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Marketing Research Research Paper

Introduction Introductory Paragraphs Marketing is a crucial part of a firm, business or financial institution. It determines the number of customers using services from the entity. As a result, it determines the profits that the business entity makes per unit time. Consequently, it determines the solvency and prosperity of the whole business. The firms, in turn, struggle to improve their marketing and advertising strategies in their system. The strategies must compete favorably with other firms that offer similar products. It must aim at adopting a strategy that leads to customers and client satisfaction. This ensures that the firms maintain their customers and gain more customers than their competitors (Kotler, 1986). In marketing, public relation officers carry out researches which aim at getting preferences from the customers. In these researches, they collect data on the perceptions and opinions of the customers. This helps the business entities to provide new services and improve the quality of current goods and services. Consequently, they retain their customer and attract others. The demand and profit margin rise simultaneously. This paper will focus on designing a research that aims at collecting opinions of the customers. Particularly, it will design a research on a restaurant offering fast food. Specifically, it will use McDonald’s restaurant for the research. History McDonald’s restaurant is found in USA offering fast food. It was started in the year 1940 by Maurice and Richard at San Bernardino. In 1948, the restaurant improvised a speed serving system which increased efficiency and gained more customers than earlier. The company changed administrative bodies of management severally. In addition, it has changed the logo for a number of times due to marketing and advertisement. The restaurant operates in 119 countries around the world. In the countries, it has thirty four thousand restaurants that operate under the headquarters in Illinois. The restaurant offers sandwiches, breakfast, soft drinks and desserts. The restaurants in other countries deviate from the standard menu fitting the countries culture. For example, china serves soup while the Indian restaurants refrain from serving beef. This is due to the religious taboos that exist in the country. They have the outdoor and indoor serving that fits the customer’s choices and decisions. Therefore, the restaurant is an all-inclusive restaurant that fits every social class. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Statement of Problem The restaurant has grown rapidly in accordance to history. However, various criticisms have been directed to fast food. The critics target the menu, practices of business and the expansion of the business. For example, Morris group had designed leaflets which aimed at criticizing the health status of the restaurants. In 2004, a documentary called Super-Size blamed the company for increased cases of obesity. The criticisms that revolve around fast foods have affected growth of the restaurant. For the last two years, the restaurant has been progressing in a slower pace than the previous years. This has posed a serious challenge to the overall profitability and the solvency of the company. As a result, this problem needs to be addressed with urgency. Purpose of the Study The purpose of the study is to solve this financial and economic crisis existing in the restaurant. The research aims at involving the customers in improving financial status and services. It seeks to use the outside-in strategy to solve the internal challenges. In addition, the study will enable the restaurant to make additional inputs in the current menu. Lastly, it will help the management to add attractive and useful services in the restaurant. This will be fulfilled through various objectives. Objective of the study To understand their customers in details To collect the relevant information pertaining to customer’s preferences To make relevant recommendations and conclusions for improvement Research Question In this research, we seek to understand the perceptions and opinions of the customers towards the products and services offered. As a result, we need a query that will form the basis and foundation of the research. Therefore, we might seek to know whether restaurants perceive a negative change in the quality of the products and services offered. Do restaurants perceive declines in the quality of products and services? This is a broad question that allows the development and design of the research. It provides sufficient space to get the opinions of the customers towards the improvements of products. It is a question which can form the methodological center of departure for the entire research. Hypotheses Although there is the research question, it is essential to speculate and make predictions before the actual research. Therefore, we could assume that there is no decline in the quality of the products offered by the restaurant. However, this hypothesis cannot be tested. We cannot carry out a research for the purpose of scrutiny. Scientifically, it is called the null hypothesis. We could assume that there is a decline in the quality of food offered in the restaurant. The hypothesis will, therefore, state that restaurants perceive declines in the quality of products and services. The hypothesis could be broken down into sub-hypotheses to state that McDonald restaurant perceives declines in the quality of services. We will write a custom Research Paper on Marketing Research specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is, also, possible to research on the hypothesis stating that restaurants rarely perceive declines in the quality of products and services. All these could form alternative hypotheses. However, there is no research that dwells on more than one hypothesis simultaneously. Therefore, this research will dwell on the alternative hypothesis about McDonald restaurant. A research can be carried out to determine the validity of this hypothesis. As a result, the research will revolve around this hypothesis. Background Literature Review The company has been offering products that have high calorie. The calorie products have been the target of criticism from many communities. Therefore, most customers feel that they should take food with fewer calories than the restaurant offers in the menu. Most of the current customers are aware of the dangers that the food bring to them. These dangers include obesity, high blood pressure and gaining unnecessary weight. In addition, the restaurant does not offer bitter drinks that help in breaking down the fats they consume. The customers get cautious of this situation and prefer making food at home rather than visiting the restaurant. Employment of young staff has deterred the companies’ reputation. The company was sued for the allegations of propagating child labor. Customers feel uncomfortable when they are served by staff members who are underage. The management has been overwhelming the staff for decreasing their efficiency during serving. Complains show dissatisfaction of service by the staff. This has been a crucial point of failure. Definitions of terms Qualitative analysis- This is an analysis that uses subjective reasoning on non-quantifiable data or information. Qualitative analysis- It refers to the analysis of quantifiable data by mathematical calculations and deductions. Sampling- Sampling refers to tactical selection of data sets from the target population Methodology- This refers to the strategies that are used to collect records and represent data for analysis. Instrumentation- Instrumentation focuses on the instruments used in the collection analysis of information. Methodology Population The population is comprised of the customers’ visit to the restaurant for the meals. It includes customers from the 119 countries around the world in 34,000 restaurants. The total number of customers served by the restaurants is approximately sixty eight million per day. This is a huge population that makes it difficult to reach all customers. Therefore, the research cannot consider the whole population of customers. For the purpose of data collection, sampling will be carried out. Sampling During sampling, two data sets will be considered for the collection of views. The two data sets will include customers who make regular visits and those visiting the restaurant occasionally. Regular customers visit the restaurant for three meals daily. On the other hand, occasional customers visit the restaurant for one meal only. On this sampling, the sample is not carried out in a manner that favors a desired outcome (Strauss, 1992). Therefore, the outcomes will be credible. The sample will randomize the respondent across gender, age and origin of the customers. Therefore, it will become extremely reliable and credible. Instrumentation The most crucial instrument of this research will be the questionnaires which will contain several questions aiming at understanding the perceptions of the customers. On this light, the following questions will be included in the questionnaires. Not sure if you can write a paper on Marketing Research by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More How many times do you visit the restaurant daily? What is your most preferred food product in this restaurant? What is your most preferred drink in the restaurant? What do you think is omitted in the menu? What should we add in the menu to suite the eating habit? How do you rate the service by the staff in this restaurant? Does the waiting time coincide with your time management? Does the cost of products match with their quality? What is your opinion regarding the health of the food you take on the restaurant? Customers will be given the questionnaires to fill when they visit the restaurant. Therefore, the questionnaire should have a few questions. This ensures that the questionnaire does not consume much of the respondents time. Otherwise, it would lead to incomplete or unreliable formation. On this light, the questionnaires should be flexible. They should be designed in a manner that allows modification. This implies that it can be modified to include arising themes during the research. In addition, it allows the removal of any questions that are irrelevant to the study. These modifications arise during the actual research. A Facebook and Twitter account will be opened for the research. People will be invited to like the page and make their contributions. The questions will be posted on the page and customers invited to answer the questions. This will be a technological extension for the questionnaires. It will capture the customers who are in the social networks. As a result, the number of people considered will be sufficient to make conclusions. The children will be interviewed orally by the selected staff from the restaurant. The staffs will record the information on the questionnaire for analysis. However, the interview will be recorded using audio recorders. The audio recorders will ensure that the information that is omitted in the questionnaires is captured. Video recorders will be used where visual presentation of information is required. For example, a child who does not know the real name of certain food will tend to point at the food. The video recorder or camera will be used to capture the information. As a result, all the information that is required for analysis will be available. Therefore, the research will be all-inclusive and reliable. Consequently, the recommendations, conclusions, and solutions derived from the research will be credible. A suggestion box will be used for the purpose of the research. For the period of research, a small advert will be hanged beside the box. It will urge customers to drop any opinions on the box. The opinions will be incorporated in the analysis. This will widen the scope of the research. Procedures and Time Frames The most significant procedure of data collection will be filling in the questionnaires. The questionnaires will have the nine questions. This will take a maximum of three minutes to answer the questionnaires. The questionnaire will have a section which will seek to capture additional information and opinions from the customers. This section might take about two minutes to write and express ideas. In total, a single respondent might take five minutes to fill in the questionnaire. The oral research for the children might take a little bit longer. Each question might take a maximum of 1 minute. On the other hand, they might take one minute to give an opinion about their experience in the hotel. A child might take a maximum of ten minutes to interview and get information that can be used for analysis. Analysis plan Analysis can either be qualitative or quantitative according to the data being collected (Strauss, 1987). In this research, qualitative analysis will be used to analyze data. During the research, the collection of data and analysis will be done simultaneously. The simultaneous operations will ensure that the questionnaires are changed and altered to accommodate new themes rising during the research. The data between the mature customers and the children will be done separately. In addition, the data between occasional customers and regular customers will be separated. This allows comparison between the two data sets. It ensures that the existing similarities are reconciled, and the differences appearing in the opinions are retained. The diversity of the opinions in those data sets makes the results reliable and credible. Reliability and Validity of the Research Reliability and credibility in this research cannot be ignored. The consideration of the two factors is mandatory and paramount. Violating the reliability of research makes it biased and incredible. For this reason, the research has employed various factors to ensure the validity and reliability of the results. First, sampling will be done randomly. This implies that the research is not biased or inclined to a desired outcome. Secondly, the use of various data sets ensures that there is sufficient variation among the respondents. The variation occurs in reference to age, gender and level of regularity to the restaurant. Lastly, the use of flexible questionnaires, which allowed the incorporation of the arising themes, ensured the capture of much information. Also, it ensured that the research focused on the relevant information only. The three measures ensure full credibility, validity, and reliability of the information collected from the respondents. Conclusions This research will be a positive step towards solving the financial crisis that is facing the restaurant of McDonald’s. It will provide the necessary information which can be used to make recommendations and conclusions. The research described every step and detail that will be followed in collecting, recording, and analyzing the data and information. Consequently, it can be described as an all-inclusive research. In fact, it will be a crucial step towards solving the challenges that have been posed to the company. Works Cited Kotler, Philip. Principles of marketing. 3rd ed. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1986. Print. Strauss, Anselm L. Qualitative analysis for social scientists. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987. Print. Thompson, Steven K.. Sampling. New York: Wiley, 1992. Print.
Grand Canyon University Analysis of Dialysis Patients Capstone.

Please read The Below First I’m looking for someone who does not use Chegg or Course Hero or any online cites to provide your answers. The professor checks these other sites as well. If you do this to provide your answers and don’t use your own, let me know immediately so I can choose someone else to assist me. I have been notified that an assignment was linked to Chegg or Course Hero etc. Someone that uses their own words, so nothing can be found on the internet. Someone who does not Plagiarize others work from online websites. I have word documents attached with the instructions. Then let me know.  Thank you. Subjects are: Criminal Justice Text book for this class is Worrall, J., and Schmalleger, F. (2018). Policing. (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. ISBN 139780134441924 Your answers will be original? The professor or anyone will not be able find these answers on any online website? Please answer: 1. Read all the instructions and let me know if you have any questions about what must be done. 2. Your answers will be all original? 3. Do you guarantee that all your work is original and none of what you write can or will be found on any online site? Therefore, I try to provide a longer time for the work to be completed.
Grand Canyon University Analysis of Dialysis Patients Capstone

The Neoclassical Synthesis Hicks Economics Essay

Those who are strongly wedded to what I shall call “the classical theory”, will fluctuate, I expect, between a belief that I am quite wrong and a belief that I am saying nothing new. It is for others to determine if either of these or the third alternative is right. (Κeynes, General Theory, p. v) It is usually considered as one of the most important achievements of the Keynesian theory that it explains the consistency of economic equilibrium with the presence of involuntary unemployment. It is, however, not sufficiently recognized that, except in a limiting case to be considered later, this result is due entirely to the assumption of “rigid wages” and not to the Keynesian liquidity preference. (Modigliani, 1944, p. 65) 11.1 Introduction Many economists, soon after the publication of the General Theory (1936), set out to formulate and, at the same time, to clarify the difficult and often confusing content of the book. Among the first models that were specified was that of John Hicks (1937 and 1983), which was to constitute the backbone of what today came to be known as macroeconomics. [1] In his article Hicks sought to express the central propositions of the General Theory in terms of equations and graphs in the effort to illuminate the relation between the theory of effective demand and liquidity preference. Furthermore, Hicks clarified these relations with the aid of two curves the SI and the LL, which later became known as the IS-LM curves. Hicks’s model became particularly popular in the US through the work of Paul Samuelson (1948) initially and subsequently through Alvin Hansen (1953). These two economists contributed more than anybody else to the popularisation of the Keynesian analysis and way of thought. The IS-LM conceptual apparatus has displayed remarkable longevity and resilience to various critiques and since the late fifties or early sixties continues to be part of the formal education of economists. At the same time, the IS-LM model plays a significant role by virtue of the fact that macroeconomic analyses, regardless of the approach, are cast to a great extent, in terms of the IS-LM representation of the economy. This is not to imply that the IS-LM model is without its problems; on the contrary, many economists expressed scepticism on the validity of the IS-LM as a representation of the General Theory and the way in which the economy works. [2] In what follows we present and evaluatse the Hicksian IS-LM model and continue with Keynes’s reaction to the Hicksian restatement of the General Theory. Next, we introduce Modigliani’s version of the Keynesian model and the chapter ends with some concluding remarks. 11.2 Hicks’s Analysis of IS-LM Hicks’s analysis focuses on the relation between savings and investment and seeks to establish the simultaneous determination of income and the rate of interest in both the real and monetary economy. According to Keynes’s analysis in General Theory income constitutes the principal variable in his analysis; nevertheless one would continue to be in the spirit of Keynes by considering the important role of the rate of interest. Thus, Hicks argued that investment (Ι ) is a function of the rate of interest (i ) and also income (Y). Formally, we write the following function: I=I(i, Y) Similarly, for the saving function (S ), we have: S=S(i, Î¥) The equilibrium condition is: I=S From the above equality, we derive the following particular functional formalisation, which is called IS and it is defined as the locus of points that determine a relation between the rate of interest and the level of income, when investment and savings are equal to each other. The IS curved is formed in the way we show in Figure 1, where we have the saving and the investment functions for each income level. i i2 i2 i1 I1=S1 I2=S2 I, S Y1 Y2 Y i A A B B I(Y1) I(Y2) S(Y1) S(Y2) IS (a) (b) Figure 1. Equilibrium in the Goods Market and the IS Curve Let us suppose that we are in an initial equilibrium point such as A and let us further suppose that income increases from Y1 to Î¥2. It follows that the savings and investment schedules-both have positive their first derivatives with respect to income-shift to the right and their intersection at point Î’ determines the new equilibrium point. It is important to stress that the savings function is much more sensitive to variations in income, and therefore it shifts to the right by more than the investment function. [3] The two equilibrium points (i1, Y1) and (i2, Y2) are portrayed in Figure 1(b). In a similar fashion, we generate a series of such points, which when connected form the IS curve. [4] Hicks furthermore incorporates in his analysis the money market, where the supply of money (M) is exogenously determined, i.e., Îœ=Îœ0 /P, where Îœ0 is the exogenously given nominal money supply and P is the price level. The demand for money depends on income and the rate of interest, i.e., L=L(i, Y). By invoking the balancing condition M=L, we arrive at M0=L(i, Y ) Figure 2 illustrates the equilibrium position in the money market, where the supply of money, for reasons of simplicity and clarity of presentation, is depicted with a vertical line indicating its exogenous character. [5] The demand for money, as we know, is inversely related to the rate of interest, a relation whose details have been analysed in the previous chapter. When income increases it follows that much more liquidity is required for the needs of transactions and therefore the interest rate will increase for any given level of money supply. In terms of a graph we have: (a) (b) M=M0/P L1(Y1) L2(Y2) LM Y i i i1 i1 i2 i2 M/P Figure 2. Equilibrium in the Money Market and the LM Curve We observe that with the supply of money given the demand for money for transaction purposes is directly related to income. The crucial question here is that while we refer to the money market the discussion is in terms of the bond market. In particular, we know that the excess demand for any good leads to an increase in its price until excess demand becomes zero and thus we get the equilibrium point. Since in the case of money market the equilibrium interest rate is derived in the market for bonds (see ch. 9), then how can the same interest rate equilibrate the money market? In Keynes’s analysis it seems that there is an implicit portfolio stock exchange constraint, which can be written as follows: (L – M ) (Bd – Bs) = 0 Where Î’ symbolises the bond market, while the superscripts d and s symbolise the demand for and the supply of bonds, respectively. Consequently, we have the total demand for wealth (L B d) equal to its supply (M Bs). If we, further, suppose Walras’s Law, then the above equality necessarily holds and if the rate of interest brings equilibrium in the market for bonds then on the basis of Walras’s Law we conclude that equilibrium will be also established in the money market, that is L = M. As a consequence, we can follow Keynes, who argued that interest rates are determined in the money market. Because of the Walras Law, equilibrium in the bond market and equilibrium in the money market is one and the same. If, for example, i > i*, then Bd > Bs and because of the stock constraint we get L < M, that is there is an excess supply of money in the economy. Returning to the above equilibrium relations, we end up with a system of four equations and four unknowns: Y, i, I, S. The equations IS and LM represent the reduced form of the above system of simultaneous equations, whose solution gives the equilibrium income together with the equilibrium interest rate. In the same figure, we present the interest rate that corresponds to the liquidity trap (iLT), where the demand for money is infinitely elastic. Consequently, the LM curve is essentially the solid line. i IS LM Y iLT i* Y* A B S>I MS>I MSM>L I II IV III SM>L Figure 3. Equilibrium in the Market for Goods and Money The intersection of the two curves at point B determines the equilibrium pair of interest rate and income. Any point above the IS curve indicates excess supply of goods and every point below the IS curve indicates excess demand for goods. As for the LM curve, every point to the right indicates excess demand for money and every point left to the LM curve indicates excess supply of money. The intersection of the two curves defines four quadrants, which are portrayed in Figure 3 above and in each quadrant we indicate the excess demand or supply in the goods and money markets. The mechanism that establishes equilibrium in the economy works as follows: let us suppose that for some reason the economy is out of equilibrium at a point on the quadrant II. In such a case, savings exceed investment and thus income has a tendency to decrease, while the demand for money is greater than the supply and the interest rate tends to increase. The changes are expected to lead the economy towards equilibrium at point B. In an analogous way, we can describe the mechanism that restores equilibrium at points in the other quadrants and this is left as an exercise. 11.3 Hicks and Keynes Hicks’s article was published in 1937, eight months after the publication of the General Theory. Keynes already knew the content of the article since he was among the first that the article was given to for comments before its publication to the Economic Journal. Keynes never disapproved directly and explicitly the presentation in terms of the IS-LM apparatus. Don Patinkin (1922-1995) in a series of articles argues the fact that Keynes never said anything negative for the formalisation of his theory by Hicks and that this ipso facto implies an adoption of this presentation on his part (Patinkin, 1990). If Keynes disagreed then he would have every reason to emphatically express his disagreement. After all Hicks’s presentation in a sense was provocative, since Keynes’s General Theory in it was viewed as a special case of the neoclassical true general theory. Post Keynesian economists claim that the fact that Keynes did not exercise a negative critique can be attributed to his idiosyncrasy that would not pay attention to anyone’s writings which might concern his General Theory. On the other hand, Keynes did not have any reason, to express, at least in the beginning, his strong disagreement to Hicks’s presentation. It is possible that he did not think that Hicks’s article would meet the success that it finally met (Put footnote 6 here). [6] It is certain that he disagreed with Hicks’s view as this can be judged by a careful reading of his correspondence with Hicks and from the article that he wrote in the Quarterly Journal of Economics (1937), where he summarised his views. Specifically, he placed special emphasis, once again, on the fact that economies are characterised by uncertainty. Hicks’s approach, is characteristically different from that of Keynes’s. We know from Pasinetti (1973) that Keynes followed a sequential analysis starting from the marginal efficiency of capital, and then to the interest rate, to investment and through the investment multiplier to the equilibrium level of income. By contrast, in Hicks, all of the above take place simultaneously, as we show in Figure 3. Furthermore, Hicks in his formulation of the demand for money refers to a single interest rate. In the General Theory, however, we know that Keynes refers to two interest rates, the current and the expected in the long run. Consequently, Keynes’s analysis is in sharp contrast to Hicks’s and on top of all we have the issue of uncertainty that permeates the General Theory and is completely absent in Hicks’s presentation. Another important difference is that Hicks does not refer to the problem of unemployment equilibrium which is so central in Keynes-and really differentiates him from the classics-. Instead, Hicks locates the difference between Keynes and the classics to the interest rate and the issue of whether it increases with investment or not (Barens and Caspari, 1999, p. 219). According to Hicks, in periods of stagnation the interest rate is particularly low and under these circumstances speculators are not willing to hold non-liquid assets; consequently, their demand for money is so high that it absorbs whatever quantity of money is available. Thus, every increase in the supply of money is counterbalanced by a corresponding increase in the demand for money and the rate of interest remains constant. Monetary policy therefore is completely ineffective and it cannot restore the economy to full employment equilibrium. Hicks notes, there are conditions in which the interest-mechanism will not work. The special form in which this appears in the General Theory is the doctrine of a floor to the rate of interest – [the liquidity trap] as Sir Dennis Robertson has called it. (Hicks, 1957, p.287) If we suppose that the economy is in the liquidity trap [7] , then a monetary policy, regardless of how active it might be, cannot shift the economy beyond the initial equilibrium point. In terms of Figure 4, if the economy is in equilibrium at point A, an expansionary monetary policy will shift the LM curve, for example to the position LM΄, with no consequence what so ever for the initial equilibrium position. LM LM’ A B C IS IS’ IS” Y i iLT Figure 4. Equilibrium in the Markets for Goods and Money Consequently, Hicks in his model claims that the General Theory is not so general as Mr. Keynes thought, but rather a special case of the neoclassical theory, where the liquidity trap has a prominent position. The truth, however, is that the idea of the liquidity trap is very hard to pin point in the writings of Keynes; of course, there are some sporadic hints in the General Theory, as for example is the following: There is the possibility, for reasons discussed above, that, after the interest rate has fallen to a certain level, liquidity-preference may become virtually absolute in the sense that almost everyone prefers cash to holding a debt which yields so low a rate of interest. In this event the monetary authority would have lost effective control over the rate of interest. But whilst this limiting case might become practically important in future, I know of no example of it hitherto. (Keynes, 1936, p. 207) [8] However, Keynes does not discuss this case in any detail so as to claim that this is the hallmark of his theory. What is certain, however, is that the liquidity trap is more Hicks’s and subsequently Hansen’s (1953, pp. 122-3) idea rather than Keynes’s. [9] Consequently, the view that the liquidity trap is the essence of Keynes’s theory is due to the influence that the Hicksian model exerted on macroeconomics and much less to Keynes and his writings. Suppose, now, that for some reason investment increases, and then the increase in the rate of interest follows suit, a result which is consistent with neoclassical theory and with Hicks’s argument. It is true, that in Keynes the arrow of causality is different from that in neoclassical economics. However, it continues to be true that, under normal conditions, the interest rate increases when investment increases except for the case of the liquidity trap, where only income changes in every change in investment. The trouble, however, with Hicks’s view is that for Keynes the rate of interest is determined by monetary forces, while in the IS-LM framework the interest rate is determined by real forces. This is an issue that Keynes pointed out in his letter to Hicks. For example we read: From my point of view it is important to insist that my remark is to the effect that an increase in the inducement to invest need not raise the rate of interest. I should agree that, unless the monetary policy is appropriate, it is quite likely to. In this respect I consider that the difference between myself and the classicals lies in the fact that they regard the rate of interest as a no-monetary phenomenon, so that an increase in the inducement to invest would raise the rate of interest irrespective of monetary policy. (Keynes, 1973, p.80) A final point relates to the inclusion of current income in the investment function. Keynes objected to this idea for the reason that income was already included in the definition of the marginal efficiency of capital through the prospective yields. The following quotation from his letter to Hicks, shows that Keynes was not only acquainted with the IS-LM apparatus but also as a modern econometrician argued against the inclusion in the same specification of both income and interest rate. Specifically, Keynes notes: At one time I tried the equations, as you have done, with I in all of them. The objection to this is that it overemphasizes current income. In the case of the inducement to invest, expected income for the period of investment is the relevant variable. This I have attempted to take into account of in the definition of the marginal efficiency of capital. As soon as the prospective yields have been determined, account has been taken of income, actual and expected. But, whilst it may be true that entrepreneurs are over-influenced by present income, far too much stress is laid on the psychological influence, if present income is brought into such prominence. It is of course, all matter of degree. (Keynes, 1973, pp. 80-81). Barens and Caspar (1999) in their discussion of Hicks and Keynes note that while Hicks accepted all of Keynes’s points he nevertheless insisted in his own formulation for merely pedagogical reasons. 10.4 Modigliani’s Synthesis Hicks’s model does not refer explicitly to the labour market; it is simply confined to demonstrating that there is equilibrium in only two markets that is the market for goods and the market for money. In his model, Hicks explicitly argues that the money wage as well as the general price level are exogenously given. Franco Modigliani (1944) extended Hicks’s model by including the labour market and the production function. Modigliani argued that the assumption of equilibrium with unemployment cannot be supported on the basis of the liquidity preference theory except for the particular case of the liquidity trap. In general, however, the Keynesian hypothesis can be supported on the assumption of the rigidity in the money wage. For Modigliani, the equilibrium in terms of the IS-LM model implies a pair of interest rate and money income that clears simultaneously the money and good markets. Consequently, we must take into account that the money income (Î¥ ) is equal to the price level (P ) times the level of the real income (X ). As a result, we may write: Y=PX The level of real income (or output) is a function of the level of employment of labour (Ν). Consequently, we have: X=F(Ν) The level of employment in turn is determined at the point, where the marginal product of labour is equal to wage. Consequently, we have: w=PF-1 (Ν) Up until now we have a system of 7 equations (the three equations above together with the system of 4 simultaneous equations of the IS-LM) with 8 unknowns, that is I, S, i, Y, X, W, P. More specifically, we have the 4 equations of Hicks’s model: I=I(i, Y) S=S(i, Y) I=S M=L(i, Y) And the three new equations suggested by Modigliani: Y=PX X=F(Ν) w=P F -1(Ν) The system is overdetermined by one equation, the missing equation is the supply of labour. Modigliani in his article invokes Keynes’s assumption of the given money wage. More specifically, the money wage is given if, and only if, the economy is at a level of output less than full employment. We know that in the neoclassical analysis the supply of labour is a function of the real wage N=F(w/P) so the money wage can be written as w=F-1(N)P Formally, Modigliani stated his condition in the labour market in the following way: w=awo bPF -1(Ν) Where, a=1, b=0 if Ν < Νf a=0, b=1 if Ν = Νf The last equation indicates that if the current employment in the economy is smaller than full employment (Νf ), then Keynes’s view for the rigidity of money wage holds indeed, that is we have (a=1 and b=0). Money wage is viewed as a “datum a result of history or of economic policy or of both” (Modigliani, 1944, p. 47). If, however, the economy is at full employment, then the money wage becomes flexible (a=0 and b=1) and the last equation becomes an ordinary supply of labour function. Consequently, the money wage will be determined from the supply of labour at the point of full employment. In Modigliani’s presentation we find that the central assumption is the rigidity of the money wage, an assumption which, as with the liquidity trap does not really find any justification in the General Theory, where the nominal wage is being used simply to determine the price level. By contrast, in Modigliani’s presentation the nominal wage has another important role to play. This is revealed if we express Modigliani’s system of simultaneous equations in terms of wage units or alternatively in terms of labour commanded. [10] Thus, we have: investment is given in terms of labour commanded savings is given in terms of labour commanded equilibrium in the goods market equilibrium in the money market income given in terms of labour commanded the production function, which is by definition in real terms the real wage is equal to the marginal product of labour the supply of labour Hence, we have a system of 8 equations and 8 unknowns (I/w, S/w, i, Y/w, Î, N, w, P ). If, for a moment, we disregard the fourth equation and focus our attention on the remaining 7 equations, we observe that these can determine all the variables but one, that is the money wage. The result is that the supply of money determines the money wage; since this is the only variable that remains to close the system. Such a determination is due to the quantity theory of money. Consequently, Modigliani’s system of equations is dichotomised into the real economy-which includes all the equations except the fourth one-and the money economy, that is the equation of equilibrium in the money market. The real economy gives solutions in real terms (7 equations with 7 unknowns, that is I/w, S/w, i, Y/w, X, N, w/P) while the money supply: determines the nominal wage, since the other variables are determined in the real economy. Consequently, the money supply determines the nominal wage and through the real wage it also determines the general price level. Thus, monetary policy may affect real magnitudes in the Keynesian model, contrary to Hicks’s reasoning according to which the money supply does affect the real economy. Modigliani’s analysis leads to the conclusion that flexibility in prices and money wages establishes full employment in the economy. The mechanism that restores full employment works as follows: the existence of unemployment drives down nominal wages and therefore incomes fall. The demand for money for transaction purposes, being directly related to income, falls as well, and with a given supply of money the rate of interest falls as well. From thereon investment increases and the economy moves toward the full employment level of output. Modigliani managed to formalise Keynes’s argument about the results of the flexibility in money wages. It is important to stress that the pivotal variable in this formalisation of the theory of employment is the idea of inflexibility of money wage. A corollary of this theory is that the role of money is not neutral. For example, the increase in the supply of money affects the price level and reduces the interest rate and thus output and employment are increased. If the nominal wage were perfectly flexible, then money’s role would be neutral since it does not influence the interest rate i, or the liquidity preference L and output remains the same. Consequently, under conditions of a fully flexible nominal wage the increase in the supply of money leads only to an increase in the general price level. Consequently, Îœodigliani concludes that Keynes’s theory works only in case of inflexibility of the nominal wage. If, however, the money wage is flexible then we derive the usual neoclassical results, where the real economy determines the level of output and employment and the money economy determines the nominal variables of the economy. This does not imply a rejection of Keynes’s theory; on the contrary, economists accept the idea of inflexibility of the money wage as a stylised fact of modern economies and thus, Keynesian policy is viewed as both theoretically valid and necessary. The problem, however, relates to the theoretical consistency of the Keynesian system that once again became a special case of the general neoclassical model according to which the economy exhibits a sufficient flexibility in prices of commodities and the factors of production. 10.5 Summary and Conclusions In an overall evaluation of the two models we see that they both represent aspects or partial arguments of the General Theory. Nevertheless their major problem in terms of the General Theory is the simultaneity issue and also the treatment of uncertainty. In Hicks’s article we find an explanation of unemployment and recession as a result of the liquidity trap, which differentiates Keynes’s theory from the (neo)classical one. In Modigliani, by contrast, the recession is the result of the inflexibility of money wage and not of the lack of effective demand. Commenting on this kind of revision of the General Theory Paul Samuelson in the third edition of his popular text Economics, notes: In recent years 90 per cent of American economists have stopped being ‘Keynesian economists’ or ‘anti-Keynesian economists’. Instead they have worked towards a synthesis of whatever is valuable in older economics and in modern theories of income determination. The result might be called neoclassical economics and is accepted in its broad outlines by all but about 5 per cent of extreme left-wing and right-wing writers.” (Samuelson, 1955, p. 212). These efforts to cast Keynesian theory in terms of IS-LM, Samuelson called neoclassical synthesis, since it puts together the neoclassical analysis of investment and savings and the market for labour with the analysis of Keynes about the interaction between the money market and the real level of economic activity. The neoclassical synthesis became the dominant presentation of the General Theory. According to this view, when there is unemployment, then we have Modigliani’s supply of labour function with a=1 and b=0, and as a result of the exercise of appropriate monetary and fiscal policy the economy approaches the level of full employment. When the economy approaches the level of output that corresponds to full employment, then once again the neoclassical theory becomes relevant. If our central controls succeed in establishing an aggregate volume of output corresponding to full employment as nearly as is practicable, the classical theory comes into its own again from this point onwards. (Keynes, 1936, p. 378) In general, economists of the neoclassical synthesis argue that although the economy returns to full employment through the price mechanism, nevertheless this is a long run process. Consequently, for immediate results active fiscal and monetary policies are necessary. Modigliani’s ideas, which became the foundation of the neoclassical synthesis, and which essentially constitute a Marshallian partial equilibrium approach, became the object of criticism from Walrasian authors. They posited the following question: how is it possible to have equilibrium in all the markets but one? The protagonists of this critique of the neoclassical synthesis are Alex Lejonhufvund and Robert Clower, whose contributions we discuss in the next chapter. Other criticisms included the phenomena of unemployment and later of the stagflation in the late sixties or seventies. Some economists, the monetarists for example, tried to fix the weaknesses of the model and others such as the New Classical economists claimed that the premises on which the IS-LM framework is based are dubious, while New Keynesian economists in the 1980s revived the old Keynesian models by injecting realism and by basing them on microeconomic foundations which simply were not used in the initial models. Whatever happens to the current macroeconomic debates and the various criticisms launched against the IS-LM models, one thing is certain, that these will continue to be part of the formal education of future generations of economists. Questions for Discussion and Thought Write down the Hicksian system of equations. Draw a graph with the IS-LM system of equations and assuming a disequilibrium situation describe the dynamics of attaining equilibrium. To what extend does Hicks’s model represent Keynes’s General Theory? What was Keynes’s reaction to Hicks’s IS-LM representation of the General Theory? Discuss Modigliani’s Neoclassical Synthesis. To what extent does his model differ from Keynes’s? What are the major similarities and differences between Hicks’s and Modigliani’s models? Critically evaluate the following statement: “I will assume all markets with the sole exception of the labour market are in equilibrium.” Notes on Further Reading Hicks’s (1936) article is easy to follow, but the exposition of ideas (not “visions”) is really dry. The reader discerns an effort on the part of Hicks to express Keynes’s ideas in terms of equations and graphs without, however, the proper textual documentation. As we have mentioned, at the time that Hicks presented his article in the econometric society meeting at Oxford, two other related papers were presented in the same meeting by Meade and Harrod. Darity and Young (1995) present the details of these three articles a

George Washington University Infant and Child Survival Maternal Health Discussion

order essay cheap George Washington University Infant and Child Survival Maternal Health Discussion.

Reflect on what you have learned about the history and systems related to infant and child survival. If we want to improve child survival, health, and development, is it better to invest in primary prevention programs or tertiary prevention programs? Is it better to invest in general community development initiatives (horizontal programs) or in programs that address specific health concerns (vertical programs)?Should the global community shift toward investing ore resource in early childhood development programs, or should the focus continue to be on infant and child survival?Create a new blog post within the “Blog 5” folder that discusses the one or both of the 2 items listed above. Your best option is to write about ONE of these themes (or a related theme) in depth rather than covering multiple topics superficially.Your blog entry must be at least 350 words long and use a professional writing style (with correct grammar, punctuation, spelling, and so on). You should include at least one copyright-free image. Read the syllabus carefully so that you know how to avoid academic integrity violations. Include hyperlinks within the text to any external sources that were useful to you as you reflected on the writing prompt and wrote your blog post.__________________________________________________________________________________________material:1. Infant Mortality Epidemiology and Risk Factors: The neonatal period—the first 28 days after birth—is a
risky time, with the risk of death especially high on the
day of birth. There are some neonatal deaths that are
not preventable, even with the most advanced medical
technology. Some newborns have genetic disorders or
other congenital defects that are not compatible with
survival. However, the majority of stillbirths and
neonatal deaths in lower-income countries occur because of lack of access to even basic
medical care. Simple interventions like keeping babies warm, breastfeeding them shortly
after birth, and keeping them clean so that they do not get infections—a challenge when 2
women give birth at home on dirt floors—can substantially reduce the risk of death. These
interventions do not require advanced technologies, just effective health education.
☐ Read the neonatal mortality factsheet available from the World Health Organization at This
is not a formal source, but it provides a foundation for understanding the epidemiology
of neonatal disorders-Approximately how many newborns (first month after birth) will die this year? How
many fetuses will be stillborn this year? What percentage of neonatal deaths occur
during the first week after birth? What percentage of neonatal deaths occur during
the first 24 hours after birth? -How much did the annual neonatal mortality rate (NMR) decrease between 1990
and 2018?
What are the major causes of neonatal mortality? Are these preventable and/or
treatable conditions? -What are the most important newborn care practices?2. History of Child Survival Programs
In 1978, the Alma-Ata conference (held in the city
that is now called Almaty, Kazakhstan) established the
importance of primary health care (PHC) in ensuring
that all of the world’s people had access to “Health
for All.” Since then, a variety of PHC-oriented
initiatives have been launched by UNICEF, WHO, and
other partners. For example, IMCI (the Integrated
Management of Childhood Illnesses) provides health workers in clinics and in communitybased settings with guidelines for effective and cost-efficient treatment of child health
concerns. Between 1990 and 2015, the annual number of under-5 child deaths decreased by 3
more than half, from about 12.7 million to about 5.9 million. However, that means that
many thousand young children are still dying every day from preventable causes. Improving
health equity for children is one of the major priorities of global health.
☐ Read the child mortality factsheet available from the World Health Organization at -About how many children will die this year worldwide? What is the age distribution
of the fatalities? Approximately what percentage of these deaths could be
prevented with simple, affordable interventions? -What are the major causes of death for infants and children who are less than 5
years old? -What are the major causes of death for children ages 5–14 years?☐ In public health, we talk about three types of prevention.
• Primary prevention includes actions that keep an adverse health event from ever
occurring. Primary prevention targets healthy people.
• Secondary prevention detects health problems at an early stage when they have
not yet caused significant damage to the body and can be treated more easily.
Secondary prevention targets asymptomatic people. • Tertiary prevention seeks to reduce impairment, minimize pain and suffering,
and prevent death in people with symptomatic health problems. ☐ Watch this UNICEF video about child health promotion in Sierra Leone:
-What are all of the interventions that are featured in this video?
-Who were the partners for the funding and implementation of this project? 3. Child Health Initiatives in the 21st
Century: Global child health initiatives in the 21st century have shifted from
focusing merely on survival to promoting interventions that help
children thrive. Comprehensive child health programs combine
traditional interventions like vaccinations and nutrition support
with programs that support psychosocial and cognitive
development, such as early childhood education programs that
prepare children to succeed in school and community-based
therapy programs that help children with disabilities make progress toward achieving
developmental milestones.
☐ Watch this video from UNICEF:
What –world region is featured in this video?-What was the main message of the video? -What interventions were featured? -Do you think that it makes sense to invest in early childhood development (ECD)
programs in low- and middle-income countries when so many children are still dying
worldwide each year? -Should the focus stay on survival? ☐ Global health programs are often described as being horizontal or vertical: +A horizontal program strengthens an existing health
system so that it can deliver additional health services.
Horizontal programs are often described as integrating
newly funded packages of health services into existing
primary care delivery systems. -What are some examples
of horizontal child health programs? +A vertical program delivers disease-specific services that are not fully integrated
into the health system. Vertical programs are often used to address global health
priorities like disease eradication efforts that demand an intensive but time-limited
series of coordinated efforts- What are some examples of vertical child health
programs? -Which type of program do you consider to be most valuable for child survival,
health, and development initiatives today?
George Washington University Infant and Child Survival Maternal Health Discussion

Marketing -7

Hello,  Week 7 Class Discussion topic comes from — Chapter Eight “Marketing Strategies for New Market Entries” Chapter Nine “Strategies for Growth Markets” Chapter Ten “Strategies for Mature and Declining Markets” This class expects you to contribute three times: A product moves through a life cycle from introduction to rapid growth, maturity, and ulti-mately, decline (see attachment below). Consequently, firms and marketers not only have to understand the concept of product life cycle, but also the market and competitive changes that typically occur at each of its stages, and their implications for marketing strategy.  So is this class. We will undertake a similar process through your contribution one — answer one question only out of six questions below — Question #1 Concept of product life cycle believes that any products go through a series of distinct stages, and in each stage a product’s sales change over time in a predictable way. What are product life cycle stages? Explain key characteristics in each product life cycle stage. Question #2 The various stages of the product life cycle present different opportunities and threats to firms. Firms can do a better job of setting forth its objectives, formulating its strategies, as well as developing its action plans. List likely responses from companies in dealing with (Introductory Stage). Question #3 The various stages of the product life cycle present different opportunities and threats to firms. Firms can do a better job of setting forth its objectives, formulating its strategies, as well as developing its action plans. List likely responses from companies in dealing with (Growth Stage). Question #4 The various stages of the product life cycle present different opportunities and threats to firms. Firms can do a better job of setting forth its objectives, formulating its strategies, as well as developing its action plans. List likely responses from companies in dealing with (Shakeout Stage). Question #5  The various stages of the product life cycle present different opportunities and threats to firms. Firms can do a better job of setting forth its objectives, formulating its strategies, as well as developing its action plans. List likely responses from companies in dealing with (Mature Stage). Question #6  The various stages of the product life cycle present different opportunities and threats to firms. Firms can do a better job of setting forth its objectives, formulating its strategies, as well as developing its action plans. List likely responses from companies in dealing with (Decline Stage).

Tuskegee University Employment Opportunities for A Certified Nurse Midwife Essay

Tuskegee University Employment Opportunities for A Certified Nurse Midwife Essay.

Health Science 100Fall 2020Essay AssignmentWrite a three-page essay in APA format to include the following information:Title of chosen Health care careerProvide a description of the career you have chosenShare your personal feeling or experiences for selecting this career.Education: What type of education requirements and certifications are needed for this career?Employment: What is the job availability for this profession? (using correct APA citations)Growth trends in the fieldWhat is the salary range for this career?Professional /activities: Local/State/national Organizations (coast to join as a student)Reflections: Elaborate on your perspective goals regarding this career for the next 5-10 year.Reflect on how you see yourself “fitting” into this professionDescribe personal career plans, to include goals and objectives and StrategiesReference page (3- 5 references)Indicate the exact source of specific information used in the paper by citing references on the reference page.Organization, Format, Spelling, GrammarWell organizes, with each section containing appropriate contentDouble spaced, 12-pt font size 1” marginBody of the paper 3 pagesCorrect spelling and grammarPlagiarismThis essay should be your original work. Plagiarism is the improper borrowing of another person’s words. If you use another person’s words, ideas, or methods. I you use another person’s material; you must acknowledge your source. Copying materials directly without lacing it between quotation marks, even if you provide the source, is an act of plagiarism.
Tuskegee University Employment Opportunities for A Certified Nurse Midwife Essay

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