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Loyola Marymount University Podcast Freakonomics Discussion

Loyola Marymount University Podcast Freakonomics Discussion.

Listen to this Freakonomics podcast “When Helping Hurts.” The podcast profiles one of the earliest modern attempts to find out what really helps at-risk kids (Cambridge-Somerville Youth Study). 1) The Cambridge-Somerville Youth Study was considered the first randomized experiment of a social program. How was the experiment conducted? What are “diagnostic pairs” and describe how were these used in the methodology?2) What is “directed friendship” and how was it intended to work? That is, what is the theory of change with mentoring?3) What were the effects of the program as studied by Joan McCord in the 1970s? Was the program found to be effective? Why did the intervention backfire? What do you believe are the most important lessons learned from the Cambridge-Somerville Youth Study for contemporary juvenile delinquency prevention?
Loyola Marymount University Podcast Freakonomics Discussion

Introduction: Australia economy went through contraction in 2008-2009. however, since expansionary monetary policy was executed, Australia started to recover step by step. Business cycle refers to fluctuations in economic activity. The economy doesn’t always stay still. It shifts over time between expansion and recession. In order to prevent economy from going too far from balance, the monetary authority of a country executes monetary policy. Monetary policy is used to control the supply of money, often targeting a rate of interest, so as to attain goals of growth and stability of economy. When economy is in expansion, a contractionary policy works. Under such circumstances, the government reduces the size of money supply, or if it raises the interest rate. When economy is in contraction, an expansionary policy works. It increases the total supply of money, or if it reduces the interest rate. The Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA) serves as the central bank of Australia. It holds the duty of keeping the nation’s economy sound and stable. RBA has several monetary policy tools available to influence the business cycle: increasing interest rates, reducing the monetary base, and increasing reserve requirements. All contracts the money supply, and, if reversed, expand the money supply. Increasing interest rate leads to higher opportunity cost of investment, thus more people choose to deposit instead of investing. This stops economy from being too heated up. While reducing interest rate means lower opportunity cost for investing, encouraging investment in a recession. Such is the role of RBA in counter cyclical policy. The year 2008 till now is a period of economic extraction. The financial crisis of 2008, considered to be the worse financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s, is triggered by a liquidity shortfall in the United States banking system caused by the overvaluation of assets. Financial institutions collapsed, stock markets turned down all around the world. Economic activity declines significantly. Australia, as a small, open economy with a financial sector that is well integrated with the rest of the world, is not immune to the enfolding financial crisis despite the robustness of the Australian financial system. The crisis contributed to the failure of key businesses, declines in consumer wealth and substantial financial commitments incurred by the government. The economic indicator-GDP slowed down significantly, as we can see in the following table. Year Mar Jun Sep Dec Average 2010 0.50 0.50 2009 0.80 0.70 0.30 1.10 0.73 2008 1.00 0.60 0.30 -0.90 0.25 Table1–GDP Growth QoQ Source: Trading Economics Economy went through a tough time in 2008. GDP growth kept declining from Q1 to Q4. To be detailed, GDP growth declined at a rate of 40% from Q1(1.00) to Q2 (0.60), 50% from Q2(0.60) to Q3(0.30), shockingly 400% from Q3(0.30) to Q4(-0.90)! Businesses broke. Nation wealth shrinked. Economy fell into abyss. Worse still in 2009, Australian economy had a rather difficult time with bad economic growth performance. The economic activity in Australia has slowed and is set to continue to slow before starting to rebound in 2009. Indicators of Australian Activity (Table 2) show how the recession was like in 2007-2009. GDP and consumption in 2008 dropped to half of their prior year’s level, while inflation in 2008 reached twice the level of its prior year. Business investment dropped by over one point from 2007 to 2008, and it was even worse in 2009. Though wage cost index decreased from 4.1(Year 2007) to 3.7(Year 2009), labor market unemployment rate increased from 4.4 to 5.2. Source: Melbourne Institute Before 2007, the monetary policy was concerned with bringing inflation down. However, within the space of one year, the landscape of macroeconomics has changed due to three concerns-recession, retrenchment and risks. In this recession, Australia needs an expansionary monetary policy, which can provide liquidity to further financial collapse. Inflation is no longer the top concern, since it is more important to keep a sound financial system and a low rate of unemployment. Inflation rise to 4.4 in 2008, and came down to around 3.0 in 2009. In the wake of the global financial crisis, the RBA began a policy of monetary loosening, reversing the trend of tightening. It has enacted similar procedures to the United States Federal Reserve to inject liquidity in domestic credit markets (such as moving funds into the cash market and introducing a term deposit auction facility). In response to both weaker domestic and global economic data, the Reserve Bank Board moved to an expansive monetary policy: the cash rate target was reduced by a full percentage point in October 2008, by a further 0.75 percentage point in November and, most recently in December, by another full percentage point. Let’s take the monetary policy executed in October as an example. In October 2008, RBA lowered the cash rate by 100 basis points to 6.0 percent. The Board judged that a material change to the balance of risks surrounding the outlook had occurred, requiring a significantly less restrictive stance of monetary policy. At the same time, measures are taken to provide authorized deposit-taking institutions greater flexibility to manage their liquidity. Specially, relax the current restriction that prevents an institution from using residential mortgage-backed securities and asset-backed commercial paper of a related party as collateral in its repo operations with the Bank. What’s more, restrictions on substituting collateral within an existing rep, with the exception of general collateral, will be removed. Where the substitution includes changes in the asset class of collateral, the margin applying to that collateral will be adjusted accordingly. Though Australia has not been immune to the financial woes, the economy has been cushioned by solid growth in China. Domestically, the loosening in monetary policy and the series of fiscal stimulus packages are likely to steer the economy away from a recession.

Reply to this post with at least 250 words citation and reference Risk Analysis, Practice, and Considerations in Capital Budgeting: Evidence from the Field for the Bio-based Industry The practice of

Reply to this post with at least 250 words citation and reference Risk Analysis, Practice, and Considerations in Capital Budgeting: Evidence from the Field for the Bio-based Industry The practice of. Previous studies have found capital budgeting practices being conducted in organizations across all regions of the world. It’s important to note that over time, due to the technology available, many businesses have handled risk differently since they now have access to capital budgeting software systems (Abbati et al., 2021). As risk assessment and capital budgeting go hand in hand (a capital budget outlines the risk assessment), various hypothesis that could explain the type of risk analysis in multiple areas of the bio industry needed to be investigated. Multiple survey questionnaires were utilized to collect data from many bio-based industries and found that only ¼ of bio-organizations even had a thorough understanding and background knowledge on capital budgeting and risk analysis (Abbati et al., 2021). It is important to note that businesses within retail or the food industry utilize risk and capital budgeting assessments with massive financial success due to their financial management capabilities. Another conclusion found from the study is that of those who did use capital budgeting, more than 95% favored qualitative and quantitative methods (as opposed to probabilistic methods) (Abbati et al., 2021. The study also found that the favored financial metrics utilized within the bio-industry for capital budgeting purposes is Return on Investment, Internal Rate of Return, and Net Present Value. It is also important to identify that more than 80% of survey entries claimed to only use capital budgeting after risk assessment happens in the later project stages (which somewhat defeats the purpose of capital budgeting) (Abbati et al., 2021). A lot of knowledge was gained within this article which brought many different thoughts going into my mind about capital budgeting. First, it is vital for bio-organizations to use capital budgeting due to the complex field of research, science, tests, and uncertainty the field holds. Capital budgeting would allow for scientific research and examination to be done without fear of losing money because they should have set a capital budget. To hear that the majority of bio-based industry’s do not use capital budgets could explain why certain pharmaceutical companies must stop testing on new products…because they haven’t set financial parameters based on a capital budget, they should have set. Just last week, within the last discussion post I wrote, I mentioned a certain pharmaceutical drug that had to stop all testing despite the fact that there was none other like it on the market in order to help with Osteoporosis. It’s definitely sad how if bio-medical companies did set capital budgets, the public would most likely have access to many drugs that are still being tested right now (due to insufficient funds because of the lack of capital budgeting). References: Abbati de Assis, C., Suarez, A., Prestemon, J. P., Stonebraker, J., Carrillo, C., Dasmohapatra, S., Jameel, H.,Reply to this post with at least 250 words citation and reference Risk Analysis, Practice, and Considerations in Capital Budgeting: Evidence from the Field for the Bio-based Industry The practice of

Please refer to the table that is attached to this assignment. -Locate and review two dimensions from each category

custom essay Please refer to the table that is attached to this assignment. -Locate and review two dimensions from each category (market structure differences, buying behavior differences, and marketing practice differences). -Provide a narrative that includes each of the three specific dimensions you’ve chosen and how each dimension differs between the B2B and B2C markets. Please provide examples of relevant companies or industries in your writing.

BLAW 370 CSUN Stakeholder Relationships for Leading Corporate Citizens Discussion

BLAW 370 CSUN Stakeholder Relationships for Leading Corporate Citizens Discussion.

For this week’s discussion, do 2 articles/ papers! 1) When examining the best practices in primary stakeholder relationships for leading corporate citizens, Waddock presents Table 6.4 on page 217 to summarize these approaches. Choose one primary stakeholder from that chart and find a news article/paper that discusses a company that engages in the relevant boundary-spanning function and best practices for that particular stakeholder (as summarized in Table 6.4). 2) Post a hyperlink to the news article/paper (FOR EACH).3) Write at approximately 250 words summarizing the article (FOR EACH) and analyzing it and explaining its findings to your classmates.
BLAW 370 CSUN Stakeholder Relationships for Leading Corporate Citizens Discussion

Research Ethics: Tri-Council Policy Statement Term Paper

Research ethics are principles that guide the research process. These principles are means of making sure that vulnerable persons acquire protection from exploitation and other types of harm. In Canada, research ethics are contained in Articles 3.1 – 3.5 of Tri-Council Policy Statement (TCPS). Historical and philosophical concept behind Articles 3.1 – 3.5 of TCPS The history of informed consent goes back to the 1930’s when American courts upheld the significance of knowledgeable assent in research. This was a result of the outrage at the brutality of Nazi experiments with human beings (Schuklenk, 2005). Later, in 1966, Henry Beecher a chief philosopher in the area of research ethics published an article in which he quoted 22 incidences of unethical actions in research. Among the incidences was a study whereby a doctor in Brooklyn inserted live cancer cells into dementia patients devoid of their consent. Beecher, through his work, tried to show that conducting research without participants consent is abusive. Nevertheless, abuse continued and 6 years later, the Tuskegee syphilis experiment came into exposure (Schuklenk, 2005). This experiment used human beings suffering from syphilis in a study, whereby the patients remained under observation rather than being treated. Eventually, many of them died and others transmitted the disease to their families. This led to creation of research ethics that would enhance respect for human beings and justice. Article 3.1 This article guarantees consideration of willingness to take part in a research before recruitment. Article 3.1 is ethical because it recognizes a person’s right to make choices depending on personal beliefs and values. As such, the article protects the rights of a person to take part in a research process willingly and prevents a person from taking part in a research unwillingly. Thus, this article instills authority to research participants through allowing them to accept or decline an offer to participate in research. Therefore, Article 3.1 conforms to the principle of autonomy. Article 3.2 This article requires researchers to give potential respondents research information as specified by Research Board of Ethics (RBE). The information given should guide the potential participant in deciding whether to consent, or decline to participate. Article 3.2 is ethical because it recognizes a person’s right to take actions depending on personal beliefs and values. As such, this article gives participants power to make autonomous decisions upon getting substantial understanding of the research activities. The article also prevents research respondents from participating in actions that do not correspond to their values and beliefs. However, the autonomy of the respondent may lack consideration in some situations. For instance, in the health-care setting, a nurse can progress without consent if there is enough evidence to show that disclosure will make a patient incompetent to reject, or consent to treatment. Such an action corresponds to the principle beneficence, as the nurse will progress for the benefit of the patient. Therefore, Article 3.2 conforms to both the principle of autonomy and beneficence. Article 3.3 This article upholds that research is a continuous process that is prone to change, and in the same way, consent should be continuous. Thus, the article calls for the researcher to notify participants of any evolving roles and confirm from them whether they still consent. Article 3.3 is ethical because it acknowledges a person’s right to make choices depending on his or her values. In the course of research, roles of participants may change depending on research objectives. For instance, in a study aimed at evaluating illnesses associated with HIVAIDs, a need to analyze the contents in their sputum may arise. Upon this realization, researchers should notify participants that they would have to produce sputum for assessment. If there is a participant who feels that this contradicts to her societal norms, or personal beliefs, then he or she may choose not to participate in this area. Thus, Article 3.3 protects participants against participation when new rules do not conform to their values and beliefs. Therefore, Article 3.3 conforms to the principle of autonomy. Article 3.4 This article calls for researchers to inform participants of any incidental findings. The article also provides clear rules to follow when there are incidental findings. Failure to inform participants of any incidental findings would deny participants their rights to full disclosure. However, such disclosure should not cause harm to participants. Thus, this article is ethical because it supports full disclosure, which recognizes a person’s right to take actions depending on personal beliefs and values. On the other hand, this article is unethical because it does not provide for incidental findings that may cause harm to participants. According to the principle of nonmaleficence, a researcher should not inflict harm intentionally. Therefore, Article 3.4 conforms to the principle of autonomy but defies the principle of nonmaleficence. Article 3.5 This article stipulates that research shall begin only after the participants, or their authorized third parties, have provided their consent. The article recognizes that some people cannot make competent decisions and thus, need third parties. Therefore, this article is ethical because it treats all persons equitably. As such, the article ensures acquisition of informed consent for person who cannot make sound through authorized third parties. This prevents incapacitated people from taking part in a research unwillingly. Therefore, Article 3.5 conforms to the principle of justice. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Reference Schuklenk, U. (2005). Module one: Introduction to research ethics. Developing World Bioethics, 5(1), 1471-8731.