding to tuition. In the states with the biggest reductions in the college funding, students are forced to pay the most at four- year and two-year colleges (Hoxby 99). The problem with these schools is that they do not want to take aggressive actions aimed at decreasing the number of poor students who cannot go to their desired school since they cannot afford. The federal government and state governments should put measures in place to ensure that no student drops out of school due to lack of adequate tuition. They should also ensure that every student goes to a college of their choice. This can be achieved by increased funding by the governments to the education sector. This would lower the cost of providing education at the institutions of higher learning thus making it affordable by students across all social classes and divides. Consequently, this would bring equality among all the students to learn in their preferred colleges and universities. There are scholarships which would be helpful to these needy students but the students need assistance to get them. There is a need for high schools to take a priority in helping their students to apply for the scholarships and that they get the ones they are qualified for. The scholarships should also be many for the students to choose from depending on one’s financial status. For example, a student may get a scholarship for being the first generation or one may get a scholarship that cannot pay the full tuition, therefore, depending on the level of the student’s parent the scholarship will be of less or more useful to the student by giving less financial aid if the parents are a little well up and paying more for the student if the parents income is very low. The issue of high tuition cost in the United States is a real problem that need to be tackled. High cost of education has had a profound impact on the accessibility of college education to middle and low-income students. The enrollment at both public and private colleges has also gone higher. However, the completion rate remains low because a great proportion of those students drop out after their first year due to financial problems. Moreover, students are compelled to over-rely on grants that amount student debts. Therefore, there are more people who find themselves in debt. According to the Financial Times, ` `the amount of student loan debt in the United States has grown by 170 percent in the past 10 years.’ ‘Out of the 44 million Americans borrowing loan, 8 million of them are nonpayers. The debt factor has a number of adverse implications on the Americans such as making it hard for them to purchase homes, delaying marriage and preventing them from starting their own companies. These factors are hurtful to the economy and the borrower at a personal level. Moreover, defaulters make it hard for other students to benefit from the same program because they do not pay back. This problem can be solved by introducing a compulsory personal finance class to students before they graduate from high school. The course would equip students with skills on how to manage their financial resources (Kane 340).Furthermore, the knowledge gained will make the students to be considerate when applying for the loans knowing that the loans amount to a liability in the future. They will also understand the dynamics of applying for loan and the importance of paying back to the economy and others who would want to get the loans. This way the students will be able to avoid unwelcome eventualities associated with defaulting like difficulty being a homeowner, delaying marriage due to financial constraints and being not able to start their own companies. Works cited Cabrera, Alberto F., and Steven M. La Nasa. “Understanding the college‐choice process.” New directions for institutional research 2000.107 (2000): 5-22. Choy, Susan P., Ali M. Berker, and C. D. Carroll. “How families of low-and middle-income undergraduates pay for college: Full-time dependent students in 1999-2000.” AVAILABLE FROM 5.2 (2003): 7. Choy, Susan P., and Ali M. Berker. “How Families of Low-and Middle-Income Undergraduates Pay for College: Full-Time Dependent Students in 1999-2000. Postsecondary Education Descriptive Analysis Report.” (2003). Ellwood, David, and Thomas J. Kane. “Who is getting a college education? Family background and the growing gaps in enrollment.” Securing the future: Investing in children from birth to college (2000): 283-324. Hoxby, Caroline M., and Christopher Avery. The missing” one-offs”: The hidden supply of high-achieving, low income students. No. w18586. National Bureau of Economic Research, 2012. Kane, Thomas J. “Beyond tax relief: Long-term challenges in financing higher education.” National Tax Journal (1997): 335-349. Kane, Thomas J. The price of admission: Rethinking how Americans pay for college. Brookings Institution Press, 2010. Kane, Thomas J., and Cecilia Elena Rouse. “The community college: Educating students at the margin between college and work.” Journal of economic Perspectives 13.1 (1999): 63-84. Lillis, Michael P., and Robert G. Tian. “The Impact of Cost on College Choice: Beyond the Means of the Economically Disadvantaged.” Journal of College Admission 200 (2008): 4-14 Schneider, Mark, and Lu Michelle Yin. “Completion matters: The high cost of low community college graduation rates.” AEI Education Outlook 2 (2012): 1-10.