Evaluation of Corporate Performance
The Final Paper will involve applying the concepts learned in class to an analysis of a company using data from its annual report. Using the concepts from this course, you will analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the company and write a report recommending whether or not to purchase the company stock.The completed report should include:
An introduction to the company, including background information.
A financial statement review.
Pro Forma financial statements (Balance Sheet and Income Statement) for the next two fiscal years, assuming a 10% growth rate in sales and Cost of Goods Sold (COGS) for each of the next two years.
A ratio analysis for the last fiscal year using at least two ratios from each of the following categories:
Calculate Return on Equity (ROE) using the DuPont system.
Assess management performance by calculating Economic Value Added (EVA).
Evaluate the soundness of the company’s financial policies (e.g. capital structure, debt, leverage, dividend policy, etc.) based on the material covered during class.
A synopsis of your findings, including your recommendations and rationale for whether or not to purchase stock from this company.
This report should be 15 to 20 pages long, excluding title page and reference page(s), using APA 6th edition formatting guidelines. Support your findings and recommendations with evidence from at least five scholarly sources in addition to the annual report, such as the textbook, industry reports, and articles from the Ashford University Library. Be sure to include links to websites that were used as references or to access company information.
The Final Paper
Must be 15 to 20 double-spaced pages in length (excluding the title and reference pages), and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center (Links to an external site.).
Must include a separate title page with the following:
Title of paper
Course name and number
Must begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement.
Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought.
Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis.
Must use at least five scholarly sources.
Must document all sources in APA style, as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
Must include a separate reference page, formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
Unit IV Essay Due: Tuesday, 09/29/2020 11:59 PM (CST) Instructions For this essay, you will explore both internal and external customer service and consider ways to provide excellent service to customers within an organization and outside the organization. Your essay should address the following questions: Explain your definition of internal customer service. How do you personally provide excellent internal customer service to your colleagues? Explain your definition of external customer service. What is an example of an organization that you feel provides excellent external customer service? Describe this organization and how it provides excellent customer service. How has social media and the Internet changed customer service? What suggestions can you give to an organization that is struggling with online customer service? Your complete essay must be at least two pages in length. Outside sources are not a requirement for this essay.
Columbia Southern University Internal and External Customer Service Essay
Unit 6 Assignment 1Treatment Plan, Theoretical Intervention, and DocumentationAssignment InstructionsIn this assignment, continue with the client case scenario from the Unit 3 assignment. This assignment should be considered a second session with a client after the intake was completed and assessments considered. You will be required to review the client intake again with a specific focus on the body and conclusion of a session with a client.This assignment requires attention to current symptoms to effectively complete a treatment plan with goals and application of theory specific to those chosen goals. Use the Symptoms, Goals, and Intervention form from the Counseling Center Treatment Planning media and submit it along with your written assignment. You may use the Treatment Plan, Theoretical Intervention, and Documentation Template (given in the resources) to structure your paper.In your paper:Formulate at least three short-term and three long-term goals and identify the theoretical orientation you will use to achieve those goals from the current symptom list to begin creating the treatment plan.Explore the theory chosen to reach the specified goals to reduce symptoms, providing at least 1–2 peer-reviewed articles to support the chosen theory for this client and his or her symptoms.Respond to the three client statements with hypothetical counselor responses by applying the selected theory using the Counseling Center Treatment Planning simulation.Discuss the ethical, legal, or cultural considerations needed for effective treatment planning and theoretical intervention, drawing from the Clinical Interviewing text and at least 1–2 peer-reviewed articles.Summarize and document the tasks completed in the body and closing of a session.Document a SOAP note drawing from the intake information provided and your completed Unit 3 assignment.Provide a self-reflection regarding the required interview tasks, goals, and application of theory.Evaluate how you approached the task of selecting goals.Explain the process for selecting and effective theory.Reflect on how you made connections between client responses and theory.Submit your assignment and the completed Symptoms, Goals, and Intervention form in PDF format to the instructor in the assignment area, along with the SafeAssign report for the assignment.Other RequirementsYour assignment should meet the following requirements:Written communication: Written communication is free of errors that detract from the overall message and is characterized by correct grammatical usage and mechanical elements of scholarly writing. Present assignments in a narrative, paragraph format. You may include subheadings, but incorporate transitional phrases to link sections.APA formatting: Resources and citations are formatted according to current APA style and formatting.Scholarly publication: When applicable, required scholarly research articles should be current (no more than five years old).Page length: 5–7 pages, not including the title and references pages.Font and font size: Times New Roman, 12 point.ResourcesTreatment Plan, Theoretical Intervention, and Documentation Scoring Guide.APA Style and Format.Counseling: Masters Research Guide.Riverbend City: Counseling Center Client Intake.Riverbend City: Counseling Center Treatment Planning.Treatment Plan, Theoretical Intervention, and Documentation Template [DOC].SafeAssign.Evan SGI [DOCX].Roberta SGI [DOCX].Rameen SGI [DOCX].Markus SGI [DOCX].Katia SGI [DOCX].
COUN 5830 CU Treatment Plan Theoretical Intervention and Documentation Essay
The History Of The Cambrian Period History Essay
The Cambrian is a rock period which was the first formed during the Palaeozoic Era, its formation period started about 543 millions of years ago having a duration period of 55 million years ago making up a vital period on the earth’s evolutional history and life. It is also a rock period after Proterozoic and before Ordovician having three major stages namely; the lower, middle and upper boundary. The Cambrian rock period is made up with sedimentary rocks and some examples of these are the conglomerates, shale (red), sandstones (green and purple), and limestone. It was the first period to show the sudden appearance of animals in fossil which were majorly phylum. Phylum is a group of multicelluar and unicellular organisms consisting of both vertebrates and invertebrates which crawled and burrowed their way into Cambrian creating very visible trails of their feeding and existence. This effect has come to be known as the ”Cambrian explosion” and given Cambrian an extinct place in the minds of generations of palaeontologist. Evidence of exposures and formation of Cambrian can be found in Parts of Britain such as; North Wales, South Wales (NW Pembrokeshire and Wrekin area), NW Scotland and Spain (GOV. no date). This essay discusses the Stratigraphy, Paleogeography and Paleontology of Cambrian rock period in Britain and concludes with a summary of all events in the Cambrian period. Background Cambrian is word derived from ”Cambria” which is the Latin name of Wales where its presence was most found in Britain (Sedgwick 1856). It was first named by Adam Sedgwick who at that time was studying the lower part of Cambrian detecting some strong folding and faults in the rocks having some fossiliferous (Stirton 1967) alongside Roderick Merchison who was studying the upper part of the Cambrian period. In this study, Roderick Merchison found the Silurian period which according to him, was overlapping the Cambrian period. It was not until later, that Roderick concluded that the there was an overlap in the original findings, including that of Adam Sedgwick making a claim that the Cambrian is a part of the Silurian period (Gov. no date). This brought about various controversies as to who was in fact right, not until a comprehensive study was done in 1897 by Charles Lapworth who introduced the name Ordovician in 1879 that the Cambrian and Silurian was accepted and is now been used and studied in all the world continent. (Lamer 2003). Showing that at this time the study of Cambrian was a necessity and its verifying was needed. The lower Cambrian suggested the first trails in the appearance of animals in fossil having class arthropod as the most extinct group with trilobites as the most extinct animal apart from bacteria beginning from the lower boundary, through the middle boundary to the upper boundary and ever since then, there has been records of advance and deep study which was largely facilitated by the international geological congress (IGC) and some group of people answering question on the Cambrian stratigraphy (Lemer 2003). According to the further study of Cambrian, the fossil records continued to show the fast growth of animal’s majorly new animal groups and they took place during an the burgess stage in the Cambrian. At this time, the class of first major animals found in fossils were annelid, echinoderms, eldoniaoida, chordate, arthropoda, hyolitha which were all phylum having different types of animals in each class. (Meyer, et al no date). This simply shows that the Cambrian explosion lasted for about 5 million years representing a very important period in the earth’s history but a small percentage of the Cambrian period. The class phylum arthropoda contained the largest animal trials in the Cambrian having different lengths and sizes for each of the animal species. It is said to have appeared in the burgess shale having about 20,000 species with all sharing about the same body basic structures (Montogomery 2009). They were all generally marine habitat animals which tried to occupy as many places as possible. It possesses a hard exoskeleton due to the clear trails of its feeding and burring found in Cambrian today. Some other animals present in the Cambrian were class anomalcarida which was very complex comprising of three sections with a length of about six feet long. It was also a big predator having a complex food web. It also consisted of class vertebrate and eldonia eumorpha (Meyer, et al no date) found at different boundaries in the Cambrian period. The one thing here is that these trilobite species didn’t exist pass the Ordovician and even at that period was not extinct as in Cambrian, making a question of what led to its large number in the Cambrian and why it died on reaching other period. It is seen that the climatic condition in Cambrian was very favourable to them and the marine habitat was not as it is today (there were no sea life’s such as fishes) making its competitions for food and space less. Showing a clear evidence of how it found its up into the Cambrian with a large rate of number. Result During the Cambrian period formation there were series of major tectonic events which took place making an impact on the Cambrian rock formation. Cambrian was formed at the time when the continents had joined together producing a supercontinent which was called the Rodinia. It was during the age of the Precambrian era and it is a process known as the Grenville Orogency which was formed million years ago (Rogers, 1996). As Cambrian formation began the Rodinia started breaking into smaller continent leaving smaller continents to exist on its own that included Asia, Baltica and Laurentia (Lemer 2003).Making them the three main parts of the block breaking. During this breaking there was collision with the south end and this led to the crustal deformation and mountain buildings living them to stand out clearly. The climatic condition at this time was generally warm, wet and milder than today as there were no glaciations at this time. Implying that the Cambrian period was generally mild and good for the growth of specific species of lives. The landmass was majorly scattered due to the location enabling easy access to ocean currents to freely circulate. This led to the formation of Cambrian in a marine shallow water environment which also affected the biotic factor that duly had an impact on the type of rock and life found. At this point there was a rise in sea level continuously, to the Ordovician where there was a drop in sea level indicating the formation of ice at the end (Gov. no date) bring about the vast existence of animals in Cambrian. Cambrian had some volcanic events in Spain and it involved four major stages. This volcanic event led to the deposition of volcanic magma on the middle and lower Cambrian, leaving paths of lava flows down the mountain to the rocks and forming pillow-lavas and planar lava flow and pyroclastic deposits (Extebarria et al 2006). Some affected layers of the rocks here, are clearly evidence after the cooling of the magma which was seen to have created some mineral formation with presences of glassy fractures from the deposition. It also affected the texture in rhyolitic sills, having a metamorphosed surface which was due to the surge deposits with a measurement of 2mm each. There are also clear locations of large varieties of clasts in the rock and also having formation of volcanic rock, volcanic rock breccias and intrusions. This clearly shows that the volcanic deposition event led to the formation of some unexpected layers on the rock period leading to an unconformality on the rock sediments. Conclusion The Cambrian was a period with a wide range of happenings in it holding a most remarkable history in the life’s of the earth. Its sudden appearance of animals in fossils has led to an extinguished name for it known as the ”Cambrian explosion” also known as the big bang having phyla as the main animal present and class arthropda as the extinct class and trilobite species as the most common. Its climatic condition was of a good and favourable condition especially for the life present at that time. The crustal breaking and formation during the Cambrian shaped the formation process of it making it a marine sedimentary rock with fossils in it. Its volcanic events also created some more events in it, giving it some mineral, new formations and texture.
MAT 510 Strayer University Confidence Intervals
online homework help MAT 510 Strayer University Confidence Intervals.
Suppose the number of equipment sales and service contracts that a store sold during the last six (6) months for treadmills and exercise bikes was as follows:
Treadmill Exercise BikeTotal sold 195 138Service contracts 60 45
The store can only sell a service contract on a new piece of equipment. Of the 195 treadmills sold, 60 purchased a service contract. Of the 138 exercise bikes, 45 purchased a service contract.Remember to watch the instructional video and use the excel template provided to help you with the math.Complete the following questions in the space provided below:Is there a major difference between the two pieces of equipment? Why or why not?Interpret the meaning of the confidence interval for Treadmills at a 95% confidence level.Interpret the meaning of the confidence interval for Exercise Bikes at a 95% confidence level.Are confidence intervals one-tailed or two-tailed?Construct a 95 percent confidence interval for the difference between the proportions of service contracts sold on treadmills versus exercise bikes.
MAT 510 Strayer University Confidence Intervals
Child Labor In Pakistan
Child Labor In Pakistan. The factor of engaging a child below 15, to some work rather than sending them to school is called child labor. Child labor all over the world has increased speedily in the recent years. There is no exact information regarding child labor. In most developing countries of world, mostly children are working on the places that are auto mobile workshops, weaving industries, domestic servants, restaurants and in many industries in Pakistan. In other forms of work, it has seen that children are begging which they have to make for their masters. Lack of awareness and illiteracy are the main causes between parents who avoid sending their children to school. Mostly child labors are from alliterate families. Mainly three forms of child labor are Non-exploitative child labor mean any work done by a children which is hazardous, harmful for their health, or harmful for their mental, physical or social development and stop to get education. Some hazard conditions are working in mines, working with dangerous machinery and working with chemicals. Hired child labor mean children which are preferred by employers because they are cheaper as compare to adult. In many works child labor are more active like they have more speed to do work and their eyesight is sharper than any adult person. Bound child labor is performing in which owner give high interest loans to labors in exchange for long term work or when a person children or any family member takes a debt against any work. Labor may also be categorized according to the nature of job. Domestic servants, the child worker who are working in carpet industry, the children who work on shops, canteens, general store as salesman, the children who are working in the workshop using light machines like tools, tailoring or embroidery and children who are working in heavy workshops tough labor that is light labor. Children are working in different sectors of countries in different ways, types and in professions some of them are agriculture sector, cotton industry, flower industry , domestic labor, brick kilns, fireworks, cigarette rolling, construction, mining, forestry, manufacturing, retail and service industry, stone quarries, sugarcane, toys, slavery, child soldiers, jewelry making, news, sweatshops, restaurants, fishing, factories, carpets weavers, farm works, and trafficking. “Child labor in Pakistan is the employment of children for work in Pakistan, leading to mental, physical, moral and social harm to children. The Human Rights Commission of Pakistan estimated in the 1990s that 11 million children were working in the country, half of those under the age of ten. In 1996, the median age for a child entering the work force was seven, down from eight years old 2 years prior. It was estimated that one quarter of the country’s work force was made up of child laborers” (Wikipedia) “Child Labor by Numbers are 218 million children worldwide are child laborers, 73 million working children are less than 10 years old, 126 million are estimated to work in the worst forms of child labor, one in every 12 of the world’s five to 17 years olds, 8.4 million children are trapped in slavery, trafficking, debt bondage and other forms of forced labor, forced recruitment for armed conflict, prostitution, pornography and other illicit activities, 2.5 million children work in the developed economies, 22,000 children die every year in work-related accidents, 127 million working children are in the Asia Pacific region. Nearly one third of children in Sub-Saharan Africa work” (Child Labour Public Education Project) “Child labor is a significant phenomenon, large in scope, and with very important social and economic implications. It takes a variety of forms, from children working on family farms or in family businesses to children engaged in sweatshop labor, prostitution, armed conflict, or other illicit activity. It also has serious implications on human capital accumulation and in perpetuating poverty and therefore is closely linked to progress against the MDGs, especially the goal of achieving universal primary education. Given the connections between child labor and schooling, the efforts of the Education for All partnership will not be fully successful without addressing child labor.” (Gordon Betcherman, 2004) “Child labor was employed to varying extents through most of history. Before 1940, numerous children aged 5-14 worked in Europe, the United States and various colonies of European powers. These children worked in agriculture, home-based assembly operations, factories, and mining and in services such as newsies. Some worked night shifts lasting 12 hours. With the rise of household income, availability of schools and passage of child labor laws, the incidence rates of child labor fell.”(encyclopedia) “One-third of the working children are literate, which shows that mere completion of primary education is not an effective deterrent to child labor. School enrolment indicates that economically active children who are not enrolled in school (34.2 per cent) are higher than economically active children combined with school (13.2 per cent). This shows that enrolment is negatively correlated with the involvement of children in economic activity. Education attainment is low because of limited opportunities resulting from inaccessibility of schools; inability of parents to afford schooling costs; irrelevance of school curriculum to real needs, and restrictions on girls’ mobility in certain parts of the country.” (ILO, 2009) “Child is not born for work rather to study, but wall of encumbrance either in financial term, economic term or in social term made him compelled for labor work. Understanding real economics of child labor can have better policy to tackle this issue. Asia has a large number of child domestic workers. These include children working as child minders, maids, cooks, cleaners, gardeners and general house-helps. The lack of information is major cause of not having thorough analysis of incidence and nature of child domestic workers in many Asian countries. However, there is not a significant reduction in child labor participation, especially in Asia.” (htt12) “Child labor has been acknowledged as a serious and challenging issue in the civilized societies around the globe. Its continued existence remains a source of concern for all segments of human society. Different socio-economic factors can be held responsible for the prevailing poverty, illiteracy, unemployment, lack of family planning, dissatisfaction about education system, absence of social security mechanism and many others. Now it is the responsibility of the government to provide children with their rights and to protect them from all sorts of exploitation, because the future of mankind and civilization lies in children. Their protection from physical and social hazards is a pre-requisite for proper development of children to ensure future progress and prosperity of mankind.” (Khan) Objective of the Study The aim of this study is to determine the factors responsible for child labor in Pakistan and to find out the problems which affect the children to do work in early age in which all children are going to schools and play. Another aim if research is to know that what are the factors due to which a child in enforced to be a child labor in Pakistan. The objective of the study is to find out variables and factor due to which child labor occur or what are the causes behind child labor, why children do work in small age and the forms of the child labor in the country. The main three variables behind child labor are poverty, inflation and unemployment in the country which are somewhere cause of child labor. The primary object of this study is to estimate the effect of poverty, literacy, inflation and unemployment on the occurrence of child labor. So HYPOTHESIS The study would be based on following hypothesis; these hypothesis have been develop after reviewing the relevant literature To analyze the effect of poverty on child labor H1: Effect of poverty on child labor is significant H1o: Effect of poverty on child labor is in-significant To analyze the effect of Literacy on child labor H2: Effect of inflation on child labor is significant H2o: Effect of literacy on child labor is in-significant To analyze the effect of inflation on child labor H2: Effect of inflation on child labor is significant H2o: Effect of inflation on child labor is in-significant To analyze the effect of Unemployment on child labor H3: Effect of Unemployment on child labor is significant H3o: Effect of Unemployment on child labor is in-significant Chapter # 2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Child is a person 14 years and below. Child labor is a permanent employment of children under the age of legal minimum. Worldwide total numbers of child labor (5-14 ages) are 250 million and almost half of them 120 million are working full-time. “According to The ILO and the ETI Base Code state that a child is any person younger than 15 years of age, unless local minimum age law stipulates a higher age for work or mandatory schooling, in which case the higher age shall apply. If however, local minimum age law is set at 14 years.” (Ethical Trade Insentive, 2012) “According to the United Nations, a “child” is any person under the age of 18. Specific labor laws may consider people under the age of 16 children for legal purposes, and in some countries the cut off may be even lower, around 12 or 14. Statistics on this type of labor usually focus on children between the ages of five and 14, because many nations in which child labor are a problem have laws which allow people to work full time after the age of 14.”(wise greek) “Child labor was employed to varying extents through most of history. Before 1940, numerous children aged 5-14 worked in Europe, the United States and various colonies of European powers. These children worked in agriculture, home-based assembly operations, factories, and mining and in services such as newsier. Some worked night shifts lasting 12 hours. With the rise of household income, availability of schools and passage of child labour laws, the incidence rates of child labor fell.”(encyclopedia) The worst forms of child labor. In all over the world there are an expected 218 million child laborers, which a in between the ages 5 to 17. A number of 126 million of these children work in hazardous conditions such as: Working in mines, working with chemicals and pesticides in agriculture, working with dangerous machinery, Forced and bonded labor, Armed conflict, Sexual exploitation and child pornography, illegal activities. Gender differences in child work activities: Activity Gender differences House cleaning Only girls Collecting ¬re wood/ dry cow dung to sell Both boys and girls but more commonly girls Cleaning Both boys and girls Cooking food Only girls Child care Both boys and girls but mostly girls Mini-bus conductors, household maids, Mini-bus conductors are commonly boys, housemaids Loading goods on pack animals for market but commonly boys construction child labour commonly boys Waiters, kitchen hands in restaurants Both girls and boys engage in work in cuisine, cleaning dishes in restaurants Apprentices in garages/ workshops Only boys work as apprentices in garages Working as a porter Boys do more brokering, working as porters Causes of Child Labor: Poverty Children work for a variety of reasons. The major reason is poverty. Poverty is the lack of food, shelter, money and clothing that occurs when people cannot satisfy their basic needs. Poverty can be understood only lack of money or most of them in terms of barriers in everyday life. At certain levels of poverty in developing countries, child labor could play a useful role in the economic survival, which increases national economic development. The unequal attention of poverty between children compared to adults demands reason and attention. Child labor causes poverty because when a child is employed he takes a place of an adult job, so there is decrease in adult income in the industry. And when the child is without education and they do work so there is no possibility of escaping from poverty. Poverty in the country is the main cause of child labor which forces the parents to send their children to work. Poor Families which face the poverty force their children to work for extra income for their household’s. Poor families like to have more children and when the income of an individual one in not enough then they force their little children to go for work anywhere they have. A large number of members represent a financial need for families suffering from poverty; parents are forced to send their children to work to earn extra income. Lack of education Between the poorer parts of society is also most important cause for children to start working before time. Necessary education is not free in all countries and in many countries it is not available for all children, especially in rural areas. So if there are schools in some areas there is poor education or where education is expensive parents observe no value in education field then due to this situation parents send their children to work rather than schools. Children are mostly encouraged to work by their parents. Uneducated and unaware people never think about child labor and they are also unaware of the dangerous physical and mental pain of children. When parents agree to their children to go work, it affects their chances to go school. Schooling problems also contribute to child labor. Many times children search for employment just because there is no access to schools. Even as the parents cannot afford for their children to be educated nor do they understand the importance of primary education in children lives. Or Due to insufficient educational facilities many families think that school won’t help their children survive. Gender inequity Means gender differences which refer to inequality between persons due to gender. The encouragement of gender equality means give equal opportunities to boys and girls, and men and women. Social thoughts towards girls and women are most important cause of child labor effect on child to do work because women are not allowed to go outside from home for any work. The encouragement of equality between girls, boys, men and women. Child labor is work which subjects children to use and abuse. Lack of unemployment Lack of unemployment of adults and when the adults are not in position to do work like disable adults or ill adults or death member of the family. Demand for child labor Demand for child labor is increasing day by day for cheap labor which is also a cause of child labor. Market demand of child labor cause strong demand by many companies because they want to win large market share. So children are considered as a cheap source of labor which provides an opportunity to increase earnings. And Demand for cheap labor by contractor’s means that children are often offered in the workplace of their parents. With limited margins of this type, such as contractors and farmers make game owners know that children can be exploited and forced to work for less than minimum wage. Escape from home This may also factor or cause of child labor. When a child escapes from home he may have many reasons like Bad temper of the parents, because generally the insufficient salary of fathers provides lack of basic human needs to their families which create a frustration and anger in the members of family after that it turn to the attitude of fathers or head of family in harsh or strict due to which a child prefer to leave from the home in search of his own comforts, it might be physical or mantel. And when a child leaves the home he faces different problems of necessities so that why he have to do any work to survive. Company of other children plays an important role in child grooming because the company of friend makes a child manner able and social. It is psychological fact that surroundings affect individual’s behaviors and attitudes and the habits of child is also depend on the company of family and friends. Usually negative activities between the children create negative impact on child personality. Due to this sometime the passion of negative activities level become high and serious for a children future. In these situations the strictness from home and school enforce children to escape. Behaviors of the teachers at schools also plays very important role in child life. Because teachers are the builders of nation. But in our society the way of teaching is quite harsh and the methods of teaching are also useless. Mostly children are punished physically for their minor mistakes which create unfriendly atmosphere then due to these type of behavior of teachers impact bad impression on children and force child to runaway. And after those majority children get negative feedback from home as well so they escape. Attractions beyond the home also cause of child labor because it is the human nature that a person mostly tends toward those things which they don’t have. And these types of want are found in children. In some cases due to some reasons parents are unable to provide the needs of their children so this also lead to child to escape for necessities. Political Crises Political crises and political issues Sometimes have caused violence, rallies, strikes, civil wars, terrorism and armed conflicts due to which there is a political and economic instability in the country so adults are unable to do work or jobs or in some other situations children have to do work for their needs. Overpopulation Large family sizes and over population are main factors which cause child labor. The basic cause of child labor is high population growth-rate, particularly in Third World countries. According to Wikipedia.org, “Pakistan has increased its ranking from 7 to 6th in the list of most populous countries of the world. The figures are based on a July 1, 2007 estimate by the UN Department of Economics and Social Affairs, Population Division. Industrial revolution Revolution in industries plays role for child labor. Sometimes multinationals prefer to use child labor in developing countries due to industrial revolution and these which encourages multinationals to use child workers which cause a negative impact on children. Due to all these reasons child labor recruited for less pay, they take extra work from them and there is no problem of union in industry as well. This situation is also difficult for adults to find jobs and send their children for work. Impact on Child Labor: Immature and inexperienced child laborers might be totally unaware of the short and long term risks involved in their work. Children who work frequently face serious health problems due to continuous work in hazardous conditions. The employers also don’t care at all about child labor that are unhealthy and carry on working for long time with a tiny or no break. Child laborers are mostly without a basic education, regular social interaction, and emotional support from their family. Lifetime physical and emotional hurt to the child. Their mental health also crushes. Mostly children face mental trauma when they reach to maturity. Children that cannot find work to feed big families choice to begging on the streets and in many cases child labor also killed or become victim of prostitution. And in many cases children turn in to thieves only because they need rapid money on which their families are depended. It also has a negative impact on the benefit of the country. Because these children do not get any education, and increasing literacy, and slow down the country’s economic growth in general, reflecting the weakness of human development. Girls who work as home servants away from their homes, sometimes in different Middle Eastern countries, are common victims of mental, physical and sexual abuses which cause shocking consequences on their physical condition. Some circumstances which are faced by the child are dangerous workplaces, full time work in early age, loss of education and future opportunities, too much working hours subjection to verbal, physical, psychological and sexual abuse, limited or no pay, no way to get education, powerless to run away from poverty cycle they do work in streets in bad conditions. Illegal Activities Now a day’s children have strong involvement in illegal activities like the production and trafficking of drugs. Trafficking is illegal activity of buying and selling of drugs in which a lot of children are involved. Mostly children may do these activities because they belief that this will give them money and status. Children who do this work take great risk of abuse and are addicted of drugs in early age. And then these children also doing other crimes like robbery, theft, mugging, hijacking, and the children may also do this for their gangs or for their family. These all activities by children are also done due to poverty. And also affect their mental and physical growth. Hypothetical Model and Variables under Consideration Literacy Inflation Unemployment Poverty Child Labor LITERATURE REVIEW (Dessy, 2003), “Shows the Harmful forms of child labor have an economic role: by maintaining wages for child labor high enough, they allow human capital accumulation in poor countries. Unless appropriate mechanisms are designed to mitigate the decline in child labor wages caused by reduced employment options for children, a ban on harmful forms of child labor will likely prove undesirable. Poverty alleviation techniques would eliminate that segment of the worst forms of child labor. A food-for-education program, however, might help boost support for a ban on harmful forms of child labor. Because it relaxes the liquidity constraint of the poor, this food-for-education program may induce more time spent at school, which may be sufficient to offset the negative effects of the sudden increase in the supply of child laborers We perform our analysis within a simple model of parental investment in children’s education.” (Ebudhia) Wrote “Child labor is the worst from of child exploitation. It is widespread all over the world. About seventy-three million children belonging to the age group of ten to fourteen years are engaged in child labor all over the globe. Illiteracy of the parents, large families, need of additional income and poverty are the chief causes of the exploitation of child labor. Parents are indirectly responsible for this. Childhood is the foundation of one’s career. At this stage, children should be sent to schools, not to work. Child labor lowers the wage rates of adult laborers. Employers exploit children due to their docile nature and their willingness to do monotonous jobs. They face health problems. Several programmed have been undertaken both at the national and international level to check and stop this practice. The people should also help the government in its efforts to tackle this problem.” (Sanjeeta) Wrote that, “Child labor is, no doubt, an evil that should be done away with at the earliest. The prevalence of child labor reflects very badly on society that is not able to stop this evil. But in a society where many households may have to suffer the pangs of hunger if the children are withdrawn from work, beggars can’t be choosers. These families have to send their children to work, even if the future of these innocents is ruined, as that is the only choice open for them to survive in this world. Therefore, unless the socio-economic status of the poor families is improved, India has to live with child labor.” (Sparc, 2012) Said that, “Negligence on part of the government and parents, corporal punishment, poverty and poor law and order situation, especially in Fata, are the major factors behind child labor. After 18th constitutional amendment, child labor has become the legislative and administrative domain of the provincial governments,” “Children are being abused verbally, physical and sexually in factories, homes and streets, while many of them suffer from fatal ailments,” he said, adding that 85 per cent of child labor in the country worked in automobile sector. Working children were being used by militants in suicide attacks across the country. He complained that Child Protection Units in district levels were ineffective, and urged the government to conduct proper surveys to know facts and figures about child labor for necessary action by NGOs.” According to (ILO, 2002), “Despite the increasing commitment by governments and their partners to tackle child labor worldwide, it remains a problem on a massive scale,” said Juan Somavia, Director-General of the ILO. “While there has been significant progress towards the effective abolition of child labor, the international community still faces a major uphill struggle against this stubbornly pervasive form of work that takes a tragic toll on millions of children around the world.” It also says a lack of law enforcement, and the desire on the part of some employers for a cheap and flexible workforce worsens the situation. “The effective abolition of child labor is one of the most urgent challenges of our time and should be a universal goal.” (FASIH, 1998) The study has attempted to classify the supply side of determinants of child labor in Pakistan. The scholars have used the sample of 14,094 children from Punjab (Pakistan) in the age group of 5-14 years obtained from the child labor survey 1996. The study examines the supply side determinants of child labor by using the multinomial logit model. The study concluded that The possibility of going to school increases at a decreasing rate The children who join school with work remain in school for a longer period The possibility of becoming full time child worker increase with age The possibility of females children mostly in the labor force shows that females are 4.7 percent less likely to attend school Children who have taken some technical or professional training are more likely to become child laborers and start work at an early age Mother’s literacy plays a positive role in schooling decision for female children. The girls who have literate mothers are 18 percent more likely to get to school moreover female children of literate mothers are 14 percent less likely to become child laborer The period in life cycle of the head of the family of expected to have a important effect in the case of schooling work choice. The older the head of family, the more likely it is that the child attend school Siblings of less than 4 years have negative effect on schooling and part time work and siblings in between the age group of 5-9 years has negative effect on part tome work.” According to (Tesfay, 2003), “Drawing upon the historical experience of advanced industrial countries, both legal restrictions and economic factors played a role in reducing child labour, although legislation appears to have been less significant. The process of industrialization may have initially increased the demand for and the scope of children’s work, however the long run economic impact of the industrial revolution resulted in its eventual elimination. Thus an increase in the aggregate number of child workers is expected to be transitory. The declining importance of children in industry combined with increasing female wage rates and the rising price of child rearing inputs, all contribute to the rising cost of child quantity and the decline in child demand. Moreover, a decline in the economic value of children in the home and in agriculture will increase the cost of children, in turn, reducing the demand for them. These factors also reduce the cost of quality and increase the demand for these commodities relative to quantity. Thus, it is the long-run economic forces of technological change, rising income, the higher price of raising children and the corresponding declining relative cost of child quality that explain the changing economic role of children over time.” According to (Rena, 2006), “Education and child labor is the second Millennium Goal to achieve universal primary education before 2015. This is an objective based on the UNESCO Declaration on Education for All and is defined as ensuring that all boys and girls complete a full course of primary schooling. The duration of primary education will vary from country to country with an absolute minimum of 5 years from the age of 7 to the age of 12. The definition of child labor foresees however that the education or vocational training should continue to at least the age of 14 or 15. In countries where primary education only includes 5 years, one will see a high number of economically active children in the age group of 12 to 14, many of whom will be child laborers. As stated earlier, education is seen a right for all children and as a way for individuals and societies to develop. Given economic development, the return to education is proven to be very high for individuals. However, many developing countries will not be able to meet this objective in the short time frame. Hence child labor will remain a serious challenge to the MDG. Child labor also affects school performance as children miss important lessons and fall behind academically. This creates a burden not only on the individual child but also on the entire education system.” According to (Khan), “That child is the demand of employers. Alongside factors which push children into earning money are others which pull children into the world of work. Cheap and well-trained with reasonably low wages paid to children are often a reason why employers prefer them to adult workers. Some children work unpaid, particularly as domestic workers, in conditions that would be denounced as “slavery” if they involved adults. Employers find children more obedient and easier to control. Unlike older workers, they are unlikely to initiate protests or form trade unions. Poor infrastructure is another factor that shows the practical difficulty of establishing a child’s actual age in countries where the infrastructure may not be in place for e.g. systematic birth registration. This can disadvantage children in many ways. The role of education is also factor that children who receive little or no school education miss out on the knowledge that can create options for them later in life. Without it, they make less contribution as adults and are more exposed to exploitation and abuse. Not attending school is consequently both a cause and effect of child labor.” According to (Udry, 2003), “Lessons for policies that can move children from work to school is also a cause of child labor. He wrote that Child labor should be understood as the consequence of people coping with extreme circumstances. It is a result of current poverty and a cause of continued poverty for the children who sacrifice their education in order to work. It is a particularly insidious problem because its primary costs are long-delayed and realized by the child, while the benefits a Child Labor In Pakistan
Issues in Supply Chain Logistics
Outline PURCHASING CASE STUDY 1 Communication forms the most important part as far the supply chain is concerned. It is through well enhanced communication that buyers and sellers can interact well and their separate needs. The most important lesson I derived from the case study is the importance of harmonizing ideas among the working groups. If the flow of ideas between the concerned parties is not proper, it may lead to total failure. In order for the working procedure to be functional, a supply chain is composed of different elements which are reliant on each other. Each of these parameters needs to be reviewed. The customer initiates the supply chain by making the required order. This is then processed by the supplier and finally the consumer receives the package. Hence, there are several elements entailed in such a transaction. To begin with, inbound logistics is crucial during the supply chain. This is closely followed by the outbound logistics in addition to customer care and operations division. None of these processes can be ignored if the supply chain is to succeed. There were some missing links as can be noted form the case study. For instance, the quantities of goods shipped were much more than the actual level agreed upon. This affected the inbound logistics. As a result, there was a lot of mess especially when these goods were to go through the outbound logistics. The operations department suffered a lot. Besides, customers who could not get their packages delivered on time got angry hence unsatisfied. It is imperative to consider the available time against the volume of goods to be handled if supply chain is to record any success. 2) Delayed shipment is one of the main problem which led to the entire mess of the supply chain logistics. Therefore, the supplier carried the blame having agreed so. Besides, the very supplier did not issue the accurate information detailing the quantity of goods to be supplied. Although this appeared to be the key issue at hand, later deliberations revealed that the actual problem was lack of understanding between the supplier and the customer when the initial quotation was being made. These factors hampered the operations in the shipment and delivery of the goods. Although the supplier attempted to communicate with the customer care department regarding challenges in production, no positive feedback was received thereby complicating the entire process. 3) Opting for a different supplier would be a better alternative for Avion, Inc. However, there were several pending deals with the initial supplier. Such an action would just aggravate the situation. Hence, it would only be necessary to clear the current backlog of supplies before delegating the work to a different supplier. This will also assist in restoring customer confidence. In fact, the process of selecting another supplier would require more than just enough time and it would be better off if Avion, Inc. clear all the current deals first. 4) The best way to resolve the issue is by getting to the bottom of the problem. It is important for the company to seek the root cause of the problem, who was actually responsible or failed to do their part and the reason why that happen. In fact, blame game cannot help much at this point. Every detail should be keenly filtered in a bid to establish the truth and possible solutions for the same. The reverse method can achieve much in the process of resolving this problem. Although the magnitude of the problem might appear to be small, no single element can be ignored because it may as well as graduate to level difficult to handle. 5) As a customer, it is imperative to play our parts well and in a manner that will not jeopardize the relationship with the supplier or producer. The bargain end with the supplier should be clear to avoid any possible misunderstanding which may arise due to late deliveries or wrong quantities of deliveries. Additionally, good customer will equally seek an understanding with the supplier whenever some eventualities occur. For instance, delays which may result from transport logistics should not cause a breaking point in the relationship between the supplier and customer. Therefore, it is possible to maintain a cordial relationship between the customer and supplier if the former can resort to understanding of the situation at hand. 6) When the supply chain is keenly monitored or scrutinized at every important point, it will account to what is referred to as performance measurement. This does not only assist in assessing the progress of the chain but also giving a thorough evaluation of how efficient the process is running. Information obtained from performance can be used to make necessary adjustments whenever weaknesses are noted. Performance measurement will also ensure that extremely weak points within the supply chain are overhauled or completely modifies. Hence, it is a very important form of monitoring and evaluation which will always ensure sustained growth in a company. 7) The supply chain logistics will definitely experience change from time to time bearing in mind that the market if often very dynamic and which will quite regularly call for changes. Nevertheless, any change effected will depend on a wide array of factors which must also be put into consideration. Every individual change needs to undergo some form of evaluation to see into it that it will not cause any constraint but rather will enhance the supply process. Factors such as the nature and volume of goods to be shipped, time of delivery as well as the location may also bring in several changes on board although by the end of the day, all the aforementioned factors still belong to the supply chain command. When changes in these aspects are carried out with due diligence, the performance index of the supply chain can record significant growth and success. 8) The duration of time taken when an order is placed by a customer and finally receiving the goods is referred to as the lead time. Reducing the lead time by Avion will imply that the latter will be able to secure more time to continue with production owing to the fact more deliveries to customers will be made within the shortest time possible. More orders will be procured by the company and on the other hand, the level of customer satisfaction will definitely be high due to prompt deliveries. Consequently, Avion will be in a position o make more profit. 9) It is necessary to consider both the single source contract and the multiple source contracts. In the first case, goods are obtained from one supplier regardless of the circumstances at hand. On the other hand, multiple source contract permits the customer to obtain goods from a variety of suppliers. The main advantage of the multiple source contracts is that it is always possible to make adjustments in the supply needs depending on the market forces such as demand. However, if the single source contract is adopted, it will be imperative for both the customer and the supplier to create some working goal to be adhered to just in case the two parties break from the norm. in order to improve the relationship between the supplier and the customer, it is upon the customer to set some specific targets which will also match the ability and capacity of the supplier so that minimal hitch is encountered in course of the two carrying out transactions. The guidelines to be followed by the supplier and the customer should be clearly understood by the two and by so doing; the supply chain will experience positive growth. 10) This case has presented a myriad of issues which definitely require to be addressed expeditiously in order to avoid similar challenges arising in future. The supply chain process can be made better if the following proposals are put into action. Avion should seek to avoid extremely large quantities as far as deliveries are concerned. In addition, they should stick to their time and program of deliveries as agreed upon by Foster technologies. Moreover, the lead time should be borne in mind by Avion so that prompt deliveries are put in place. Quantity of good to be shipped in a given period of time should be well known so that Foster Technologies can fit into the delivery and production schedule. Should there be any changes on the same to be effected, it should be counterchecked and approved beforehand by the manager in charge of production. The increased orders from Avion require a specialist who can offer proper and thorough management. In fact, Avion Inc had at one time pointed out on the size of Foster Technologies and was concerned whether it would be able to effectively handle its production capacity. One of the best monitoring and evaluation systems which should be initiated is that of measurement technique. This will assist in getting the feedback on the progress of the supply chain and any changes effected should there be need to do so. The challenges portrayed in this case study are sometimes inevitable and can best be resolved if the root causes are established right from the start. PURCHASING CASE STUDY 2 What do you do in the first 60 days? I will begin by restructuring all the departments in each of the plants after a careful evaluation of the current state. To be able to achieve this, meetings will be necessary. All the departmental representatives will have to attend regular meetings to report on the pertinent information regarding operations within their areas of concern. Besides, each of the individual plants should have the willingness to experience change. For instance, there would be no need for plant managers to be directly responsible vice president of operations. This will just be creating a very long chain of command and will also slow down the implementation of some decisions. I will personally meet them on a regular basis to expedite operations in addition to improving the cohesiveness of the tea. Reforming the way outsourcing is carried out will also form an integral part of this new development. Each plant should be allocated adequate working staff and responsibilities so that an alliance can be initiated easily. Besides, it will be possible for each plant to outsource some of the products which can be cheap and also within reach. This will boost the production capacity and in turn improve the performance of each plant. The logistics should also be customized to fit the capacity of each plant. This will require the use of another party. What relationships will be critical to your success? The communication between the plant managers and I will be very important because it is only through them that intrinsic issues can reach me before eventually reaching the top authority. Such issues can be sorted out between the two of us before elevating tem to the next level. These will jumpstart our relationship. Moreover, it is through such coordination and good relationship that the essentials of team work will be established within the organisation. Those who are not working inside the organisation also require to be recognized and good relationship built. For example, there will be need to build a warm relationship with customers and suppliers so that the image of the organization can be impressive. If customers are treated kindly, it will assure the organisation lifeline and market sustain ability will be guaranteed. In the case of suppliers, a long lasting and warm relationship is important especially if it is a case of single source contract. They form an integral part of the organisation bearing in mind that without them, the supply chain will be incomplete. PURCHASING Case Study 3 Many outsourcing decisions involve the concept of a core competency. Define what is meant by this term. Discuss if film technology is truly a core competency of Santek Prahalad and Gary (1990) described core competence as the best initiative which can be taken by a firm and which also meets the three conditions that is the product should prove to be beneficial to the consumer, competitors should not be in a position to produce easy substitutes which are similar to the product and finally it can dominate most markets which implies that the product has a wide leverage power. Finally, Santek Images has a wide global market for its film products. The single competitor may not adequately make Santek Images to lose the grip of the market. Hence, film technology proves to be the core competency of Santek Images. Develop a process that would guide firms through the in-sourcing/outsourcing process. Create a process that is robust enough to use across a variety of product/service applications This begins with the thorough training of the working staff who may either be in-sourced or outsourced. This is important because the background knowledge of the product being handled is crucial. The marketing of the product is also an important undertaking. A professional endowed with marketing background should be sought in this field. Time zones which affects the working hours of employees is also an important consideration to bear in mind. Hence, shifts for the workers should be well planned to take care of eventualities like accidents at work place. Financial availability of the project should be analyzed by an efficient project manager who should give the right feedback. The manager can either be outsourced or in-sourced. Workers who are outsourced should be well oriented or perhaps the company should have the understanding of the workers located in different parts and plan for their working requirements in the most satisfying manner. Projects which prove to be less volatile and more stable should be given priority. This will make it possible for development to be carried out in the most uniform way. Each project should be well monitored to ensure that completion is effected at the right time. Indeed, large groups can be assigned a particular project to expedite completion time. A major challenge with an in-sourcing/outsourcing analysis involves gathering reliable data. Discuss the various groups that should be involved when conducting an in-sourcing/outsourcing analysis. What information can each of these groups provide? One of the most viable groups which can be used when conducting outsourcing/in-sourcing analysis is a team which has the professional background in marketing. This team can equally hold meetings with product suppliers who are well versed in the supply field. Such sources of primary information are often deemed to be the best. Nevertheless, the sources of information may include websites, reports from various fields as well as the internet. These sources may sometimes lack consistency or accuracy and may not be fully relied on. Market players who are well experienced in outsourcing or in-sourcing can be used to obtain information pertaining to market research because they have a wide range of relevant data which can be helpful. The data collected in the above processes is then processed, analyzed and used as guidelines for introducing a new product into the market against any possible challenges which may be experienced. 4) Do you think hardware suppliers are candidates for alliances or partnerships with Santek? Why? I suppose an alliance system would work well between the two parties bearing in mind that Santek Images primarily deal with matters related to media and should the latter continue to outsource, then an alliance system will eventually be established making it easier for it to acquire all its suppliers with ease. In addition, the operations of Santek images are quite different with that of the hardware supplies and so it getting into a partnership may mismatch their working portfolio. It is more rewarding if an alliance could be established between the two parties. Partnerships and alliances are special forms of supplier-buyer relationships. First, define the concept of partnerships and alliances. Second, identify when a firm should pursue a partnership or alliance with selected suppliers. Use the portfolio segmentation tool to assist with your answer A Partnership is a form of business arrangement whereby two or more players enter into a contract to start and run a business enterprise. The capital required to start and run the business is contributed by all the partners in the agreement. On the same note, profits and losses are also shared in the same proportion as the amount of capital contributed. Partners in a business may be of different types, some may actively participate in the running of the business while others may be passive in their roles. On the other hand, a business contract which has been facilitated by two or more businesses as a result of seeking ways of improving performance is referred to as an alliance. Some of the reasons why businesses can resort to alliance system are to reduce production costs and also improve customer experience of the goods and services being offered. Risks and opportunities are taken care of by all the members in the alliance. I strongly believe that partnerships can work well in situations where both businesses have a comparative operating capacity in the market and that none of the partners has an advantage position than the other. An alliance is best applied when there is need to outsource products from another company due to cost advantage among other reasons. Each of the organization in the alliance is independent to run its affairs and none can stamp an authority over the other. Develop a process that firms can use when identifying and developing supply chain alliances Firstly, planning forms the fundamental starting point when developing the supply chain alliances. It begins by choosing an organisation which has the capacity to form the best alliance. In addition, the goals and objectives need to be clearly crafted out including the requirements of which services to be offered. The evaluation process should also be established to ensure that performance timelines and deadlines are met. Agreements which are mutually beneficial should be anchored so that no alliance member gets a feeling of unfair deal. This will also usher in the need to harness a good working relationship among the alliance members who are supposed to share any pertinent information regarding the agreement. Furthermore, matters regarding tradeoffs should be discussed in details to allow a profitable venture experience between or among the alliance members. Finally, training should be organized to cater for the capacity building and professionalism of the staff across the organizations. This will definitely improve the standard of the employees and commodities and services being delivered.