Shivaang Sharma In India, the marketing of agricultural produce is regulated by Agricultural Produce Marketing (Regulation) Act 1966, which provides for the constitution of market committees by state government, notification of agricultural commodities as also place of marketing of agricultural produce. Hence, the marketing of notified agricultural produce in areas other than notified areas is illegal. The areas so designed by the state government are known as Agricultural Produce Market Committee (APMC) markets or Mandies. The age old monopoly of wholesale markets under the government’s regulation have essentially curbed the advancement of a competitive marketing system in the country, providing provision of help to farmers in direct marketing, organizing retailing, smooth supply of raw materials to industries specialising in agro processing and the adoption of an innovative marketing technologies and systems. The objectives of this report are to: Examine the current status of state agricultural markets and efforts to strengthen their marketing infrastructure. Examine the progress made by alternative marketing channels such as Shetkari Bazaars and Contract farming. Agricultural markets in the country are established (Table 1) and regulated under each state’s APMC acts. The entire physical area within each state is separated and affirmed to be a market area where Market Committees manage the market yards which themselves are established by the individual state governments. When a specific location within the state is confirmed as a market area, it automatically comes within the jurisdiction of the state’s appointed market committee. Within this area only persons who have been granted licence for operating within the region may be free to engage in wholesale marketing activities. These legally established monopolies of wholesale markets which are government regulated have essentially curbed the growth of a more advanced competitive system of agrarian marketing within the realm of each state. Therefore an efficient system of agricultural marketing is much needed for the expansion of the agrarian part of the economy since it further leads to incentives and mediums for increased agricultural and allied sectors production thereby helping subsistence farmers to commercialise themselves and their businesses more effectively. Table 1: Division wise distribution of APMC main market and sub market yards in Maharashtra: Sr. No Division Districts Main Markets Sub Markets Total 1 Pune Pune, Satara, Solapur, Sangli, Kolhapur 43 122 165 2 Nasik Nasik, Ahmednagar, Jalgaon, Dhule, Nandurbar, Thane, Mumbai 51 112 163 3 Amravati Amravati, Akola, Buldhana, Washim, Yavatmal 55 101 156 4 Latur Latur, Osmanabad, Beed, Nanded 48 91 139 5 Nagpur Nagpur, Bahndara, Gondia, Wardha, Chandrapur, Gadhiroli 45 77 122 6 Aurangabad Aurangabad, Jalna, Parbhani, Hingoli 33 72 105 7 Konkan Raigad, Ratnagiri, Sindhudurg 20 34 54 Total 295 209 904 Source: Director of Marketing (DOM), Pune. As per the policy of Government of Maharashtra, produce of agriculture, whether processed or not, including horticulture, animal husbandry, pisciculture and produce from forests are defined as agricultural produce. From time to time, the agricultural produce of the area are notified as agricultural produce for marketing in designated market place by the Directorate of Marketing and Inspection. In this backdrop, GOI constituted an expert committee on strengthening and developing of Agriculture marketing in December 2000, which was followed by constitution of an inter ministerial task force to review the parent system of Agricultural marketing in the country and to recommend measures to make the system more efficient. The committee in its report of June 2001 and Task force in its report of May 2002 made a number of recommendations not only to improve the existing regulated marketing network but also to promote a parallel marketing network in the private and cooperative sector. These recommendations included: analysing the requirements to provide and strengthen existing marketing infrastructure, promote competitive alternative agricultural marketing infrastructure through involvement of private and cooperative sector, provide infrastructure facilities for grading, standardization and quality certification of agricultural produce and to provide training for farmers, entrepreneurs and market functionaries on agricultural marketing. Consequent upon this development, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperation, GOI launched a credit linked back ended capital investment subsidy scheme for development/Strengthening of Agricultural Marketing Infrastructure, Grading and Standardization (AMIGS) with effect from 20th October 2004 with the view to creating: Additional Agricultural Marketing infrastructure Strengthening existing agricultural marketing infrastructure Promoting competitive alternative agricultural marketing infrastructure through the involvement of private and cooperative sectors. Since the scheme was linked to market reforms, the states which have amended the APMC Act to include private participation and contract farming are now eligible for availing the benefit of subsidy under the scheme. The state of Maharashtra being one of the leading states to adopt the new policy of Union government has amended its APMC act and the scheme is in operation since 5th September 2006. Some aspects of this scheme include: Grain units – godown, drying yard, site development and machinery; Milk unit- bulk coolers, combine harvesters and auction sheds. Table 2: Geographical coverage of APMCs in Maharashtra: Sr. No Particulars Maharashtra Per Market 1 Geographical area served (sq km) 3,08,000 340.70 2 Population served (Lakh) 1,000 1.11 3 No. of markets per district 25.83 4 No. of Local bodies covered per market 28,174 31.16 5 Villages and Towns 41,473 45.88 Source: Director of Marketing (DOM), Pune. Considering the geographical coverage of APMCs within the state (Table 2); as of 31st March 2011, 188 proposals having a financial outlay of Rs. 22,671.32 Lakh, bank loan of Rs. 14,191.68 Lakh and eligible subsidy of Rs. 4,692.61 Lakh were received from different banks by NABARD, Maharashtra Regional Office, Pune. In order to review the processes implemented by the APMCS of Maharashtra, a detailed study was conducted by NABARD (National Bank for Agriculture and Development). Progressing to the second objective of this report, we begin by analysing the alternative popular marketing channel which is growing in conjunction with the conventional APMC set up i.e. Shetkari Bazars. The Farmer’s Market (Shetkari Bazar) is an idea of marketing the agrarian produce directly to consumers by producers (farmers). By excluding the intermediaries who in the model appear to be an inflationary force, the agrarian produce reaches its destination in good condition due to minimal in between handlers. As a result, this method leads to better price realization for the farmers and also quality produce reaches the consumers at far lower lower price levels. This format of conducting agricultural marketing has previously been enforced in Andhra Pradesh (which was called Raithu Bazar). This format is meant to assist small scale farmer producers (with fewer quantities of fragile vegetables and fruits) to secure better price levels thereby escaping commercial exploitation in the market yard by Dalals. Since 2nd July 2002, as per the government resolution No. APMC-1099/PC.305/11-c, Govt. of Maharashtra has decided to set up Shetkari Bazars in the state and MSAMB has been appointed as nodal agency for implementing this scheme. The produce brought by farmers will not be levied cess at the Shetkari bazaars in all districts and key taluka places by APMCs from the area. As per this resolution, a state level committee is setup under the chairmanship of Hon. Minister of Marketing, Govt. of Maharashtra, for implementing and monitoring of this scheme. The district level committees are also set up under the chairpersonship of respective district collectors with the following objectives4: To help farmers to get reasonable rates for their produce; To benefit consumers by giving them fresh produce at reasonable prices; Immediate value realization of the produce to farmers without any deductions; To provide produce in appropriate weights and measures to consumers; To being producers and consumers together to avoid chain of middlemen. The MSAMB has planned setting up of 100 Shetkari Bazars in the state by the next 5 years. The cost of setting up a single bazaar is estimated to be around 20 – 25 Lakh. Hence, MSAMB is providing loan to the maximum extent of 10 Lakh per beneficiary. Interest is subsidized up to 50% of the total loan. The rate of interest for the loan is 5% p.p. with 10 years payback period. To avail this loan, the APMC has to submit the proposal to the MSAMB along with the detailed plan and estimates and get prior approval for the same before beginning construction. There have been some compelling success stories in the realm of Contract farming which have transformed the fortunes of farmers belonging to specific regions of Maharashtra. Manchar village in Pune district of Maharashtra is famous for its high quality potato crops. Pepsico company recently began buying the produce of over 6000 acres of land in the area. The key elements of Pepsico’s success are its unique partnership with local agencies, execution of technology transfer through well trained extension personnel, supply of agricultural implements free of cost, regular and timely payment to farmers and the maintenance of a perfect logistic system. This is especially beneficial considering the amount of PHL minimised and the time saved by farmers who otherwise would need to transport their precious crops to the APMC market yard at the daily risk of losing some of their crops to handling, weather and potential road accidents. Recently, Sanghar Exports, Pune, also entered into contract farming of banana with the farmers in Pune (Phoolgaon) and Solapur. In this case however, the contract is only for the purchase of the agricultural produce. In conclusion, owing to the nature of the APMC marketing pipeline, inflationary practices have become inescapably endemic within the APMC marketing apparatus which can only be removed by a two-fold method. Firstly promotion and financing of alternative marketing channels such as Shetkari Bazaars, Contract farming and direct marketing must be followed. Secondly, by reducing the number of middlemen currently included within the APMC marketing process (such as dalals, auctioneers etc) along with increasing the number of licenses granted to more farmers and dalal shops from operating within the market yard shall lead to considerably reduced auction price rates since it inevitably leads to greater supply and more competitive bidding at the market auction yards at the market yards. Furthermore, there exists a dire need to strengthen existing marketing infrastructure, promote competitive alternative agricultural marketing infrastructure through involvement of private and cooperative sector, promote direct marketing and direct integration of processing units with produces, supply infrastructure resources meant to be utilised for standardization, grading and quality certification of agrarian goods, to introduce negotiable warehousing receipt system, also to promote pledge financing, forward and future markets and to create awareness and provide training to farmers, entrepreneurs and market functionaries on agricultural marketing. Hence, although these APMCs have facilitated the provision of a variety of services and forward linkages to farmers for long time after the opening up of Indian economy in late nineties, but, the age old practices and procedures incorporated within their functioning have invited criticism from all quarters in recent past. Since their incorporation, farmers have lost confidence in APMCs due to number of malpractices like lack of transparency, high charges levied by commission agents, wrong weightments and restriction of marketing licences for farmers and auctioneers alike (which curtails supply thereby exacerbating food price inflation). References and Bibliography: www.msamb.com www.nabard.org www.agmarknet.in http://www.msamb.com/schemes/default.htm All table sources: Maharashtra State Agricultural Marketing Board
To those who find themselves in contact with schizotypal individuals’ they often range appearing eccentric and aberrant to outright bizarre in their actions. Their behavior is clearly erratic. School and employment histories of these individuals show marked deficits and irregularities. Not only are they frequent dropouts, but they drift from one source of employment to another. If married, they are often separated or divorced. At times, their behavior appears eccentric, that is, they prefer social isolation and may engage in activities that other find curious. In more severe cases, their behavior may seem clearly bizarre. The presence of odd speech patterns is an example. Schizotypal individuals may verbally digress or become metaphorical in their expressions. According to the DSM-III, “Often, speech shows marked peculiarities; concepts may be expressed unclearly or oddly or words used deviantly, but never to the point of loosening of associations or incoherence (American Psychiatric Association, 1980, p. 312) Interpersonal Conduct Interpersonally, schizotypals experience a life of isolation, with minimal personal attachment and obligations. As their lives progress it is not uncommon to find these individuals drifting into increasingly superficial and peripheral social and vocational roles. These individuals have virtually no close friends or confidants. They have great difficulty with face-to-face interaction. They commonly experience intense social anxiety at relatively minimal social challenge. For these reasons, we believe the interpersonal conduct of schizotypals may be categorized as ranging from being interpersonal detacted and secretive to inaccessible. Cognitive Style The cognitive style of schizotypal individuals may be ruminative and autistic in less severe variations to blatantly deranged in more severe forms of the disorder. The cognitive slippage and interference that characterize the thought processes of this disorder in its milder forms are simply amplified here. Schizotypals are frequently unable to orient their thoughts logically. They tend to become lost in a plethora of irrelevancies. Their thinking appears scattered and autistic as the disorder manifests itself in its more severe variations. According to the DSM-III, these individuals may report “magical thinking” (i.e., clairvoyance, telepathy, a sixth sense, or just extreme superstitious behavior). Similarly schizotypals may experience recurrent illusions where they report the presence of a person or force not actually there. Psychotic thought, when it does occur, is transient and not indicative of a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Affective Expression The deficient or disharmonious affect of many of these patients deprives them of the capacity to relate to people, places, or things as anything but flat and lifeless phenomena. Their affective expression ranges from being apathetic to insentient and deadened. On the other hand, some schizotypal individuals seem in a constant state of agitation. Their affective expression ranges from being apprehensive, perhaps even frantic in their affective expression. We will present more on these clinical variations later. Self-Perception Schizotypal individuals often view themselves as forlorn and lacking meaning in life or, in more severe cases, on introspection, they may see themselves as vacant. They may experience recurrent feelings of emptiness or of estrangement. Experiences of depersonalization and dissociation may also be present in these patients. In sum, schizotypals appear virtually “self-less” as they look inward towards self-appraisal. Primary Defense Mechanism The schizotypal personality disorder is characterized by extreme social and affective isolation as well as autistic and bizarre cognitive functioning. The defense mechanism commonly used by individuals who possess this disorder is undoing. Undoing is a self-purification mechanism in which individuals attempt to repent for some undesirable behavior or “evil” motive. In effect, undoing represents a form of atonement. In severly pathological forms, undoing may take the form of complex and bizarre rituals, or “magical” acts. These rituals, such as compulsive hand washing, are designed to cleanse or purify the individual. These compulsions not only cause these individuals discomfort, but they may also consciously recognize them as absurd. Nevertheless, individuals employing such a mechanism appear to have lost the ability to control these acts as well as the ability to see their real meaning. Differential Personality Diagnosis The schizotypal personality disorder is likely to be confused with another severe personality disorder, the borderline disorder. Both the schizotypal and the borderline patterns represent severe personality disorder. Furthermore, according to the present biosocial learning theory, they both emerge when the less severe personality variants decompensate. Yet, there are marked differences in these two disorders. The schizotypal disorder features schizophrenic-like symptoms. These symptoms reflect disturbances in cognitive processes. Thus, the schizotypal is characterized by perceptual pathology as well as social withdrawal and isolation. The most obvious feature of the borderline disorder, on the other hand, is instability of mood. The symptoms of the borderline reflect disturbances in affect rather than cognitive. Finally, the borderline individual is interpersonally dependent, unlike the socially isolated schizotypal. A final note should be made regarding the schizotypal disorder in contrast to the Axiz I schizophrenic disorders. Axis I disorders are characteristically more severe and of relatively shorter duration. The Axis II schizotypal disorder represents the operation of internal, ingrained, and more enduring defects in the patient’s personality. Although schizophrenic episodes often reflect a psychosocial stressor, the schizotypal disorder represents an underlying and persistent characterological pattern. CLINICAL VARIATIONS The description of the schizotypal personality disorder presented in the previous section portrays the generic aspects of this disorder. It is more common, however, to see the schizotypal pattern manifest itself in one of two major variations. The two major clinical variations of the schizotypal disorder are (1) the schizotypal-schizoid pattern and (2) the schizotypal-avoidant pattern. Schizotypal-Schizoid Variation Schizotypal-schizoid individuals are characteristically drab, sluggish, and inexpressive. They display a marked deficit in their affective expression and appear bland, untroubled, indifferent, and unmotivated by the outside world. Their cognitive processes seem obscure and vague. Such individuals seem unable to experience the subtle emotional aspects of social exchange. Interpersonal communications are often vague and confused. The speech pattern of these individuals tend to be monotonous, listless, or at times, inaudible. Most people consider these individuals as strange, curious, aloof, and lethargic. In effect, they become background people satisfied to live their lives in an isolated, secluded manner. Case 11.1 portrays such an individual. Schizotypal-Avoidant Variation Schizotypal-avoidant individuals are restrained and isolated. Similarly, they are apprehensive, guarded, and interpersonally withdrawing. As a protective device, they seek to eliminate their own desires and feeling for interpersonal affiliation, for they expect only rejection and pain from interacting with others. Thus, apathy, indifference, and impoverished thought, which we saw in the cognitive and affective insensitivity, is presented here as a result of an attempt to dampen an intrinsic oversensitivity. The case of Harold T. is a study of a schizotypal-avoidant individual. SELF-PERPETUATION OF THE SCHIZOTYPAL PERSONALITY DISORDER The prognosis for the schizotypal personality disorder is perhaps the least promising of all the personality disorder discussed in this text. Let us examine why. The self-perpetuating spiral of deterioration that occurs in the schizotypal disorder is fostered by three major factors: (1) social isolation, (2) dependency training, and (3) self-insulation. Social Isolation Individuals who possess the schizotypal disorder are often segregated from social contact. They are kept at home or hospitalized with minimal encouragement to progress on a social basic. Social isolation such as this serves not to perpetuate the difficulties these individuals have with cognitive organization and social skills, but also serves to worsen the status of both. In many instances, the social isolation seems to stimulate a regression on the part of these individuals. They will tend to lose what cognitive and social abilities they may have had before the isolation. Jane W. was clearly capable of returning to society if she had been provided adequate social support. Without such support, the only option was to keep her institutionalized. Dependency Training Often found in conjunction with social isolation is the tendency on the part of those around schizotypal individuals to be overly protective. They will tend to patronize or coddle them. Such overprotection tends to reinforce dependent behavior on the part of the schizotypal. According to Millon (1981), “Prolonged guidance and shielding of this kind may lead to a progressive impoverishment of competencies and self-motivation, and result in a total helplessness. Under such ostensibly ‘good’ regimens, schizotypals will be reinforced to learn dependency and apathy” (p. 427). Self-Insulation Finally, not only through mismanagement and neglect will the schizotypal disorder be perpetuated, but also through the tendency of these individuals to insulate themselves from outside stimulation. As we described earlier, to protect themselves from painful humiliation, rejection, or excessive demands, schizotypals have learned to withdraw from reality and disengage themselves from social life. Even though exposed to active social opportunities, most of these individuals will participate only reluctantly. They prefer to keep to themselves-to withdraw. Without active social relationships, these individuals will simply recede further into social isolation, apathy, and dependency. Thus, the disorder is perpetuated. The case of Harold T. demonstrates a condition in which his ability to insulate himself has served as an effective barrier to rehabilitation. His apathy, lack of verbal communication, and habit of drawing strange and religiouslike pictures has effectively insulated him from other and has removed any hope of improvement for almost 10 years. So, in summary, we see that through social isolation, dependency training, and self-insulation, the schizotypal disorder is perpetuated. Although the motives for socially isolating and overprotecting these individuals are usually good, that is, with best interests of the patient in mind, the tactics are actually counterproductive for they deprive the patients of the opportunity to develop social skills while reinforcing dependency. The schizotypal’s own tendency to insulate himself/herself from social contact serves to exacerbate the disorder even further. Such self-insulation serves to foster and further perpetuate the spiral of cognitive and social deterioration that typifies the schizotypal disorder. Schizotypal Personality Disorder DSM-IV Criteria A pervasive pattern of social and interpersonal deficits marked by acute discomfort with, and reduced capacity for, close relationships as well as by cognitive or perceptual distortions and accentricities of behavior, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by five (or more) of the following: Ideas of reference (excluding delusions of reference) Odd beliefs or magical thinking that influences behavior and is inconsistent with subcultural norms (e.g., superstitiousness, belief in clairvoyance, telepathy, or “sixth sense”; in children and adolescents, bizarre fantasies or preoccupations) Unusual perceptual experiences, including bodily illusions Odd thinking and speech (e.g., vague, circumstantial, metaphorical, overelaborate, or stereotyped) Suspiciousness or paranoid ideation Inappropriate or constricted affect Behavior or appearance that is odd, eccentric, or peculiar Lack of close friends or confidants other than first-degree relatives Excessive social anxiety that does not diminish with familiarity and tends to be associated with paranoid fears rather than negative judgments about self Reproduced with permission from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Copyright 1994 American Psychiatric Association. Therapy The schizotypal is perhaps one of the easiest personality disorders to identify but one of the most difficult to treat with psychotherapy. The thought disorder and accompanying paranoid ideation work to distort communication between therapist and client and inhibit the formation of a trusting therapeutic alliance. Moreover, because schizotypals are inherently isolative and nonrelational, the therapist may sometimes be experienced as an intrusive presence. Because the alliance is the very foundation of therapy, medication is often needed before lasting progress can be made, especially with subjects who express the disorder severely. THERAPEUTIC TRAPS The expectations of the therapist and their influence on therapy are particularly important and may require careful monitoring. Most schizotypals initially see the therapist as attacking or humiliating (Benjamin, 1996). As anxiety increases, they may retreat further behind a curtain of disordered communication as a means of shielding themselves and confusing the intruder. Occasional retreats are universal. Therapists who become vexed when greeted with silence and emotional distancing only create an atmosphere that justifies such a reaction. Instead, the need for distance must be respected, without conveying feelings of disapproval or inducing guilt, to which many subjects are especially sensitive. Not pushing too hard or too fast can prevent severe anxiety and paranoid reactions. Extraordinary patience may be required because schizotypals repeatedly misperceive aspects of the therapeutic relationship and then act on these misperceptions. Subjects who believe they have privileged access to information beyond the five senses sometimes apply their extrasensory powers to therapy and the therapist, believing that they can read the therapist’s mind or arrive at conclusions about what the therapist secretly desires on the basic of tangential or irrelevant cues. Accordingly, communication should be simple, straightforward, shorn of psychological jargon, and require a minimm of inference. Schizotypals find it difficult enough to bring order to their own thoughts, much less penetrate ambiguities and double messages carelessly introduced by others. The concrete is to be preferred over the poetic because the latter is naturally rich in connotations, which play havoc with schizotypal cognition. Special attention to the countertransference is in order, for unconscious feelings emitted by the therapist bring an unknown complexity to communication and are especially likely to be misconstrued by subjects. STRATEGIES AND TECHNIQUES What can be done in therapy often depends on the extent to which the thought disorder intrinsic to the syndrome can be controlled. Otherwise, every aspect of therapy becomes more complicated. Further, the appropriate goals and strategies for any particular subject depend on whether his or her symptoms most resemble an exaggerated schizoid pattern, an exaggerated avoidant pattern, or a mixture of the two. Strategies and techniques appropriate for the dominant underlying personality disorder can be used to supplement the primary goals of treating the schizotypal pattern (refer to the appropriate chapter). Establishing a more normal pattern of interpersonal relationships is a primary goal of therapy. Social isolation intensifies cognitive deficits and allows social skills to atrophy. Contatc with a therapist can prevent further deterioration. Because patterns of disordered family communication typify the early developmental environment of these subjects, therapy offers the chance for a novel, corrective interpersonal relationship through steady support and euthenticity. Accordingly, as emphasized by Benjamin (1996), the basic skills of humanistic therapy, including accurate empathy, mirroring, and unconditional positive regard, become particularly important. Benjamin states that the therapeutic alliance may represent a chance to experience a “nonexploitive protectiveness,” one that eventually permits the schizotypal to give up management of the universe by magical means (p. 360). After an alliance has been established, subject can be encouraged to voice distortions of reality as they occur, and these can be discussed in the context of the therapeutic relationship. Benjamin (1996) further stresses that many schizotypals are likely to belive that harm may come to the therapist through their association. As such ideas are voiced, they can be tested realistically and tactfully refuted. In general, interpersonal therapy should enhance subjects’ sense of self-worth and encourage the realization of positive attributes, an important step in defeating detachment, rebuilding motivation, and providing confidence necessary to take the first steps toward constructive social encounters outside therapy. Because schizotypals have difficulty sorting the relevant and irrelevant in interpersonal relationships, therapists may find that much of their time is spent helping the schizotypal test interpersonal reality and gain perspective on which behaviors might be appropriate in whatever situations are current in the subject’s life. Repeated discussions of essentially similar situations may be necessary, as many schizotypals fail to realize that these are but variations on a theme. Basic social skills training are often helpful. Modeling behaviors provides an example that even concrete subjects can imitate. The ability to appraise interpersonal realities appropriately is an important step in decreasing social anxiety and accompanying paranoid symptoms while creating a capacity for appropriate affect and a sense of reward. From a cognitive perspective, psychotherapy must adapt to the schizotypal’s limited attentional resources and tendency to intrude tangential factors. Because many schizotypals are either overly concrete or overly abstract, learning may be generalized to other settings and situations only with great difficulty. Simplicity and structure help prevent the lessons of therapy from being obscured by the discombobulating effects of thought disorder. Furthermore, cognitive techniques allow the content of thought to be identified and eventually modified. This suggests that the combination of medication and cognitive therapy should be particularly effective. Writing in Beck et al. (1990), Ottaviani indicates that the first step is to identity characteristic automatic thoughts, such as, “I am a nonbeing,” as well as patterns of emotional reasoning and personalization, reviewed previously. Moreover, she suggests that assumptions underlying social interaction present an especially profitable avenue for change, as schizotypals usually believe that other dislike them. Subjects must be taught to act as naÃ¯ve scientists and test their thoughts against the evidence. Feelings do not make facts; instead, each cognition is a hypothesis and should be disregarded if found inconsistent with the objective evidence. Even bizarre thoughts can be dealt with in this way. The thought, “I am leaving my body,” for example, can be countered with prepared countercognitions: “There I go again. Even though I’m thinking this thought, it doesn’t mean that it’s true” (p. 141) Because an effective grasp of objective reality is the Catch-22 of the cognitive approach, Ottaviani further suggests that schizotypals also be taught methods for gathering contrary evidence. Subjects can list evidence inconsistent with their predictions, for example. Going beyond content, cognitive style interventions can also be made. Rambling can be countered by requests for summary statements, and global statements can be countered by asking for elaboration. Finally, where subjects are not too paranoid or bizarre, group settings can be used to practice social functioning and provide feedback about distorted cognitions. Because classical psychodynamic therapy is inherently unstructured, its use is probably not advised. As noted by Stone (1985), the purpose of psychodynamic therapy should be to internalize the therapeutic alliance. Because the early home environment of most schizotypals is likely to feature fragmented and chaotic communications, the ego boundaries of the schizotypal subject are only poorly developed. The interpretation of conflict not only disregards their desire for distance but also plays into their fear of engulfment. Accordingly, silence should be accepted as a legitimate part of the personality (Gabbard, 1994). Once this acceptance is felt, the subject may then begin to reveal hidden aspects of the self that can be adaptively integrated. Analytic procedures such as free association, the neutral attitude of the therapist, and the focus on dreams may foster an increase in autistic reveries and social withdrawal. Probably the most useful analytic suggestion comes from Rado (1959), who suggests that identifying and capitalizing on some source of pleasure, however small, is a superordinate therapeutic goal. Motivation develops from the capacity for pleasure, and ultimately, only this can balance the painful emotions, attach the schizotypal to the real world, and prevent the dissolution of the self and cognitive disintegration that results from autistic withdrawal.
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Instincts in humans
essay writing service free Instinct is behavioral triggering mechanism which occurs in all living organism. They are merely responses towards some stimuli. These stimuli can occur through environmental interaction or through learning. Human’s instincts are mostly witnessed in human behaviors which include sexual activation and human emotions. Instincts occur as a result of stimuli which trigger certain behaviors. These behaviors are predetermined by natural and environment setups. Instincts are innate/ unlearned. The patterns of the actions are as result of instincts which are fixed, inherited but unlearned. This introduces a new concept of innate behavior. This shows that contrary to actions triggered by learning experience, instincts are shown as having no learning format. These behaviors are determined by human maturity. The biological outcomes can be termed as innate behaviors that can be adapted easily. Examples of these include; reproduction, courtship, fighting amongst others. Despite this, there is no specific argument of human behavior being instinct controlled. Some sociologists argue that instinctive behavior should acquire such characters such as being; irresistible and be vulnerable to changes. They also believe that it should apply to all organisms as well as being unlearned (John, 1993, 21). Instincts are mainly controlled by the brain and require some manipulation of the neurological system through learning. Learning may take various forms such as habituation and association. Habituation involves neglecting of non stimulating stimuli. On the other hand association involves linking up experience to obtain stimuli. In this type of learning, meaningful decisions are arrived at. It involves discriminating some things to gain others. Instincts are involuntary in that they are inbuilt responses to a natural event. It is a natural inward impulse that result to some outstanding behavior traits such involuntarily, unreasoning and unconscious state leading to certain actions without considering the outcome. Thus instinct is an involuntary force in a certain direction of events. Instinct takes into consideration, the spiritual life and it triggers the thinking capacity in a human whom in failure to thing may be forced to do so. Whenever the degree of being conscious decreases as a result of contributing factors such as; fatigue and depression, then an instinctive behavior originates (Donald, Martin, 1997, 11). In this view, instinct can be discussed in various aspects which include sexuality, creativity, and activity amongst others. Experience is a contributing factor to certain behavior to one’s offspring’s by affecting gene appearance. Protein contents in the body are determined by the location and quantity of genes in the body and are controlled by the environment and learning. Genes are mainly affected by environmental changes which as a result bring changes in the lineage inheritance of genes. Key stimulus is an occurrence which affects behavior as a result of the instinct created. These stimuli contribute to innate simulations which as a result leads to fixed action patterns. Instincts are complex fixed action patterns. Instincts are character traits that are inherited and unchanged in an organism. They are responses to environment and they occur unconditionally. They can be viewed as a prose of behaviors which are unchanged. These fixed action patterns occur as a result of a response to a signal or stimuli. These signals are referred to as releasers when they work as communicating bonds between organisms of the same species. Fixed action patterns in validity creates a rigid and inefficient survival mechanism since this will restrict an organism in behaving in a certain manner, for instance, the behavior of birds rolling white objects into their nests referring them to eggs. The type of the fixed action patterns are mainly determined by certain body cells which are referred to as sensory receptors (Andrew, 1994, 53). For example the auditory sensory receptor can receive a terrifying sound which may result to a flight response. The magnitude of the key stimulus is determined by the integration of various signals in the sensory cells which also determine the magnitude of the response. Hormones are cores of these responses and are produced in the endocrine system in a body. Behavioral genetics is the study of human behavior which occurs as a result of a response to a certain stimuli triggered through learning or environment. Instincts can also be considered to be the contributors to survival activities such as cultural and political. These are prospered through learning which non instinct is. There are times when there double existences of contradicting instincts may lead to a displaced situation. Instincts are activated by ‘releaser’. It is true that all human beings can be motivated or have motive. This implies that the behavior is in a certain manner so as to achieve a perceived stand. Emotions are believed to be day in day out scenario in every person across the divide whether promising or not. Mainly emotions and motives are mainly controlled by the nervous system (Andrew, 1994, 71). These bring some biological influences which trigger humans to behave in certain ways in response to the effects. These are instincts. Instinct is present in every species. Instinct is viewed as the inbuilt trait of an organism directed to behavior pattern, in response to certain stimuli such as environmental. In nature, all living organisms are perceived to posses some behavioral traits as a response to some external stimuli and they respond to them without learning; for instance bees respond to nectar flowers without being instructed. Thus instincts are taken to apply to every species since most of the behavioral traits are as a result of instincts. They determine to great extent, the survival mechanism. For instance, imprinting is an instinct in certain birds. In this type of instinct, birds are swayed in following any moving object referring it to be the mother (Donald, Martin, 1997, 33). This instinct also contributes to selection of sex as birds tend to follow the traits of the parents of the opposite sex. In considering the behaviors of species, learning may be involved, though, it is not a factor in instinctive behavior. The inputs in any occurrence may affect both the releasing stimuli and the results. Sociobiology and ethnology deals are the study of human behavior and animal behavior. On the other hand, Psychoanalysts view instinct in terms of motivational drives. Instincts can be viewed as reflexes. These determine developmental stages in living organism. There is also existing argument that humans may not be having instincts thus making them to acquire complex behavior patterns (John, 1993, 50). In conclusion, instincts can be viewed as inborn perception of a living organism as a response to some stimuli which are influenced by learning or environment. It can also be deduced that instincts occur in every species since it is a character trait in response to a certain stimuli which might be disastrous. Instincts can also be seen as reflexes in human body. There are some outstanding human characters which have been attributed to instincts. These include; human moods, fight and fight responses. Work Cited Andrew L. Cherry. The Socializing Instincts: Individual, Family, and Social bonds, Mahwah, NJ, Praeger Publisher, 1994 Donald H. Ford, Martin E. Ford. Humans as Self-Constructing Living systems, New York, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1997 John Birtchnell. How Humans Relate: A New Interpersonal Theory, Mahwah, NJ, Praeger Publishers, 1993
UCSD Overharvesting in The Desert Research Paper
UCSD Overharvesting in The Desert Research Paper.
Topic: Overharvesting in the DesertThesis: The Overharvesting and overexploiting of deserts all over the world has caused significant damage to the environment, especially water resources, natural resources, and plant life in the deserts. Unless solutions are brought in the next few years, more harm will continue to fall onto desert environments.- 8-11 pages, Double space, not counting the citations. – FOLLOW MY outline which is attached and write the paper based on it. – ((((((((((( I attached an example for the same topic, You will write a VERY similar one to it. Make sure you follow the example as much as possible but do not copy directly anything from it, If you take anything, PLEASE paraphrase but NO copy and paste))))))))))))))))- NO direct quotes. You have to paraphrase – Minimum of 10 sources, ALL should be from Google scholars and 8 of them need to be Peer-reviewed. USE the 6 sources in my outline – Organism names: scientific names (genus and species) go in italics and common names are lowercase; family names do not go in italics but start with a capital letter.
UCSD Overharvesting in The Desert Research Paper
University of The Cumberlands The Three 3 F Technique Essay
University of The Cumberlands The Three 3 F Technique Essay.
The possibility of the 3F methodology includes Feel, Fit, and Finish. Feel signifies having a sentiment of being careful. Every individual ought to understand that he is equipped for produce realizes the affiliation where he works. He ought to guarantee he improves the vision of the affiliation (Zhao, 2017). Fit techniques you should be versatile and fit in with any change that the affiliation takes. It’s gainful for one to know the work and obligations that he is equipped for accomplish. Finish insinuates having the choice to complete the endeavor given.The 3F approach is resolved when one can complete an endeavor should have the alternative to complete the task assigned in a genuine manner helping the affiliation meet its objectives, improving its appearance. Big Data refers to manners by which a big measure of information broke down systematically to get data from it that will help with setting on key moves and business choice. Distributed computing alludes to server farms that numerous clients of the web can undoubtedly get to. Bibliometrics refers to the utilizing of factual strategies to break down information. The United States of America ought to present talented people in the field of huge information since they have the ranges of abilities. Evaluating information from the cloud can help in making new arrangements that will help in procedures that will improve government areas, for example, training, social insurance, transport, water the executives, squander the board, and so forth. Individuals who are skilled in enormous information and distributed computing will be of help since they feel the awareness of other’s expectations in examining information. They will respect the work they are doing, and this will assist with improving the standard of the United States. On the off chance that any change happens in the arrangements of the United States, talented individuals will rapidly acclimate to the new frameworks. They likewise finish the undertakings in the ideal way giving the best proposals to improve strategies used to offer basic administrations in the United States.In this IT Era, the universal progression of top ability has gotten advantageous and visit. Confronting the world’s top ability deficiency, China and the world’s significant nations have grown abroad top ability presentation programs. Until 2007, practically all European nations had presented a few skill selective movement strategies so as to draw in the top talents. To make the abroad top ability presentation programs increasingly compelling and focused on is useful for possessing the vital high ground in the worldwide top ability rivalry. This paper improved the customary ability assessment capacity of bibliometric technique, and introduced the 3-F technique, which was applied to examine the interest of top talents. The 3F technique could help the administration authority to settle on choice whether need to acquaint top abilities with create another industry field and lock these top abilities geographic area.
ReferenceL. Zhao, Y. Huang, Y. Wang and J. Liu (2017). Analysis on the Demand of Top Talent Introduction in Big Data and Cloud Computing Field in China Based on 3-F Method.————————————-Requirements:1) 4-5 lines
University of The Cumberlands The Three 3 F Technique Essay