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Maintenance of the heterozygous connexin 26 mutation within human population

Maintenance of the heterozygous connexin 26 mutation within human populations affords potential epithelial and gastrointestinal advantages associated with increased rates of survival via a heterozygote advantage Connexin 26, or the GJB2 mutation, is a critical factor leading to human deafness and dermatological disorders worldwide. Connexins, which are the functional components of gap junctions, form six-member rings to shape hemichannels. These cellular structures are fundamental to cellular communication as they allow the passage of ions, cAMP, cGMP, and ATP. The epithelial lining of the inner ear, gastrointestinal tract, and skin are all comprised of connexins, therefore mutations in these proteins lead to fundamental disorders of the auto sensory and immune systems. Increasing numbers of individuals are heterozygous for the GJB2 deletion, leading to studies on the efficacy and maintenance of a heterozygous advantage within the population. A heterozygote advantage would infer some adaption which would provide an advantage over others within the population, and would explain how a high frequency of an allele exists within the population with only low phenotypic disadvantages. Several physiological advantages are associated with the GJB2 mutation, including a thickened ‘protective’ epithelium, antimicrobial resistance in the gut microbiome, heightened wound healing, and a decrease in cell death of laboratory cell lines. Although deafness would normally be considered a disadvantage to early human populations, would the physiological advantages outweigh the lack of hearing associated with the C-26 mutation? This paper seeks to examine the proliferation of the C-26 mutation and whether it carries an evolutionary advantage to the heterozygous population affected. The role of connexin gap junctions (GJB2) are paramount to the functionality of cell to cell communication and intracellular transportation of ionic compounds, potassium, monosaccharides, and ATP. Molecules, such as cAMP, cGAMP, amino acids, and glutathionine, are transported through gap junctions. By allowing the passage of molecules, cations, and ATP, connectins are vital in regulating cellular replication, differentiation, and homeostatic conditions within epithelial tissues. Additionally, once these molecules are transported through connexins, they may function as a paracrine or autocrine signal (Garcia, et al., 2016). The connexin-26 (C-26) polypeptide is comprised of four transmembrane domains, including an intracellular loop, a cytosolic N and C terminus, two extracellular loops, and the N-terminal domain, which may catalyze and incite channel gating and voltage action potential (Press et al., 2017). The formation of connexins are critical, as each component of the six-member ring must bind with one another to form the hemi-channel, or the channel pore. Gap junctions serve another important purpose within the framework of cellular communication by synchronizing the firing of neurons and in a rapid, timed manner, as these gap junctions regulate metabolic processes between adjacent neurons and astrocytes (Anselmi, et al., 2008). Many cellular processes could not function without properly functioning connexin gap junction proteins, and mutations in these proteins often prove detrimental to the individual. Deafness of a biological or pathological origin, such as profound deafness, is statistically rare within the population, as the most common cause of deafness is injury, illness, or age. Worldwide, approximately 17.3% of hearing loss is attributed to allelic connexin gap junction mutations (Press et al., 2017), and one in 1,000 children are born deaf due to GJB2 mutations (Martin, et al., 2014). Mutations in the C-26 lead to two primary phenotypes resulting from homeostatic imbalance of calcium and water in the inner ear and permanent potassium deficiency of the epithelium, degeneration of the cochlea, and mass apoptosis (Garcia, et al., 2016). Once homeostasis of ions is lost in the cochlea and inner ear, permeant hearing loss ensues. Individuals of the first phenotype experience non-syndromic deafness with a moderate to severe deafness of a single origin. Other than a lack of hearing, these individuals experience no other symptoms associated with the GJB2 mutation. The second phenotype, syndromic deafness, additionally experiences one or more forms of epithelial tissue involvement, such as keratitis ichthyosis deafness syndrome (KID), Bart-Pumphrey syndrome, or Vohwinkel syndrome (Garcia, et al., 2016). These individuals experience a range of epithelial involvement due to the homozygous allele. Heterozygotes do not experience epithelial tissue involvement, and their level of hearing loss can vary. Globally, a high carrier frequency of the C-26 mutation may suggest a heterozygous advantage to the population. The importance of a heterozygous advantage is to impart a genetic advantage onto offspring which better enables them to survive their environment. When an offspring receives one recessive and one dominant copy of the allele, the offspring may not express the full phenotypic variant of the C-26 mutation, which is syndromic or non-syndromic deafness, but may simply benefit from the epithelial barrier which is developed as a response to the allele. This high carrier frequency is found within various ethnic groups worldwide of varying prevalence, although highest in Africa (Man et al., 2007). The C-26 mutation has been detected in frequencies of one in seventy in northern Europe and one in thirty in the Mediterranean region (D’Adamo, et al., 2008). The Chinese population, which has previously been linked with having a predisposition locus to psoriasis, additionally has a high prevalence of the C-26 mutation with the population (Scott, et al., 2012). Varying selective pressures based on regional differences, such as climate, the availability and scarcity of food, climate, and differences in predation are potential reasons why the C-26 carrier frequencies vary so wildly. These selective pressures would have been stronger in seperate human populations before civilizations changed and advanced into more structured societies with different evolutionary pressures. The predominant heterozygous mutation in Africa, R143W, coincides with the presentation of a thickening of the epidermis in the carriers within the population (Man et al., 2007). These individuals are heterozygous carriers and are not deaf, and do not experience epithelial tissue disease. In the study by Man et al., the researchers expressed either R143W or wild type cells in a migrating in vitro keratinocyte study to compare the thickness of epidermal layers grown. This study successfully demonstrated that R143W cells developed thicker epithelial layers, and additionally, were less vulnerable to S. flexneri gastrointestinal bacterial than wild type cells (Man et al., 2007). R143W cells benefitted from having an impenetrable epithelium in which bacteria could not infect, providing an evolutionary benefit to the cell line. To further support the evidence for heterozygote advantage for C-26 mutations, Commons et al., studied GJB2 in vivo to examine cellular death in wild type cells versus the mutant cells after growth of epithelial layers (2004). GJB2 mutated cells demonstrated a decreased number of keratinocyte deaths than the wild type, which may provide evidence supporting a heterozygote advantage at a population level (Commons et al., 2004). This particular phenotype may be of enough advantage to warrant potential risk of deafness within the population. According to Martin, et al., not only can a recessive mutation, but a gene deletion, such as the C-26 deletion, produce deafness, and epithelial thickness, but no skin disease (2014). This equates to an evolutionary “cost-benefit analysis” in which there is a slight risk for a small percent of individuals out of the population as a whole of developing a small defect or disorder by incurring a greater survival benefit. Additionally, gastrointestinal protection has been demonstrated by the protection via supplementary goblet cells to ward off invading Shigella Flexneri bacteria(D’Adamo, et al., 2008). A solid selective effect may be caused by S. flexneri and Escherichia coli as the primary causes of diarrheal diseases in the human population (Woods, et al., 2014). Protection from bacterial pathogens such as these would provide individuals with an evolutionary adaptation that would enable them to live longer and produce more healthy, viable offspring who would not succumb to gastrointestinal infections if heterozygous for C-26. Even today, diarrheal diseases remain one of the deadliest diseases to developing nations, so a heterozygous advantageous could save hundreds of thousands of lives per year. The necessitation for a heterozygote advantage for the human population cannot be overstated as its’ importance has neither lost its value over time nor importance. Since the beginning of time, various phenotypic variances have arisen over time and were maintained within the population as they provided evolutionary advantages to survival. Those which were most successful were heterozygous, such as the connexin 26 mutation. Despite much evidence to support the theory of the C-26 mutation providing the human population with a heterozygous advantage, another possibility could also explain why the mutation continues to be found in a steady prevalence. The founder effect additionally explains why Africa demonstrates the highest carrier frequency in the world with radiating frequencies in the Mediterranean region, Europe, and Asia. The highest concentration of mutations would remain in the original population, being the African population, and due to international travel and cross-cultural reproduction, the C-26 heterozygous mutation has traveled worldwide, in lower carrier frequencies, to protect the population at large. Gap junction proteins such as connexin-26 are vital to the communication which occurs intracellularly between epithelial cells which line the inner ear, cochlea, gastrointestinal tract, and surface epithelium. Disorders of the C-26 connexin range from singularly deafness to deafness associated with a range of epithelial tissue involvement, such as keratitis ichthyosis deafness syndrome (KID). Interestingly, individuals who are heterozygous for the C-26 mutation do not experience any epithelial disorders and only a small percentage are deaf. As demonstrated by the discussed research outlined in this paper, a heterozygous advantage could afford the population which carries one copy of the mutated allele an advantage over the homozygous subset of the population, thus providing an evolutionary edge. Although these studies provide evidence which support a theory, a second explanation for the maintenance of the heterozygote within the human still exists, which is the founder effect. Although the actual evolutionary pressure has yet to be determined conclusively as of yet, of one thing researchers are certain, that C-26 heterozygotes do demonstrate a biological and evolutionary advantage over homozygotes for health and survival in today’s times. References Anselmi, F, Hernandez, VH, Crispino, G, Seydel, A, Ortolano, S, Roper, SD, Kessaris, N, Richardson, W, Rickheit, G, Filippo, MA, Monyer, H, Mammano, F. ATP release through connexin hemichannels and gap channels transfer of second messengers propagate Ca2 signals across the inner ear. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2008;105(48):18770-18775. Commons, JEA, Di, WL, Davies, D, Kelsell, DP. Further evidence for heterozygote advantage of GJB2 deafness mutations: A link with cell survival. Journal of Medical Genetics. 2004;41:573-575. D’Adamo P, Guerci, VI, Fabretto, A, Falerta, F, Grasso, DL, Ronfani, L, Montico, M, Morgutti, M, Guastalla, P, Gasparini, P. Does epidermal thickening explain GJB2 high carrier frequency and heterozygote advantage? European Journal of Human Genetics. 2008. 225; (17):284-286. Garcia, IE, Prado, P, Pupo, A, Jara, O, Rojas-Gomez, D, Mujica, P, Flores-Munos, C, Gonzalez-Casanova, J, Soto-Riveros, C, Pinto, BI, Retamal, MA, Gonzalez, C, Martinez, AD. Connexinopathies: a structural and functional glimpse. BioMed Central Cell Biology. 2016; 17(1);17. Man, YKS, Trolove, C, Tattersall, D, Thomas, A, Papakonstantinopoulou, A, Patel, D, Scott, C, Chong, J, Jagger, DJ, O’Toole, EA, Navsaria, H, Curtis, MA, Kelsall, DP. A deafness associated mutant human connexin 26 improves the epithelial barrier in vitro. The Journal of Membrane Biology. 2007. 218;(1-3):29-37. Martin, PE, Easton, JA, Hodgins, MB, Wright, CS. Connexins: Sensors of epidermal integrity that are therapeutic targets. FEBS Press. 2014; 588(2014):1304-1314. Press, ER, Shao, Q, Kelly, JJ, Chin, K, Alaga, A, Laird, DW. Induction of cell death and gain-of-function properties of connexin 26 mutants predict severity of skin disorders and hearing loss. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2017; 292(23):9721-9732. Scott, CA, Tattersall, D, O’Toole, EA, Kelsell, DA. Connexins in epidermal homeostasis and skin disease. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 2012; 1818 (8):1952-1961. Shuja, Z, Li, L, Gupta, S, Mese, G, White, TW. Connexin 26 mutations causing palmoplantar keratoderma and deafness interact with connexin 43, modifying gap junction and hemichannel properties. Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 2016; 136:225-235. Woods, CG, Babiker, OE, Horrocks, I, Tolmie, J, Kurth, I. Connexin 26 variant carriers have a better gastrointestinal health: is this the heterozygote advantage? European Journal of Human Genetics. 2015; 23:563-564.
The Symbolic Significance of the Red Convertible in Louise Erich’s Story Essay. One of the reasons why Louise Erdrich’s story The Red Convertible is being commonly referred to, as such that represents a high literary value, is that the themes and motifs, explored in it, are thoroughly humanistic. That is, they do emphasize the counter-beneficiary effects of people striving to attain a social prominence in the society, where one’s possession of the strongly defined sense of self-identity is rarely tolerated – especially, if it is being concerned with these people’s visually and behaviorally observed cultural ‘otherness’. In this paper, I will strive to substantiate the validity of the earlier suggestion at length. The plot of The Red Convertible is straightforward. It revolves around the story of a relationship between two brothers of the Native-American descent – Henry and Lyman. The red convertible, owned by both brothers, symbolizes the subtleties of this relationship. Before Henry joined the U.S. Army and consequently ended up being sent to serve in Vietnam, he and his brother used to enjoy taking their car for rides. However, after Henry returned back, he was no longer in a position to appreciate his shared ownership of the red convertible – his wartime experiences in this country, caused Henry to become an altogether different man: “When he came home, though, Henry was very different… Henry was jumpy and mean” (Erdrich 6). Despite the fact that, after having reunited with Henry, Lyman never ceased trying to bring his brother ‘back to life’ (in the allegorical sense of this word), such as by the mean of prompting Henry to take an interest in the red convertible, Lyman’s effort, in this respect, proved in vain. The story ends with Henry drowning in the river, followed by Lyman pushing the red convertible into the river, as well – as an emotional gesture of denying the fact that Henry’s experiences in Vietnam did affect his true-self. The above provided brief outline of the story’s plot contains a number of implicit suggestions, as to what can be considered the symbolical significance of the red convertible in Erdrich’s story. First, the transformation of the car’s condition, throughout the story, emphasizes the transformation of a relationship between Lyman and Henry. Whereas, before Henry’s departure to Vietnam, both brothers never ceased striving to keep their car in tip-top shape, after Henry’s return this was no longer the case. In fact, Lyman deliberately ‘crippled’ the red convertible with a hammer, so that it would prompt Henry to consider fixing the car and consequently – to regain his pre-Vietnam identity of a cheerful and worriless individual. This, however, did not have any effect on Henry, except for the fact that he simply became mad at Lyman: “(Henry): That car’s a classic! But you went and ran the piss right put of it, Lyman, and you know it don’t deserve that” (7). Apparently, the author wanted to emphasize the notion of self-identity, as something socially rather than biologically constructed. It is namely due to Henry’s exposure to the horrors of war in Vietnam that, upon his return back home, he could no longer relate to his former self, which in turn prevented Henry from being able to enjoy the relationship with Lyman in the way he used to, prior to having served as an active duty soldier. Second, the red convertible in Erdrich’s story symbolizes the counter-beneficiary essence of the process of Native-Americans affiliating themselves with Western existential values. After all, it is namely due to White people’s endowment with the so-called ‘Faustian’ mentality, which seeks to dominate nature, that they were able to invent an internal combustion engine, in the first place – at the expense of becoming spiritually detached from the surrounding natural environment (Greenwood 53). Therefore, Henry and Lyman’s decision to purchase the red convertible can be well discussed, as such that reflected the fact that, despite their Native-American background, both brothers were emotionally comfortable with trying to integrate into the euro-centric society, as its integral parts. It can even be suggested that the car’s very color (red) symbolizes that Henry and Lyman did succeed in such their undertaking, to an extent. After all, it does not represent much of a secret that, along with having been referred to as ‘Indians’ in the past, Native-Americans also used to be referred to as ‘Reds’. Therefore, in regards to both brothers, their ownership of the red convertible reflected their endowment with the ‘hybrid’ mentality of spiritually disfranchised Native-Americans – those who, despite appearing ‘red’ on the outside, are in fact ‘white’ on the inside, but who nevertheless strive to become ‘red’ on the inside, as well . The irony lies in the fact that, while longing to revive their Native identity, Henry and Lyman relied on the red convertible – the by-product of the ‘Faustian’ nonspiritual/mechanistic genius. As Dutta noted: “The red convertible, although extremely Western in its resonance, is the only native link between Lyman and Henry. It was in this car that he toured his native land, felt the breeze, drank the water, smelt the soil” (121). However, as The Red Convertible implies, Native people’s strive to adjust to the realities of a modern living in America, while accepting them uncritically, rarely proves beneficial in the long run. This is because, the price that Native people often have to pay, in exchange for being allowed to integrate into the society, is the abandonment of their cultural and spiritual traditions, which in turn causes them to end up being emotionally defenseless, while faced with life-challenges – hence, naturally making them prone to the thoughts of a suicide. Therefore, it will not be much of an exaggeration, on our part, to suggest that in her story, Erdrich promotes the subtle idea that, even though that Henry and Lyman did initially enjoy owning their red convertible, the automobile in question was the actual reason behind Henry’s ultimate demise. Hence, another aspect of the symbolic significance of the Lyman’s decision to sink the red convertible – by doing it, he expressed his unconscious disagreement with the process of Native-Americans being required to assimilate within the euro-centric society, as the pathway to happiness, on their part. Even though that Erdrich’s story takes place during the course of the seventies (the story’s context implies it), there can be very few doubts as to its discursive relevance, in regards to the realities of a contemporary living in America. After all, even today many Native-Americans often end up being subjected to the different forms of a subtle discrimination, on the account of their ‘otherness’. While trying to lessen the acuteness of their negative experiences, in this respect, many Natives choose in favor of distancing from their cultural heritage further and further. Yet, as The Red Convertible implies, such their decision is potentially capable of causing them a great deal of harm, especially when their emotional well-being is concerned. This once again highlights the sheer objectiveness of the story’s discursive value. I believe that this conclusion fully correlates with the paper’s initial thesis. Works Cited Dutta, Pratima. “Erdrich’s The Red Convertible.” Explicator 61.2 (2003): 119-121. Print. Erdrich, Louise 1984, The Red Convertible. PDF file. Web. Greenwood, Susan. Anthropology of Magic, Oxford: Berg Publishers, 2009. Print. The Symbolic Significance of the Red Convertible in Louise Erich’s Story Essay
Executive Summary ApplPoly Company offers polystyrene foam products to various industries. These days, the company is seeking to find a new market for its new, dome-shaped roofs. For almost four years, ApplPoly has been putting much weight on Preston, who has been working as a chemist at the ApplPoly resins laboratory, to innovate an idea that will create new markets for ApplPoly’s foamed polystyrene. Preston came up with the notion of a foam dome, which entails utilizing foamed polystyrene to create roofs and other constructions that are dome-shaped. It seems that ApplPoly products got into the present situation because the company did not take adequate measures to market their products. The company, also left the task of marketing to Preston alone, because she developed the product. The roofing domes created by ApplPoly are environment friendly and appealing, which makes them relevant in the modern world. Also, the products are quite cheap, and they require minimal maintenance costs. The focus of the Company will be on external markets, such as Europe and Japan, as well as the internal market. Polystyrene becomes widely used in Europe and Japan by individual persons and companies in the hospitality sector. Other target markets in this sector are small businesses that import polystyrene, as well as construction materials, in the USA. Many industrialized nations prefer using domes instead of wood and cement, as they are friendly to the environment. However, some states have regulations that do not favor the selling of roofing materials made from Polystyrene. This marketing plan describes some strategies that managers and employers at ApplPoly can use to find a new market for their polystyrene foam domed roofs. Background Information on Industry ApplPoly Company specializes in the production of polystyrene foam products. The Company manufacturers various polystyrene foam products, such as roofing materials, packaging products, as well as food containers or cups. The products of ApplyPoly become used by various industries, mainly in the construction, hospitality, and manufacturing fields. These days, ApplPoly wants to establish new applications for their resin commodities that are profitable. For almost four years, ApplPoly has been putting much weight on Preston, who has been working as a chemist at the ApplPoly resins laboratory, to innovate an idea that will create new markets for ApplPoly’s foamed polystyrene. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Preston came up with the notion of a foam dome, which entails utilizing foamed polystyrene to create roofs and other constructions that are dome-shaped. Preston convinced her bosses that her scheme had potential due to her excellent promotion skills. A preliminary study became performed by the marketing research department, and they recognized several areas of buildings where the domes could be used. The center of the study was on uses for current construction that get made by a dome. The research revealed that using foam boards can create immense savings because of the decreased time of construction. Several areas of construction that can make use of the domes, according to the research department, comprised of cold and bulk storage, coats for industrial tanks, as well as educational and recreational structures. As of the fresh technology implicated, the corporation decided to perform its personal contracting for not less than four years. Preston deemed this as vital because it would reduce the chance of having mistakes executed by the raw contractor groups. For instance, the plastic could burn because of failure to follow appropriate guidelines. After constructing some domes in the United States to reveal the idea, Preston visited some principal architects in the U.S. The first architect appreciated the idea, although he doubted whether Chicago’s fire marshal would embrace the idea. The second architect explained his fears that there existed no accurate tests of fire for unconventional building materials, although Preston’s test demonstrated that foamed domes could be guarded against fires. The third architect expressed his concern that the foam board lacked impact resistance like cement. The fourth architect said that they designed numerous facilities for recreation, and children are apt to poke holes in the foam. The last architect said that building regulations in his area only allowed the use of wood and cement. After this unanticipated reaction, the administration felt puzzled. However, Preston suggests that the project should continue, as it is promising. She intends to create additional projects for exhibitions in Europe, the United States, and Japan to present the idea to the international market. Preston is extremely optimistic, as she thinks architects from other nations could be open to new concepts, unlike those within the nation. Preston thinks that potential users may take time before they can visualize and acknowledge new concepts. However, Preston believes that exposure to a vast number of people may quicken acceptance. We will write a custom Essay on ApplPoly Company Marketing Plan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Moreover, Preston believes that her idea will become popular through formulating some reports, which contain images of appropriately constructed domes in prime magazines and trade papers. Today, Preston is busy trying to prepare such reports. However, her seniors are not certain of whether they should put additional resources into this project. Preston’s direct boss appreciates her ideas, while other members of the review board are not sure of whether to let the project focus on the internal market or the outside market. It seems that ApplPoly Products got into such a situation because the company did not take adequate measures to market their products. The company also left the task of marketing to Preston alone, because she developed the product. Also, the fact that the manager of ApplPoly is not ready to invest additional money on Preston’s project demonstrates that the manager does not have trust in the new product. It is upon the management of ApplPoly to support Preston financially, especially in her projects and advertisements. Market Growth Last year, polystyrene foam product companies reported a 15% Increment in average revenues for their polystyrene foam products (United States Century Bureau, 2012). Since ApplPoly is a subset for this market and, so the company must be experiencing an increment that is close to this value. However, the growth of ApplPoly ‘s dome-shaped roofs remained low, like other products of the company, such as plastic containers and cups, experienced continuous growth. Market Trends There exist several markets rends that can be beneficial to apply to poly Company. First, internationalization is rampant due to the growth of the internet. Companies can interact with their clients directly, through company websites and emails. Hence, ApplPoly can exploit the internet to ensure that it conveys its new products to a large population, as well as help obtain feedback. Second, most individuals and companies have realized the significance of using materials that are environmentally friendly. The vast environmental awareness campaigns have evoked a feeling of responsibility among this group. Hence, ApplPoly‘s domes are likely to win the hearts of many individuals and companies due to their sensitive nature. Lastly, most persons, especially in Europe and Japan, want new and attractive products, which embrace modern technology. Hence, this may be a competitive advantage for the company (Spulber, 2007). Market Needs Most clients obtain dome-shaped roofs from ApplPoly Company because they want cheap, enduring, and attractive roofs that are environmentally friendly (Carpenter

For this assignment, you will apply your knowledge of course concepts in writing a case study focusing on a Essay

For this assignment, you will apply your knowledge of course concepts in writing a case study focusing on a top performing chief executive officer (CEO) of a multinational corporation (MNC) and the leadership and management issues they face doing business on a global scale in the 21st century. Begin by researching the rankings of top performing CEOs of MNCs. Suggestions include the following: Phebe Novakovic (General Dynamics) Tim Cook (Apple) Susan Wojciki (YouTube) Sundar Pichal (Google) Elon Musk (Tesla/SpaceX) Albert Bourla (Pfizer) Mary Barra (General Motors) Choose one CEO (they may be from this list or your own selection). Begin your paper with an introduction summarizing their background and career. Write a case study that accomplishes the following: Describe the company, its product(s), and its target market. Summarize the company’s global presence. Where do they physically operate? Where do they sell their product or service? Identify and summarize the CEO’s leadership style. Discuss positive and negative characteristics/traits of the CEO. What makes them effective as a global leader of an MNC? What makes this CEO effective at cross-cultural communication and negotiation? Discuss how the CEO promotes ethics and social responsibility through their leadership and strategies. Characterize the organizational culture of the company and how this affects the CEO’s management across cultures. Using specific examples from at least two different cultures, explain how culture affects the CEO’s decision-making and leadership actions. Explore the challenges the CEO has faced in global operations. Assess potential challenges this company and CEO may face in the future doing business on a global scale. Your case study should demonstrate an insightful and thorough analysis with strong arguments and evidence. Your case study must be at least five but no more than seven pages, not counting the title and reference pages. You must use at least five academic or industry reliable sources to support your case study. One of these sources must come from the CSU Online Library. All sources used must have citations and references in APA Style. APA formatting is otherwise not required.

“Relational Practice in the Workplace: Women’s Talk or Gendered Discourse?” Critical Essay

essay order Janet Holmes and Meredith Marra (2004) attempted to investigate the specifics of relation practice in their article “Relational practice in the workplace: Women’s talk or gendered discourse?” published in Language in Society. The authors have managed to create a well-structured and informative article by choosing an appropriate approach to presenting the information and supporting each of the claims with much evidence. The main aim of the article stated by the authors is to discover diverse ways of manifestations of relational practice at a workplace and focus on its specific instances to illustrate how it is discounted in New Zealand workplaces. The analysis provided by the authors is aimed at extending Fletcher’s research and support the researcher’s statement about the importance of relational practice, which is publicly ignored with relevant evidence. To achieve their goal, the authors have created a well-developed structure of the article. This structure helps the reader to understand the specifics of the main topic fully and explore the main claims presented by the authors and supported by evidence. The first part of the article is devoted to defining relational practice. The second one helps to explore the manifestations of relational practice at a workplace. The third part is dedicated to discovering the relation between the investigated phenomenon and gender and workplace culture. The authors define relational practice by exploring its three main components: orientation to facing the needs of others, serving to advance the primary objectives of the workplace, and being regarded as dispensable or peripheral (Holmes

Wolof Language in Africa Research Paper

Introduction Over seven million people spreading across three West African states including Senegal, Gambia and Mauritania is currently speaking Wolof. In fact, Wolof is deemed one of the most significant languages originating from Niger-Kordofan group of dialects set up by Greenberg. In Senegal, Wolof is widely spoken and perceived as the national language besides French. The estimates are that over eighty percent of Senegalese speak Wolof. The language is divided into various dialects ranging from Baol to Lebou. According to (Gamble 25), the number of Wolof speakers are rising given the fact that majority of the communities within Senegal, Gambia and part of Mauritania are using the language in their socio-economic and political undertakings. Moreover, the language plays a critical role in the socio-economic and political levels of the communities. In other words, the language is used in social, political and economic settings particularly in Senegal. Even though most of the speakers of the language are from diverse dialects, they are communally comprehensible (Campbell 341). The history of the Wolof language Historians argue that Wolof language came from Tekrur kingdom. Tekrur was one of the territories found in ancient Ghana. The Wolof language is considered the framework of the Senegalese ethnic communities. Moreover, Wolof is believed to have close relationship with Serer and Pulaar, the major languages originating from the north of Senegal (Garry and Rubino 445). Wolof, Serer and Pulaar are said to have over the years separated due to social, political and economic changes. As such, the three languages have various similarities in dialect and practical terms. Most historians assert that Wolof language branched out from Serer. In fact, Serer and Wolof are similar in all the foreign elements. In addition, historians point out that Wolof, Serer and Pulaar are linked heritably and culturally (Ruhlen 129). Further, historians assert that the three major and related languages might have originated from ancient Egypt. Further, other historians relate Wolof to Mandinka community of Djolof Mbing. In fact, the theory asserts that Wolof originated from a small village known as “lof” established by Mandinka, Djolof Mbing. The “lof” residents were later called “waa-lof”. The historians belonging to the school of thought believe that the name “waa-lof” later evolved to be Wolof (Gamble 25). As such, the “waa-lof” people later expanded to be Wolof speaking communities or the language group. The reason is that the “waa-lof” and Wolof is similar in cultures and dialects. The other similarities the historians cite include political systems, lifestyle and the belief systems. The relationship in the form of cultural norms and dialect prove the theory that Wolof language originated from the ancient Mandinka village of ‘lof”. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Currently, the Wolof speaking communities have spread in most part of Senegal, Gambia and Mauritania. Moreover, Wolof is deemed one of the sub-branches of the larger Niger-Congo language families occupying West Atlantic Region (Grimes 111). In Senegal, the Wolof is widely spoken majorly on both sides along river Senegal from the north to lower parts including Podor, Richard-Toll and Saint-Louis. In Gambia, the communities speaking the language are majorly found along river Gambia. Moreover, the language is spread above the Senegal River mainly in Mauritania, Guinea and Guinea Bissau (Comrie 219). The presence of Senegalese in foreign countries particularly in France enables the language to have some of the foreign dialects. The presence of the foreign language and education has enabled Wolof to evolve into form of new dialect though majorities still maintain the original vernacular. The existing borrowings and relation to other languages As indicated, the language is widely spread in terms of geographical area resulting into variations in dialect. The differences in dialect is also associated with the influence other languages have on Wolof particularly French, which is widely spoken in West Africa. However, the variations in dialect do not affect the comprehension of the language (Garry and Rubino 445). Moreover, most of the original vernacular is maintained. In whole sentence, the borrowed word can only be one, which is even rare. In other words, in a whole sentence, only one word may differ from one place to another. The borrowings from other languages are not common. Further, the distinctions in dialects are insignificant since such dialectical variation cannot prevent other people from understanding the verbal communication. Essentially, the mutual intelligibility is highly maintained among the Wolof speaking communities (Grimes 111). However, wide variation is observed in Wolof language spoken in urban and rural areas. The variations originate from the pressure of modernization in urban centers where majority interact with various languages and the maintenance of the original vernacular in the rural areas. Some of the terms are frequently used in the rural areas as opposed to urban centers where foreign borrowed dialects are common (Ruhlen 134). In other words, some terms are specific to the rural dialect. People living in the downtown cannot understand such terms. Similarly, some dialects are specific to urban areas and are commonly borrowed from foreign languages particularly French. For instance, words such as “Jatan” and “Naaf” are common in rural areas while words including “Garaas” and “oto” commonly used in urban areas are borrowed from French words “Garage” and “Automobile”. Further, the increased rate of modernity and influence in education exert more pressure on urban dwellers. As a result, the urban dwellers constantly create new words and use many French borrowings, which are directly related to political, economic and social transformations existing in urban centers. On the contrary, the rural dwellers are quite conservative and use dialects that are ignored or disregarded in modern cities (Gamble 25). We will write a custom Research Paper on Wolof Language in Africa specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The interactions with the French language has also led to differences in some terms such as toilet which is referred to “douche” in town while in rural areas, the original term “wanag” is used. The contacts Wolof has with other languages also have influence in some areas such as in Saint Louis. The city of Saint Louis, being near Mauritania, has borrowed the term “Kaudir” meaning pan, which the rest of Senegalese Wolof communities term “Cin”. The regional diversity also contributes to the Wolof dialectical differences. The reason explains the differences observed in Senegalese Wolof dialects from the Gambian Wolof languages. The changes in the Gambian Wolof dialects are influenced by English language given the fact that Gambia is a former British colony. The influence of English is not obvious in Senegalese Wolof dialects as opposed to French (Grimes 113). The English borrowings are only common with hip-hop singers in Senegal. In Gambia, English language greatly influenced the Wolof dialects where coined English are replacing some terms. The recent changes in Wolof language related to technological innovations Even though technological advancement has little influence on the changes taking place within the Wolof language, few transformations have taken place particularly in terms and pronunciations. Advanced technology has also facilitated the borrowing of some terms. Terms that did not originally exist in Wolof dialect are now incorporated. In other words, technology has led to the creation of new terms (Gamble 25). The new terms have enriched the Wolof vocabulary particularly in urban centers. However, the advancement in technology has facilitated the rate of influence foreign languages have on Wolof dialects. Moreover, technological advancements result in differences of some terms used in particular urban areas as opposed to rural areas. For instance, in Dakar, where majority are educated and apply modern technological gadgets, common terms are being replaced with the French or English terminologies of the gadgets. From time to time, new words are being inserted in place of original terms in Wolof or words considered old-fashioned in urban areas (Campbell 341). For instance, the term “muus” originating from the mouse of a computer is constantly replacing the Wolof term “wundu” which is still being used in most areas. Even though there are changes resulting from technological advancements particularly in some terms, large transformations have not occurred. Wolof language and its chances for a change Wolof language has specific characteristics that differentiate it from other languages. Moreover, Wolof language has specific attributes that differentiate it from other national languages spoken in Senegal and Gambia where Wolof speaking communities are widely spread. One of the attributes is the role the language plays in society since it is the only vehicular language (Garry and Rubino 456). In other words, unlike other vernacular national languages, communities and not the whole population speak Wolof. Not sure if you can write a paper on Wolof Language in Africa by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In addition, everybody in social and political setting including the media uses Wolof. Further, the language is largely used within the economic domains particularly in commercial and urban centers (Gamble 25). Almost all commercial transactions in Senegal and Gambia are conducted in Wolof. The application of the language in social, political and economic settings increases the need to know and comprehend Wolof detriment to other languages. One of the major characteristics of the Wolof language is persistence during the colonial era. The language did not change despite wide spread of the use of French and English (Comrie 224). In other words, Wolof language was not greatly influenced by the foreign colonial languages. The attribute distinguishes the language from other African languages that were victims of colonial influence. Despite widespread use of French language in West Africa and its influence on other African languages, Wolof dialects remained though with little borrowings. The characteristic contributes to little chances in the transformation of the language. Even though the chances of the language changing exist, it will take time before significant transformations are observed (Garry and Rubino 456). However, modes at which the language has borrowed words from other languages have increased in the recent past. In other words, the rate of transformation is likely to increase due to pressure from modernization and education (Comrie 231). Moreover, modern technological advancements are also likely to increase the rate of transformation. Generally, modernity will be the major cause of transformation of the language. Conclusion Wolof is widely spoken across three West African states including Senegal, Gambia and Mauritania. The language plays a critical role in the socio-economic and political levels of the communities. Even though most of the speakers of the language are from diverse dialects, they are communally comprehensible. Despite widespread use of French language in West Africa and its influence on other African languages, Wolof dialects remained though with little borrowings. The characteristic contributes to little chances in the transformation of the language. Works Cited Campbell, George. Compendium of the World’s Languages. London, Routledge, 2000. Print. Comrie, Benard. The World’s Major Languages. New York, Oxford University Press, 2007. Print. Gamble, David. Elementary Gambian Wolof Grammar. Brisbane, CA, Summer Institute of Linguistics, 2001. Print. Garry, Jane and Carl Rubino. Facts about the World’s Languages: An Encyclopedia of the World’s Major Languages, Past and Present. New York, The H. W. Wilson Company, 2001. Print. Grimes, Barbara. Ethnologue, Languages of the World. Dallas, TX, Summer Institute of Linguistics, 2009. Print. Ruhlen, Merritt. A Guide to the World’s Languages. London, Edward Arnold, 2007. Print.

CDC: Health Issues

CDC: Health Issues

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Has the CDC reported any new outbreaks or health risks this week?What other issues is the nation’s epidemiology agencies concerned about this week?Discuss in detail.