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MDC Week 4 Gathering Evidence for Public Health Practice Discussion

MDC Week 4 Gathering Evidence for Public Health Practice Discussion.

WEEK 4 LECTURE AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS Describing Health Conditions: Understanding and Using RatesGathering Evidence for Public Health Practice Read chapters 7 and 8 of the class textbooks (Once done answer the following questions) 1. Describe an understanding of the following.The primary method used to measure the state of health a population is experiencing, including the rules and formula used for calculationsThe difference between crude and adjusted rates as well as incidence and prevalence ratesThe difference between incidence density, incidence rates, and relative risk ratio.2. Using examples, interpret the relevance of the use of rates in nursing practice.3. Mention and discuss the differences between descriptive and analytical research.As stated in the syllabus present your assignment in an APA format word document, APA required font attach to the forum in the discussion tab/folder of the blackboard ultra and in the SafeAssign exercise located in the assignment folder of the blackboard ultra. A minimum of 3 evidence-based references no older than 5 years must be used. You must post two replies on different dates to any of your peers sustained with the proper references no older than 5 years as well and make sure the references are properly quoted in your assignment. The replies cannot be posted on the same day, I must see different dates in the replies. A minimum of 800 words not to exceed 1,000 are required without counting the first and last page. Please make sure to follow the instructions as given and use either spell-check or Grammarly before you post your assignment. Please check your assignment after is posted because I have either made comments or ask for clarification about the assignment or the replies that will require your response.
MDC Week 4 Gathering Evidence for Public Health Practice Discussion

CAT 125 UCI Wk 8 Michelle Obama When They Go Low We Go High Essay Analysis Discussion.

For this week’s post, you are being asked to located a speech/presentation online that you find extremely compelling and effective. Then, in your post, include the following information. 1) Copy and paste the URL of the speech/performance2) Analyze the speech/performance in the following three areas: Visual, Sound, Content. (These are the three we spoke about in our lecture last week – go back to your notes or the lecture if you can’t remember how these areas can be analyzed). In each of these areas, what do you find effective and what do you find less than effective?3) Explain why you chose this speech/presentation and why you believe this to be an excellent example of a speech/presentation (e.g. what does the speaker do so well? What is the purpose of the speech and why is it effective?)
CAT 125 UCI Wk 8 Michelle Obama When They Go Low We Go High Essay Analysis Discussion

The activities of modernization have brought about popular culture. Popular culture results from civilization and therefore gives answers to questions about the influence of the modernizing process. The extent of popular culture is dependent on the level of civilization. As more information becomes available in society, the lifestyles of the members of that society change. This information affects the decisions made, the perceptions they have-and these affect how they view the society and themselves. One way that people express their notion is through popular culture like films, music and literary works. Thus, popular culture tells us a story about the human society involved. Culture in general, cannot be popular if it does not portray the lives or identity of the said group. By defect, popular culture demonstrates the current way of life of a society through various means including films and literary pieces. According to Browne and Browne (2001), popular culture is the culture of our everyday lives which reflects our ideas and reveals a great deal about who we are as a society and how we have changed over time. Technology, for instance, has played a major role in our civilization process. It has changed our way of thinking thus, affecting the kinds of movies we act and watch, the music we sing and listen to and the books we write and read. Though philosophers and other notable sociologists have come up with the argument that science fiction in movies and books does not tell anything about our society, the writers and authors of these movies and books are believed to have been influenced by information reaching the world through science and technology about the existence of other planets. This is an example of civilization which is the sole cause of popular culture. For example, movies and books involving aliens and other weird creatures do not depict the way of life of the society but the fact that these film directors and authors are in the society affects their imagination and therefore we realize that these aliens end up behaving like humans. Music in general can be associated with a group of people, depending on the genre. The kind of music we listen to sets us apart from other groups. This is because a group of people can get their identity from a kind of music and even form a subculture. Hipsters, for example, are associated with ‘Rock n Roll’, a genre of music. Country and rock music are mostly adored by the Canadians and the East Americans. (wikipedia, 2012) These genres of music are connected to these groups because they portray their culture and identity and therefore have become popular among such groups thereby making them a popular culture. ‘One Life’, a song by British pop star James Morrison is my favorite text. It falls under pop rock genre of music. This song is mostly enjoyed by his boyhood town, Rugby Warwickshire in England. Young folks of this town are noted for making the wrong choices as a result of trying to please others. This has become a common way of life of the people; the writer features this lifestyle of his boyhood town in his song and tries to advise them. “I just try to write simple lyrics that people will understand from all walks of life .You can’t be too clever sometimes because people won’t get it. And I always try to write lyrics where you understand every single line because the music is theirs and speaks about ourselves”, the writer said as he was interviewed on a television show ‘I like music’ (biography of james morrison, 2012). As already established earlier that popular culture reflects the ideas and shows the everyday life of a group of people, James Morrison is able to fuse the current culture of his town in his music thereby conveying the current culture of the society in question. Evidently, popular culture is related to Marxism: the division of individuals according to social status and class. This concept which was pioneered by German philosophers, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, explains how majority of the social phenomena have arisen from basis of economics or at the least been highly influenced by it. Examples of such social phenomena are social relations, political and legal systems, religion and morality. The Marxist theory also clearly defines that capitalist system of governance (dominance by private business owners) has brought about class division in the society. The brains behind the theory explain that class conflicts occur as a result of the lower class performing the menial jobs and the upper class enjoying the profit yielded from their (lower class) ventures. Fabian (1978) stated that, “popular culture is the contemporary cultural expression of the masses that challenges the notion of the superiority of ‘pure’ or high culture. High culture is a kind of culture associated with the rich. It is not common to the entire society but just a part of the society believed to be in the upper class. Generally, high culture is mostly accessed by the elite since venues of such events are expensive. Popular culture on the other hand, is mostly accessed by the lower-class. It involves the whole society because both the rich and poor can afford it. Since everyone in the society can access a particular culture, it gains popularity among the group of people thus making it a popular culture. ‘One life’ would be used as a reference point once again. The inhabitants of Rugby, James’ boyhood town, generally belong to the lower class. James stressed on the issue of people pretending to be in the higher class in almost every part of the song. He also mentioned ‘rocking chair’ in the song which signifies wealth in the town. It has become a common culture in the town that anyone who is deemed rich should get a rocking chair. James in his song relishes his dreams of getting a rocking chair which is a common culture in his town thus showing the popular culture of the town in relation to class. Remarkably, some forms of popular culture began as high culture. Computer development is an example. When the computer was first introduced, only the rich in the society could afford it. Today, almost every household can boast of some form of computer. Also, concerts, cinema, operas and many others which used to be forms of high culture are fading out thanks to technology. With the introduction of YouTube, almost every individual irrespective of the class can access most of these concerts thus making it popular or common. Conversely, some forms of popular culture have also become high culture. William Shakespeare’s plays are examples. These plays were accessible to the general populace. “It contained florid rhetoric, vivid characters, tempestuous gestures and moral designs.” (Warner, 1990). However, the general public lost interest in Shakespearean plays when production became reserved. Classical texts, for instance, are now associated with a peculiar group of people. “You can share a discussion of a favorite football teams with a new coworker, or comment on ‘American Idol’ when making small talk in line at the grocery store. But if you tried to launch into a deep discussion on the classical Greek play ‘Antigone’, few members of entire society today would be familiar with it.” (Sociology cap, 2012). Films and television programs produced are based on the reigning culture within that period. Since popular culture is accessible by all, movie directors include these forms of popular culture in the movies so that it would be patronized by all. An example is the popular American TV show, Will and Grace (Mutchnick
The first three decades of the 19th century marked the beginning of English writing in India but it was a period of slow incubation. “Indian Writing in English is one of those voices in which India speaks of their own culture heritage and modernization of values and systems. Rapid growth, increasing popularity, award winning creative contributions, all are going to justify the truth that the Indian English Literature provides an opportunity to make a deep dive in Indian consciousness and sensibility” The term “Indo-Anglian” is used to denote original literary creation in English language by Indians. Today there are large number of educated Indians who use the English language as a medium of the creative exploration and expression of their experience of life. Their writing has now developed into substantial literature in its own right and it is this substantial body of literature which referred to as “Indo-Anglian literature”. The Indo-Anglian literature is to be distinguished from ‘Anglo-Indian’ literature. The term “Anglo-Indian literature” is used to denote the writing of Englishmen in English about India and Indian life. Their works are significant as they serve to interpret India to the west. However, their presentation of Indian life is often romantic rather than realistic. Indian is presented as a land of Snake-charmers, Jugglers, Rajas and Maharajas and one great value of Indo-Anglian literature is that it serves to correct this picture and project a more favorable and truthful image of India. There is another term “Indo-Anglian literature” which is used to denote translation into English from literature in Indian languages. The Indo-English literature is further divided into classical and modern Indo-English literature. Classical Indo-English literature requires a certain degree of interpretation and adaptation of meanings, to accommodate with some latitude in translation becomes inevitable. Some allowance has also to be made foe prevailing literary taste and scruples at the time when the translation takes place. Similarly, some freedom may be claimed by the translation of some work when he has the definite audience in mind With the consolidation of the British power in India, English the language of rulers also began to exercise its influences on the intellectuals of the country to the educated youth of that generation, a generation finding in English language a gateway to western knowledge. English provided a window for the Indian language a gateway to western knowledge. English provided a window for the Indian intellectuals to have a look at the wide world. Despite the fact English is not their mother tongue many Indians writers in English were able to realize their creative effort through the medium of English. The culture and tradition of India has a distinctive entity of its own, and the enlightened youth of India, though well-versed in English, were not to lose its identity. There were not a few among India’s elite who were moved by a genuine desire to present, before the western readers, true pictures of Indian through imaginative literature. The factor that brought the English in education was the Macaulay’s “minute” urging that it was necessary to make natives of this country good English scholars and he wanted to make India a Cultural colony of England and to produce an army of English knowing clerks. By the time of Macaulay, the demand for the introduction of English as the medium of education was wide-spread. Macaulay’s Minute on education is the landmark in the history of English education in India. In the Minutes Macaulay advocated the cause of English and said we have to educate those people who cannot at present be educated by means of their mother tongue. We must teach them some foreign language. In India English is the language spoken by the ruling class. It is spoken by the higher class of native at the seats of government. It is remarkable that Macaulay’s views about the importance of English hold good even today. There were several factors which contributed to spread English in education of India. The English traders played a prominent part in this, right from the early days of the trading settlement as the East Indian Company. Raja Ram Mohan Roy was the first Indian to write in English. He could speak and write English fluently and forcefully as is clearly brought out his work on religion. But he was a social reformer and much of his writing is utilitarian rather than creative. Before Macaulay’s Minutes policy in education few Indians had begun to use the English for creative expression. Henry Derozio’s volume of poems was published in 1823 and kashiprasad Ghose published his poetry entitled The Shair and the others poem in 1830. These two poems are not great in their writings but their work is largely imitative of English writers. Before the middle of the century the drama, short story and novel were practically non-existent in the Indian languages. The English came in India and brought with them the number of translations. English classics were soon translated into various Indian languages and the growth of the novel and the short story in regional languages was inspired by these translations. Bankim Chandra Chatterji became the first Indian writer of a novel in English. In field of drama the translation of Shakespeare’s works came into regional languages. They also served as models to the early Indian dramatists. The Indian drama, like the novel and the short story, was the result of that impact of English studies. Sarojini Naidu an outstanding woman of her generation, a gifted poetess. She achieves success in the handling of Indian imagery and the expression of Indian personality. Tagore is a great phenomenon in the Indian literary Renaissance. He combines in himself three distinct roles- that of a poet, a philosopher and a patriot. The special feature of Tagore’s lyrics in English is that they are prose poems. A good deal of poetry continues to be written in English and there is much experimentation in an effort to achieve modernity. The novel took later start; still the novel has gone far ahead of poetry both in quantity and quality. Very few Indians seem to have attempted fiction in English till the beginning of the present century. During the last quarter of the 19th century there was considerable literary activity. Love, hatred, intrigue, jealously, all these are shaken into a compound in the novel. With the publications of Mulk Raj Anand’s Untouchable and Coolie and Raja Rao’s Kanthapura, the novel in English may be said to have come age. R.K Narayan’s Swami and Friends and the novel The Bachelor of Arts is a more mature work and invokes variegated claim of character and ancient. While many good Indo-Anglian novels and many more short stories have already demonstrated the feasibility of Indian writing English fiction, it is nevertheless true that the unique intricacies of social life and the untranslatable nuances of conversational speech are better rendered through the medium of one’s own mother tongue. Undoubtedly the big trio o literary bulk- M.R Anand, R.K Narayan and Raja Rao had embodied the ancient lore of India in new form. This trio has done it memorably, so memorably that are haunted by it, our mouth remain wide open and without any hesitation and gainsaying we consider them as ‘great’. It is to their credit that Indian English Literature is established as separate discipline in the literatures of the world. “Panorama of India” in their writing provides strong sense of rich heritage. They churn out various pearls and gems hidden beneath the surface of Indian culture and tradition with the strong sense of tradition they tried to establish a mutual relation between India’s past and present so that applications of myths can be made useful in present contexts of life. “Myths are the stories of gods and supermen and these myths are created to teach a moral to community, or to give divine sanction to the rulers of that community or to give unity to that community. A land without myth is the land without faith in the supernatural and the divine. A study of Greek myths reveals the fact that the gods and the goddesses of heaven are as jealous as mortals and as narrow-minded as the ignorant”. India is the land of myth. Myths are the symbols created by the primitive men from the vivid experience of day-to-day life. These were stabilized and given a relative fixity through the medium of words. Myth has played a significant role in human society from its beginning as primitive religious narrative to its unconscious mind. Philosopher since centuries back have been interested in establishing connection between poetry and myth but modern interest in the myth has greatly been increased by the contribution of comparatively new disciplines of anthropology and psychology. In simple word, a myth is a legend, a tale, a story, a saga of super human will, courage and strength handed down to people orally over a long period of time, and put into forms by writers and the poets who made changes in them whenever it suited to their purpose to do so. Such legends or tales or stories are supposed to be very serious and reflects a society’s spiritual foundations. They are symbols of human experience embodying a firm faith or belief in comic view each culture holds dear to its heart and preserves tenaciously. Myths are old far off distant things. They are purely traditional. They are embodying popular ideas or natural phenomenaThe spell and attraction towards Indian Mythologies stories have a kind of fundamental significance. Indian writers particularly M.R Anand, R.K Narayan, Raja Rao-are aware of Indian mythologies and surprisingly enough they have created the myths with all their literary possibilities. Another reason for the employment of myths is that they, along with folk-tales and ancient legends, provide abstract story pattern. Another factor which is responsible for the existence and employment of myths is their “literacy nature”. It may be a point of objection but a literature has shown its favour we can say that poets and writers are attracted towards the myths because of their literariness or because they are literary. Myth is ethical, philosophical, religious and cultural. Indian myths are essential parts of Indian embody the nature and spirit of literature. The Indian English novelist has emulated the device of the use of the myth from the west but has naturalized is to the Indian soil. The public recitation of tales from the Ramayana, the Mahabharata and the puranas pointing out its contemporary relevance is even now a living tradition. If a world-view is required to made literature meaningful in terms of shared human experience, the epic, the puranic tales of ancient India with their unique quality of timelessness offer a solid basis of such a common background. In Indian English fiction myths have been used mainly in two novelists. M.R Anand and R.K Narayan and others have used myths as structural parallels where a mythical situatation underlies the whole or part of a novel, whereas, Raja Rao has used myth as a part of a digressional technique and in this sphere he has excelled all others. Here he waves a variety of myths and folk-tales into the fabric of his novels to attain some desired effect. Indian Myths are about the heroes of our classics, Ramayana and Mahabharata. They are about the Demons, God, and Goddesses. These myths are incorporated in the novels of R.k Narayan. India, inspite of her variety and complexity, is a cultural unit; she has an image of her own cultural. Cultural is an exploration term which means the sum total of all i.e. reflected in the mode of life of people-their thoughts processes and outlook on life, social structures, values, and customs, their needs, aims, aspirations and national commitment and then this is best expresses through the arts and letters of the country. The word ‘myth’ has been constantly used in the literature of the world. This term is also used in a variety of meanings in sociology, anthropology, psychology and in comparative religion-each field of study investing it with different connotations. But its use in literature is much more comprehensive. Now the conscious use of myth becomes a very familiar and popular technical device used by many writers. In the second case, there is unconscious use of myth. In this technique we find that writers may not have been using a mythical situation or character but, readers or critics have discovered the unconscious way in which myth have operated in their novels or dramas. India is the place of Myths. “Every place in India has a local legends and every temple has a story around us. Only in India art and religion in a coherent way and one is not able to separate religion from art and art from religion. Our temples are mixture of art, culture and religion. So are the novels of this South India writer, who creates an imaginary town of Malgudi and spin his Novels around it.” A myth is useful in the context of modern time only when it illumines the present predicament of human society or suggestive of curable effect or it can suggest a remedy. They are meant more for inspiration than for information. They are religious rituals which make life meaningful and enrich it by penetrating or its essence. A myth is not a substitute for reality but only a vehicle for a better appreciation of reality. R.K Narayan gives a modern colour to our ancient myth and indicates the validity and continuity of our rich cultural tradition. Hence R.K Narayan is a modern novelist with a mythical consciousness. The pleasure of reading a realistic novel is certainly more mature, sophisticated and lasting than the one derived from reading of a romantic novel. It has been compared to the listening of an intelligent person or a symphony of Beethoven or sitting quietly in a great cathedral or conversing earnestly with a friend on an issue of real interest to them both. Realism in the novel has been defined in various ways. Some scholars call it the fidelity observed as verisimilitude to life also because literal transcription of life as it is. It can be defined as verisimilitude to life also because literal transcription of life is well-nigh impossible. So it would be more proper for us to record it as a plausible interpretation of life. A writer is realistic he cannot escape his writings from the realities but it is also not compulsory for him that he must portray the reality in photographic way. It may be in the cases of some writers that they try to represent reality in the starch and naked form but as far as Indian English writers are concerning we find especially in the case of R.K Narayan and Raja Rao always tried to represent reality in its artistic form. They grab the Indian mind full with all its superstitious comprehension of life, gullidility and appreciation o pseudo-scientific things. Their reality is always allowed with romance. But as far as realism of Mulk Raj Anand is concerning we find that he claimed as the champion of the under-dog, he exposes all the social hypocrisy and taboos, class exploitation and class struggle, all social and economic injustice in his works. He learnt the technique of realistic portrayal for the eminent master of Indian fiction like Tagore, Bankim Chandra, Prem Chandra, Sharat Chand and European novelist like Chekhov Flaubert and Tolstoy. He is minute exam of life, society and human character, who never leaves the ugliest and unpalpable situation aside. Every aspect is beautifully described in his writings. In order to see the origin and development of realism in Indian context we have to see its origin in west also. It appeared in Europe and America as a reaction from devotional sermons and romantic literature, legends, mysteries, folktales. Gradually the realistic novel had been written on sociological pattern and they had highlighted the various problems of the society-as evils of factories and law courts, the problems of emancipation wrote to German romantic poet. The emergence of science and revolt against romantic excess concluded in consolidating the position of realism in fiction. A realistic novel makes reality more real for our own sake and for the sake of posterity, Indo-English novelist have tried their ends to give the graphic to our awareness and insight often time as novelist, in order to reveal to us the involutions of a living cell, combines the use o a realistic novel we feel and realize that such things have been happening in the universe for ages past without our being conscious of them for the one reason or the other. In a realistic novel we can easily transfer our identity to some of the characters and out of his identification we can derive vicarious pleasure. It is also a source of enriching our own personality because while continuing to live our own life we share to the full the experiences of the character in the novel. A novel of psychological realism gives us a finer number of years. It also gives us the finer types of pleasure-because it offers as a rare insight into the different levels of consciousness and experience. The significance of realism lies in the fact that enables us to give proper appraisal of life. Poetry is a constituent of a realistic novel. One can’t eschew poetry from the texture of realistic novel. We can’t deny creative imagination, dream sequence, poetic colouring of events and incidents, psychological insight in the assessment of human personality from a realist novelist. Realism is a “many-splendoured” thing it has its sociological, aesthetic, political, regional, and psychological nuances which merit a careful study in depth especially when we have to take stock of currents and cross currents affecting for better worse-the authenticity, the literary excellence and credibility of much of Indian-English fiction. Undoubtedly, the realistic movement both in the East and the West gathered strength in the mid 19th century, as a reaction against traditional sentimental sloppy stuff-mysteries, romance, legends, myths, religious rituals and utopias of wish fulfilment. A sort of psychological realism has also surfaces in Indian English a novel which goes by the name of stream of consciousness. The tendency is applicable for the introspective, brooding and dreaming temperament of the Indians. In M.R Anand’s Untouchable and R.K Narayan’s The Guide the device is used to advantage. The impact of this technique is clearly on the Indian English novelists for often in the midst of narration, we have memories, flashbacks, longings-which well nigh destroy the objects ground in their native form and colour only to let them emerge a fresh as infinitesimal particles floating a draft in the stream of consciousness of the hero. The English Indian Novelist is well aware of the danger of handling of this technique which sacrifices reality for the sake of illusion. The more of realism gave the novelist scope for camera fidelity to portray the contemporary history of national independence struggle; significant revolutions have always been potent mines of material or fiction. About the novelist such as M.R Anand and R.K Narayan we can reasonably claim that their work achieves distinctive Indian quality through modern experimentation. Indian novelist attempt at portrayal of cultural identity of modern India the truth Indian consciousness by dealing with the theme of tradition and modernity, in the employment of vision that affects his attitude towards myth. This difference in method reveals the basic difference of attitude towards the past. R, K Narayan’s mythical structure is only partly a self conscious device. He uses the same archetypal pattern in all his novels. R.k Narayan is regarded as one of the greatest of Indian writings in English. He is the most artistic of the Indian writers, his sole aim being to give aesthetic satisfaction and not to use his art as a medium of propaganda or to serve some social purpose, as it is the case with Mulk raj anand.The novelist was never a good student. He failed in both high school and intermediate examination. He could get his degree only when he was twenty-four years old. These failures at school and college have made him shy, reserved and diffident, an introvert and not an extrovert. The Guide received the shatiya Akademi award for the year 1960.He was awarded padma Bhushan in 1964, University of leads conferred on him the Honrary D.Litt in 1967, and Delhi University followed suit in 1973.He has been included in the writers and their Works series being published by the British Council; he was the only Indian so far to have achieved this distinction. He visited U.S.A in 1956, on an invitation from the Rockfeller Foundation. Many of his stories and sketches have been broadcast by the B.B.C, a rare distinction. His works have been published both in England and the U.S.A and both these countries he has enjoyed wide popularity. In America he is regarded next only to Faulkner and graham Greene. His works throw considerable light on his character and personality.R.K Narayan is not only a great novelist, but also a leading writer of short stories in English. From 1939-1945, He did not publish any full lengths novel. Between The Dark Room, 1938 and The English Teacher, 1945, there is a gap of seven years. The shocking domestic tragedy, and the horrors of the world WarII, it seems touched the sensitive Narayan too nearly and he could not make any sustained artistic effort. However, He was not entirely idle. During this period he contributed a number of short stories to the Hindu and to the short lived Quarterly Journal Indian Thought. These short stories were later on published in book form and are among the finest Indo-Anglian short Stories.R.K Narayan and Mulk raj Anand are two of the greatest of Indian writers of fiction. But While Anand is writer of fiction. But while Anand is a writer with a purpose, a writer who writes because he has some political or economic axe to grind, R.K Narayan is a novelist who has no axe to grind. He is the rare example of a pure artist. One who writes for the sake of art and not out of any ulterior motives? That is why his popularity has been worldwide and lasting. His works have been translated into a number of languages of the world, and his reputation as an artist has been steadily rising.R.k Narayan is one of those lucky writers who have achieved recognition with the publication of his very first novel. He has ten novels, about hundred short stories, a number of articles and sketches, to his credit, and all his large body of work, with few exception [as The Dark Room], is uniformly of a high standard, his first three novels deals with the life of the three different stages in the life of the same character, though he is given different names. Swami and Friends, Bachelor of art and The English Teacher are novels of school and college life and they are deeply autobiographical. The Dark Room and the sweet-vendor are also novel of domestic life. The Financial expert, Mr.Sampath, The Guide and The Man Eater Of the malgudi, deals with the careers of money hunting men of the world. Usually Narayan takes no note of the stirring political event of the day, but in the Waiting of the Mahatma Gandhi he has introduced the figure of the great Mahatma, and the effect is rather melodramatic, but this too is not a political novel. It was no doubt an artistic mistake to have dragged in the great mahatma, too big for any single work of art, but the Gandhian movement is not its theme .Its real theme is the love story of Sri Ram and Bharati, and it has been dealt with effectively and credibly. All this work is remarkably even in the quality of its achievement. Naturally, his later work is more complex, and more introspective than his earlier work, but there can be no question about the quality even of his earlier work. Narayan’s is an art for art’s sake, but it does not meant that he is a writer without any vision of life. It simply means that there is no intrusive message, philosophy or morality in his novels. They are entirely free all didacticism. But Narayan is a penetrating analyst of human passion and human motives the springs of human action-and this makes him a great critic of human conduct. Human relationship-relationships within the family circle-and relationships centering round sex and money, are his ever recurring themes, and we can learn from them how to establish right relationships. Life must be accepted and lived; despite its many short-comings, but it has to be gleaned by each reader according to the light that is in him. Narayan is the creator of malgudi. He has put this particular region of south Indian on the world map. His treatment of it is realistic and vivid, so much so that many have taken the fictitious to be the real, and have tried to identify the various geographical features and other landmarks that constantly recur in his novels. Narayan is a great regional novelist, but he is never parochial. It is against the back-drop of malgudi scenes and sights that Narayan studies life’s little ironies, which have always been the same in every age and country. His novels are tragic-comedies of mischance and misdirection, studies in the human predicament which, essentially, has always been the same. From the particular Narayan rises to the general, and intensity and universality are achieved by concentration.Narayan is the creator of a whole picture-gallery of the immortal of literature. A number of life-like memorable figures move in and out of his novels, and once we have been acquainted with them, we can never forget them. He writes of the middle class, his own class, the members of which are neither too well off not to be worried usually modest, sensitive, ardent and sufficiently conscious to have an active. Narayan regarded as one of the big three among the Indian novelist in English has been admired for his remarkable for telling stories .portraying memorable people of small oddities and eccentricities, and for his humour.Narayan’s fiction rarely addresses political issues or high philosophy. He writes with grace and humour about the fictional town malgudi and its inhabitants; and their little lives.Narayan is classic teller of tales; an enduring appeal springs from his canvas where common man and women of all the times and places are joined in their commonalty. Narayan weaved a world existing nowhere, but striking a chord of perfect reality with readers across the English reading peoples. His books appeal in a quiet reassuring way and have a remained a popular very many decades. His writings is also part of literature coursework in some American universities.Narayan evokes a unique diction of unusual freshness and rare ingenuity with English literary idiom.Narayan can be said to be a regional novelist in a higher creative sense.narayan’s stories have a functional locale-Malgudi, an imaginary world. Malgudi a small south Indian town provides the setting for almost all of Narayan’s novels and short stories. The heroes of Narayan are never drawn on a heroic scale.narayan is the creator of un-Heroic heroes. The hero of Narayan do not control events, the events are control by them. They are helpless creatures torn by desires and tossed this way and that way by the caprice of fortune. Narayan’s comic vision is ironical. His all embracing irony which includes the particular social context in his men and women who have their various transaction and the existential reality based on their particular experiences .The class between the tradition and modernity in which Narayan’s characters are sandwiched has ironical implications. In his novel modernity is the rash and impulsive force that disturbs the peaceful equilibrium of traditional life. The character in the midst of this conflict emerges as comic and grotesque figures. Narayan has deliberately avoided politics and polemics of any kind. The themes he chooses his novel be seem to be perennial interest especially to a sensitive mind interested in human beings. One of them is man’s susceptibility to self deception due to entertaining illusions. It is the most recurrent and it provides excellent field for Narayan’s relationship, the renunciation, conflict between the tradition and modernity, the east -west encounter, education, etc. Narayan’s method is to treat his themes, not in abstract or didactic terms but in terms of individuals in flesh and flood their experiences And the universal appeal of his novels, although they confine themselves a narrow region in south Indian. The themes of Narayan are all inter-related and inter-dependent. But for the purposes of study and analysis one may have to isolate them. Narayan is a writer of social novels, which are more or less comic novels. Light in their approach to life, these novels do not claim o stir deep human emotions or to reach tragic heights. Narayan is the writer with a full commitment to certain spiritual and religious idea with which the Indian are familiar and he has been able to penetrate into the core of Indian life without being hampered by problems of regionalism, religion, cast and class with which an Indian writer has to come to grips.Narayan is a short writer and novelist, has its limitations too. He is an intellectual who has known the middle class life of the south India at close quarters. But depth of pathos that move the very inner fibre are the beyond the range of Narayan. He is good at undertones but bold and dramatic flashes are not for him. The dregs of poverty, the crushing loads of misery cannot be found in the pages of Narayan But within his limited range, Narayan is an exquisite master of the art of story-telling.the choice of his subject matter shows that Narayan is a creative artist. He starts his novel with confidence and engages our attention from the very first page; so we settle down to watch him build his world. It is not a small world but it has its own limitation. The plots of Narayan are built of material and incidents that are neither extra-ordinary nor heroic. The tone of his novel is quite and subdued. Narayan selects day-to-day incidents that happen to almost every one of us one time of the other. His imagination has no friges; it has no capricious flights of fancy. The world of his creation is not full of volcanic conflagration or tragic ups and down. Even then it is a big world full of smile and tears and thoughts and drama, fusing them into a level. Harmonious, artistic vision. It does not require a very great artist to make a interesting story out of very ordinary day-to-day incidents of life. The key note of Narayan’s interest is his very minute observation and subtle ironic harmonious way of telling of his stories. Narayan’s novels are straightforward realistic pictures undisturbed by fantasy. The intellectual interest is the main spring of his inspiration and that is the angle from which he approaches all the aspects of his subject matter. The result is that he analyses actions and diagnoses motives.

Biotech Industry Proposal

Executive Summary Biotech industry is dynamic in nature and has several companies globally. Furthermore, there are new products being developed in the industry that are new in the global economic environment. However, several people are not aware of the products from this industry. Moreover, the industry is still growing and is among new industries to be developed and is growing at a rapid speed. This is a marketing research proposal on biotech industry products. It highlights methodology to be used, methods of data collection to be applied in the research study, objectives of the proposed research, expected findings and research limitations. Introduction Biotechnology is a biological field of specialization involving use of bioprocesses and living organisms in technology, engineering and medicine among other fields that require bio products. Biotechnology utilizes bio products in manufacturing processes. Biotechnology involves modification of living organisms or bio to suit the changing needs of human beings. Generally, biotechnology uses technical and scientific advances in developing commercial products. There are several advances that have been developed in the biotechnology industry but still require more research, for instance, test tube babies among others. The United States is considered to be the highest consumer of biotech products in the globe. The research based on biotechnology industry provides an opportunity to a student to demonstrate application of his/her knowledge, skill and competencies required during the technical session. Research also helps a student to devote his/her skill to analyze a problem and suggest alternative solutions, to evaluate them and to provide feasible recommendations on the provided data. This research proposal can be useful for companies that opt to enter the biotechnology industry, and it can also serve as an information resource in the industry. This is a marketing research proposal on biotechnology industry. Problem definition or statement Which factors influence consumers’ decision on purchasing bio products in the United States? Objectives The overall objective of the proposal is determination of consumers’ attitude towards use of biotech products in the United States and entire globe. However, the objective is further subdivided into sub-objectives listed below: To determine uses of biotech products. To determine biotech products that consumers prefer. To determine why consumers prefer biotech products in the United States. Determination of biotech products’ promotional platforms (Nelson 31). The objectives have been detailed below. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Determination of uses of biotech products in the United States This objective seeks to trace arrival of biotech products in homes or domestic setting, how they are consumed or disposed after use. It will help in estimation of households that purchase biotech products and the products that are mainly purchased by consumers in the United States. It highlights the current uses of biotech products, and it will also identify the constituents of the target group (Nelson 33). Determination of biotech products preferred mostly by consumers This objective will help in identification of consumers that mainly prefer biotech products and the respective products that they prefer. It will also assist in determination or estimation of the quantities that can be purchased, and prices at which most buyers are willing to purchase the respective products (Nelson 32). Determination of biotech products’ promotional platform This objective will assists in determination of the brand segment that is appealing. This proposal will have three stages, for instance, inspection of existing sources. Secondly, qualitative research, which assists in designing the questionnaire will be used in the third stage of the research proposal. Finally, the third stage will be designing the questionnaire and its use in collection of primary data (Nelson 34). Methodology This section focuses on the research methodology of the study and the theory of research design in detail. There are different types of research methodologies that can be used in research methods, for instance, qualitative or quantitative. Choice of the research method to use in research depends with the subject matter or topic and nature of the study and intended data to be collected among other statistical characteristics or features. Furthermore, the research should be designed in such a way that the study topic is effectively and adequately addressed. The data collection method should also be reliable depending on the nature of the study and required data. There are two types of data collection methods, for instance, primary and secondary data collection methods (Mouse 63). Considering nature of biotechnology industry, the research should apply both qualitative and quantitative research methods. Application of both research methods will enable effective and adequate research on the study topic considering the dynamic nature of biotechnology industry. Moreover, the data collection methods should be both primary and secondary data collection methods. Data required for this research should be obtained from primary sources and secondary sources to enable comparison of the obtained data with past research on the industry because there are similar researches that have been conducted in the past. This will also ensure that the results are realistic and reliable (Sharon 33). We will write a custom Proposal on Biotech Industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Desk research Secondary sources search will be conducted with an aim of refining objectives and provision of enquiry lines for the subsequent stage of the research. This stage of research will assist in evaluation of biotech products use in the United States over the past ten years. This stage will also be useful and important because it will require identification of competing products and useful information about them. This will be important in determination of the closest competitors, their weaknesses and strengths and how to effectively approach the market despite their influence or strength in the respective market. There are several objectives of this stage of the research though its main objective is comparison and evaluation of the market trend over the past years (Nelson 32). How many consumers prefer and or use biotech products? What kind of biotech products do consumers use? What are the uses of biotech products currently? What are the current prices of the biotech products? What are the packaging used? What are the promotions used currently? Who are the target audience? Procedure The desk search should begin internally with the respective company in the industry producing biotech products and supplying the United States being the leading consumer of biotech products globally. Personnel who have access to internal records of the company should be consulted to enhance better understanding of the respective organization or company. Internal personnel should be briefed on the requirements of the research, and this can be effectively achieved after three consecutive meetings with the company’s personnel. Sales team must be part of the personnel being briefed since the research is directly concerned with their interest and purpose in the respective organization. There are several internal reports that should be accessed to enable effectiveness of the research. They include any complaints received by the organization, buying patterns in the respective region, customers’ correspondence, and domestic marketplace records among others. These records will be useful in determination of a likely marketplace and indicate weaknesses and strengths that will be helpful and useful in segmentation (Uche 75). External search will also be useful in the research process. Obtaining and analyzing existing assessments of market by other companies in the respective industry is also useful and important. Relevant associations dealing with trade should be contacted, and an inspection of published research on use and purchase of biotech products in the market should be conducted. Promotional and advertising materials portfolio should be based on the competition prevailing in the respective industry. This will be useful in choice of materials that will enable effective exploration of promotional platforms (Lenox 56). Qualitative research Purpose There are certain explanatory aspects of the research study objectives, and this requires detailed qualitative information. Therefore, the research should be designed in such a way that it enhances better understanding and exploration of potential customers’ attitudes towards the products. This can only be achieved if the designed research is focused on nature. However, widespread attitudes of customers will be effectively and adequately measured by quantitative research. The qualitative research has the following objectives: Not sure if you can write a paper on Biotech Industry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Determination of biotech products that consumers are aware of. Whether consumers are ready to pay more for the biotech products. The quantities that consumers are likely to purchase. The groups of consumers that is most likely to use the biotech products. Current use of biotech products (McCarthy 67). Sampling and population I would like to propose composition of four groups with different profiles to avoid confusion, for instance: Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 South ABC1 South C2DE North C2DE East ABC1 The groups formed will comprises of males and females and both heavy and light users of the respective products. Procedure The product must be introduced, and consumers must be aware of the features, characteristics, uses and advantages of the product over others in the industry among others. Since this is a humble opportunity to introduce the product, it should be described and shown alongside competitors’ products. Under this stage of the research, one of the most important aspects or factors is the packaging of the respective product that is to be introduced in the industry. The moderator should ensure that the packaging decision does not distract the process. Packaging used in other markets can also be adopted in case they are effective and superior to others in the respective market. It can also be adopted in case it can appeal to the consumers of the respective market (Gowdy 29). Quantitative research Quantitative research methods vary and they can be applied in this research study. However, the chosen method should be cost effective to ensure it does not interrupt the business and operating costs of the company or organization. I propose use of CATI questionnaire to be carried out through a telephone study because it is cost effective compared to distribution of questionnaires to different people. This method is effective in contacting specified respondents’ especially relevant respondents. A personal interview might go outside the budget of the company considering operating costs have to be minimized to maximize levels of returns. There are other effective quantitative research methods such as online and postal study approach. However, I have decided to use the telephone study because it will enhance swift and accurate choice of respondents. Moreover, use of telephone study will assist in achievement of obtaining the maximum number of respondents, hence, increase chances of obtaining the desired data or information (McCarthy 59). Purpose Generally, this stage of the research aims at quantification of the number of consumers that use biotech products and the product commonly used by the respective consumers. This stage of research will also assist in determination of biotech products that consumers are aware of in the market, and those that they easily access. It is also at this stage that prompt awareness and spontaneous percentages opt to be provided. Furthermore, classification data are established under this stage. These data are essential and important in determination of consumers who frequently purchase these products, use these products, and the prices at which consumers are willing and able to purchase the respective products. Finally, name of the product opt to be probed at this stage though it might be premature to certain extent, but it can be done through the questionnaire (Uche 79). Sampling and population Interview should be carried among different consumers from different places in the market. Carrying out 200 interviews among different locations can be effective in ensuring determination of consumer information and understanding their demand pattern in the respective market. It will ensure identification of interesting differences in the respective market. The interview will mainly be conducted among people who have purchasing power or ability to purchase the products; therefore, the interviewees should mainly be adults with income (Lenox 56). The following interlocking quota will be useful and important: Geographical area size Male Female Total Population sample 1 25 25 50 2 25 25 50 3 25 25 50 4 25 25 50 total 100 100 200 Procedure A questionnaire will be used in this stage of the research, and after development of the questionnaire, it will be sent to company for approval. Generally, the designed questionnaire will aim at probing the following: Current uses of biotech products. Groups of people that is likely to make use of biotech products. Quantities likely to be purchased by consumers. Prices that consumers will be willing and able to pay for the products. Preparedness of consumers to pay more for the products (McCarthy 69). Questions might be pre-coded where possible. However, a questionnaire with five open-ended questions has been designed and is expected to be answered within ten minutes due to cost consideration. Code frames should be prepared for the first 10% in answering the open-ended questions. Computer tabulations will be involved in the analysis process in frequency distribution form. Thereafter, initial data will be evaluated after discussion of subsequent statistical analysis. Finally, the data obtained have to be compared with past data or research results on the respective market to ensure accuracy and reliability hence use the data in future for reference purposes (McCarthy 75). Reporting Interim presentation-report should be submitted after qualitative research. Thereafter a meeting opts to be held with the respective company to discuss subsequent research stage of the research process. Power point presentation containing an outline has to be created too. In case the interim presentation-report is approved by the respective company, then findings, conclusion, and recommendations should be formally presented. Furthermore, three copies summarizing research findings of the different research phases have to be submitted. Moreover, tabulations should be provided in three sets. Interview transcripts may be presented to the organization at request but at extra cost (Gowdy 31). Timing The project has to be planned to ensure all phases are adequately and effectively addressed. A time table must be designed to ensure that all the important phases of the research are adequately responded to, and the report presented within the stated deadline by the company to enable discussion and smooth implementation of the report. However, though the project will take couples of weeks, project weekly progress has to be sent to the respective organization via e-mail. Sending weekly progress to the company will allow for incorporation of modification suggested by the company (Nelson 32). Below is the suggested time table for the research to be conducted. Week Activity 1-4 Desk research 4-6 Qualitative fieldwork 7 Desk research/qualitative research final report available 8 Developing the questionnaire 9 Pilot 10 Debriefing the pilot 11-12 Quantitative stage 12-13 Data presentation and coding of the respective data 14 Analysis of the data 16 Presentation of the interim presentation-report 18 Presentation of the final report Limitations of study The research study is effective, but limited to certain areas. This is a market research in the biotech industry. It is limited to the marketing and sales department of the respective company in biotech industry. The proposed research is effective in evaluation of a market, but it might not effectively serve the intended purpose because the time set aside for the research may not be adequate in obtaining the required information. Furthermore, respondents may not provide accurate information on the respective product. Moreover, biotech products are not intensively used hence lack of adequate knowledge on biotech products (Uche 86). Work Cited Gowdy, John. “Marketing: Principles and practice.” International Journal of Marketing research14.1 (2007): 27-36. Print. Lenox, Marcel. Essentials of Marketing research. New York: Springer, 2005. Print. McCarthy, David. “Marketing Research”. International Marketing review 12.3 (2010): 56-78. Print. Mouse, Mika, “Marketing: Essentials of research methods in marketing.” Biological Perspectives Journal 23.4 (2006): 63. Print. Nelson, William. “Research methods.” Biological Science Review 96.2 (2006): 31-34. Print. Sharon, Bret. “Data collection: Primary and secondary data collection sources.” Research News

Barriers to Quality Health Care Access Among Women of Childbearing Age Paper

term paper help Barriers to Quality Health Care Access Among Women of Childbearing Age Paper.

Birth in the United States Research PaperLearning Objective:Explain the ethical, cultural, economic, and social issues impacting the care women receive before, during, and after pregnancy. Understand how these issues can affect the health of women of childbearing age and their fetus in the United States.Overview of Assignment:Write a paper exploring the ethical, economic, cultural, and social issues that women of childbearing age face today in the United States. You can pick a topic that affects women in the childbearing stage of their lives and how it impacts the care received, their lives, their health, or the health of their fetus. Or you can explain each topic individually based on different topics. Overall, research how the ethical, economic, cultural, and social issues can impact women living in the United States. You may use your text and the Herzing library, however, you MUST USE at least 4 scholarly sources to support your ideas, at least one for each consideration you are discussing.Paper Requirements:Length and Elements: The length of this essay should only be 3-4 written pages and should include:1)Introduction with specific thesis statement (i.e. The purpose of this paper is to…Make sure to introduce the four issues you will be discussing in your paper)2)Body of Paper: discuss each of the following considerations in separate sections with the following headings:a.Ethical Issues—explore the ethical issues that surround and confront the childbearing women in the United States (DO NOT discuss informed consent as this is not the type of ethical issue I am looking for, look for issues related to abortion, IVF, genetic testing, ect.)b.Economic Issues—consider the economic (money related) barriers women face, including such topics as: insurance coverage or lack thereof, WIC, money for food, Medicaid, rural access to childbearing services, etc.c.Cultural Issues—discuss the various cultural norms that can be found among the different cultures of people in Minnesota and how these different cultural norms can impact the care received during pregnancyd.Social Issues—consider health disparities a person experiences due to their social environment such as women of poverty, women of color, Amish women, being an immigrant (legal or illegal), being rich, teenagers experiencing pregnancy, ect in the United States. Relate these specific social considerations to childbearing women and how it affects maternal morbidity and mortality.3)Conclusion: Summarize your findings; re-emphasize the thesis of the paper without simply repeating it; and do not introduce new ideas here4)Use proper grammar, spelling, and APA 6th edition formatting including a title and reference page (the title and reference pages do not count toward the page total).
Barriers to Quality Health Care Access Among Women of Childbearing Age Paper

English Language and Literature homework help

English Language and Literature homework help. This is a paper that focuses on analysis of a court decision of a medical malpractice. This is done by a physician in regards to medical standards of care.,Analysis of a court decision of a medical malpractice,I‌‌‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍HP Mile 2 Overview:,The final case study for this course will require you to analyze a court decision. Which a physician was found liable for medical malpractice. You will focus on facts pertaining to the medical standard of care, breach of care, and also causation. You will explain how the application is  to law. Additionally, you will then use the facts of the case to identify an ethics issue and determine an ethical theory that would help provide a safe, quality healthcare experience for the patient. Next, you will apply a clinician–patient shared decision-making model to describe how the ethics issue could be resolved.,You will also include a discussion about possible violations of the code of ethics in your given field. Lastly, you will augment or vary the facts of the case to create a hypothetical scenario that changes the outcome so that the physician is no longer liable for medical malpractice. Prompt: In this project, you will analyze a court case involving medical malpractice.,For this milestone, you will use the facts from the original case to identify an ethics issue. Determine an ethical theory that would help provide a safe and quality healthcare experience for the patient. Also, apply a clinician–patient shared decision-making model.,III. Ethical Component:,In this section, you will evaluate the case to identify the specific ethical issues and determine ethical theories and shared decision making models that would help resolve the issue and provide a safe, quality healthcare experience. Then, you will propose and defend ethical guidelines for healthcare providers to follow in order to avoid future incidents.,A. Firstly, describe the ethical issues that led to th‌‌‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍e malpractice case and explain why the issues are credited with causing the incident. Support your response with research and relevant examples from the case,B. Secondly, describe an ethical theory that would help resolve the issue and provide a safe, quality healthcare experience for the patient. Support your response with research and relevant examples from the case.,C. Thirdly, select a physician–patient shared decision-making model and explain how it would provide a safe, quality healthcare experience for the patient,D. Fourthly, propose ethical guidelines that would have helped prevent the incident and would help the organization prevent future incidents.,E. Lastly, defend how your proposed ethical guidelines will hold healthcare providers accountable to themselves, their profession, their patients, and the public. Here’ s the case ,‌‌‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍Rjn2Do.,Attachments,Click Here To Download,English Language and Literature homework help

Effects Of Circumcision

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp More often people here about circumcision as a religious rite among Jews and Muslims and less likely this procedure is discussed from a medical point of view. There is no consensus about its feasibility and even doctors can not determine whether this procedure needed or not. According to statistics, about 1/7 of the world male are circumcised and, in most cases it is for religious reasons. In Europe, male circumcision is not very popular, unlike the U.S., where more than 50% of boys are circumcised, mostly for reasons of hygiene (Rosen, 2010). There are vivid reasons for this procedure the same as effects which should be thought out thoroughly. The tradition of circumcision appeared in a primitive society, when the transition of boys into the group of adult men was accompanied by a rite of initiation. During the initiation, young men were not just receiving the traditions and intimate knowledge of the tribe, but also subjected to physical tests, among which the circumcision was perhaps not the most painful. European and American part of the population is very ambivalent about this process. For example, in the early ’60s in Western countries there was the so-called “the boom of circumcision.” Through the process of cutting off the foreskin were going almost all male – adult and newborn babies. However, in the 70ies-80ies the “boom” finished and there was a time to sum up the results (it should be noted that according to statistics, nowadays about 80% of American men are circumcised) (Joseph, 2010). In the modern world circumcision is made in some peoples of Australia, Oceania, and Africa. The most widespread, circumcision is in the religious rites of Judaism and Islam. So in some religions, circumcision is an obligatory ritual; for example Muslims circumcise children when they are 8-13 years old, while Jews do it already on the 8th day after the birth (Anwar, 2010). Circumcision is a minor surgery aimed to remove the foreskin of the penis. The result of the complete removal of the foreskin is an open glans penis; as a result of partial removal of the foreskin, an opening of glans penis is achieved (Castellsague, 2002). The question of circumcision is very discussible and has a lot of proponents and opponents. Doctors have sounded positive and negative effects of circumcision. Discussing the positive effects, the most vivid are: the reduce of probability of occurrence the reproductive system malignant tumors; increased duration of coitus – due to the absence of the foreskin, the glans penis becomes less sensitive during the frictions that contributes to delay of ejaculation (though this point may not always be considered as positive); improvement in the appearance of the penis. It is also proved that there is a connection between inflammation in the area of ​​the foreskin and urinary tract infection. Thus, while examining of 100 children with urinary tract infection in age from 5 days to 8 months, it was noticed that 95% of them were boys and all of them were not circumcised (Ginsberg CM, 1982). The survey of U.S. military showed that the incidence of urinary tract infections is 10-20 times higher in men who haven’t been circumcised (Wiswell TE, 1987). One more positive medical effect of circumcision is that penile cancer is found only in men who previously did not have circumcision. Mortality in cases of penile cancer in the U.S. is 25% (Castellsague, 2002). Circumcision significantly reduces the likelihood of developing penile cancer in men. Also the connection between circumcision and sexually transmitted diseases is also acknowledged (Rosen, 2010). These diseases, which typically include the integrity of the epithelium, or ulcers (genetalny herpes, syphilis, AIDS) are more common in men who were not circumcised (Waldeck, 2003). In addition, Australian researchers have found out that circumcised men are much less likely to get AIDS and other infectious diseases of the reproductive system. Scientists have discovered that immunodeficiency virus penetrates the foreskin much easier than other tissues of the male organism (Ferris, 2010). Also, a group of U.S. researchers, working in India under the leadership of Dr. Stephen Reynolds, made this conclusion, surveying more than 2 thousand men. The report of the Surgeon General is published in the medical journal Lancet (D’Arcy, 2011). The article says that the risk of getting the deadly virus for circumcised men is six times less than for those who did not pass this procedure. However, scientists announce that from other sexually transmitted infections, circumcision does not protect. The reason may lie in specific cells of the foreskin, which are very susceptible to HIV (D’Arcy, 2011). Dr. Reynolds says that circumcision can be a serious tool in the fight against AIDS – especially in developing countries, where condoms are not equally shared (D’Arcy, 2011). Previously, scientists believed that circumcised men were less susceptible to AIDS due to the special patterns of sexual behavior – their upbringing did not permit to have casual sexual acts. However, it is clear now that the reason is just physiological and has nothing to do with ethics or religion (Brooks, 2010). The effects of circumcision have not only positive points, but negative also. One of the main effects is a severe pain. Previously, infants were circumcised without anesthesia, which in turn led to a painful shock, but nowadays local anesthesia is used almost always during such procedures. One more strong negative effect is unnecessary intervention in human anatomy. There is nothing superfluous in humans; in fact the foreskin performs the same role for the glans penis as the eyelid to the eye. It protects the glans penis. The opponents of circumcision believe that it is far from inconsistency to ethical standards. Since the infant can not decide himself whether he needs circumcision or not, human rights advocates say that decisions made by parents, are inhuman. Like most surgeries, the procedure of circumcision has a number of postoperative complications, the most common of which are the following: hematoma (bleeding in the tissue, or a bruise) and wound infection. To eliminate these negative effects, in most cases is possible through the most thorough dressing and postoperative area care. There are also possible such negative effects as contagious infection, the formation of excessive scar tissue, mechanical damage to the urethra during surgery, various strains of penis, swelling and inflammation of the urethra. Never the less such problems happen rather rare. A more serious consequence, requiring repeated surgical intervention is painful erections that are also considered as possible medical effects of circumcision. It is important to mention that the presence of the foreskin makes the surface of the glans penis moist corresponding humidity of woman’s vagina and that physiological. Penis after circumcision does not have such natural advantages, and circumcised men often have to use special lubricants during sex. Medical practice shows that children whose foreskin was cut are affected by infectious disease of the penis during the first years of life five times more often then children who were not circumcised. This is explained by the fact that smegma contains lysozyme, which reduces the risk of urinary tract infection. The infant is not asked whether he wants to have such surgery or not. Adults decide everything for him. However, any surgery is a trauma, the psychological consequences of which can persist for life. Americans, carefully, even reverently care about their mental health, combined into society under the slogan of opponents of circumcision: “Circumcision – mutilation and violence against child’s personality.” At the same time, the surgeons quite successfully develop techniques that allow pulling the skin of penis to form a new foreskin. Many people believe that circumcised foreskin impoverishes sexual feelings, and this view has the right for existence. Foreskin moves during the frictions, making the experience richer be the most natural way, without using any appliances from the store of intimate accessories. There is no doubt that circumcision is sometimes a necessary therapeutic measure during frequent inflammatory diseases of the foreskin, phimosis and paraphimosis. However, as a preventive operation, it is hardly justified, although not so long ago people practiced across-tonsillectomy as a preventive measure of angina, and cutting the appendix to avoid possible appendicitis. Here’s what a well-known pediatrician, Dr. Hugh Jolly says: “There is no doubt that the best thing you can do with the foreskin of your infant son, is to leave it, you just need to give it time to separate itself from the glans, and it will easily pull back. It happens at the age of 4. It is best to try to move the foreskin during bathing. However, if the glans is exposed difficultly, do not hurry, there is no need… If you try to pull the foreskin before it happens naturally, you can damage skin and cause bleeding. The scar occurs at the place of injury. In cases where the foreskin is fused with the glans, circumcision can not be longer avoided” (Morris, 2010). Until the natural separation of the foreskin, it protects the glans from infection. In infancy the cleansing of the glans penis in boys, as well as the clitoris in girls occurs itself, naturally. The irony is that it is after the cutoff there is an urgent need for careful care of the glans penis. Deepening and skin folds in the bridle and the corolla are ideal for bacterial growth. The glans penis which is not circumcised has a smooth, slippery and wet surface. After the cutoff, it becomes matte and dry. The modern mentality often equates dryness and purity that is why from this point of view the untouched by the circumcision glans seen as dirty. That is a fallacy. Young people in the United States regularly go to the doctor for circumcision. Their decision, they often motivate by partner’s insistence, which is usually due to three factors: hygiene, aesthetics and traditions. The woman is afraid of dirt that can accumulate under a fold of skin, wrinkling her unpleasant appearance of the foreskin and, finally, she wants her partner looked like the rest men in her family. The essence of the problem is that the excision of the foreskin causes severe pain. In most cases, operations are done without anesthesia, as it is commonly believed that in the first week of child’s life it is risky. It looks awful when a small, helpless creature is tied to a special table for cutting. The child lies on it; crucified and abandoned by all … He reacts with horror at the bright light of surgical lights, ringing metal tools, masks of doctors, shining knives and the terrible physical pain. None knows how long his continues continue. The psychological effects of such procedure are not studied yet, so none can tell how it affects a child. Journalist Philip Baffle wrote in The New York Times: “Newborns experience pain. There is no need to explain it to parents; it’s not a mystery to many pediatricians. Unfortunately among doctors, who are operating babies without anesthetic or with minimal use, opposite opinion is dominated” (Gilliam, 2010). Philip Baffle states that according to one of scientific researched, 77% of all infants who had surgery because of serious defects of the cardiovascular system in 1954-1983, were given only local anesthesia, and very rare with the interrupted supply of nitrous oxide (Gilliam, 2010). Meanwhile, really effective painkillers, which are suitable for children, have already passed into the category of available. Such a rare use of analgesics while operating newborn proves that medical practice is sometimes based on incomplete knowledge and false beliefs and that criticism contributes the truth. The situation is changing. In most U.S. medical institutions doctors use painkillers during major surgery. However, some anesthesiologists stubbornly adhere to old beliefs and there are still surgical units where little children are operated without anesthesia in the case of simple operations, such as circumcision. Considerations which make the routine practice of circumcision doubtful include pain and risk associated with small surgical interventions. Circumcision is a surgical procedure, and the pain that is brought to the baby is also real. Pain is manifested in grimace, cry, heart palpitations and lack of saturation blood with oxygen (Kaufman, 2001). Studies indicate that circumcision in the neonatal period is a stress, which causes behavioral and psychological pain reactions (Malnory, 2003). American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recognizes that there is a significant painful reaction during neonatal circumcision and recommends the use of analgesics (Gatrad, 2002). One of researchers believes that the most important argument against circumcision is a permanent violation of anatomy, histology and functions of the penis, which are fraught with potential complications (Atikeler, 2001). The same study reports about complications including bleeding, stenosis, incomplete circumcision, penile edema, damage of the glands, adhesion, hypospadias and damage of urethra (Atikeler, 2001). The overall incidence of complications of circumcision according to the medical literature is 1.6% (El-Bhnasawy, 2002). Adhesion of the penis is the most preventable and non-binding complications of circumcision. Among all the complications, an adhesion is observed in 71% of cases (Kebaabetswe, 2003). After neonatal circumcision, the majority of adhesions resolve sponatanno (Kebaabetswe, 2003). Another risk associated with circumcision, is the lack or excess of skin that can cause problems such as recurrent phimosis (Gatrad, 2002). Phimosis happens in approximately 2.9% of cases (Blalock, 2003). In the UK, the circumcision is not practiced routinely, as the procedure has limited medical benefits. As a result, circumcision is a medical event, which is paid by insurance only in case of medical necessity (Shah, 1999). Summarizing everything that was written above, it is worth repeating that circumcision is a surgically removal of the foreskin. It is dome more due to cultural traditions, than medical prescriptions. Circumcision is a kind of intervention in the very intimate area associated with family and religious traditions. Typically, the feasibility of circumcision causes active debates. Modern parents, before deciding to cut off their son, must carefully think about pros and cons of this procedure and related to this operation danger. Circumcision causes medical and psychological effects on children and they are worth consideration while taking decision. Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp