WEEK 4 LECTURE AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS Describing Health Conditions: Understanding and Using RatesGathering Evidence for Public Health Practice Read chapters 7 and 8 of the class textbooks (Once done answer the following questions) 1. Describe an understanding of the following.The primary method used to measure the state of health a population is experiencing, including the rules and formula used for calculationsThe difference between crude and adjusted rates as well as incidence and prevalence ratesThe difference between incidence density, incidence rates, and relative risk ratio.2. Using examples, interpret the relevance of the use of rates in nursing practice.3. Mention and discuss the differences between descriptive and analytical research.As stated in the syllabus present your assignment in an APA format word document, APA required font attach to the forum in the discussion tab/folder of the blackboard ultra and in the SafeAssign exercise located in the assignment folder of the blackboard ultra. A minimum of 3 evidence-based references no older than 5 years must be used. You must post two replies on different dates to any of your peers sustained with the proper references no older than 5 years as well and make sure the references are properly quoted in your assignment. The replies cannot be posted on the same day, I must see different dates in the replies. A minimum of 800 words not to exceed 1,000 are required without counting the first and last page. Please make sure to follow the instructions as given and use either spell-check or Grammarly before you post your assignment. Please check your assignment after is posted because I have either made comments or ask for clarification about the assignment or the replies that will require your response.
MDC Week 4 Gathering Evidence for Public Health Practice Discussion
For this week’s post, you are being asked to located a speech/presentation online that you find extremely compelling and effective. Then, in your post, include the following information. 1) Copy and paste the URL of the speech/performance2) Analyze the speech/performance in the following three areas: Visual, Sound, Content. (These are the three we spoke about in our lecture last week – go back to your notes or the lecture if you can’t remember how these areas can be analyzed). In each of these areas, what do you find effective and what do you find less than effective?3) Explain why you chose this speech/presentation and why you believe this to be an excellent example of a speech/presentation (e.g. what does the speaker do so well? What is the purpose of the speech and why is it effective?)
CAT 125 UCI Wk 8 Michelle Obama When They Go Low We Go High Essay Analysis Discussion
Biotech Industry Proposal
Executive Summary Biotech industry is dynamic in nature and has several companies globally. Furthermore, there are new products being developed in the industry that are new in the global economic environment. However, several people are not aware of the products from this industry. Moreover, the industry is still growing and is among new industries to be developed and is growing at a rapid speed. This is a marketing research proposal on biotech industry products. It highlights methodology to be used, methods of data collection to be applied in the research study, objectives of the proposed research, expected findings and research limitations. Introduction Biotechnology is a biological field of specialization involving use of bioprocesses and living organisms in technology, engineering and medicine among other fields that require bio products. Biotechnology utilizes bio products in manufacturing processes. Biotechnology involves modification of living organisms or bio to suit the changing needs of human beings. Generally, biotechnology uses technical and scientific advances in developing commercial products. There are several advances that have been developed in the biotechnology industry but still require more research, for instance, test tube babies among others. The United States is considered to be the highest consumer of biotech products in the globe. The research based on biotechnology industry provides an opportunity to a student to demonstrate application of his/her knowledge, skill and competencies required during the technical session. Research also helps a student to devote his/her skill to analyze a problem and suggest alternative solutions, to evaluate them and to provide feasible recommendations on the provided data. This research proposal can be useful for companies that opt to enter the biotechnology industry, and it can also serve as an information resource in the industry. This is a marketing research proposal on biotechnology industry. Problem definition or statement Which factors influence consumers’ decision on purchasing bio products in the United States? Objectives The overall objective of the proposal is determination of consumers’ attitude towards use of biotech products in the United States and entire globe. However, the objective is further subdivided into sub-objectives listed below: To determine uses of biotech products. To determine biotech products that consumers prefer. To determine why consumers prefer biotech products in the United States. Determination of biotech products’ promotional platforms (Nelson 31). The objectives have been detailed below. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Determination of uses of biotech products in the United States This objective seeks to trace arrival of biotech products in homes or domestic setting, how they are consumed or disposed after use. It will help in estimation of households that purchase biotech products and the products that are mainly purchased by consumers in the United States. It highlights the current uses of biotech products, and it will also identify the constituents of the target group (Nelson 33). Determination of biotech products preferred mostly by consumers This objective will help in identification of consumers that mainly prefer biotech products and the respective products that they prefer. It will also assist in determination or estimation of the quantities that can be purchased, and prices at which most buyers are willing to purchase the respective products (Nelson 32). Determination of biotech products’ promotional platform This objective will assists in determination of the brand segment that is appealing. This proposal will have three stages, for instance, inspection of existing sources. Secondly, qualitative research, which assists in designing the questionnaire will be used in the third stage of the research proposal. Finally, the third stage will be designing the questionnaire and its use in collection of primary data (Nelson 34). Methodology This section focuses on the research methodology of the study and the theory of research design in detail. There are different types of research methodologies that can be used in research methods, for instance, qualitative or quantitative. Choice of the research method to use in research depends with the subject matter or topic and nature of the study and intended data to be collected among other statistical characteristics or features. Furthermore, the research should be designed in such a way that the study topic is effectively and adequately addressed. The data collection method should also be reliable depending on the nature of the study and required data. There are two types of data collection methods, for instance, primary and secondary data collection methods (Mouse 63). Considering nature of biotechnology industry, the research should apply both qualitative and quantitative research methods. Application of both research methods will enable effective and adequate research on the study topic considering the dynamic nature of biotechnology industry. Moreover, the data collection methods should be both primary and secondary data collection methods. Data required for this research should be obtained from primary sources and secondary sources to enable comparison of the obtained data with past research on the industry because there are similar researches that have been conducted in the past. This will also ensure that the results are realistic and reliable (Sharon 33). We will write a custom Proposal on Biotech Industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Desk research Secondary sources search will be conducted with an aim of refining objectives and provision of enquiry lines for the subsequent stage of the research. This stage of research will assist in evaluation of biotech products use in the United States over the past ten years. This stage will also be useful and important because it will require identification of competing products and useful information about them. This will be important in determination of the closest competitors, their weaknesses and strengths and how to effectively approach the market despite their influence or strength in the respective market. There are several objectives of this stage of the research though its main objective is comparison and evaluation of the market trend over the past years (Nelson 32). How many consumers prefer and or use biotech products? What kind of biotech products do consumers use? What are the uses of biotech products currently? What are the current prices of the biotech products? What are the packaging used? What are the promotions used currently? Who are the target audience? Procedure The desk search should begin internally with the respective company in the industry producing biotech products and supplying the United States being the leading consumer of biotech products globally. Personnel who have access to internal records of the company should be consulted to enhance better understanding of the respective organization or company. Internal personnel should be briefed on the requirements of the research, and this can be effectively achieved after three consecutive meetings with the company’s personnel. Sales team must be part of the personnel being briefed since the research is directly concerned with their interest and purpose in the respective organization. There are several internal reports that should be accessed to enable effectiveness of the research. They include any complaints received by the organization, buying patterns in the respective region, customers’ correspondence, and domestic marketplace records among others. These records will be useful in determination of a likely marketplace and indicate weaknesses and strengths that will be helpful and useful in segmentation (Uche 75). External search will also be useful in the research process. Obtaining and analyzing existing assessments of market by other companies in the respective industry is also useful and important. Relevant associations dealing with trade should be contacted, and an inspection of published research on use and purchase of biotech products in the market should be conducted. Promotional and advertising materials portfolio should be based on the competition prevailing in the respective industry. This will be useful in choice of materials that will enable effective exploration of promotional platforms (Lenox 56). Qualitative research Purpose There are certain explanatory aspects of the research study objectives, and this requires detailed qualitative information. Therefore, the research should be designed in such a way that it enhances better understanding and exploration of potential customers’ attitudes towards the products. This can only be achieved if the designed research is focused on nature. However, widespread attitudes of customers will be effectively and adequately measured by quantitative research. The qualitative research has the following objectives: Not sure if you can write a paper on Biotech Industry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Determination of biotech products that consumers are aware of. Whether consumers are ready to pay more for the biotech products. The quantities that consumers are likely to purchase. The groups of consumers that is most likely to use the biotech products. Current use of biotech products (McCarthy 67). Sampling and population I would like to propose composition of four groups with different profiles to avoid confusion, for instance: Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 South ABC1 South C2DE North C2DE East ABC1 The groups formed will comprises of males and females and both heavy and light users of the respective products. Procedure The product must be introduced, and consumers must be aware of the features, characteristics, uses and advantages of the product over others in the industry among others. Since this is a humble opportunity to introduce the product, it should be described and shown alongside competitors’ products. Under this stage of the research, one of the most important aspects or factors is the packaging of the respective product that is to be introduced in the industry. The moderator should ensure that the packaging decision does not distract the process. Packaging used in other markets can also be adopted in case they are effective and superior to others in the respective market. It can also be adopted in case it can appeal to the consumers of the respective market (Gowdy 29). Quantitative research Quantitative research methods vary and they can be applied in this research study. However, the chosen method should be cost effective to ensure it does not interrupt the business and operating costs of the company or organization. I propose use of CATI questionnaire to be carried out through a telephone study because it is cost effective compared to distribution of questionnaires to different people. This method is effective in contacting specified respondents’ especially relevant respondents. A personal interview might go outside the budget of the company considering operating costs have to be minimized to maximize levels of returns. There are other effective quantitative research methods such as online and postal study approach. However, I have decided to use the telephone study because it will enhance swift and accurate choice of respondents. Moreover, use of telephone study will assist in achievement of obtaining the maximum number of respondents, hence, increase chances of obtaining the desired data or information (McCarthy 59). Purpose Generally, this stage of the research aims at quantification of the number of consumers that use biotech products and the product commonly used by the respective consumers. This stage of research will also assist in determination of biotech products that consumers are aware of in the market, and those that they easily access. It is also at this stage that prompt awareness and spontaneous percentages opt to be provided. Furthermore, classification data are established under this stage. These data are essential and important in determination of consumers who frequently purchase these products, use these products, and the prices at which consumers are willing and able to purchase the respective products. Finally, name of the product opt to be probed at this stage though it might be premature to certain extent, but it can be done through the questionnaire (Uche 79). Sampling and population Interview should be carried among different consumers from different places in the market. Carrying out 200 interviews among different locations can be effective in ensuring determination of consumer information and understanding their demand pattern in the respective market. It will ensure identification of interesting differences in the respective market. The interview will mainly be conducted among people who have purchasing power or ability to purchase the products; therefore, the interviewees should mainly be adults with income (Lenox 56). The following interlocking quota will be useful and important: Geographical area size Male Female Total Population sample 1 25 25 50 2 25 25 50 3 25 25 50 4 25 25 50 total 100 100 200 Procedure A questionnaire will be used in this stage of the research, and after development of the questionnaire, it will be sent to company for approval. Generally, the designed questionnaire will aim at probing the following: Current uses of biotech products. Groups of people that is likely to make use of biotech products. Quantities likely to be purchased by consumers. Prices that consumers will be willing and able to pay for the products. Preparedness of consumers to pay more for the products (McCarthy 69). Questions might be pre-coded where possible. However, a questionnaire with five open-ended questions has been designed and is expected to be answered within ten minutes due to cost consideration. Code frames should be prepared for the first 10% in answering the open-ended questions. Computer tabulations will be involved in the analysis process in frequency distribution form. Thereafter, initial data will be evaluated after discussion of subsequent statistical analysis. Finally, the data obtained have to be compared with past data or research results on the respective market to ensure accuracy and reliability hence use the data in future for reference purposes (McCarthy 75). Reporting Interim presentation-report should be submitted after qualitative research. Thereafter a meeting opts to be held with the respective company to discuss subsequent research stage of the research process. Power point presentation containing an outline has to be created too. In case the interim presentation-report is approved by the respective company, then findings, conclusion, and recommendations should be formally presented. Furthermore, three copies summarizing research findings of the different research phases have to be submitted. Moreover, tabulations should be provided in three sets. Interview transcripts may be presented to the organization at request but at extra cost (Gowdy 31). Timing The project has to be planned to ensure all phases are adequately and effectively addressed. A time table must be designed to ensure that all the important phases of the research are adequately responded to, and the report presented within the stated deadline by the company to enable discussion and smooth implementation of the report. However, though the project will take couples of weeks, project weekly progress has to be sent to the respective organization via e-mail. Sending weekly progress to the company will allow for incorporation of modification suggested by the company (Nelson 32). Below is the suggested time table for the research to be conducted. Week Activity 1-4 Desk research 4-6 Qualitative fieldwork 7 Desk research/qualitative research final report available 8 Developing the questionnaire 9 Pilot 10 Debriefing the pilot 11-12 Quantitative stage 12-13 Data presentation and coding of the respective data 14 Analysis of the data 16 Presentation of the interim presentation-report 18 Presentation of the final report Limitations of study The research study is effective, but limited to certain areas. This is a market research in the biotech industry. It is limited to the marketing and sales department of the respective company in biotech industry. The proposed research is effective in evaluation of a market, but it might not effectively serve the intended purpose because the time set aside for the research may not be adequate in obtaining the required information. Furthermore, respondents may not provide accurate information on the respective product. Moreover, biotech products are not intensively used hence lack of adequate knowledge on biotech products (Uche 86). Work Cited Gowdy, John. “Marketing: Principles and practice.” International Journal of Marketing research14.1 (2007): 27-36. Print. Lenox, Marcel. Essentials of Marketing research. New York: Springer, 2005. Print. McCarthy, David. “Marketing Research”. International Marketing review 12.3 (2010): 56-78. Print. Mouse, Mika, “Marketing: Essentials of research methods in marketing.” Biological Perspectives Journal 23.4 (2006): 63. Print. Nelson, William. “Research methods.” Biological Science Review 96.2 (2006): 31-34. Print. Sharon, Bret. “Data collection: Primary and secondary data collection sources.” Researchnews.com. Research News
Barriers to Quality Health Care Access Among Women of Childbearing Age Paper
term paper help Barriers to Quality Health Care Access Among Women of Childbearing Age Paper.
Birth in the United States Research PaperLearning Objective:Explain the ethical, cultural, economic, and social issues impacting the care women receive before, during, and after pregnancy. Understand how these issues can affect the health of women of childbearing age and their fetus in the United States.Overview of Assignment:Write a paper exploring the ethical, economic, cultural, and social issues that women of childbearing age face today in the United States. You can pick a topic that affects women in the childbearing stage of their lives and how it impacts the care received, their lives, their health, or the health of their fetus. Or you can explain each topic individually based on different topics. Overall, research how the ethical, economic, cultural, and social issues can impact women living in the United States. You may use your text and the Herzing library, however, you MUST USE at least 4 scholarly sources to support your ideas, at least one for each consideration you are discussing.Paper Requirements:Length and Elements: The length of this essay should only be 3-4 written pages and should include:1)Introduction with specific thesis statement (i.e. The purpose of this paper is to…Make sure to introduce the four issues you will be discussing in your paper)2)Body of Paper: discuss each of the following considerations in separate sections with the following headings:a.Ethical Issues—explore the ethical issues that surround and confront the childbearing women in the United States (DO NOT discuss informed consent as this is not the type of ethical issue I am looking for, look for issues related to abortion, IVF, genetic testing, ect.)b.Economic Issues—consider the economic (money related) barriers women face, including such topics as: insurance coverage or lack thereof, WIC, money for food, Medicaid, rural access to childbearing services, etc.c.Cultural Issues—discuss the various cultural norms that can be found among the different cultures of people in Minnesota and how these different cultural norms can impact the care received during pregnancyd.Social Issues—consider health disparities a person experiences due to their social environment such as women of poverty, women of color, Amish women, being an immigrant (legal or illegal), being rich, teenagers experiencing pregnancy, ect in the United States. Relate these specific social considerations to childbearing women and how it affects maternal morbidity and mortality.3)Conclusion: Summarize your findings; re-emphasize the thesis of the paper without simply repeating it; and do not introduce new ideas here4)Use proper grammar, spelling, and APA 6th edition formatting including a title and reference page (the title and reference pages do not count toward the page total).
Barriers to Quality Health Care Access Among Women of Childbearing Age Paper
English Language and Literature homework help
English Language and Literature homework help. This is a paper that focuses on analysis of a court decision of a medical malpractice. This is done by a physician in regards to medical standards of care.,Analysis of a court decision of a medical malpractice,IHP Mile 2 Overview:,The final case study for this course will require you to analyze a court decision. Which a physician was found liable for medical malpractice. You will focus on facts pertaining to the medical standard of care, breach of care, and also causation. You will explain how the application is to law. Additionally, you will then use the facts of the case to identify an ethics issue and determine an ethical theory that would help provide a safe, quality healthcare experience for the patient. Next, you will apply a clinician–patient shared decision-making model to describe how the ethics issue could be resolved.,You will also include a discussion about possible violations of the code of ethics in your given field. Lastly, you will augment or vary the facts of the case to create a hypothetical scenario that changes the outcome so that the physician is no longer liable for medical malpractice. Prompt: In this project, you will analyze a court case involving medical malpractice.,For this milestone, you will use the facts from the original case to identify an ethics issue. Determine an ethical theory that would help provide a safe and quality healthcare experience for the patient. Also, apply a clinician–patient shared decision-making model.,III. Ethical Component:,In this section, you will evaluate the case to identify the specific ethical issues and determine ethical theories and shared decision making models that would help resolve the issue and provide a safe, quality healthcare experience. Then, you will propose and defend ethical guidelines for healthcare providers to follow in order to avoid future incidents.,A. Firstly, describe the ethical issues that led to the malpractice case and explain why the issues are credited with causing the incident. Support your response with research and relevant examples from the case,B. Secondly, describe an ethical theory that would help resolve the issue and provide a safe, quality healthcare experience for the patient. Support your response with research and relevant examples from the case.,C. Thirdly, select a physician–patient shared decision-making model and explain how it would provide a safe, quality healthcare experience for the patient,D. Fourthly, propose ethical guidelines that would have helped prevent the incident and would help the organization prevent future incidents.,E. Lastly, defend how your proposed ethical guidelines will hold healthcare providers accountable to themselves, their profession, their patients, and the public. Here’ s the case ,https://caselaw.findlaw.com/hi-intermediate-court-of-appeals/1597588.html#.XnPlyRjn2Do.,Attachments,Click Here To Download,English Language and Literature homework help
Effects Of Circumcision
Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp More often people here about circumcision as a religious rite among Jews and Muslims and less likely this procedure is discussed from a medical point of view. There is no consensus about its feasibility and even doctors can not determine whether this procedure needed or not. According to statistics, about 1/7 of the world male are circumcised and, in most cases it is for religious reasons. In Europe, male circumcision is not very popular, unlike the U.S., where more than 50% of boys are circumcised, mostly for reasons of hygiene (Rosen, 2010). There are vivid reasons for this procedure the same as effects which should be thought out thoroughly. The tradition of circumcision appeared in a primitive society, when the transition of boys into the group of adult men was accompanied by a rite of initiation. During the initiation, young men were not just receiving the traditions and intimate knowledge of the tribe, but also subjected to physical tests, among which the circumcision was perhaps not the most painful. European and American part of the population is very ambivalent about this process. For example, in the early ’60s in Western countries there was the so-called “the boom of circumcision.” Through the process of cutting off the foreskin were going almost all male – adult and newborn babies. However, in the 70ies-80ies the “boom” finished and there was a time to sum up the results (it should be noted that according to statistics, nowadays about 80% of American men are circumcised) (Joseph, 2010). In the modern world circumcision is made in some peoples of Australia, Oceania, and Africa. The most widespread, circumcision is in the religious rites of Judaism and Islam. So in some religions, circumcision is an obligatory ritual; for example Muslims circumcise children when they are 8-13 years old, while Jews do it already on the 8th day after the birth (Anwar, 2010). Circumcision is a minor surgery aimed to remove the foreskin of the penis. The result of the complete removal of the foreskin is an open glans penis; as a result of partial removal of the foreskin, an opening of glans penis is achieved (Castellsague, 2002). The question of circumcision is very discussible and has a lot of proponents and opponents. Doctors have sounded positive and negative effects of circumcision. Discussing the positive effects, the most vivid are: the reduce of probability of occurrence the reproductive system malignant tumors; increased duration of coitus – due to the absence of the foreskin, the glans penis becomes less sensitive during the frictions that contributes to delay of ejaculation (though this point may not always be considered as positive); improvement in the appearance of the penis. It is also proved that there is a connection between inflammation in the area of the foreskin and urinary tract infection. Thus, while examining of 100 children with urinary tract infection in age from 5 days to 8 months, it was noticed that 95% of them were boys and all of them were not circumcised (Ginsberg CM, 1982). The survey of U.S. military showed that the incidence of urinary tract infections is 10-20 times higher in men who haven’t been circumcised (Wiswell TE, 1987). One more positive medical effect of circumcision is that penile cancer is found only in men who previously did not have circumcision. Mortality in cases of penile cancer in the U.S. is 25% (Castellsague, 2002). Circumcision significantly reduces the likelihood of developing penile cancer in men. Also the connection between circumcision and sexually transmitted diseases is also acknowledged (Rosen, 2010). These diseases, which typically include the integrity of the epithelium, or ulcers (genetalny herpes, syphilis, AIDS) are more common in men who were not circumcised (Waldeck, 2003). In addition, Australian researchers have found out that circumcised men are much less likely to get AIDS and other infectious diseases of the reproductive system. Scientists have discovered that immunodeficiency virus penetrates the foreskin much easier than other tissues of the male organism (Ferris, 2010). Also, a group of U.S. researchers, working in India under the leadership of Dr. Stephen Reynolds, made this conclusion, surveying more than 2 thousand men. The report of the Surgeon General is published in the medical journal Lancet (D’Arcy, 2011). The article says that the risk of getting the deadly virus for circumcised men is six times less than for those who did not pass this procedure. However, scientists announce that from other sexually transmitted infections, circumcision does not protect. The reason may lie in specific cells of the foreskin, which are very susceptible to HIV (D’Arcy, 2011). Dr. Reynolds says that circumcision can be a serious tool in the fight against AIDS – especially in developing countries, where condoms are not equally shared (D’Arcy, 2011). Previously, scientists believed that circumcised men were less susceptible to AIDS due to the special patterns of sexual behavior – their upbringing did not permit to have casual sexual acts. However, it is clear now that the reason is just physiological and has nothing to do with ethics or religion (Brooks, 2010). The effects of circumcision have not only positive points, but negative also. One of the main effects is a severe pain. Previously, infants were circumcised without anesthesia, which in turn led to a painful shock, but nowadays local anesthesia is used almost always during such procedures. One more strong negative effect is unnecessary intervention in human anatomy. There is nothing superfluous in humans; in fact the foreskin performs the same role for the glans penis as the eyelid to the eye. It protects the glans penis. The opponents of circumcision believe that it is far from inconsistency to ethical standards. Since the infant can not decide himself whether he needs circumcision or not, human rights advocates say that decisions made by parents, are inhuman. Like most surgeries, the procedure of circumcision has a number of postoperative complications, the most common of which are the following: hematoma (bleeding in the tissue, or a bruise) and wound infection. To eliminate these negative effects, in most cases is possible through the most thorough dressing and postoperative area care. There are also possible such negative effects as contagious infection, the formation of excessive scar tissue, mechanical damage to the urethra during surgery, various strains of penis, swelling and inflammation of the urethra. Never the less such problems happen rather rare. A more serious consequence, requiring repeated surgical intervention is painful erections that are also considered as possible medical effects of circumcision. It is important to mention that the presence of the foreskin makes the surface of the glans penis moist corresponding humidity of woman’s vagina and that physiological. Penis after circumcision does not have such natural advantages, and circumcised men often have to use special lubricants during sex. Medical practice shows that children whose foreskin was cut are affected by infectious disease of the penis during the first years of life five times more often then children who were not circumcised. This is explained by the fact that smegma contains lysozyme, which reduces the risk of urinary tract infection. The infant is not asked whether he wants to have such surgery or not. Adults decide everything for him. However, any surgery is a trauma, the psychological consequences of which can persist for life. Americans, carefully, even reverently care about their mental health, combined into society under the slogan of opponents of circumcision: “Circumcision – mutilation and violence against child’s personality.” At the same time, the surgeons quite successfully develop techniques that allow pulling the skin of penis to form a new foreskin. Many people believe that circumcised foreskin impoverishes sexual feelings, and this view has the right for existence. Foreskin moves during the frictions, making the experience richer be the most natural way, without using any appliances from the store of intimate accessories. There is no doubt that circumcision is sometimes a necessary therapeutic measure during frequent inflammatory diseases of the foreskin, phimosis and paraphimosis. However, as a preventive operation, it is hardly justified, although not so long ago people practiced across-tonsillectomy as a preventive measure of angina, and cutting the appendix to avoid possible appendicitis. Here’s what a well-known pediatrician, Dr. Hugh Jolly says: “There is no doubt that the best thing you can do with the foreskin of your infant son, is to leave it, you just need to give it time to separate itself from the glans, and it will easily pull back. It happens at the age of 4. It is best to try to move the foreskin during bathing. However, if the glans is exposed difficultly, do not hurry, there is no need… If you try to pull the foreskin before it happens naturally, you can damage skin and cause bleeding. The scar occurs at the place of injury. In cases where the foreskin is fused with the glans, circumcision can not be longer avoided” (Morris, 2010). Until the natural separation of the foreskin, it protects the glans from infection. In infancy the cleansing of the glans penis in boys, as well as the clitoris in girls occurs itself, naturally. The irony is that it is after the cutoff there is an urgent need for careful care of the glans penis. Deepening and skin folds in the bridle and the corolla are ideal for bacterial growth. The glans penis which is not circumcised has a smooth, slippery and wet surface. After the cutoff, it becomes matte and dry. The modern mentality often equates dryness and purity that is why from this point of view the untouched by the circumcision glans seen as dirty. That is a fallacy. Young people in the United States regularly go to the doctor for circumcision. Their decision, they often motivate by partner’s insistence, which is usually due to three factors: hygiene, aesthetics and traditions. The woman is afraid of dirt that can accumulate under a fold of skin, wrinkling her unpleasant appearance of the foreskin and, finally, she wants her partner looked like the rest men in her family. The essence of the problem is that the excision of the foreskin causes severe pain. In most cases, operations are done without anesthesia, as it is commonly believed that in the first week of child’s life it is risky. It looks awful when a small, helpless creature is tied to a special table for cutting. The child lies on it; crucified and abandoned by all … He reacts with horror at the bright light of surgical lights, ringing metal tools, masks of doctors, shining knives and the terrible physical pain. None knows how long his continues continue. The psychological effects of such procedure are not studied yet, so none can tell how it affects a child. Journalist Philip Baffle wrote in The New York Times: “Newborns experience pain. There is no need to explain it to parents; it’s not a mystery to many pediatricians. Unfortunately among doctors, who are operating babies without anesthetic or with minimal use, opposite opinion is dominated” (Gilliam, 2010). Philip Baffle states that according to one of scientific researched, 77% of all infants who had surgery because of serious defects of the cardiovascular system in 1954-1983, were given only local anesthesia, and very rare with the interrupted supply of nitrous oxide (Gilliam, 2010). Meanwhile, really effective painkillers, which are suitable for children, have already passed into the category of available. Such a rare use of analgesics while operating newborn proves that medical practice is sometimes based on incomplete knowledge and false beliefs and that criticism contributes the truth. The situation is changing. In most U.S. medical institutions doctors use painkillers during major surgery. However, some anesthesiologists stubbornly adhere to old beliefs and there are still surgical units where little children are operated without anesthesia in the case of simple operations, such as circumcision. Considerations which make the routine practice of circumcision doubtful include pain and risk associated with small surgical interventions. Circumcision is a surgical procedure, and the pain that is brought to the baby is also real. Pain is manifested in grimace, cry, heart palpitations and lack of saturation blood with oxygen (Kaufman, 2001). Studies indicate that circumcision in the neonatal period is a stress, which causes behavioral and psychological pain reactions (Malnory, 2003). American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recognizes that there is a significant painful reaction during neonatal circumcision and recommends the use of analgesics (Gatrad, 2002). One of researchers believes that the most important argument against circumcision is a permanent violation of anatomy, histology and functions of the penis, which are fraught with potential complications (Atikeler, 2001). The same study reports about complications including bleeding, stenosis, incomplete circumcision, penile edema, damage of the glands, adhesion, hypospadias and damage of urethra (Atikeler, 2001). The overall incidence of complications of circumcision according to the medical literature is 1.6% (El-Bhnasawy, 2002). Adhesion of the penis is the most preventable and non-binding complications of circumcision. Among all the complications, an adhesion is observed in 71% of cases (Kebaabetswe, 2003). After neonatal circumcision, the majority of adhesions resolve sponatanno (Kebaabetswe, 2003). Another risk associated with circumcision, is the lack or excess of skin that can cause problems such as recurrent phimosis (Gatrad, 2002). Phimosis happens in approximately 2.9% of cases (Blalock, 2003). In the UK, the circumcision is not practiced routinely, as the procedure has limited medical benefits. As a result, circumcision is a medical event, which is paid by insurance only in case of medical necessity (Shah, 1999). Summarizing everything that was written above, it is worth repeating that circumcision is a surgically removal of the foreskin. It is dome more due to cultural traditions, than medical prescriptions. Circumcision is a kind of intervention in the very intimate area associated with family and religious traditions. Typically, the feasibility of circumcision causes active debates. Modern parents, before deciding to cut off their son, must carefully think about pros and cons of this procedure and related to this operation danger. Circumcision causes medical and psychological effects on children and they are worth consideration while taking decision. Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp