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Massacre During the Toxcatl Festival in Tenochtitlan Presentation

Massacre During the Toxcatl Festival in Tenochtitlan Presentation.

http://imaginations.glendon.yorku.ca/?p=11693In order to encourage thoughtful class discussion, you will prepare a CR Presentation on selections from the Imaginations special issue on Queer, Indigenous, and Multispecies Belonging. Presentations should summarize the specific selection/s to classmates who haven’t read it/them, place that/those pieces within the larger context of the class / the critical study of relationality, and contain your critical/analytic reflection on the piece’s contribution to that larger conversation.I am looking for evidence of knowledge, understanding, and critical reflection. Please be sure your presentation addresses the following:1) Question(s) (i.e., what questions are being asked and/or themes explored in the piece?)2) Method or Style (i.e., how does the author go about asking or exploring/elucidating these questions?)3) Thesis or Main arguments/points/insights4) Evidence5) Conclusions6) Your own critical viewpoint (e.g., What do you think the artist/author’s argument(s) contribute to the critical study of relationality? What questions remain for you? How else might you think/write about this problem?)
Massacre During the Toxcatl Festival in Tenochtitlan Presentation

Introduction Qatar Petroleum is a state owned company that was nationalised in 1977 by the state’s acquisition of a 60% stake of the company. To become an effective competitor in the market, the company entered the market with an underlying oligopolistic model that characterised the overall market structure through mergers and creation of subsidiaries (Kern, Kuzemko and Mitchell 2). The key characteristics of the market environment that Qatar Petroleum operates in include long run profits and the interdependence of the company with smaller companies and other major players such as ExxonMobil. Here, the market structure is defined on a non-price option economic competition model. Qatar Petroleum Detailed Case Study Ritz, argues that Qatar petroleum deals in petroleum products which include oil and gas besides the production, development, and exploration of crude oil and liquefied natural gas (LNG) defined in its upstream and downstream activities (4). Here, three endogenous variables define the characteristics of the firms, which include exploration, discovery, and success. The oil market structure has changed significantly both in the internal and external markets. Subsidiaries and joint ventures This is typical of the state owned company, which was established by Emiri under the decree no. 10, is the third largest in the world that has established joint venture with Ras Gas Company Limited, Ras Laffan Liquefied Natural Gas Company Limited, atar Liquefied Gas Company Limited Q.S., and Qatex Limited among others. QP Ras Gas (III) Limited, Qatar Holding Intermediate Industries Company Limited, and Industries Qatar Q.S.C. constitute its subsidiary companies (Rodriguez and Scurry, 11). Besides, the subsidiaries and its joint ventures, the company has invested in the Arab Petroleum Pipelines Company and the Arab Maritime Petroleum Transport Company among others. Because of the high stakes of the state in the company was officially nationalised in 1977 after a sequence of events such as the acquisition of 60% of its shares. Oil production by Qatar petroleum is served by a network of pipes to the export terminals and refineries from the onshore and offshore oil fields. A typical production graph is shown in figure 1. Oligopolistic model Qatar petroleum is characterised by an impure oligopolistic economic model that is defined by limited competition, but high initial capital investment (Growitsch, Hecking and Panke 2). The company has partnered with other oil companies such as Occidental, TOTAL and ExxonMobil for the production and export of oil to North America and European nations. Figure 1 is a typical trading year which depicts a typical trading year January/December 2015. Characteristics of the oil industry The oil industry’s operational mode is characterised by major, independent, and diversified oil firms that allow them to operate in the exploration, production, and transportation of the commodity segments of the petroleum market. However, the concentration ration is not 1 as the game theory depicts. Major oil companies Major oil companies usually have their own experts and equipment for the exploration, production, and transportation of oil. Companies conceptualised as diversified are characterised by a smaller share of participation in the oil industry. However, some oil firms are classified as independent because the firms operate in a market structure that is defined by smaller capital investments. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Figure 2 shows the distribution of oil production with Qatar occupying 37% of the world’s total volume (Cetorelli and Strahan, 2). Different forces in the market depict the behaviour of different companies that respond to the forces of perfect competition as failing to perfectly obey the laws of demand and supply as detailed in the game theory where the seller sets the prices and the buyer has no option but to accept the price offerings as illustrated in figure 3. Figure 2. The distribution of oil production with Qatar occupying 37% of the world’s total volume. Pricing While the trend of setting oil prices has been in the domain of oil producing and exporting countries for many years, the current trend has changed significantly, making it an important variation of the basic Hoteling model. However, the market structure of the petroleum industry is defined by the inter-temporal profits maximization in the context of an oligopolistic competition as depicted in figure 3. The analytical results show that the industry is characterised by a few firms that dominate the market that is driven by major oil companies besides the companies that have formed mergers and subsidiaries to be competitive in the market. The Pricing mechanism P1 and P2) and the other response variables MC and MR provide evidence of the failure of the firms to collude to manipulate the price of oil. The market trend is evidently conceptualised in Saudi Arabia’s refusal to cut production quantities to raise market price of oil (Vivoda, 5). Typically, oligopolies operate in rather unique ways because when the price of oil is decreased by one country, other countries follows suit and that is reflected in the current behavior of price changes in the oil market. The demand and supply curves and the underlying economic models and theories sometimes do not explain the behavior exhibited in the oil market. Here, the supply (output) can be defined by a continuum of market variables and the levels of agreement among the oil producing companies as depicted in figure 4. Figure 4. Besides, it is evident that the external oil competitors have a strong influence on Qatar Oil Company’s oil production and exploration because even if the company intends to raise the price of oil, other oil exploring, producing, and exporting countries could optimise the resulting gap to increase their market shares, which makes Qatar oil company vulnerable to the loss of customers. However, because of the need to increase profits and not paint the company as an oil cartel, price maximization should underpin the policies and business strategies and the economic models adopted by the company. Competition in such markets can either be cooperative or non-cooperative. The cooperative competition model is evident in the current market oil structure where firms create mergers, subsidiaries, and sometimes cooperate at different levels of the exploration, production, transportation, and exporting oil. We will write a custom Case Study on Qatar Petroleum Company: Price of Oil specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Contrast the economic efficiency of the outcomes under market structure It is possible for firms to make significant gains in terms of profits and market dominance if the level of cooperation is high resulting in an economically efficient market structure. Economic efficiency This is in response to the demand where a smaller number of firms in the oil market operate efficiently. In theory, one notes that because the firms are few, the economic efficiency of the outcomes are high because firms find it easy to cooperate at the same level by agreeing to make production quotas that perfectly obey the economic model of demand and supply. An oligopoly based market structure enables companies to set high oil prices. The whole mechanism is illustrated in figure 5 where an equilibrium condition is reached depending on the behavior of the market forces. Prices and Nash Equilibrium Conclusion In conclusion, the typical points that emerged from the study are that Qatar petroleum is a national oil company that has developed mergers and subsidiaries and partnered with major companies in the exploration, production, and transportation of oil besides endeavouring to set the price of oil. The market structure is oligopolistic in nature and it is characterised by companies with the ability to set prices if the level of cooperation is high. Works Cited Cetorelli, Nicola, and Philip E. Strahan. “Finance as a barrier to entry: Bank competition and industry structure in local US markets.” The Journal of Finance 61.1 (2006): 437-461.Print. Growitsch, Christian, Harald Hecking, and Timo Panke. “Supply disruptions and regional price effects in a spatial oligopoly—an application to the Global Gas Market.” Review of International Economics 22.5 (2014): 944-975. Print. Kern, Florian, Caroline Kuzemko, and Catherine Mitchell. “Measuring and explaining policy paradigm change: the case of UK energy policy.” Policy
CNDV 5350 Lamar University Multicultural Counselling Cultural Immersion Research Paper.

Cultural Competence is an essential aspect of counselor training. In order to begin to understand a culture, it is essential to have sustained interaction with the culture. For the final project for this course, each student will be responsible for actively investigating multicultural issues in the “real world” by gradually immersing in a culture different from their own. The immersion project will involve experiential learning about other cultures. The intent is to increase your knowledge and sensitivity to other cultures.In order to complete this project successfully, you will need to work on it throughout the entire course. As part of the project, each of you will select a culture different from your own and participate in at least three distinct cultural immersion experiences within that culture. The idea is to gradually immerse into the different culture over the course of the term. You may use the list of suggestions included in the attached document to guide your immersion process, or you can devise some ideas of your own. It is essential that each experience is qualitatively different from that of your own culture and that the experiences gradually become more involved directly with culture of choice. See the attached file for details.
CNDV 5350 Lamar University Multicultural Counselling Cultural Immersion Research Paper

Analyse the challenges of change facing NHS

In this paper we are going to discuss about how the nhs is facing the different types of challenges and the various changes which are approaching. In reaction towards our concern regarding the present and possible injure of market reforms and also it provide high-quality, complete healthcare for everyone, without charge at the point of use. Introduction: In 1948, the Health Minister, Aneurin Bevan, established the National Health Service (NHS), as a free, comprehensive health care service, available to the entire population. At present, the NHS can be divided into two sections: one dealing with strategy, policy and managerial issues; and the other dealing with all clinical aspects of care. The latter can be further divided into primary care (at the frontline, involving GPs, pharmacists, dentists etc), secondary care (hospital based, accessed via GP referral) and tertiary care (involving highly specialised doctors dealing with particularly difficult or rare conditions). The divisions between these sectors are becoming less distinct, with structural changes taking place within the NHS. In particular, the organisation is moving towards local decision making, breaking the barriers between primary and secondary care and enabling greater patient choice. Challenges faced by NHS: During the first programme of this three-part series Gerry Robinson seems to be struggling to make sense of some of the apparent complexities that are causing stagnation and feelings of negativity throughout the hospital system. What needs to shift in order for some simple things to happen? How can patient waiting times be brought under control if everything drifts on in the way that it always has? Who is managing the system? Although these problems seem to be specific to the hospital in which the series has been recorded, there are features that may well be generalised throughout the NHS. In his attempt to understand what is going on within this hospital in Rotherham, Gerry has discovered that there are powerful interest groups involved in running the organisation. Surgeons and anaesthetists in the operating theatres and clinical consultants in the paediatric department seem to be pitted against the managers when it comes to attempts to implement change. Initially members of these powerful groups seem keen to protect their own interests and defend the status quo. However, it is not as simple as a battle between potentially competing interest groups. In each of these groups Gerry has identified individuals who do not conform to type. Within each group there are people prepared to use their personal energy to advocate change, and who have developed ideas for improving the system. Gerry seems to sniff them out and let them have their say. These ‘champions’ need encouragement and rewards for bringing about change. But there are also individuals who tend to block every suggestion and spread feelings of negativity. Are the situations and complex problems that Gerry Robinson has uncovered deep within Rotherham General Hospital unique to that organisation, or are they typical of what happens throughout the NHS and within all large organisations? Obviously the individuals who were brave enough to be recorded going about their work in the bowels of the hospital are unique. But I found myself stimulated by the programme to think how similar the problems faced by the people featured in the series were to those I encounter in every corner of the NHS. In my experience of working in the NHS it does seem difficult to change things for the better. The dead weight of routine and ‘usual practice’ can suppress innovation and squash the energy out of people of good will who are committed to finding ways of improving the system. It is too easy to say that ‘too much bureaucracy’ is the problem… because pitfalls and reasons to revert to the way that things have always been done can come from many different quarters. It might be that powerful interests are involved, such as the doctors or other professional groups… but often it is just a rather general lack of motivation or imagination, or the intervention of one difficult character, that keeps things the way they have always been. Of course, in times of financial growth new services can be added to the old, but in the current climate this is impossible and any new ways of working will be in direct competition with the powerful status quo. Although the first programme in the series does not deal with the problem of targets and financial imperatives that are imposed from higher up within the NHS, or from central government, these are real issues for people working in today’s NHS. Many units at all levels of the NHS seem mesmerised by the need to meet increasingly impossible financial targets. Managers, such as the Chief Executive of Rotherham General Hospital, Brian James, appear to be overwhelmed by pressure from above, to meet those targets, and pressure from below, attempting to respond to the concerns of people providing front-line services. The plans aim to improve health and health services and to tackle the main challenges faced by the local NHS. By getting involved in the debate, you can help to ensure that future health services make sense clinically and make sense to local communities. Why do things need to change? The local NHS wants to improve the quality of the services they offer by: Providing modern health services that meet the highest standards of safety, effectiveness and patient experience Giving you more opportunities to maintain and improve their own health Safeguarding health services for the future. This means that they need to make plans now that will address the challenges they will face in the future. The main challenges they face include: The Challenge: More people are living longer lives with long term conditions such as diabetes, dementia and cancer. The Challenge: They are seeing rising levels of obesity, and there is still more work to do to help people to quit smoking. The Challenge: Some new equipment and treatments need specialist staff and are very expensive. This means they can only be offered in larger district hospitals and regional specialist hospitals. However, many people live in remote and rural areas. The Challenge: 24-hour health services need enough specialist staff to keep them running round the clock. This isn’t just a case of employing more staff – the doctors and nurses need to see enough different patients to keep their skills up to date. The Challenge: They cannot spend more money than they receive from taxpayers. They also need to invest in improving their hospitals and other healthcare buildings. What is being proposed? The first part of this describes plans for the next five years. A later section sets out longer term proposals. Their plans have been developed by senior doctors and nurses working with patients and staff, and taking national quality guidelines into account. They have three main aims: Preventing disease Bringing care closer to peoples’ homes for example, a wider range of services at the GP surgery Providing sustainable and accessible hospital services This will include: Offering you and their carers better information and sign posting which will help you navigate their way through the health and care system Many more of their outpatient appointments and day case operations will be provided in community settings including community hospitals and in GP premises. You will be much less likely to need to visit a major hospital for their planned care. If you are pregnant, you will be able to receive more of their ante-natal care and give birth in local midwifery units, using the main consultant service if you need this additional support. Direct access to midwives will help you to plan their pregnancy as early as possible. Giving you more support to improve their own health, designed around their needs and circumstances. Some the biggest challenges they face are in Accident and Emergency, surgery (particularly emergency surgery) and children’s services. In order to keep these important services in Shropshire, Telford and Wrekin they need to consider some changes to ensure that they continue to meet high standards of clinical quality. These are explained in more detail below.  Why are changes to A

Planet Earth: Mountains Essay (Movie Review)

help me with my homework Summary The Planet Earth series are amazing in that they embrace practically all wonders that nature has to offer. One might think that Planet Earth is solely about soil, lava and the core of the planet, yet it, strangely enough, manages to capture a number of other peculiar information into the scope of a forty-minute series. The video opens with an image of the “frozen alien world” (documentareorg, 2011, January 31, 0:41), and the next spot that it takes its audience to is one of the hottest spots in the entire world, the “other extreme” in Ethiopia (documentareorg, 2011, January 31, 01:01). After a short introduction about how volcanoes are made and what the volcanic forces are, the narrator switches to practical examples by showing Ethiopian mountains and describing the process of their formation. As soon as the history of the Ethiopian Mountains is briefly touched upon, the local mountain dwellers are sown to the viewers. Attractive in their own anthropomorphous way, Gelada monkeys appear to be rather well adjusted to the harsh environment of the Ethiopian Mounts. To prove his point, the narrator shifts the focus from Geladas onto the Ethiopian mountain climate, describing it as very changeable. Clearly, Ethiopia is a place where one can observe “all seasons in one day” (documentareorg, 2011, January 31, 09:35). After the audience had learned about the herbivores that one can encounter in mountains, it was time to talk about the local carnivores. The narrator made the audience face the heat of Africa and follow a family of pumas, which he described them as the “lions of the Andes” (18:04). Soon more dangerous dwellers of mountains were revealed to the viewers – the latter were able to observe a family of bears. Speaking of danger, the issue of avalanches was discussed as well. Finally, the audience appears at the “roof of the world” (documentareorg, 2011, January 31,), known as the Mount Everest. The documentary ends on a relatively general and rather sad note, with a demoiselle crane hovering over the mountains in search for its nestling, which fell prey to an eagle. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Despite the depressing ending, the movie still leaves a tangible feeling of wonder about the subject matter, as it actually should. Though explored well, mountains are still very fascinating, especially taking their rather unusual nature into account. A true wonder of nature, mountains are, and will be, one of the most wonderful places on Earth. Reference List documentareorg (2011, January 31). Planet Earth 02 – mountains. Web.

PRS 609 Luna Community College Studying Abroad at A Young Age Half Draft Thesis Paper

PRS 609 Luna Community College Studying Abroad at A Young Age Half Draft Thesis Paper.

Half DraftFor this assignment you will submit a half draft of your Capstone Project, Thesis, or Thesis prospectus as one attached file. A half draft should be viewed as half of your actual Project so take a look at your outline and gauge what is an honest half-way point and write to that point or beyond. I recommend completing your Literature Review section at a minimum.So, for this submission, I am expecting an APA cover page, an Executive Summary or Abstract, and a Table of Contents to be submitted along with your half draft which should take the reader through to a completed Literature Review. I no longer want to see your outline our outline nomenclature anywhere in this submission. Please read the pdf in Module 4 Transforming the Working Outline into a Table of Contents.pdf to assist you in transforming your outline to a Table of Contents. This file will assist you in creating different level headings within the body of your work.Please note that if you are preparing a Thesis prospectus or if you are completing your Thesis you should be contacting me in person or via phone to meet this deadline in addition to submitting your written work.Also be sure that you prepare an APA formatted reference page. All this will be submitted as one file.When I return this work to you, you are required to set up a face-to-face or phone consultation with me.
PRS 609 Luna Community College Studying Abroad at A Young Age Half Draft Thesis Paper

Rural Marketing Charecters Challenges And Strategies Marketing Essay

Rural markets have acquired significance in India as the overall growth of the economy has resulted in substantial increase in the purchasing power of rural communities. As urban markets are getting saturated and competitive, companies focus themselves in capturing the vast rural market. “Go Rural” is the slogan of marketing gurus after analyzing the socio-economic changes in villages. Rural markets accounts for 54% of FMCG and 60% of durable goods. Rural consumption is getting high as the technology is advancing everywhere and also buying pattern and demand of the rural consumers have changed from basic low-priced product to luxurious ones due to their increased income. Dynamics of rural markets differs from other market types and similarly its strategies also differ from the marketing strategies aimed at the urban consumers. A firm seeking the share of this rural market has to work for it as the market includes variety of problems such as physical distance, communication risks due to illiteracy, differed tastes and attitudes of rural consumers, risks in setting suitable pricing and distribution strategy etc. considering the environment in which the rural market operates and other related problems, it is possible to evolve effective strategies for rural marketing. Thus future is very promising for those who can understand the dynamics of rural markets. Character of rural market: 1. The households belonging to the middle-income and above categories that constitute the bulk of the consuming class had been increasingly steadily over the years. 2. The rural income is seasonal in nature and to a great extent influenced by non-controllable factors such as draughts and floods, crop failures due to pests, and similar factors 3. The rural market in India is vast and scattered and offers various opportunities in comparison to the urban sector. It covers the maximum population and regions and thereby the maximum number of consumers. 4. The steps taken by the government of India to initiate proper irrigation, infrastructural developments, prevention of floods, grants for fertilizers, and various schemes to cut down the poverty line have improved the conditions of rural masses resulting in increased rural consumption. 5. During the last decade the rural consumers were in need for low end products which would meet their basic demands and necessities. But of lately due to change in technology and rather advancement in technology, the demand for people have also changed and the buying pattern which initially comprised of basic products have now shifted to luxurious products. 6. Media reach is a strong reason for the penetration of goods like cosmetics, mobile phones, etc., which are only used by the urban people. Increasing awareness and knowledge on different products and brands accelerate the demand. 7. Sales will be higher in rural areas during harvesting periods as the income will be higher during that period. Characteristics of rural consumers People in rural areas have poor job opportunities than urban. The rural consumer is very conscious about getting value for money. He understands symbols and colors better, and looks for endorsement by local leaders or icons. He doesn’t like to pay extra for frills he cannot use. He has a very high involvement in any product purchased especially when he decides to buy high-end products, which cost a few hundreds or thousands of rupees. The rural market of India is a geographically scattered market. Rural consumers continue to be marked by low purchasing power. The rural consumers are marked by a conservative and tradition-bound lifestyle. Rural consumers buy small packs, as they are perceived as value for money. There is brand stickiness, where a consumer buys a brand out of habit and not really by choice. The rural consumers of India are a tradition bound community; religion, culture and even superstition strongly influence their consumption habits. Challenges There are several difficulties confronting the effort to fully explore rural markets. The concept of rural markets in India is still in evolving shape, and the sector poses a variety of challenges. Unlike urban markets, rural markets are difficult to predict and possess special characteristics 1. Difficulty in Payment- collection: The majority of rural population is still unbanked. Non cash collections are not possible and even cash collections are also difficult as technical advancements in banking sector has not yet reached in rural areas. 2. Understanding the Rural Consumer: Unlike urban consumers, rural consumers taste and preferences are difficult to understand as their choices were influenced by many factors. 3. Poor Infrastructure: Lack of buildings, electricity, water supply etc affects the basic business functions. 4. Physical Distribution: Poor road connectivity is often a big challenge for the rural marketers to transport their products or services to the rural consumers. Only 40% of the villages in India have proper road connections. 5. Shortage of retail outlets: Non-availability of adequate retail outlets is a major problems faced by the marketers. 6. Illiteracy: Rural folks do not understand clever, gimmicky, quick (fast-paced), suggestive and hi-tech ad films. And also it is very difficult to make the rural consumers to understand the promotion campaigns and its theme and also the usage of a product. 7. Inadequate storage facilities and warehousing leads to inadequate stocking of products. 8. Highly credit driven market and low investment capacity of retailers. A rural consumer generally poses the habit purchasing goods for credit due to their low income. But financially unsound retailers can’t give credit. 9. Dispersed or scattered rural population: it is very expensive to conduct market promotion campaigns and to meet other expenditures over scattered market. 10. Large number of intermediaries leading to higher costs. Due to physical distance, a producer needs the help of so many intermediaries in selling his product to the rural consumers. High intermediation increases price. Strategies Marketers need to understand the psyche of the rural consumers and then act accordingly. Rural marketing involves more intensive personal selling efforts compared to urban marketing. Firms should refrain from designing goods for the urban markets and subsequently pushing them in the rural areas. To effectively tap the rural market, a brand must associate it with the same things the rural folks do. This can be done by utilizing the various rural folk media to reach them in their own language and in large numbers so that the brand can be associated with the myriad rituals, celebrations, festivals, “melas”, and other activities where they assemble. Considering the environment in which the rural market operates and other related problems, it is possible to evolve effective strategies for rural marketing. The strategies discussed here though not universally applicable depend upon product characteristics, the targeted segment of the rural market, the choice of the rural area and its economic condition. A. Product strategies Meaningful product strategies for rural market and rural consumers are discussed here. 1. Small unit and low priced packing: Larger pack sizes are out of reach for rural consumers because of their higher price and usage habits. This method has been tested by other products like shampoos, biscuits, pickles, Vicks five gram tins, etc. the objective of giving smallpackagings is to keep the price low so that the entire rural community can try. This may not be possible in all types of products except some products such as shampoo, soaps and other cosmetics etc. 2. Designing new innovative and attractive products: A close observation of rural household items indicates the importance of redesigning or modifying the products. The manufacturing and marketing men can think in terms of new product designs specially meant for rural areas keeping their lifestyles in view. The new products should be designed in such a way that it should suit the lifestyle, needs and anxiety of the rural consumer. 3. Designing strong and sturdy products: Sturdiness of a product either in terms of weight or appearance is an important fact for rural consumers. Generally a rural consumer handles every product roughly. Thus the product meant for rural areas should be sturdy enough to stand rough handling and storage. People in rural areas like bright flashy colors such as red, blue, green etc., and feel that products with such colors are sturdy but they are more concerned with the utility of the item also. 4. Creating a good brand name The rural consumers are more concerned with the brand name of the product than its utility. The brand name awareness in the rural areas is fairly high. A brand name and logo are very essential for rural consumers for it can be easily remembered and identified. Because rural consumers often used to stick towards a particular product by considering its brand name. B. Pricing strategies Pricing strategies are very much linked to product strategies. Some of these strategies are mentioned here. 1. Low cost/cheap products: This is a common strategy being adopted widely by many manufacturing and marketing men. Rural consumers won’t like to have high-priced commodities due to their low income. So Price can be kept low by small unit packing resulting in higher sales. 2. Avoid sophisticated packing: Simple package can be adopted which can bring down the cost as it is presently being done in the case of biscuits. Some innovation in packing technology is very necessary for rural markets. Sophisticated packing can be avoided as it bears extra cost which may losses the number of consumers due to high price. 3. Refill packs/reusable packaging: The packaging material used should preferably lend itself for reuse in rural areas. An ideal example in this direction can be the packing of fertilizers. Now companies have started packing fertilizers in LDPE or HDPE sacks, which are not only tamper proof but also reusable. But it would be applicable only in case certain products. 4. Application of value engineering: This is a technique which can be tried to evolve cheaper products by substituting the costly raw material with the cheaper one, without sacrificing the quality or functional efficiency of the product, for example in food industry, ‘Soya protein is being used instead of milk protein. Milk protein is expensive while Soya protein is cheaper but the nutrition value is same. This technique yields itself for application in many engineering or product designed areas so that the price can be kept at an affordable level. These areas have to be explored by manufacturing and marketing the pricing strategy for rural market will depend upon the scope for reducing the price of the product to suit the rural incomes and at the same time not compromising with the utility and sturdiness of the product. 5. provision of free frills or products along with the selling product will make an impression among the rural buyers that the price they are paying for the product is not high, as they are getting extra free products or services. c. Distribution strategies Rural India is widely populated and so it is obvious that the distribution costs are high. Here, one needs to deploy innovative approaches in order to bring down the costs. Most manufacturers and marketing men do have a distribution arrangement for village with a population of at least 5000 people. While it is essential to formulate specific strategies for distribution in rural areas, the characteristics of the product, its shelf life and other factors have to be kept in mind. The distribution strategies that are specifically designed for rural areas are through co-operative societies, public distribution system, multi-purpose distribution centers, etc.some other distribution strategies that can be adopted in rural marketing were: 1. Using Delivery vans to deliver products to nook and corner of villages. 2. Localized way of distributions such as melas, street outlets etc: To succeed in Indian rural market the producers or marketers have to reach the nook and the corner of the country. They have to reach the “local Paan wala, Local Baniya” only then they can succeed. MNC shoe giants, Adidas, Reebok, and Nike started with exclusive stores but soon they realized that they do not enjoy much Brand Equity in India, and to capture the market share in India they later preferred Local market shoe sellers. 3. Conduction of special sales programmes through temporary street stalls or showrooms in rural areas: This is one of the strategies widely adopted by automobile marketers. This strategy is suitable for high end products. 4. Direct distributions by opening outlets in villages avoiding intermediaries that will also reduce price 5. By offering certain discounts, the local rural distributors can be made to brainwash the consumers about the new product as rural consumers believes the word of the familiar person in purchasing a product. Thus risk involved in sales and distribution of the new product can be somewhat reduced. D. Promotion strategies Mass media is a powerful medium of communication. It could be television, cinema, print media, and radio and so on. The other means of mass media available are hoardings/wall paintings, shanties/hats/melas, non-price competition, special campaigns etc. Besides these, other mass media like hand bills and booklets, posters, stickers, banners of the schemes etc. Following are some of the promotion strategies that can be applied in order to promote a new product in the rural market: 1: advertising with local ambassadors is a right choice and also advertisements can be made colorfully as rural people like that. 2: providing the new product as a free product along with some other products that were already going in the market. So that, the consumers will be aware of the new product. 3: making a tie up with the ongoing market retailers in order to enhance proper distribution and to expand the business in the initial promotion stage. After gaining some goodwill and market, the producer can either continue with the ongoing retail distribution or it can open its own retail shops. 4: In the promotional stage, the goods and services can be given at low prices that would attract the rural consumers as they often prefer low-priced commodities with higher utility. In addition to all these strategies, there are some other strategies that a marketer should follow or implement in order to promote and succeed in rural market. They are as follows; BY TARGET CHANGING PERCEPTION If one go to villages they will see that villagers using Toothpaste, even when They can use Neem or Babool sticks or Gudakhu, villagers are using soaps like Nirma rose, Breeze, Cinthol etc. even when they can use locally manufactured very low priced soaps. Villagers are constantly looking forward for new branded products. What can one infer from these incidents, is the paradigm changing and customer no longer price sensitive. Indian customer was never price sensitive, but they want value for money. They are ready to pay premium for the product if the product is offering some extra utility for the premium. Thus a marketer has to design his marketing trend according to the changing perception of the rural consumers. BY PROVIDING WHAT CUSTOMER WANT The customers want value for money. They do not see any value in frills associated with the products. They aim for the basic functionality. However, if the sellers provide frills free of cost they are happy with that. They are happy with such a high technology that can fulfill their need. “Motorola” has launched, seven models of Cellular Phones of high technology but none of the rural consumers preferred it as they dont even know or wants or cannot use such advanced technologies in that models. On the other hand, “Nokia” has launched a simple product 1100, which has captured the wide rural market. BY DEVELOPING RURAL-SPECIFIC PRODUCTS Many companies are developing rural-specic products. Keeping into consideration the requirements and necessities of the rural consumers, products can be ultimately designed which aptly suits the rural necessities.for example; some bike manufacturers are designing their product very toughly which will suit the poor road facilities of rural India. (Hero Honda splendor) PAINTINGS A picture is worth thousand words. The message is simple and clean. Rural people like the sight of bright colours. COKE, PEPSI and TATA traders advertise their products through paintings.thus advertising through paintings can be made. Conclusion: Indian rural marketing has always been complex to forecast and consist of special uniqueness. However many companies were successful in entering the rural markets. They proved that with proper understanding of the market and innovative marketing ideas, it is possible to bag the rural markets. It is very difficult for the companies to overlook the opportunities they could from rural markets. As two-thirds of the Indian population live in rural areas, the market is vast than expected. For the companies to be successful in rural markets, they have to overcome certain challenges such as pricing and distribution. Thus by following the above stated innovative strategies, companies can capture markets and withhold in rural areas. AUTHOR: Pradeep kumar.B, SIIMS, Pollachi. EMAIL ID:[email protected] PHONE NUMBER: 9787077523