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Managing Risk Appetite of a Financial Institution Essay

Retail banking in the UAE Retail banking concerns the transaction of banks with consumers without relying on corporate intermediaries. Here, the services on offer include savings or transacting accounts, loans, credit and debit cards, and mobile or internet banking facilities. A common thing about retail banking in the UAE is that all banks offer Islamic banking. As a result, many of their loans to consumers are interest free and the banks provide a variety of instruments that help small businesses to grow. When loaning out money to retail clients, banks rely on the relationship they have with the client, the financial statement of the client, and the credit score. Banks exist mainly because of their credit offering business. As banks lend out money, they run the risk of not getting it back because they do not control the circumstances that face the borrower. The UAE banking sector has 23 domestic banks and 28 foreign banks serving both the retail and corporate markets (Moukahal 2011). The central bank of the UAE took over the operations of the Currency Board through the enactment of Federal Law 10, which gave it the mandate to advice government on monetary and financial issues (Hashmi 2007). The central bank also deals with currency issuing, credit policy formulation, and maintenance of foreign and gold currency reserves (Hashmi 2007). Under the role of monitoring and formulating a credit policy, the central bank also acts as the supervisor for the entire financial sector. It licenses banks and obliges them to use International Accounting Standards (IAS). Hashmi (2007) explains that banks need UAE nationals as their majority shareholders and they must have vivid corporate structures. In addition, they must be shareholding companies and maintain a risk weighted asset ratio of at least 10% (Moukahal 2011). Bank risk appetite Risk appetite concerns the exposure to potential adverse effects that could arise from an event to which the particular organization expressing the appetite is willing to accept. Consequently, after meeting its risk appetite threshold, a bank will proceed to initiate and implement risk management procedures and business control measures so that it lowers the exposure to accepted and manageable levels. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A number of reasons can affect a bank’s risk appetite. They include the demand for favourable returns by equity investors, the desire of rating agencies and consultants to minimize risk as a default, the demands by regulators and consumers on an uninterrupted service, and the need for the bank to offer a predictable and steady return for shareholders. Pursuing opportunities that have potential high rewards forces banks to take on high risks. When setting the risk level that could be accepted, a bank will seek to balance its loss potential with its profit potential. In this regard, banks will concern their business activities with the allocation of time and resources to activities that minimize risk exposure. They will consider whether they need to take any immediate action concerning their risk exposure and rely on their formal response strategies to erode the impact of the risk event. Finally, banks will rely on the history of the bank itself or the industry in the country and throughout the world to evaluate options for reducing effects of risk events. When banks have a high-risk appetite, they advance more loans to borrowers. Therefore, the indicators of a favourable economy for lending will also work as indicators for increased risk appetite for banks. A growing economy provides citizens with a variety of ways to earn money and pay back loans from banks. In return, banks find it increasingly profitable to increase their loan offerings because there are many people capable of repaying them back. When the favourable environment for lending changes and banks realize that the credit worthiness of its clients is plummeting, they reduce their lending activities. However, the transition period could be hectic and the bank could end up with a large amount of non-performing loans on its asset books. Writing off the loans would then expose the bank to losses and they could lead to collapse of the bank when they are too much. In the UAE, bank risk appetite follows the performance of the economy as indicated by the rate of economic growth, the level of consumer confidence, and the level of risk aversion in the financial industry. Banks can borrow money for subsequent lending and their ability to borrow will affect their lending ambitions. We will write a custom Essay on Managing Risk Appetite of a Financial Institution specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, when they are evaluating their risk appetite, banks will also include their capital base and shock-absorption capacity. As the regulator of banks, the central bank compels the banks to disclose their credit exposures periodically and maintain a considerable amount of their assets within the central bank deposit facility. The move ensures that an individual bank’s high-risk appetite does not jeopardise the stability of the entire banking industry and, in extension, the economy when a risk event occurs (Hull 2007). General overview of a bank ALCO Assets and Liability Management committee A bank will usually have Asset/Liabilities Committees (ALCO), which is a risk-management unit in the bank that works to evaluate, monitor, and approve risk related practices. Banks need a considerable amount of liquid assets for them to handle expected and unexpected financial balance sheet fluctuations. A bank will be in a favourable liquidity option when it is able to obtain needed funds promptly and at reasonable costs (van Greuning

Essay About Sula Novel

Essay About Sula Novel. Can you help me understand this English question?

Your literary analysis essay will be on the novel Sula by Toni Morrison. You can choose from any of the topics listed below (recommended) or explore further topics in the chapter on Sula, pp. X to Yin the book How to Write about Toni Morrison(linked here for your convenience).
Your literary analysis should be between 2 ½ and 3 pages (600 to 750 words), not including the Works Cited page, should be double spaced in Times New Roman 12-point font and must include:

A clearly articulated thesis that states, somewhere in your introduction, the assertion (position, interpretation) that your paper will prove
An introduction, a minimum of 3 body paragraphs, and a conclusion
At least two quotes from the novel itself that are integrated into your discussion (“the following day Nel walked to the burying and found herself the only black person there”) and the other one you can use what ever
At least two citations of outside sources (such as literary criticism on the novel, preferably from articles from the MDC databases)
Topic sentences that focus the discussion in the body paragraphs
Examples, details, explanations in the body paragraphs that clearly support your thesis
Clear connections between ideas from paragraph to paragraph and within paragraphs
Proper MLA style format in the heading, in the in-text citations, and in the Works Cited page (see the template for the heading and margins in this lesson)
Works Cited page includes articles from two sources and from the novel for a minimum of three total listed sources
Standard usage, grammar, and mechanics

Choose from the following topics:

Analyze the ending of the novel. What are the “circles of sorrow” that Nel experiences? Is the ending pessimistic, optimistic, or something else altogether?
Nel and Sula’s friendship is central in the novel. What role does this friendship play in Nel and Sula’s lives and what point is Morrison making about the role of life-long friendships in the formation of identity?
How do people who are intensely individualistic fare in the novel? Is it possible to break away from the values of the community and to be one’s own person? Answer the question with reference to at least two of the novel’s characters.

Essay About Sula Novel

The Human Growth And Development Assignment

online homework help The aim of this essay is to use knowledge of human growth and development to critically discuss the theories a social worker might employ to assess a family and better understand their behaviour. A family profile will be provided and two family members selected for further discussion and the application of appropriate theories. These theories will be critiqued in terms of how they might assist social workers in making informed assessments, as well as where the theories are limited in their application. Family Profile The family within this case study comprises five members, all of whom live together in Elsie’s home. Table 1 presents the name, age, family position, and nationality of each family member. Sylvie and Greg met when they were 19-years of age. They had been together for 5-years when their daughter Molly was born. They split up when Molly was 1-years old, but got back together 6-years later when Molly was 7-years of age. Greg said that they split up because he was unable to handle Sylvie’s total lack of trust in him. This caused huge arguments between them, with Sylvie constantly questioning where he was and his commitment to his family. Sylvie said that she was devastated when Greg left, but knew that it was going to happen. During their time apart Sylvie turned to alcohol and drugs, but sought counselling and support for this and the issues in her past. As a result, she has been drug and alcohol free for over 4-years. Greg always maintained a good relationship with Molly during the 6-year separation and she lived with him and her paternal Grandparents at different points when Sylvie was not coping. Molly said that she was happy that her parents got back together. Mason was planned and both Sylvie and Greg felt they had resolved historic issues and were committed as a family unit to having another child. Mason was born with Global Developmental Delay, which is a condition that occurs between birth to 18-years of age and is usually characterised by lower intellectual functioning and significant limitations in communication and other developmental skills. Sylvie blames herself for Mason’s condition, believing that it must somehow be linked to her ‘wild’ years of drinking and drug binges. Despite being reassured to the contrary by medical professionals and a social worker, she remains low in mood and feels that she has let everyone down. Sylvie has found bonding with Mason difficult and she feels frustrated by him not meeting his developmental milestones. Mason is in nappies, he is not yet talking, he is very unsteady on his feet and he lacks co-ordination. As a result, he still requires feeding at mealtimes and has not begun to develop independent skills. Sylvie has said that she feels like ‘sending him somewhere.’ Greg, on the other hand, feels very attached and protective towards Mason and Sylvie feels that he ‘lets him get away with anything.’ Conflict has developed between Sylvie and Greg, resulting in Greg staying at work longer and meeting up with his friends more in an effort to avoid the arguments and tension at home. Elsie, mother to Greg, owns the large family home in which they all live. Sylvie and Greg decided that they would move in with her shortly after they got back together, as Greg’s father died very unexpectedly. The plan was that they would all support one another financially, practically and emotionally. Elsie is very involved with the children as both parents work. However, recently Elsie has been forgetting things, such as collecting Mason from the specialist childminder and this has caused tension between the adults. There have been some difficulties with Molly at school. Sylvie was called in to Molly’s school last week as a result of Molly using racist language towards another student. The school state that Molly is very close to being excluded, as a result of her angry and disruptive behaviour. Sylvie broke down upon hearing this and explained about her low mood, feelings of despair and worries about Greg’s mum. Sylvie cannot understand the change in Molly’s behaviour and said that she and Greg need help. Applying Human Growth and Development to Social Work As part of this essay, there will be a focus on two members of this family: Molly and Elsie. The two theories of human growth and development to be applied to Molly are Attachment Theory and Life Course Theory. The two theories of human growth and development to be applied to Elsie are Ecological Theory and Disengagement Theory. Anti-oppressive practice will underlie the critique and has been defined as “a form of social work practice which addresses social divisions and structural inequalities in the work that is done with ‘clients’ (users) and workers” (Dominelli, 1993, p. 24). Anti-oppressive practice is a person-centred approach synonymous with Carl Rogers (1980) philosophy of person-centred practice. It is designed to empower individuals by reducing the negative effects of hierarchy, with the emphasis being on a holistic approach to assessment. Practising in an anti-oppressive way requires valuing differences lifestyles and personal identities. This goes against common sense socialisation which portrays differences as inferior or pathological and which excludes individuals from the social world and denies them their rights. MOLLY Attachment Theory Attachment Theory is a psychological theory based on the premise that young children require an attachment relationship with at least one consistent caregiver within their lives for normal social and emotional development (Bowlby, 1958). Attachment is an emotional bond between an individual and an attachment figure, usually the person who cares for them. Psychologically, attachment provides a child with security. Biologically, it provides a child with survival. Ainsworth et al. (1978) formulated four types of attachment that provide a tool for social workers to assess and understand children’s emotional experiences and psychosocial functioning: secure; insecure, ambivalent; insecure, avoiding; and disorganised. Molly appears demonstrates insecure, ambivalent attachments, where parental care is inconsistent and unpredictable. This type of attachment is characterised by parents who fail to empathise with their children’s moods, needs and feelings. Indeed, Sylvie cannot understand the change in Molly’s behaviour, indicating an inability to empathise with Molly. Children with insecure and ambivalent attachments often become increasingly confused and frustrated. They can become demanding, attention seeking, angry and needful, creating trouble in order to keep other people involved and interested. Feelings are acted out, as Molly has been doing at school. This is because insensitive and inconsistent care is interpreted by the child to mean that they are unworthy of love and unlovable. Such painful feelings undermine self-esteem and self-confidence and an understanding of this can ensure that social workers resist stereotypes of the moody, anti-social teenager, and instead explore the underlying reasons for changes in mood. For Molly, the development of an attachment figure was likely to have been compromised during her early developmental years. In particular, when Molly was between the ages of 1 and 7-years old, her mother was addicted to drugs and alcohol and thus was emotionally and physically unavailable. Despite living with her father and paternal grandparents for a period of time, the overall insecurity within her family unit is likely to have impacted her ability to attach to others. If Molly did develop an attachment figure it is most likely to have been with her father or maternal grandparents, who were not unavailable due to drug or alcohol abuse during this vital developmental phase of Molly’s childhood. Taking this into consideration, there are a number of significant changes that have occurred in Molly’s life and that involve potential attachment figures who have provided Molly with much-needed security and safety. For example, Molly’s father, whom Molly has remained close to throughout drama within the family, is no longer at home as much in an effort to avoid arguments with Sylvie. When he is at home, the tension is likely to impact the duration and quality of time spent with Molly. Indeed, marital conflict has been found to influence adolescents’ attachment security by reducing the responsiveness and effectiveness of parenting (Markiewicz, Doyle, and Brendgen, 2001). Strained marital relationships can also lead to increased marginalisation of the father who can become distanced from their children, as has been the case within this family (Markiewicz, Doyle, and Brendgen, 2001). In addition, Molly has recently lost her grandfather, which her grandmother is also trying to come to terms with. Not only has Molly lost her grandfather, but her grandmother’s behaviour is likely to have changed as she comes to terms with her own loss. All of the key attachment figures in Molly’s life are either emotionally or physically unavailable at present. It is important to consider this within the context of Molly’s current developmental stage, which is that of adolescence. Attachments to peers tend to emerge in adolescence, but the role of parents remains vital in teenagers successfully achieving attachments outside of the home. It is a time when parents are required to be available if needed, while the teenager makes their first independent steps into the outside world (Allen and Land, 1999). Molly’s recent problems at school could be the result of this lack of availability from adults in her life. She might also be anxious about losing her father again, creating anticipation and fear about separation from an attachment figures. The anger she expresses at school could be transference of the anger and fear created by her unstable circumstances at home. The fact that she has become racially abusive might suggest that her anger lies with her mother, who is of dual nationality. The main critique of Attachment Theory has been in the guise of the nature versus nurture debate, the former being genetic factors and the latter being the way a child is parented. Harris (1998) argues that parents do not shape their child’s personality or character, but that a child’s peers have more influence on them than their parents. She cites that children are more influenced by their peers because they are eager to fit in. This argument is supported by twin studies showing that identical twins reared apart often develop the same hobbies, habits, and character traits; the same has been found with fraternal twins reared together (Loehlin et al., 1985; Tellegen et al., 1988; Jang et al., 1998). It is likely that nurture plays a greater role in the younger years, when parents and caregivers are the child’s primary point of contact. On the other hand, when a child enters adolescents and engages with society more, nature might take over. Another limitation in Attachment Theory is the fact that model attachment is based on behaviours that occur during stressful separations rather than during non-stressful situations. Field (1996) astutely argues that a broader understanding of attachment requires observation of how the caregiver and child interact during natural, non-stressful situations. It is agreed that behaviours directed towards the attachment figure during separation and reunion cannot be the only factors used to define attachment. Despite these limitations, the theory does provide valuable information regarding relationship dynamics and bonds, which social workers can use to better understanding the individual being assessed. It is, however, important to remember that what is seen as healthy attachment will vary culturally. Consideration of this is crucial to anti-oppressive practice. Life Course Theory Life Course Theory has been defined as a “sequence of socially defined events and roles that the individual enacts over time” (Giele and Elder, 1998, p. 22). Within this theory, the family is perceived as a micro social group within a macro social context (Bengston and Allen, 1993). According to Erikson’s 8 stages of human development, Molly is in stage five, which is characterised by a conflict between identity versus role confusion. Being of dual heritage might cause issues within this stage and within Molly’s search for identity. Evidence within the literature has shown that adolescents of dual heritage report more ethnic exploration, discrimination, and behavioural problems than those of single heritage (Ward, 2005). Indeed, this could explain why Molly is being racially abusive, in an effort to determine her own thoughts and feelings on ethnicity and the confusion it can cause. The racial abuse directed at other children might even be representative of her own anger at being of dual heritage. Adolescence is difficult to define, but it is traditionally assumed to be between 12-18 years of age and characterised by puberty (i.e. the transformation from a child to a young person). During this time, hormones strongly influence mood swings and extremes of emotion, which might explain Molly’s difficulty controlling her anger at school. Adolescence is also when an individual starts to develop socially, increasing their independence and becoming more influenced by peers. During this time, according to Piaget’s (1964) theory of cognitive development, an individual enters the ‘formal operational stage’ and starts to understand abstract concepts, develop moral philosophies, establish and maintain satisfying personal relationships, and gain a greater sense of personal identity and purpose (Santrock, 2008). Risks to social and cognitive development include poor parental supervision and discipline, as well as family conflict (Beinart et al., 2002), showing this to be an important time to intervene with Molly. It is these biological and social changes during adolescents that can create the stereotype of the moody, anti-social teenager. It is important that social workers do not allow negative stereotypes to influence their expectations of Molly. Instead, they need to take a holistic approach and examine where she is on the life course as well as what the character and quality of Molly’s behaviours and relationships tell them about her internal working model, defensive inclinations, emotional states and personality. This ant-oppressive approach will also allow social workers to identify links between past and present relationship experiences. ELSIE Ecological Theory Bronfenbrenner’s (1977) Ecological Model of human development posits that in order to understand human development, an individual’s ecological system needs to be taken into consideration. According to the theory, an individual’s ecological system comprises five social subsystems: Micro-system – comprising activities and social roles within the immediate environment. Mesosystem – processes taking place between two or more different social settings. Exosystem – processes taking place between two or more different social systems, at least one of which does not involve the individual but indirectly affects them. Macrosystem – includes ideology, attitudes, customs, traditions, values and culture. Chronosystem – change or consistency over time in individual characteristics and environmental characteristics. Ecological Theory is, overall, a model of how the social environment affects the individual, with these five systems interacting and thus influencing human growth and development. Elsie’s ecological system has been continually changing for many years. At one point she was living with her husband, son, and her granddaughter. This was followed by living alone with her husband. On losing her husband, Elsie’s son moved in with his wife and two children, one of whom has a disability. There has been very little environmental stability within Elsie’s life, at least over the last 7-years or more. It is perhaps understandable that her health has started to deteriorate. She has recently lost her husband, experienced continually fluctuating environmental conditions, and is now living in a tense atmosphere due to issues within her son’s marriage. It is also important to note that, children’s behaviour and personality can also affect the behaviour of adults; Elsie’s behaviour might be negatively affected by her granddaughters struggle through adolescence and her grandson’s disability. Taking into consideration Elsie’s ecological system highlights the importance of not making assumptions that Elsie’s increased forgetting is a sign of dementia; her symptoms may be the result of stress within her ecological system. Despite the relevance of this theory to understanding Elsie’s situation, the critique does highlight limitations in its operationalisation (Wakefield, 1996). In particular, since past experiences and future anticipations can impact an individual’s current well-being, lack of inclusion of this element of human growth and development within the Ecological Model is a serious limitation. In addition, the emphasis of the model is on adaptation and thus it has been argued that the theory can be abused and used to encourage individuals to accept oppressive circumstances (Coady and Lehman, 2008). Social workers using this theory in their assessments ideally need to be aware that oppression and injustice are part of the environment that needs to be considered in an ecological analysis. With this consideration, the theory offers social workers a way of thinking about and assessing the relatedness of individuals and their environments; the person is assessed holistically and within the context of their social circumstances. Disengagement Theory Disengagement has been described by Cumming and Henry (1961) as “an inevitable mutual withdrawal . . . resulting in decreased interaction between the ageing person and others in the social systems he belongs to” (p. 227). Within their theory, they argue that older people do not contribute to society with the same efficiency as the younger population and thus become a societal burden. In order to function, therefore, society requires a process for disengaging older people. By internalising the norms of society, older people become socialised and take disengage from society due to a sense of obligation. The theory further purports that the extent to which an individual disengages determines how well they adjust to older age. In other words, continued withdrawal from society in later life has been deemed the hallmark of successful and happy ageing. Applying this theory to Elsie’s situation, it could be that the problems surrounding her forgetfulness in collecting her grandson from school is a step towards social disengagement. Furthermore, it could be theorised that this disengagement was prompted by her husband taking the most extreme form of disengagement, which is death. There has, however, been much critique of this theory, including the fact that many older people do not conform to this image and remain actively involved in life and in society. Hochschild (1976) has criticised the theory with what has been termed the ‘omnibus variable.’ Hochschild points out that while an older person might experience disengagement from certain social activities, such as retiring from work, they are likely to replace this with something else that is socially engaging such as being more involved in the community or becoming more family-oriented. Indeed, Hochschild’s biggest challenge to Disengagement Theory was the presentation of evidence from Cumming and Henry’s own data showing that many older people do not withdraw from society. Disengagement Theory creates a picture of older people as lacking freedom to act on their own, thus ignoring individual ageing experiences and describing the ageing process in a purely social context (Gouldner, 1970). Indeed, Estes et al. (1982) argues that disengagement is often forced upon older people, which supports the notion that old age is just as much a social construction as it is a biological process. Older people are, in many ways, socialised into acting ‘old.’ Thus, older age is strongly related to Labelling Theory (Rosenthal and Jacobson, 1968). For example, making assumptions about old age and having low expectations of older people can become a self-fulfilling prophecy. This again raises the importance of not assuming that Elsie’s forgetting is a sign of dementia; despite being seen as a natural consequence of ageing, only a minority of people develop dementia (Stuart-Hamilton, 2006). In many ways, Disengagement Theory serves to legitimise the marginalisation of older people and is, it could be argued, ageist and discriminative. Ageism is the application of negative stereotypes and includes actions such as categorising older people separately from ‘adults.’ This has created immense debate within social work practice, with it being believed by some that distinguishing older people from adults is oppressive and can exacerbate social isolation. Tackling social isolation is being encouraged in efforts to prevent deteriorating health in older age, suggesting that disengagement is far from the ideology purported by Cumming’s and Henry (DH, 2010). The introduction of the Equality Act 2010, which replaces the existing duties on the public sector to promote race, disability and gender equality, now comprises a single duty to promote equality across eight ‘protected’ characteristics, one of which is age. The Act also includes provisions allowing the government to make age discrimination in service planning and delivery unlawful. This is likely to be implemented in 2012 and thus it is crucial that social workers make anti-oppressive practice in the form of tackling ageism a priority. There needs to be a move away from viewing older people as an homogenous group characterised by passivity, failing health, and dependency, as highlighted within Activity Theory. Activity Theory (Leont’ev, 1978) is a direct challenge to Disengagement Theory in that it suggests that life satisfaction is related to social interaction and level of activity. Nevertheless, as with all theories discussed within this essay, Disengagement Theory can be applied to understanding Elsie’s situation without being oppressive and without taking the extreme position that originally inspired the theory. More modern approaches to human growth and development clearly show the benefits of social engagement versus disengagement; however, disengagement remains a key factor to consider due to ageist attitudes and the socialisation of old age. Conclusion This essay has utilised theory and knowledge of human growth and development to demonstrate how social workers can make an informed assessment of a complex family situation. The strengths and limitations of these theories have been discussed, drawing in particular on their application within anti-oppressive practice. All theories offer a better understanding of human growth and development, with some requiring specific adaptation to encompass the core values of social work practice. Such adaptation is not necessarily a disadvantage if the key strengths of each theory are utilised alongside the knowledge and expertise of the social worker.

The Carnival Cruise Lines

The Carnival Cruise Lines. Carnival Cruise Lines is a global cruise company and one of the largest vacation companies in the world. CCL generates all of its revenues from the cruise industry. The company’s wide-ranging product offerings provide guests with exceptional vacation experiences at an outstanding value. The success in providing quality cruise vacations has made CCL the most profitable company in the leisure travel industry. Carnival Cruise Line’s stock is dually listed on both the New York Stock Exchange and on the London Stock Exchange under symbol CCL. It is the only company in the world to be included in both the SThe Carnival Cruise Lines

Literature Review of Microclimate: Senzo Tembe

This section of my project shows a series of studies and research done by other people which have a close relation to the experiment that I’ve worked on. Microclimate is the climate of a very small or restricted area, especially when this differs from the climate of the surrounding area. (Grade 12 geography focus book.) This reference helps me determine whether my hypothesis is true or not, comparing the quads at Michaelhouse. Historical background to the Saudi Arabian heritage, author Talib, Kaizer analyses different types of living environment with close precautions to microclimate in those particular zones, and the concomitant effect on vernacular buildings.(author Kaizer Talib) Quads such as Main quad have buildings which surround it, Talib Kaizer’s reference participates well in my study. Different types of species were grown in the same aerial environment, temperatures ranging from 5⁰ to 35⁰C these were to determine whether species of different grass have an effect on temperature. Weight of foliage’s were taken to ratio, the usage of maximum yield of foliage’s were taken to find the optimum soil temperatures of the species that was tested. According to the ratio scale it was found that ratio was lowest at optimum soil temperature and was higher at soil temperatures above and below the optimum with slight exceptions. Ratios showed that partitioning of photosynthate is controlled by the rates of photosynthesis and root absorption. (According to R.L. Davidson, oxford university press.) The reference above also helps prove that the quads in my experiment will have an effect on the surface temperature of quads that contain more grass than others with less grass. Graph showing inverse proportion: In Tokyo an investigation was set to see whether land-use and anthropogenic heat (heat produced by humans.) on surface temperature. Sub-grid parametrization scheme which calculates the total surface heat composed on different surfaces, over 36 days in Tokyo the investigation was run in summer and majority of the days the investigation went on for it was particularly typical summer weather (clear skies, negligible gradient winds etc..). Anthropogenic heat was much larger at night, and was found that green vegetation areas including grass were more dominant during the day than at night (resource article by F. Kimura.) At a boarding school such as Michaelhouse with 550 boys excluding staff will also have a great effect on the surface temperature while my study was being taken. The urban heat island effect has been documented in many cities, one of the causes of urban heat island effect is of green spaces such as trees, grass etc… being removed and replaced with city buildings. This causes elevation in temperature, increasing the population of trees in cities can lower the urban heat island effect. The case studied heat produced by green spaces and heat produced by manufactured city buildings was measured using a thermal satellite imagery, 143 sites were chosen and if every unit conducted in this predicament case study had to increase the green spaces slightly the surface temperatures would decrease by an amount of 1.2⁰C. (A Terre haute case study, by P.J. Hardin and R.R Jenson). Michaelhouse is a very conservative school when it comes to trees, the amount of trees could disagree to my hypothesis and the effects of the surface temperature. Urbanisation process is one that influences the thermal balance of a certain area, cities are commonly several degrees hotter than a surrounding rural settlement. Urbanisation forces heat to increase in the CBD and urban areas surrounding the CBD, heat causes increase of electricity bills, and also making it very uncomfortable. Heat waves increase risks of sickness spreading around easier. In Manchester, United Kingdom this case study on how the effect of tree shade and grass on surface and globe temperatures in an urban area, months June and July 2009 and 2010. Small plots were specifically chosen for the study, areas which obtained both concrete and grass with/without the presence of tree shade surface temperatures composed. Global temperatures above each surface was tested, surface and shade affected the temperature greatly. Between the tree shade and the grass, grass de-elevated the temperature by up to 24⁰C, while tree shade only affected the temperature by decreasing up to 19⁰C. With no involvement to my hypothesis tree shade decreased the global temperature by 5⁰-7⁰C, this case study showed that trees have an influence to global temperature cooling and both tree shade and grass have a natural cooling system towards surface temperature. (Article by author D. Armson). Michaelhouse is located in a rural area which therefore makes temperature in the site lower the populated areas such as towns. Anthropogenic influences on climate are emissions of greenhouse gases and urbanisation. Differentiating the two on which has more of an affect to surface temperature is a difficult process since being that both parties increase the daily mean surface temperature. Urbanisation was compared to agricultural areas nearby, the results differed significantly, and reasons of the big differences between the two may have been the effect of population difference. (Eugenia Kalnay and Ming Cai.) This quote by Eugenia Kalnay and Ming Cai states the same as the above reference by author D. Armson Surface temperature has been reconstructed to hemispheric and global scale using proxy data for decadal to centennial climate changes in last two thousand years. Not many years ago more modern and accurate complementary methods and data were thoroughly tested and validated from experimenting with model simulations. “Knowledge about climate in past centuries can improve peoples’ understanding of natural climate variability, and address the question whether modern day climate changes are unprecedented in years to come.” (Summarised quote by Michael E. Mann). Many proxy data studies have emphasized on global and hemispheric mean temperatures in previous years, and some studies have tried to reconstruct the underlying spatial patterns of past surface temperature changes globally and in regional scales. Recent attempts to find out the hemispheric temperatures used the composite plus scale method, using proxy data such as tree rings and ice cores are standardized and centred are then composited to form hemispheric and regional series(Michael E. Mann). Theoretical models of surface temperatures oscillations are derived, diurnal and annual are donated amplitude and phase of lag, in terms of external conditions physical properties of soil and atmosphere. Physico-mathematical basis is the explanation of various microclimate characteristics. (Heinz Lettau) Wind speed: – The fundamental atmospheric rate. It is commonly measured in knots by an instrument called the anemometer.(Oxford dictionary) In my study of the wind speed at Michaelhouse was used in rotations of the anemometer that I had created. The circulation that causes air to move is called atmospheric pressure, this atmospheric pressure is the weight of atmosphere pressing down towards the Earths’ surface. The global temperature affects the circulation of air flow, in high temperatures air expands and rises, and therefore sinks in low temperatures. (Focus, grade 12 geography text book.) Over a few years new mathematical functions have been proposed for wind speed density, the most commonly used function had come across in studies to be inadequate in finding the correct wind speed density, this function is called the two-parameter Weibull function. Whether the two-parameter function is unimodal or bimodal nature, due to the intricate behaviour of the function inadequate. This prevents it to be modelled by two-parameters model. Unimodal is produced by the two-parameter if it’s bimodal nature which makes it simply inadequate to model appropriately. Recent years other functions have been suggested for both uni/bimodal natured functions, more involved functions to better model the distributions.(A.N. Celik, author) Throughout the five days of gathering data the wind speed was different on every day. “The main factors that affect the wind direction and speed are the pressure gradient force, Coriolis force and friction. These particular factors cause winds to blow at different directions and different speeds; when they are working together.”(By Annalou Mack, Sciences 360, atmosphere and weather.) Bibliography: Armson, D. (2012). The effect of tree shade and grass on surface and globe temperature in an urban area. Urban forestry and Urban greening, Abstract. Bonan, B. G. (2008). Forest and climate change: forcings, feedbacks, and the climate benefits of forest. science, Abstract. Cai, M. a. (2003, May 29). Impact of urbanisation and land-use change on climate. Letters to nature, Abstract. Celik, N. A. (2010). Critical evaluation of wind speed frequency distribution functions. Journal of renewable and sustainable energy, Abstract. Davidson, R. (1968, December 28). Effect of root/leaf temperature differentials on root/shoot ratios in some pasture grasses and clover. Oxford index, Abstract. Dilley, L. E.-B. (2006). Focus. Cape town: Maskew Miller Longman. Graham, E. R. (1987). Sea surface temperature, sea wind divergence, and convection over tropical oceans. Graham and Barnet, Abstract. Hardin, J. P. (2007, May 25). The effect of urban leaf area on summertime urban surface kinetic temperatures. A Terre Haute case study, Abstract. Kimura, F. (1989, June 6). The effects of land use and anthropogenic heating on the surface temperature in the tokyo metropolitan. Atmospheric environment. Part B, urban atmosphere, Abstract. Lei, M. (2009). A review on the forcasting of the wind speed and generated power. Renewable and sustainable energy reviews, Absract. Lettau, H. (1951). Theory of surface temperature and heat transfer oscillations near a level ground surface. American geophysical union, Abstract. Mack, A. (2006). Sciences 360. Atmosphere and weather, 1. Mann, E. M. (2007, November 20). Proxy-based reconstructions of hemispheric and global surface temperature variations over the past millennia. Surface temperature reconstruction for the last 2,000 years, 5. Talib, K. (1984). Shelter in Saudi Arabia. New york: Academy editions. Tsuruta, S. (2002). Confronting neutron star cooling theories with new observations. The astrophysical journal letters, Abstract. Senzo Tembe

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