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Manoeuvre Warfare Applicability In Mountains And Developed Terrain Philosophy Essay

1. Nothing has decided the fate of nations and people as war has- cultures and civilisations have vanished, the people absorbed by the victorious armies. War fare is thus the ultimate ‘survival of the fittest’ environment, and the evolution of war fare within the environment has occurred through an almost unconscious, Darwinian, process of natural selection It is therefore imperative that a nation’s armed forces match this evolution process. In order to achieve this they must embrace the latest technology and constantly endeavour to redefine and upgrade their strategy, doctrines and war fighting philosophy. 2. 2100 years of recorded history of warfare has led to the emergence of two distinct styles of warfare – Attrition warfare and Manoeuvre warfare. The simplest comparison between the two is that the former is akin to arm wrestling where the basic reliance is on strength or ‘force on force’ with limited application on targeting the mind through speed and agility, while the latter is akin to Judo or Taekwondo where the main thrust is on speed and agility to target the opponent’s mind and limited emphasis is on strength per se. In fact, the strength of the opponent is rendered ineffective and is utilized to defeat him. 3. Indian army executed the most brilliant campaign based on manoeuvre warfare – the Bangladesh War 1971 – wherein Bangladesh was liberated at a relatively low cost and the Pakistan Army largely intact was defeated and 93.000 prisoners were captured. By manoeuvre in time and space, the enemy mind was paralysed into inaction. The Bangladesh campaign is taught in foreign countries as the most complete campaign based on manoeuvre warfare. Yet it is an irony that our Army is just loosely following manoeuvre, in both theory as well as practice, for decades now. 4. Military theorists state that it normally takes a 50 years cycle in respect of changes in military equipment, force structure and doctrine to stabilise. It is no wonder that the winds of change are sweeping across military thought and several of world’s major armed forces are in a greater or lesser flux. On one hand, technological changes are influencing the warfare, on the other hand, military thought is looking towards better method of war fighting with the aim of switching from attrition warfare to manoeuvre warfare. 5. There is therefore a need to understand, institutionalize and apply the war fighting philosophy of manoeuvre warfare in the present times as it does not permit us a long battle. The study focuses on the vital essentials of manoeuvre warfare and analysis how this approach can be satisfactorily applied in mountains and developed terrain in the Indian context. Definition of Manoeuvre Warfare 6. Manoeuvre is one of the two basic components of combat. The other is fire power. It is some times taken to be simply another word fir the move of forces. More often, it is used to mean relational move, i.e. move relative to an opponent’s position. Manoeuvre is defined in the Glossary of Military Terms as, “move of forces in the field in order to place the fire power of the fighting elements in a favourable position. Combined with surprise, deception and speed, manoeuvre may be used on occasion to offset enemy superiority in the power and increase the offensive of own force.” 7. The US Army’s Field Manual defines manoeuvre as “move of forces in relation to the enemy to secure or retain positional advantage”. In this essence, Manoeuvre means an attack on either or both of the enemy’s flanks. Move into his rear to disrupt his support elements, or encirclement. The essence of manoeuvre – in the classic usage of the team – is not move per se but the achievement of positional advantage. Because of basic human psychology, a force that is hit where it is weak, where it does not except to be hit, or in such a manner as to have it cut off from its supplies. Reinforcement or line of retreat tends to panic and disintegrate. The principal effect or manoeuvre is the more mental the physical – and therefore more powerful than simple physical attrition. In manoeuvre warfare, the objective is the enemy’s collapse as a cohesive, functioning force, not his incremental destruction through the application of firepower. 8. Manoeuvre Warfare depends upon out manoeuvring the enemy, both in the spatial and the temporal sphere, through a faster “tempo” The “leverage” achieved by placing one’s own mass in a position of advantage through spatial manoeuvre at a faster tempo than the enemy brings about the dislocation and psychological disruption to paralyze the enemy commanders mind, leading to his defeat. 9. Manoeuvre is a frame of mind and a style that has application at the tactical, operational and strategic level. Mobility is the means to execute a manoeuvre. Only when mobility is applied with the aim of inflicting paralysis on the enemy commands, does it get translated into manoeuvre. Thus, manoeuvre is not a way of movement but a way of thinking. 10. Inherent in the Manoeuvre Warfare is the need for violence, not so much as a source of physical attrition but as a source of physical dislocation. Towards this end, we concentrate strength against critical enemy vulnerabilities, striking quickly and boldly where, when and how it will cause the greatest damage to the enemy’s ability to fight. Once gained or found, any advantage must be pressed relentlessly and unhesitatingly. 11. Surprise remains an integral weapon in the arsenal of Manoeuvre Warfare. By studying one’s enemy we should attempt to appreciate his perceptions. Through deception we should try to shape his expectations. Then we will dislocate them by striking at an unexpected time and place. In order to appear unpredictable, we must avoid set rules and patters which inhibit imagination and initiative. In order to appear ambiguous and threatening, we should operate on axes that offer several courses of action, keeping the enemy unclear as to which we will choose. Manoeuvre and Manoeuvre Warfare 12. It is an accident of language that the word Manoeuvre and Manoeuvre Warfare have been confused and taken to be synonyms. Manoeuvre can be defined as the organised movement of forces during combat in combination with fire or fire potential to achieve a position of advantage relative to the enemy in order to deliver a decisive strike. Elsewhere, the term is also used as synonym for movement as in “fire and manoeuvre”, in small unit tactics. Since everyone is generally clear about “manoeuvre”, Manoeuvre Warfare is generally perceived as warfare employing manoeuvre. Consequently the retort, “it is just a fancy new name for what we have always done”. 13. The fact of the matter is that in Manoeuvre Warfare, manoeuvre means much more. It is not only a question of movement in space to gain positional advantage, but also to gain temporal advantage, through generation of a faster operational tempo. One aspect that stands out clearly on all victorious campaigns based on Manoeuvre Warfare is that one of the proponents, by his actions, brought about a sudden change or a series of changes on the battlefield to which the adversary could not adjust in a timely manner. As a result he was defeated and that too at a small cost to the victor. METHODOLOGY Statement of the Problem 14. The aim of the study is to examine the significance of manoeuvre warfare and to analyse its application in mountains and developed terrain in the Indian context. Hypothesis 15. Manoeuvre warfare is a war fighting philosophy that seeks to shatter the enemy’s physical and psychological cohesion through a series of rapid and unexpected actions and can be successfully applied in any terrain or scenario from the tactical to the strategic level provided the basic tenets are adhered to. Thus, the concept can be equally and efficiently applied in mountain and developed terrain in the Indian context. Justification of the study 16. The Indian Army Doctrine Section 20: Para 7.14 directs our focus on the intellectual understanding, institutionalisation and implementation of manoeuvre warfare and Directive command. The challenge before the Indian Army is to apply this sub doctrine of war fighting and command. Although this war fighting philosophy was successfully applied by Indian Army in the 1971 war, but no significant gains were made in the western sector. Therefore it is imperative that we give a more detailed look at what can be done to achieve a vital breakthrough and a decisive victory, especially in mountain and developed terrain. 17. Even though manoeuvre warfare is today a much talked about subject in our army, its application and convention to a doctrine or war fighting philosophy in mountains and developed terrain is a long way off. The possible reasons for this are many, which include cynicism that manoeuvre warfare is – “nothing new”, a traditionally attritionist approach, resistance to change, over emphasis on “no loss of territory” and so on. There is a need for us to analyse how this approach can be satisfactorily applied in the Indian Army’s context especially in mountains and developed terrain. 18. In the light of the arguments given above the subject “Manoeuvre Warfare and its Applicability in mountains and developed terrain” has been chosen for the study. Scope of the Study 19. The research shall seek to study the essentials of manoeuvre warfare and its characteristics and to make it more meaningful the study will narrow down its focus on application of manoeuvre warfare in the developed terrain in Indian context. It will concentrate on the aspects needing attention in our thought process and the organisational and institutional changes necessary to facilitate this approach. The basic premise of the research is that manoeuvre warfare is a war fighting philosophy and can be successfully applied in any terrain or scenario from the tactical to strategic level provided the basic tenets are adhered to. Operational Definitions Methods oF Data Collection Organisation of the Dissertation 20. The dissertation has been divided in following chapters:- (a) Chapter I . Introduction. (b) Chapter II. Essential Elements of Manoeuvre Warfare and Analysis of 1971 Bangladesh Campaign.. (c) Chapter III. Emerging Principles for Application of Manoeuveristic Approach in Developed Terrain. (d) Chapter IV. Characteristics, Challenges and Analysis of Own Concept of Operations in Developed Terrain. (f) Chapter V. Recommendations and Suggested Changes for Application of Manoeuvre Warfare in Developed Terrain. Directive Style of Command. Leadership Doctrine. Changes in Tactics and Equipment. Education and Training. Restructuring Strike Corps. Domination of Electromagnetic Spectrum. (g) Chapter VI. Conclusion.

CPT 307 Ashford University Week 3 Features of Linked List Program in Java Project

CPT 307 Ashford University Week 3 Features of Linked List Program in Java Project.

Prior to beginning work on this assignment, read Chapter 2 in Data Structures Essentials, Chapter 4 in Data Structures and Algorithm Analysis (Links to an external site.), Interface list <E> (Links to an external site.), and the Java – The LinkedList Class (Links to an external site.) tutorial.Students: Be sure to download and save a PDF version of your textbook for future reference. It will be used in later courses within your program, including the final, capstone course. Zybooks limits online access to your course textbooks to a 12-month period. (Zybook Download Instructions)For this assignment, you will continue in your role as a junior software developer from your Week 2 assignment. Your team is still working on the software contract that your company won for the United States Department of Defense. The team lead has tasked you with developing a Java program that uses a linked list to insert and remove items. Because you do not have your secret clearance yet, a senior developer will later take your code and modify it for the requirements of the contract.In this coding assignment you will utilize the Java syntax and techniques you learned while reviewing the required resources for Week 3. You may select appropriate variable names as long as proper Java syntax is used. You will also submit your source code.Input:In the input section, utilize Java syntax and techniques to add five items into a list abstract data type (ADT). Select a list for your program. List examples include students, athletes, days of the week, cities, etc. All input can be hard coded into the Java code.Processing and Output:In the processing section, after the elements are added to the list ADT, the following processes must be completed in the following order:Print out the contents of the original list. (Output)Using the list add(int index, E element) method, insert an element of your selection into the specified position in the list. (Processing)Print out the updated contents of the list.Using the list remove(int index) method, remove an element at the specified position in the list.Print out the updated contents of the list.Your code must include the following as comments:Name of programAuthor/student’s nameCourse name and numberInstructor’s nameDate submittedIn a Word document, explain how you utilized functions of lists in your Java program in a minimum of 200 words. Paste the image of your results and your source code into the document. Submit your Word document to Waypoint for grading.Take a screen shot of the results page and save the image. When you are finished with your Java program, zip the file. Next, submit the zip folder that contains the running source code to the Week 3 Zip File Submission page. If you need more guidance, review the Zip File Quick Start Guide . Be sure that you are sharing the zip folder with your instructor only. Your instructor will run your source code to ensure that the functionality runs correctly.In a Word document, express the various types of algorithms, including searching and sorting used in your Java program in a minimum of 200 words. Paste the image of your results and your source code into the document. Submit your Word document to Waypoint for grading.
CPT 307 Ashford University Week 3 Features of Linked List Program in Java Project

As you examined in this week’s readings, the end of construction does not signal the end of the project

online dissertation writing As you examined in this week’s readings, the end of construction does not signal the end of the project. As you examined in this week’s readings, the end of construction does not signal the end of the project for a construction firm or a project’s owners. Post construction and during project turnover, construction firms are responsible for completing the formal process of closing out the project. This process can involve performing tests on the completed project, compiling and exchanging project documentation, finalizing and paying sub-contracts, and completing a formal closeout review report. The importance of this phase cannot be emphasized enough, as mismanagement and poor organization of these activities during this phase can seriously damage a firm’s reputation. Imagine that you are the construction manager for the construction of an office building in a neighboring city. The office building has several roof-top units (RTUs) that control conditioned air in the building. In order to maintain your project schedule and keep the construction moving, your team will need to operate the RTUs through the remainder of the construction. The warranty on the units will start as soon as the units become operational, and the project is not scheduled to be completed for another six months. You know that your firm will be responsible for providing the owner with a 1-year warranty on all RTUs at the project’s turnover. How will you manage this issue now to prepare for closing out the project? What actions will you take during project closeout to ensure that this issue is successfully resolved? Provide justification for your responses.As you examined in this week’s readings, the end of construction does not signal the end of the project

Finite Element Analysis Of A Load Cell Engineering Essay

In recent years, the various mechanical weighing machines have been replaced by electromechanical industrial and commercial table-top versions. In modern types of weighing machines, an electrical signal that is directly proportional to the weight is provided for further processing by a microprocessor. The conversion from the mechanical quantity of mass or weight into an electrical signal is carried out by the piece of art termed the load cell (Karaus and Paul, 1992). The load cell is a force sensor that is used in weighing equipment. Most conventional load cells, for loads of 1000 kg or more, contain a spring element made from steel, which deforms under the load that is measured by sensor element, as shown in Figure 1.1. Usually, the sensor element consists of number of resistive strain gauges that are glued to the spring element. However, the accuracy of load cells is limited by the hysteresis and creep and to minimise these effects, expensive high-grade steels are required (Wiegerink et al., 2000) Figure 1.1 Load cell concept of operation Load cells are used in several industrial weighing applications. As the signal processing and control systems cannot operate correctly if they receive inaccurate input data, compensation of the imperfections of sensor response is one of the most important problems in sensor research. Influence of unwanted signals, non-ideal frequency response, parameter drift, nonlinearity, and cross sensitivity are the major defects in the primary sensors (Karaus and Paul, 1992; Piskorowski and Barcinski, 2008). Load cells have an oscillatory response which always needs time to settle down. Dynamic measurement refers to the ascertainment of the final value of a sensor signal while its output is still in oscillation. It is, therefore, necessary to determine the value of the measure and in the fastest time possible to speed up the process of measurement, which is of particular importance in some applications. One example of processing to the sensor output signal is filtering to achieve response correction (Piskorowski and Barcinski, 2008). In this study, Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is conducted on a typical load cell. The stress and displacement of the load cell were modeled using the FE package. Moreover, manual calculations were performed and the results are compared with the model predictions. 2. Idealisation The geometry of the load cell is relatively complex. It is therefore, was simplified to ease the construction and utilisation of the modelling techniques. The first phase in idealisation is to implement symmetry in modeling. Also, the upper and lower surfaces of the load cell are assumed horizontal and totally flat to ease modelling process. For the boundary conditions, the load cell is contacting fixed surface through its bottom surface i.e. the seating face. Therefore, the boundary conditions at this contact face are: no allowed any translation motion in x-direction and also in y-direction. Details of idealisation will be discussed in the latter sections. 2.1 Approximate stress calculation As it is known, the Hook s law can be expressed as: (2.1) Thus, the normal stress under tension or compression is directly proportional to the relative elongation or shortening of the bar. The proportionally factor , which links the normal stress with the relative elongation, is called the modulus of elasticity of the material under tension (compression). The greater the modulus of elasticity of a material, the less the bar is stretched or compressed provided all other conditions remain unchanged. It should be borne in mind that Hook s law has been represented by a formula which sums up the experimental data only approximately; it cannot therefore be considered an accurate relation (Quek and Liu, 2003). In order to manually evaluate the stress values, the positions of the neutral axis were firstly evaluated. For any rectangular cross sections, it is found that the neutral axis is to pass at the sections mid point. Therefore, it is considered that the mid section of the tested load cell takes the form of cantilever beam, which is subjected to normal force and accordingly a bending moment as shown in Figure 2.1. It was also considered as an assumption that the left hand side of the mid section of the load cell is restrained in all the degrees of freedom. It was also assumed that the normal force and the bending moment are acting on the right hand side of the simulated load cell s section. Figure 2.1 representation of the section as cantilever beam As the load is acted the result will be the bending moment which can be evaluated using the following expression. (2.2) The action of the bending moment is the expected deformation that will take place. For the clockwise affecting moments, the cross-sections located above the neutral axis will be subjected to tensile stresses whereas the cross-sections at the other side will experience compressive stresses. The area of the cross section can be evaluated from: (2.3) Given that b and h are the width and the height of the beam, the second inertial moment for the cell s cross section (i.e. rectangular shape) can be evaluated from: (2.4) The stress values at the area where the strain gauge is mounted are evaluated for the sections above the neutral axis ( sign) and below the neutral axis (? sign) as follows: (2.5) Therefore, the stresses for the section above the neutral axis are evaluated at: N/m2 2.2 Approximate displacement calculation By using equation (2.1, the strain can be evaluated as: Given that the Poisson s ratio is expressed as the ratio of the transverse to axial elongations, therefore: (2.6) Therefore: Same procedures can also be applied to evaluate the elongation in the z-direction, as similar value of the strain will be obtained in this direction. 3. Finite Element Model 3.1 Model justification The geometry of the load cell is illustrated in Figure 3.1 and the dimensions are listed in Table 3.1. Three dimensional proper FE model has been created using the commercial SolidWorks package. The load cell has a simple construction with a uniform thickness throughout. The load can be applied via rods screwed into the M10 threads through two holes at the two ends so that the load can be either tensile or compressive. Figure 3.1 (a) 2-D projection of load cell model and (b) basic geometry Table 3.1 Dimensions and properties of the load cell Dimension (mm) Modulus (GN/m2) Ratio (mm) Wherever there is symmetry in the problem it should be made use. By doing so, lot of memory requirement is reduced or in other words more elements can be used with the use of a refined mesh for the same processing time. When symmetry is to be used, it is worth to note that at the right angles to the line of symmetry the displacement is zero (Belyaev, 1979; Rao, 2010). For the load cell simulation in this study, planar symmetry is used, see Figure 3.2. Figure 3.2 Views of planar symmetry as applied to the load cell In the FEA, stiffness matrix of size 1000 1000 or even more is not uncommon. Hence, memory requirement for storing stiffness matrix would be very high. If the user tries to implement the Gaussian elimination straight, he will end up with the problem of memory shortage. So, to reduce memory requirement, according to Belyaev (1979) and Rao (2010), the following techniques are used to store the stiffness matrices: * Use of symmetry and banded nature * Partitioning of matrix (frontal solution). * Skyline storage. 3.3 Stress rising effect In the development of the basic stress equations for tension, compression, bending, and torsion, it was assumed that no geometric irregularities occurred in the member under consideration. But it is quite difficult to design a machine without permitting some changes in the cross sections of the members. Rotating shafts must have shoulders designed on them so that the bearings can be properly seated and so that they will take thrust loads; and the shafts must have key slots machined into them for securing pulleys and gears. A bolt has a head on one end and screw threads on the other end, both of which account for abrupt changes in the cross section. Other parts require holes, oil grooves, and notches of various kinds. Any discontinuity in a machine part alters the stress distribution in the neighborhood of the discontinuity so that the elementary stress equations no longer describe the stress state in the part at these locations. Such discontinuities are called stress raisers, and the regions in which they occur are called areas of stress concentration. The distribution of elastic stress across a section of a member may be uniform as in a bar in tension, linear as a beam in bending, or even rapid and curvaceous as in a sharply curved beam. Stress concentrations can arise from some irregularity not inherent in the member, such as tool marks, holes, notches, grooves, or threads. The nominal stress is said to exist if the member is free of the stress raiser. This definition is not always honored, so check the definition on the stress-concentration chart or table you are using. A theoretical, or geometric, stress-concentration factor or is used to relate the actual maximum stress at the discontinuity to the nominal stress. The factors are defined by Belyaev (1979) as:

Human Factors and Aviation Safety

Human Factors and Aviation Safety. Paper details Based on module readings and the article from, Academia Fortelor Aeriene “Henri Coanda” (AFAHC): Human Factors Contribution to Aviation Safety, PDF there exists an inseparable relationship between human factors and aviation safety. By analyzing and evaluating the components and current states of these two interrelated fields, define and explain that relationship. How does each impact the other? Summarize the SHELL model and how it facilitates a better understanding of human factors. Finally, analyze how you expect this entangled relationship might change in the future. Video Link: Factors and Aviation Safety

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