Management Across Cultures: The Case of McDonalds Research Paper. Executive Summary In this paper, a comprehensive report has been provided to examine the modern applications of cross-cultural management in multinational corporations and their impact on managing workforce, organisations, and business processes in foreign cultures. In particular, the report takes a case study approach, using the fast-food multinational company, MacDonald’s, which is a leading American multinational corporation in global business. In particular, the entry and adaptation of the company in the vast Chinese market will be examined with special consideration of the cultural differences between Chinese and American societies. Using the case of McDonald’s, the paper concludes that it is important for managers to develop comprehensive knowledge and understating of cross-cultural management to develop quality interventions in international marketing, mergers, and acquisitions. Introduction With an increasing trend towards the globalisation of business, the number of companies working in foreign nations has increased significantly. As modern companies attempt to diversify their business to cover multiple nations, the number of employees working in foreign lands or for foreign corporations has increased tremendously1. For instance, it is estimated that more than 70 million people across the world work for foreign companies or in foreign countries. Studies have shown that this number has more than doubled between 1990 and 2010. Methodology The paper will carry out a comprehensive analysis of the cross-cultural patterns used in MacDonald’s business in China. It will examine the cultural differences between China and the USA based on existing theories, such as Hofstede’s cultural diversity model2. In particular, the study attempts to examine how the company has used cultural adaptation strategies in China and how Chinese customers think about the company’s adaptive behaviours in the country. Thus, the paper will examine the cross-cultural issues facing the company in its Chinese market, the behaviours adapted to deal with these issues and the customer perceptions of the corporate strategies. The research is a qualitative approach that uses a case study approach as a study protocol. The case of MacDonald’s presence in China and the strategies the company has used to deal with cultural differences and adapt to the Chinese culture have been examined from the case study approach. Also, it describes the perceptions of Chinese customers towards the cross-cultural strategies that the company has used to fit into Chinese culture. First, the paper will provide a brief but detailed analysis of different definitions of culture, culture, and cultural adaptations and different cultural frameworks. Secondly, it will examine the company’s strategy for entering the Chinese marketing, with a special reference on issues that relate to culture and cultural differences. The paper attempts to answer the question on the measures and strategies that the company has taken to adapt to Chinese culture. Also, the paper tries to answer the question of the factors that contribute to the successful adaptation model at the company, which is favoured by the target customers. Body of research Report Different definitions of culture According to Hofstede3, Culture is a collective programming of the human mind, which forms a difference between groups of people. According to this model, culture is a system of values that are collectively held among a given group of people or society. On the other hand, Becker4 states that culture refers to all the things that are done thought, or possessed by people as members of a given society. This definition states that culture is made up of distinct components- material objects, beliefs, ideas, attitudes, and values as well as behaviour either specified or expected. Thus, this definition has become an important model for examining culture and cultural differences between individuals in different countries. The current examination of culture in a narrow concept regarding a given market or society is an important aspect of modern studies on cross-cultural management. In this concept, culture is considered as a form of behaviour adaptation by an organisation as a legal entity or a person5. Several scholarly works have been carried out to investigate this notion. In particular, the notion of cross-cultural adaptation has become an important area of research in business and management. Elements of cultures, such as normal values, rules, language, attitudes, and customs, are significant in these studies. Ady6 asserts that cultural adaptation is a process of evolution through which individuals and groups modify their habits, behaviour, and customs to ensure that they fit into a given culture. Also, other scholars have asserted that cultural adaptation is a gradual process that particular society or culture undergoes as individuals or groups from other cultures actively participate in the culture through sharing of ideas, objectives, perspectives and other practices. It includes the behaviours that allow people to live independently and function in the desired manner in their daily lives expected of a particular age or social setting. For an individual or group to adapt to a particular culture, several challenges are involved. Studies have shown that it is a difficult task because there are always defined rules or norms that an individual is to follow. Also, an open mind is required for an individual or group to adapt to a new culture According to Kotler7, the cross-cultural adaptation involved a long process that allows an individual, group, or institution to adjust to the native ways of behaviours and thinking to achieve consistency with the target culture. Culture and cultural adaptation in marketing Kotler8 has developed one of the most convincing models of studying culture in a business setting. According to this model, culture is the most important and basic of the needs and behaviours of an individual. Also, a model by Herrmann and Heitmann9 asserts that multinationals must consider cultural differences when developing management strategies for marketing across borders. This assertion also argues that differences in cultures between societies in different regions tend to result in different consumer responses to a product or service. According to Kotler10, culture and cultural differences have a profound influence on consumer behaviour through personal, psychological, and social factors. Similarly, the influence of social, cultural and personal factors has a profound influence on consumer behaviour in any given market11. Thus, companies and their leaders need to study and understand these factors to have a good knowledge of consumer behaviour and behaviour patterns. In this way, the corporate world is likely to achieve effective and profitable decisions in the market using the conventional market mix12. Different cultural frameworks To elaborate on this assertion, Kotlter (2006) has developed a comprehensive model to describe how culture influences consumer behaviour at the market place. This model shows that culture, social, psychological, and personal factors affect two important elements in a market, which are consumer behaviour and marketing mix. The element of culture is comprised of social class as well as sub-culture. The social factor includes several elements, such as family roles and status as well as the reference group. Similarly, the personal element is comprised of several elements, such as lifecycle and age, occupation, personality, and economic situation13. Finally, psychological factors include leaning, motivation, perceptions, beliefs, and attitudes. All these factors have a direct influence on consumer behaviours in a given market. In turn, consumer behaviour has a direct influence on the marketing mix adopted by an organisation in the market. This implies that the four factors have an indirect but important influence on the marketing mix adopted in an organisation to deal with cultural challenges in a particular market. Luckhohn and Strodbeck developed another important model in the 1960s. This model argues that differences in culture have significant practices in leadership. According to the model, the basic nature of humans is an important dimension of culture. It states that individuals are good if left to their devises, which makes them act reasonably and responsibly. On the other hand, they can be evil and untrustworthy if the reverse is true. Moreover, people can be a mixture of good and evil. Secondly, the dimension of the relationships between people is important in this model. It argues that people are individualistic, which is a primary characteristic of every individual. Group relationships are developed between groups and families, giving individuals an ability to fit in a group or family. The activity of orientation is also an important dimension in this model. It argues that “being” is the point of an individual’s life that seeks to help one to live and experience a given task. The relationship between man and nature is also an important dimension in this model. It argues that the relationship can be subjugation, harmony, or domination. In the subjugation relationship, the environment and nature determine human activities. In the state of harmony, humans live in harmony with their environment. In domination state, humans dominate the environment. Hofstede’s model is one of the most studied ones in the modern world. It argues that culture is based on certain dimensions. First, the power distance is an important dimension because it determines whether people accept or reject the inequality in power distribution. Secondly, it emphasises on the dimension of uncertainty avoidance, which refers to the degree of comfort associated with ambiguity and uncertainty. The third dimension, known as individualism versus collectivism, measures the social frameworks in which people give priorities to individual or group needs. Finally, the dimension of masculinity versus femininity emphasises on whether a culture places the importance of male versus female roles and activities. Figure 1: A graph showing Hofstede’s cultural model Managerial roles and differences across cultures Managerial roles are an important aspect of managing an organisation across different cultures. While the roles of the management are well defined in scholarly work, there are several differences in managerial roles due to differences in cultures. Manager’s interpersonal roles include figurehead, leadership, and liaison. All three are affected by cross-cultural differences. For instance, figureheads have symbolic value in certain cultures while in other cultures, it is not an important thing to refer to a leader as the figurehead. In leadership roles, highly individualistic cultures have a higher preference for visible leaders. On the other hand, highly collectivistic cultures have a high preference for consultative leaders. International mergers and acquisitions Cross-border mergers and acquisitions are common in the modern business world. They are similar to any other international business project in several ways. For instance, they require an initial outlay. Also, they are expected to generate cash flows with a higher value than the initial cash investment is. Figure 2: Graph of mergers and acquisitions in the world The motivations behind the formation of mergers and acquisitions are mainly based on global consolidation as well as market share, which makes companies seek to enter into new markets, but in an indirect manner. Mergers and acquisitions on an international level have several advantages. For instance, they take less time and gain benefits from customer relations with a foreign nation because the acquired company in the target market will establish channels for good relations. They allow companies to increase their benefits and trade them off against incremental costs incurred when establishing the ventures. There are several types of mergers and acquisitions applied at the international level. For instance, mergers and acquisitions can be based on functional roles within the target market. In this case, a horizontal merger is achieved when two companies in the same business sector joint together either by the acquisition of one by other or merging into one unit. On the other hand, a vertical merger applies to the case in which a business acquires its supplier. A third example is conglomerate mergers and acquisitions, which involve two irrelevant companies joining either through merging or one being acquired by the other. They are both in different and irrelevant areas of specialisation. Strategic merging is one of the most important methods in the modern world. It involves a long-term event in which an organisation targets at and holds an acquired firm, which allows them to create synergies through the expansion of market share, customer based and corporate strengths in the long run. Explanations of Different integration mechanisms and approaches The purpose of this section is to examine the strategies that McDonald’s has used to ensure that it fits into the Chinese market, which is defined by a culture different from that of the American one. In this case, the company’s ability to grow and achieve profits is examined from the cultural perspectives, taking into consideration the strategies that have been used to influence customer behaviour and perceptions towards its presence, products, and strategies. Specifically, the examination of the company’s cultural adaptation strategies will be done based on the definition of culture that Becker14 developed. This means that three aspects of culture will be examined – material objects, values, beliefs, attitudes, values, and behaviour, either specified or expected. Product innovation to meet the demands of the Chinese tastes and preferences is an important strategy. At McDonald’s, a well-developed strategy offers worldwide-standardised products within their menu. Nevertheless, entry into the Chinese market proved different in some way. The company realised that Chinese culture and market are unique in different ways. When the company was entering the market, its leaders claimed that the company was not willing to change its global menu in China. It wanted to retain the American style in foreign markets. According to Bian15, the company argued that it wanted to do what it had been doing in the US. They wanted to ensure that Chinese food would have been similar to what the company had been offering in other markets. However, this strategy did not work as expected. The company failed to consider the cultural differences between Chinese and American societies. Chinese consumers have a behaviour of selecting Chinese standards and developing negative attitudes towards western ones. Also, the presence of other companies like KFC affected MacDonald’s. For instance, KFC is an American multinational fast-food corporation that entered the Chinese market some years before MacDonald’s. KFC attempted to consider Chinese preferences and tastes in food, which were relatively different from American tastes. This aspect is a product of the cultural differences between the two societies. To deal with the problem, MacDonald’s has decided to reconsider its previous views. For instance, in 2004, the company started preparing and offering Chinese products to its customers. For example, friend eggs and Chinese pancakes were included in the company’s breakfast menu. In 2007, the company further introduced a relatively new hot drink enriched with ginger and honey, which are some of the products that are popular in Chinese food culture. In Chinese food culture, ginger and honey have been used in drinks to drive away coldness. Nevertheless, the company retained its traditional American products, especially hamburgers, which indicate that it is not willing to change its global culture to adapt the local expectations in China. Between 1990 and 2003, the company’s strategy in the Chinese market was based on its global marketing culture. The company’s products were targeting families with children, leaving out other segments of the market. When reviewing its strategy in 2003, the company added products for the youths and children aged above four years. It used a new slogan, “Young, lively and fashionable,” hoping to entice the young Chinese citizens by providing them with a positive and happy experience. Currently, the company is using this strategy even in its advertising strategy. For instance, its decorations in restaurants and commercials for advertising are mainly designed to entice and attract youths. Also, it uses commercials depicting such topics as romance, music, and sports to appealing to the young people in the market. For example, it uses the services of celebrities in sports, film, and music to advertising its products. Also, the type of music played in its outlets is relatively recent, especially Chinese pop, which attempts to attract young people. However, the company is still using its American approach to deal with Chinese cultures. For instance, it is still using children toys based on American mentalities, such as those toys common in American movies like “Toy Story” and others. According to several studies in China, Chinese people consider going to a restaurant as a genuine habit of meeting friends, family members, peers, and business partners. Chen16 has shown that most Chinese people like meeting people in restaurants for social and business purpose as opposed to taking meals. Thus, meals in restaurants are taken for socialising. The study also shows that most Chinese prefer taking their friends to restaurants instead of inviting them to their homes. This is in contrast to the American culture, where restaurants are visited for nourishment. In 2006, McDonald’s borrowed the American idea of “drive-thru restaurants,” a concept that allows order to be placed through microphones and picked at a window. Customers are allowed to remain in their vehicles when ordering and taking meals. To enhance this new idea, the company entered into two partnerships with petroleum dealers Sinopec and Petro China. The deal allows the company to use the expansive packing areas in the gas stations to allow customers to sit back in their vehicles as they take meals. According to the company, a new strategy is a promising idea that is likely to be a future strategy for expansion, especially in a country that is quickly becoming a world economic powerhouse. Also, it is an idea that works well in rural areas, which carries the largest population in China. However, this idea is not common or popular in Chinese culture, despite being one of the most popular services offered to fast food consumers in the US. Chinese people prefer eating while seated inside a restaurant where they can meet friends and new people. Thus, a new idea is facing problems in China, and its future is unknown. McDonald’s Corporation has faced conflicts of cultural differences between the American and Chinese standards of culture, especially when entering the market or introduction a new. Recommendations This research paper reveals that the need to adapt to the local culture is an important aspect of managing across cultures. Cultural differences between two nations or societies are likely to affect the business of an organisation, especially if the marketing strategies are undeveloped in a manner to attract the local people. Corporate leaders need to develop marketing strategies based on prior knowledge of the local culture, which makes it possible to adapt to the local customs, values, norms, and beliefs. Bibliography Ady, J. C. Toward a differential demand model of sojourner adjustment. Sage, Thousand Oaks, 2010. Becker, K. Culture and International Business. Jaico Publishing House, London, 2005. Bian, J. KFC’s evolution in China. Citic Press, New York, 2009. Browaeys, M. Understanding Cross-Cultural Management. Prentice Hall, New York, 2011. Chen, S. The comparison analysis of the development of Chinese and western restaurants chains. Business Culture, New York, 2006. Herrmann, A.Management Across Cultures: The Case of McDonalds Research Paper
SNHU Intro to Java Complete the Paint Program by Adding Code Other
SNHU Intro to Java Complete the Paint Program by Adding Code Other.
Follow the pdf file for complete instruction. You need to add some coding in the paint program(was created before).For this assignment, you will complete the Paint program by adding code that calculates the number of cans of paint needed. Use the Uploading Files to Eclipse and the Downloading Files From Eclipse tutorials to help you with this project.Consult the official Java documentation for the Math class.Scroll to the Method Summary section of the Math class and review the methods and their descriptions. Look for a method that will help you.If a method looks promising, click on its name to see a more detailed description. Pay special attention to the argument(s) and the data type of the return value.Based on your review, select one or more methods from the Math class to use in your solution.When using a method from the Math class, use the syntax Math.methodname() when you implement the method. For example, if you decided to use the absolute value method, you would write something like: Math.abs().Open the Virtual Lab by clicking on the link in the Virtual Lab Access module. Then open your IDE and upload the Paint2.zip folder. Review the code for the Paint2.java class. Look for where it says //Complete this code block. Make sure the code you write does the following:Calculates the number of paint cans needed to paint the wallRounds up to the nearest integer (use the test cases below to check your work)Outputs the number of cans needed for the userSecond Question(not related to the paint coding) : Write a discussion: In this module, you have read about ethical guidelines and selected an article on an emerging technology trend. In your initial post for this discussion, write a one-paragraph summary of the article you have chosen. Be sure to properly cite your article. Then answer the following questions:What interested you about the technology mentioned in this article?What impacts might this technology have on society? Think about both positive and negative impacts.What impact would this technology have on you personally as a consumer, potential future user, or software developer?Does this technology adhere to the ethical principle of contributing to “human well-being,” as outlined in the ACM Code of Ethics? Why or why not?Does this technology adhere to the ethical principle of avoiding harm, as outlined in the ACM Code of Ethics? Why or why not?The material for the discussion are below.discussion material links:1. https://www.acm.org/code-of-ethics2. https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/include reference.
SNHU Intro to Java Complete the Paint Program by Adding Code Other
Bryant and Stratton College Play Is More Than Fun Questions
custom writing service Bryant and Stratton College Play Is More Than Fun Questions.
Discussion Post- Play Is More Than FunWith the recent tragedies and economic struggles facing our nation it is difficult to think that their is time for play. Can we reduce the amount of stress in our lives with play? Do we forget how to play as we get older? Do daily stresses prevent us from engaging in the simple act of play? answer these questions after watching this https://www.ted.com/talks/stuart_brown_says_play_is_more_than_fun_it_s_vital.htmlThis talk shows us the importance of play in the wellness way of life and it also highlights some of the research showing the devastating impact of a life without play.
Bryant and Stratton College Play Is More Than Fun Questions
San Diego State University Intercultural Diversity Training Project Paper
San Diego State University Intercultural Diversity Training Project Paper.
I will attach examples of other parts from teacher and group members and my group’s proposal. It is supposed to be in a powerpoint format but I can transfer all the information in to a powerpoint after it is completed so you can do it on a documentFor this training session, we have provided through training materials for the instructors to follow, in order to train these new recruitments. The three main concepts to be discussed include, Stumbling Blocks, The Demographic Imperative, and Class Prejudice. We also have provided instructors with a Powerpoint presentation to help guide this training session; however, this packet contains the key points and learning objectives to be covered. Under each segment of the training session will be a specific set of instructions to help guide the instructors. My part is class prejudice.
San Diego State University Intercultural Diversity Training Project Paper
What Is Internet Job Searching?
Internet job searching is a person who using the internet to search job to resume as an employer / worker. It is also the multifaceted process taking in same time. Nowadays, many people use the internet to search their desire job especially teenagers from 25 years old to 35 years old. The reason is because they feel easier compared to traditional methods such as search job in newspaper, flyers, advertisements etc. For them, searching job in internet is faster and more option. Moreover, searching job in internet can satisfied their desire. In Malaysia, there are many website to search job. For example, JobStreet.com Malaysia, Malaysia Best Job search, Job on earth.com and others. In Malaysia, internet job searching is not so popular compared to other western countries. Most of us still depend on traditional methods. May be Malaysian are not so reliable on internet job seeking. On the other hand, internet job searching is common in others country such as Japan, USA and western country because most of them are reliable on internet job seeking. Moreover, most of them know the way to search job on internet. Their technology are advanced. In America, internet job searching is very popular. Most of American use internet to search for job. Below are the top 10 jobs rates by PayScale.com in America: In this technology booming century, we can find job not only in job search engines, but we also can use networking to search for job. It is a very helpful ways to seeking a job because 60% – 80% job will not be advertised; this is called hidden job market. One way to find out these hidden jobs is through networking such as ‘facebook’ is the most popular website to seek for job. This is why networking is so powerful. In conclusion, internet job searching is the faster way to seek for good job. Like the saying goes, one stone kills two birds. By internet we can do anything we want. Internet Job Seach Engine The Internet Job Search Engines on the Web Monster.com Indeed.com USA.gov CareerBuilder Dice.com Here are some examples of the job search engine. Internet Job Search Engine is job search engine that help you to find a job. Here are the top ten job search engines, and you can choose which job search engine that you like. Monster.com is the best job search engine today. It is very useful because Monster.com got five search tips and it helps you narrow your search, so you can find your job easily. The five search tip is Search feature, Advance Search, Saved Search feature, Browse feature and Site Map. Indeed.com is Meta job search engine. It is not same with the monster.com, because you cannot submit your resume from Indeed.com. In the home page of indeed.com, you can narrow down your job hunt by writing job title, keywords or company in what and city, state or zip in where to find your job target. You can also search job in your state but it will come many result. If you wish to find job in USA, we suggest you to use USA.gov because it just introduce the job from USA. There got some way to find the job easily, you can find a job in government department by clicking for government employees. If you are citizen, you can click for citizen. You can also click for businesses and nonprofits when you want to open businesses. Dice is the most popular internet job search engine for someone who are finding technology job. You can find a job in the place you want by checking out the location page. You can also find a job by checking out the skill page CareerBuilder have much ability to help you to find job. For example, post a resume, create job alert, get job advice and job resources. In this website, you no need to visit every single day because job alert will send you an email when it finds your target of the job. Their advance search system is very good, because you can set a dozen different criteria of a job, so it is easily to find your job with this function. CareerBuilder have much ability to help you to find job. For example, post a resume, create job alert, get job advice and job resources. In this website, you no need to visit every single day because job alert will send you an email when it finds your target of the job. Their advance search system is very good, because you can set a dozen different criteria of a job, so it is easily to find your job with this function. Question 3 How to use the internet in your job search? Many people are interesting using internet to look for job, here are some crucial steps to use internet in our job search. Before this, you must be very clear about the job you are interest. This will make easier in your job searching. There are many job search engines in Malaysia. Here we are going show you how to search job in ‘Best Job’ (One of the job search engines in Malaysia). Step1 You just have to type www.bestjobs.com.my in address bar. And then this will come out. Step 2 After that, you just have to press the ‘Job search’ on the top left in the page (Arrow) and you will see another screen appear. Step 3 Please insert your Job search category, location and data. Then press search. Step 4 You will saw many jobs vacant in the moment you press search button. Just have to click on the job that you look for and read the information. Contact the person who in charged if you interest. These are some simple steps to help a person search job through net. You just have to follow the steps above and everything will be easy. If you did not like using ‘Best Job’ to look for job, you can also choose other search engines, and the steps are similar. Advantage of internet job Searching With the development of the Internet, and network resource sharing, people can online at home, office and internet cafes and other places, search the domestic well-known talent network, these sites gathered a lot of employers national recruitment information through which information, We can spend the minimum cost to find a more satisfied with their work. Internet Job delivery than the traditional written submissions, not only query convenient, informative, select a wide range, but also save a lot of printing, making the cost of written submissions, but also eliminates the trouble of journeying. Here are some advantages of internet job searching, First- Time-Intensive By using internet to look for a job, we can save a lot of time compare to those using traditional methods. The main reason is because we just have to select the job category and the suitable jobs will appear. You just have to choose which you are interest and contact the person incharged. Second- Low Cost and Easy Searching job in internet can save our expenditure especially to graduated student. Through the click of a mouse, you can see many jobs. Besides that, you can send a copy of electronic resumes to the company. For the employing unit, the network cost of recruitment is almost zero. Third- Preserve Environment Internet job searching did not involve paper. This can prevent many trees to cut down. By this, we can preserve environment. We just have to look at monitor when searching for the job. This also called as ‘paperless’. Nowadays, government urges public do not print out documents if it is not necessary. So, by searching job through internet, everyone can preserve environment. In conclusion, internet job searching brings a lot of benefits. We just have to sit at home with one click, many results will come out. Internet is the powerful tool to searching information in 21st century. With internet, we can do anything and internet makes our life not boring. This is why internet loves by everyone without age barrier.