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Logo in Adobe illustrator

Logo in Adobe illustrator.

After you’re done please submit both .ai and .pdf files. Very important. ThanksYour logo or brand has got to be much more than just a corporate badge or a simple recognizable, memorable mark. It needs to reflect who you are, what your business is and even how you work. The logo designer’s creativity and imagination are the integral parts in the logo design process, the client can describe what they want, and the designer has to visualize it. He or she has to create a high impact creative brand that has to not only work on screen, but also for a variety of media, like posters, signage, letterheads and even for apparel.Your task is to design a logo for your own organization to use for a letterhead (8.5” x 11”), business cards (3.5” x 2”), a poster (Poster size = 24″ X 36″ with your logo sized at 4” x 6”), and a website (Logo sized at 1.5” x 2” on a webpage layout sized 15″ X 10″). The sizes are suggested size, which can be modified as appropriate. You may pick any type of business or organization to create the design of your logo using Adobe Illustrator (CS5 or Higher). You are required to follow the requirements below. You will be submitting one file that contains multiple (4) artboards based on the above sizes.For further study in preparation for creating your logo designs, consider reading feedback from some of today’s design leaders on what not to do, when creating a logo!Read the HOW Magazine article on 6 Things to Avoid When Designing a Logo here.Requirements:Use a recent version of Adobe IllustratorUse multiple artboards (4) at a specific size (referenced above) for a variety of itemsUse GradientCreate a drop shadowApply Gradients to StrokesSave file as .pdf and submit both .ai and .pdf files
Logo in Adobe illustrator

Table of Contents Introduction The Recent Event: Shootings and Aggression in Social Media Trends Associated with Social Media and Youth Violence Impact of the Event on School Counseling Profession Conclusion References Introduction While focusing on societal concerns, it is possible to pay attention to the risks of developing aggressive social behaviors that are typical of young people today. Social media can be discussed as modern triggers of the development of aggressive behaviors related to online and face-to-face communications (Patton, Eschmann,
Capella University Moe and Joe Self and Self Control Case Discussion.

Write 3–4 pages in which you apply theories and concepts from social psychology, behavioral ethics, and critical thinking to a case study you choose. Focus on a theory related to the self or self-regulation.Social psychology can help you understand the world around you and answer questions about why people behave the way they do. Why is it so hard to take a chance and go back to school? Why do people start smoking when they know it’s bad for them? Why do protests turn violent at times? Being able to apply social psychological theory to personal and professional situations as well as to current events is a skill you need in order to take steps toward that understanding. For this assessment, we will focus on theories dealing with culture and nature and the self.SHOW MOREToggle DrawerResourcesSocial PsychologyDuplex MindBaumeister, R. F., & Bushman, B. J. (2017). Social psychology and human nature (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage. Available in the courseroom via the VitalSource Bookshelf link.Chapter 2, “Culture and Nature,” pages 32–65, contains information about how human social behavior results from a mixture of nature and culture. You will also find information about the duplex mind theory, which is one of the theories you can choose from for your assessment.Haggar, M. S. (2013). The multiple pathways by which self-control predicts behavior. Frontiers in Psychology, 4(13). Retrieved from…You can use this article to support your arguments if you choose duplex mind to apply to your case study.SHOW LESSSelf-Serving BiasBaumeister, R. F., & Bushman, B. J. (2017). Social psychology and human nature (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage. Available in the courseroom via the VitalSource Bookshelf link.Chapter 3, “The Self,” pages 66–111, contains information about how self-concept, self-esteem, and self-presentation fit into the context of social psychology. You will also find information about the concept of self-serving bias, which is one of the theories you can choose from for your assessment.Sanjuan, P., & Magallares, A. (2014). Coping strategies as mediating variables between self-serving attributional bias and subjective well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 15(2), 442–453.You can use this article to support your arguments if you choose self-serving bias to apply to your case study.Self-RegulationBaumeister, R. F., & Bushman, B. J. (2017). Social psychology and human nature (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage. Available in the courseroom via the VitalSource Bookshelf link.Chapter 4, “Choices and Actions: The Self in Control,” pages 112–145, contains information about how we are able to deliberately control our behavior. You will also find information about the concept of self-regulation, which is one of the theories you can choose from for your assessment.Critcher, C. R., & Ferguson, M. J. (2016). “Whether I like it or not, it’s important”: Implicit importance of means predicts self-regulatory persistence and success. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 110(6), 818–839.You can use this article to support your arguments if you choose self-regulation to apply to your case study.Behavioral EthicsThese resources, courtesy of Ethics Unwrapped, The University of Texas at Austin, provide you with the basic concepts involved in behavioral ethics: The University of Texas at Austin. (n.d.). Ethics defined: Behavioral ethics. Retrieved from… Behavioral ethics is the study of why people make the ethical and unethical decisions that they do. Its teachings arise from research in fields such as behavioral psychology, cognitive science, and evolutionary biology.The University of Texas at Austin. (n.d.). Concepts unwrapped: Introduction to behavioral ethics. Retrieved from…This resource investigates why people make the ethical (and unethical) decisions that they do in order to gain insights into how people can improve their ethical decision-making and behavior.For your assessment, you will choose to apply one of the following concepts, loss aversion or incrementalism, to a case study:The University of Texas at Austin. (n.d.). Concepts unwrapped: Loss aversion. Retrieved from…We hate losses about twice as much as we enjoy gains, meaning we are more likely to act unethically to avoid a loss than to secure a gain. This phenomenon is known as loss aversion.The University of Texas at Austin. (n.d.). Ethics defined: Incrementalism. Retrieved from…Incrementalism is the slippery slope that often causes people to slide unintentionally into unethical behavior. It can happen when people cut small corners that become bigger over time. Critical ThinkingCritical thinkers routinely apply intellectual standards to the elements of reasoning in order to develop intellectual traits. These resources introduce you to critical thinking using the model developed by Paul and Elder:Meegan, G. (n.d.). What is critical thinking? [Blog post]. Retrieved from… This resource describes the basics of critical thinking.Qualities of Thinking: Evaluative Stage. This resource provides a concise overview with links to further resources.University of Louisville. (n.d.). Paul-Elder critical thinking framework. Retrieved from…This resource provides a good summary with a graphic to show how standards, elements, and traits work together.Paul, R., & Elder, L. (2013). Critical thinking: Intellectual standards essential to reasoning well within every domain of human thought, part 2 [PDF]. Journal of Developmental Education, 37(1), 32–36. This journal article provides a strong description of the standards.For your assessment, you will choose to apply one of the following concepts, clarity or egocentric thinking, to a case study:Meegan, G. (n.d.). The intellectual standards [Blog post]. Retrieved from…This resource provides a description of the nine intellectual standards we use to assess thinking, which includes clarity.Qualities of the Thinker: Egocentric Thinking.This resource provides a brief overview of the concept of egocentric thinking.Westside Toastmasters. (n.d.). Chapter 10: Taking charge of your irrational tendencies. Retrieved from…This resource provides a more in-depth explanation of egocentric thinking.Library Research GuideYou will need to find other resources to prepare for this assessment, and you will need to ensure that they are appropriate, credible, and valid. The Introduction to Social Psychology Library Guide can help direct your research.Asssessment InstructionsPreparationAccess the Self and Self-Control Case Studies multimedia to choose which case study you want to focus on and the social psychology theory, behavioral ethics concept, and critical thinking concept you have identified as being embedded in your case study. Use the Capella library to find two scholarly journal articles related to the social psychology theory you chose. You may choose to use one of the following articles as one of the two you are required to use:Duplex Mind: Haggar, M. S. (2013). The multiple pathways by which self-control predicts behavior. Frontiers in Psychology, 4(13). Retrieved from…Self-Serving Bias: Sanjuan, P., & Magallares, A. (2014). Coping strategies as mediating variables between self-serving attributional bias and subjective well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 15(2), 442–453.Self-Regulation: Critcher, C. R., & Ferguson, M. J. (2016). “Whether I like it or not, it’s important”: Implicit importance of means predicts self-regulatory persistence and success. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 110(6), 818–839.Review the Self and Self-Control Template [DOCX] you will use to write your paper.Review the Exemplar Paper [DOCX] and the Exemplar Case Study [DOCX] to better understand the expectations for this assessment.InstructionsIn your paper, include the following:Summarize the case study.Describe credible and scholarly sources, relevant to a particular theory.Apply a social psychological theory to a chosen case study.Explain how social psychological research studies relate to a particular social psychological theory.Apply an ethical reasoning concept to a chosen case study.Apply a critical thinking concept to a chosen case study.Review the key points.Demonstrate an academic writing style through well-organized prose that follows assessment guidelines.Demonstrate compliance with APA style, citation, and referencing guidelines.Additional RequirementsWritten communication: Should be free of errors that detract from the overall message.APA formatting: References and citations are formatted according to current APA style guidelines.Resources: Minimum of 2 scholarly or professional resources.Length: 3–4 double-spaced pages, in addition to the title page and reference page.Font and font size: Times New Roman, 12 point.Template: Use the Self and Self-Control Template [DOCX] and include the headings and subheadings as shown in the template to organize your writing. The template is already formatted for 6th edition APA style with title and reference pages, headings and subheadings, in 12-point Times New Roman font, and double-spaced with one inch margins.
Capella University Moe and Joe Self and Self Control Case Discussion

Introduction As part of the FETAC Level 5 Major Award in Healthcare Support the author was asked to do this assignment on Care Skills covering all aspects of caring for a confused person. The model of nursing assessment -Logan, Tierney and Roper will be used to assess the client’s needs. Physical Intellectual Emotional Social/Spiritual Methodology will include class and tutor notes along with independent research conducted on the Internet and information from Creative Training’s Module learner book. The client used for this assignment is Peggy, living in her own home with mild stage of Alzheimer’s disease. The client’s name has been changed to maintain confidentiality. Peggy is a very outgoing person who enjoys horse racing, bingo and Irish music. Peggy is a roman catholic and attends mass every Sunday morning. Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) ‘Alzheimer’s is a type of dementia that causes problems with memory, thinking and behaviour. Symptoms usually develop slowly and get worse over time, becoming severe enough to interfere with daily tasks’(, 2014) AD starts off gradual but gets worse and worse overtime it is classed as having 3 Stages Mild – Moderate – Severe Peggy is in the mild/early stages of Alzheimer’s which means it is possible for her to continue to do lots of things under supervision bearing in mind this will change over time. Mild stage AD Gets confused in new places Finds it hard to make decisions when rushed Poor judgement Repeats things a lot Forgets things easily Lack of interest in activities Mood changes Gets frustrated and angry easier (Alzheimer Society of Ireland, 2014) Question 1 Development of a client profile and assessment of individual client needs. Client Profile Peggy is a 75 year old female with mild stages of Alzheimer disease living in her own home because of AD she is very confused. Family has assigned a Nurse and a Healthcare Assistant to help with her needs as well as rostering set days and nights that they will partake in her care alongside a multidisciplinary team (Patient, family, GP, nurse and a healthcare assistant). From meetings with Peggy and her family and MDT – it has been decided that she needs a holistic, person-centred approach for her care plan. INDIVIDUAL CLIENT NEEDS ASSESSMENT A holistic approach to care is always advised for Alzheimer’s patients after a thorough PIES analysis – for Peggy it shows: Physically Assessment of clients home – safety measures that need to be put in place M.U.S.T analysis is performed – diet adjustments made and food intake monitored Regular exercise and activities with the client completed Try to create a regular sleep pattern Ensure client has the correct non slip footwear when leaving the house Intellectually Assessing client at home – seeing what they can do for themselves and encourage the client to do as much as they can to ensure not to in still helplessness. Try to find topics to talk about that interest the client and create a reminiscence book or other photo book with them. Puzzles and other problem solving activities can be played when the client is confused – it can help to focus the mind. Emotionally Talking to the client – regardless of the topic Ensure they feel safe and secure and gain their trust Assign small tasks for them around the house and ask them to assist you in doing chores – such as folding tea towels or sorting socks – helps to make them feel useful and wanted Allow the client to lead in decision making regardless of the task – such as picking out clothing, hair style, makeup etc Note any personality changes as this can be a sign of the disease progressing Socially/Spiritually Encourage family members to visit regularly Try to get the client to attend day care centres and research any activities they are interested in to see if they would like to attend – such as bingo or card games, horse racing meetings etc The client is very religious – determine whether she would like to attend mass and if so on what day. Prayers may be said throughout the day in the home – such as the rosary (Sorrentino, 2008) Question 2 Determine the level of assistance required to complete activities of daily living Feeding – Can feed herself – food and fluids documented (intake and out-take chart) Toileting – Manages toileting – any changes monitored as can change if AD progress’s Selecting appropriate clothing (attire) shoes slippers etc – assistance needed Grooming – help with hair curling Continence maintenance – Monitored as can change if AD progress’s Putting on clothes – can get confused needs some assistance clothes laid out in order helps Showering – some assistance needed Walking – mobility good Morse fall scale 0 Finance management – needs assistance gets a little confused with counting money (old money) Transport – individual not allowed drive roster done out to bring individual places by family and close friends Shopping – supervision needed as gets confused unless guidance given in shop and gets lost easily Meal preparation –supervision needed Telephone and other communication devices – Assistance needed Medications management – supervised and documented by nurse at all times Housework and basic home maintenance –assistance with housework – home maintenance directed by Peggy done by family Sleeping and resting – very confused when she wakes up especially during the night one of the team stays over and night light left on during night Question 3 Maintaining a safe environment Medications in a locked safe place as Peggy sometimes forgets she has taken her medication nurse allotted to give out medication when needed. Lighters in a safe place Supervised smoking No lock on bathroom door Good housekeeping no clutter or loose cables minimising slips trips and falls Handrails in bathroom Non slip mat in bath Radiator covers to prevents burns Supervise individual when cooking to minimise burns/scalds Question 4 Promote client involvement in social events and therapies Telly bingo with family and friends Individual loves horse racing days out to local racecourse with family Day care centre Portlaoise where Peggy has attended for a number of years offers one day a week sessions with loads of different things to do ie hairdresser on site, make and do, chiropodist on site. Old folks Christmas party annually Creating a reminisance book of past photos of family and friends gatherings and events When weather is good peggy likes to help out with gardening(weeding and potting plants) Peggy’s cd collection is played for her daily as it always brings a smile to her face Question 5 Mobility including falls and pressure area care Individual mobility good at moment but watched closely as can deteriorate in Alzheimer’s patients as disease progress’s Morse Falls Scale result 0 at present. To minimize pressure sores Good nutritious diet using the food pyramid If individual mobility deteriorates check all pressure areas every day for redness (, 2014) Use of air mattress to help prevent pressure area sores Gel cushions in chair If client becomes bed bound to be turned every 4 hours Constantly checking pressure areas Preventing falls Risk assessment done on house to minimize falls Individual supervised Good housekeeping to prevent slips trips and falls Floors not polished Non slip floors in bathroom Spills cleaned up as they happen If any falls occur they are documented and individual checked out by nurse /GP(Morse fall scale form updated Question 6 Effective verbal and written communication with client and Health care team Client Speaking Always use their name when talking to them and say who you are Get down to eye level with client and keep good eye contact as this helps them focus Speak clearly and one idea at a time as to not confuse them more Do not speak to them like a child Short sentences Listening Listen carefully to client without interrupting Listen for clues when client is trying to tell you something Don’t rush client when they are trying to say something Body movements Use body movements tactfully to try explain things to them by pointing to things or acting out what you are going to do with them Tips Include patient in conversation and decision making(may change overtime) Don’t treat client as a child Try keep their sense of humour going by having a laugh with them Always hold their hand if they are feeling sad as the touch connects them to you emotionally without invading their personal space Make sure their glasses and hearing aids are working for them correctly as this will play havoc with communication (Alzheimer Society of Ireland, 2014) Healthcare Team Handovers done on person change over All healthcare team have been told of all changes to care plan promptly 24 hour diary kept and handed over at handover Appointments for Peggy kept in diary Question 7 Assist clients with activities of daily living Give a choice with clothes Peggy would like to wear Assist with shower but let Peggy do as much as she is able keeping her dignity by covering parts of her that are washed as you go Assist with meal preparations and cooking Nurse assists Peggy with medication Assist with housework and laundry Assist with shopping Curl clients hair the way they like it promoting positive self image When assisting with activities of daily living let client do what they are able to handle and it gives them a sense of independence and self worth (Alzheimer Society of Ireland, 2014) Question 8 Promote the rights of the clients to dignity, privacy, independence and positive self image Dignity Making sure client is dressed appropriately If client is getting washed make sure no one walks in on them Privacy Always knock on clients bedroom door and wait for a response before entering Privacy and confidentiality contained at all times Personal information not disclosed to public When family call over give them some space and time alone with client Always inform client of what the agenda is for the day and let them make their own decisions Independence Let client do as much as they can even if it means it is time consuming Let client help out with light house work if they are willing Positive self image Hair curled the way they like it Let them pick out their clothes Compliment them when they look nice Let them use their soaps, shampoos etc that they like ie imperial leather is a personal choice for peggy If they like their nails painted help them do them Always make sure they have their false teeth in during the day Reference List BOOKS Sorrentino, S. (2008). Mosby’s textbook for nursing assistants. St. Louis, Mo.: Mosby/Elsevier. E-BOOKS WEBSITES, (2014). food pyramid – Yahoo Search Results. [online] Available at:

Relationship between Theory And Research

2.0. Introduction Research methodology is a term used to define the overall systematic approach undertaken in the process of trying to solve a research problem(s). It is also understood as the science of studying how research is done scientifically (Kothari, 2004). Neuman (2006, pg. 60) stated that “methodology is what makes social science scientific”. It is very important to distinguish it from research method, which is the scientific techniques employed in the execution of a piece of research (Sim, 2000, Sim and Wright, 2000). When research methodology is mentioned, what should be considered is research method as well as the logic behind the research method and why the method was chosen (Kothari, 2004). Thus, methodology describes the overall approach taken in a piece of research, with particular emphases on the general principles of investigation that guides a study, based on its underlying theoretical and philosophical assumptions (Sim and Wright, 2000). The chapter will provide information about methodology in the context of research by giving the reader an insight into the process of deciding upon the methodology to be employed in research studies based on underlying theoretical and philosophical assumptions and how the choice of a literature review as a methodology was chosen as the most appropriate methodology to adopt for answering the research question for this study. Furthermore, process of literature review as a methodological approach will be discussed. 2.1. Relationship between Theory and Research Characterising the nature of the relationship between theory and research is not a straight forward matter, however, it remains important because it can be used to provide a framework and rationale for research that is being conducted (Bryman, 2008). However, (Sim and Wright, 2000) mentioned that on a general note, research has as one of its main purposes, the enrichment of theoretical knowledge; either by building upon current knowledge of an existing topic or by extending understanding into an unexplored area. Before trying to understand the relationship between theory and research, it is necessary to give an insight into what theory really is and the role of theory in research. There are several definitions of theory. But, the most commonly used definition especially in the context of research design, refer to theory as an explanation of a pattern or regularity that has been observed, the cause and reason for which needs to be understood (Blaikie, 2000; Bryman, 2008). This definition shows that theories are formulated based on observations. In order to explain the process of theory formulation and how the process relates to research, some writers have classified theoretical activities into a number of levels to aid understanding. One of such classifications that described five levels of theoretical activities as it relates to research was reported by Blaikie (2000). This particular classification system provides a way of understanding the interwoven nature of theory and research and could perhaps give a picture of the role of theory in research. At the first level (Ad hoc classification), observations are made and recorded as data. These data are then summarised into classes using pre-defined classificatory system that have not necessarily been derived from any theory, but may later be incorporated into a theoretical scheme. At the second level (Categorical system or taxonomy), possible relationship between classes or categories are stated, but the activity still remains at the level of description whereas the third level (Conceptual schemes), involves the development of proposition about the relationship between concepts that can be applied in a wide range of situation. They may also include some assumptions about causal connections. It is only after these three levels that a theoretical argument can be constructed by combining together taxonomy and conceptual schemes with the aim of finding an explanation. However, these schemes are likely to be abstract and not in form of a direct research thereby necessitating a fifth level (empirical theoretical schemes) where argument are formulated precisely and in such a way that they can be tested. The overall intention for describing these levels of theoretical activities is to aid an understanding of the relationship between theory and research. From this description of theoretical activities, it should be noted that theory can be used to provide a rationale or framework upon which research is carried out to test the (same) theory (i.e. the empirical theoretical schemes). But as Sim and Wright, (2000) rightly mentioned it can also be argued that in the absence of a theory or in an attempt to enrich a theory, research studies are used to provide the building blocks for theory formulation or enrichment. Against this backdrop, the research question for this study does not set out to test a theory but to study (observe) farmers and record the observations in the form of data that will be summarised into knowledge, attitude and practice regarding avian influenza. Possible relationship between classes may be made but the study will remain at the level of description (Categorical system or taxonomy). The inductive and deductive strategies are the two most common and very useful ways for understanding the relationship between theory and research, where research either sets out to test an existing theory or seek to build a new theory. 2.1.1. Theory-testing Research (Deductive Strategy) This is the most common view for the nature of the relationship between theory and research. It begins with an existing theory that a researcher wishes to test. In this model, the researcher deduces a hypothesis (hypotheses) from theoretical propositions contained in the theory (to be tested), that must then be subject to empirical scrutiny (following the collection of data relating to the concept that make up the hypothesis) to see if they support its predictions (Sim and Wright, 2000);(Bryman, 2008). Note that a research hypothesis, unlike a research question takes the form of a statement and is stated in a more concrete term than the proposition from which it was deduced. It describes a situation that can be observed in the real world of experiment and is used to guide the design and method for research (Sim and Wright, 2000). When the research design and methods have been established, the process of data collection take place and the data analysed to generate an empirical finding(s) that should either support or refute the theory. 2.1.2 Theory-building Research (Inductive Strategy) The theory-building model of research works in the opposite direction from the theory-testing research. In this case inductive logic is in operation because particular observations are put together and general statements are derived from the observations. These findings (general statements) are then fed back to the theory (used to answer the research question) that prompted the research in the first instance (Sim and Wright, 2000);(Bryman, 2008). Unlike the deductive research where a theory or theoretical proposition is the starting point, the inductive research begins with what is called the theoretical starting point i.e. the collection of theoretical ideas or assumptions to serve as the starting point upon which a research would be planned and the observation or data that would be relevant to the research question decided (Sim and Wright, 2000). Note that because the aim in inductive research is not to test a theory, there is no specific theory at the starting point and consequently no hypothesis will be needed. Although, inductive and deductive strategy is a very common and useful way to think of the relationship between theory and research and to understand the theoretical basis upon which research design and methods are formulated, note that theory is not the only issues influencing the conduct of social research. Epistemological and ontological assumptions also play important roles in influencing the method and design of research studies. 2.2. Philosophical model of research Research can be approach in a variety of ways. Every approach taken, represent a particular philosophical perspective on reality and on the ways through which knowledge can legitimately be gained from the world (Sim and Wright, 2000). The study of the nature of reality is termed ‘Ontology’ while the study of how we know things is termed ‘epistemology’ (Sim and Wright, 2000). However, epistemology is also understood as the philosophy of knowledge and is described in terms of the nature of the relationship between the inquirer and what is to be known (Denzin and Lincoln, 2000, Pg. 19; Guba, 1990, Pg. 18). The terms Ontological and Epistemological assumptions are very important in understanding and characterizing the different philosophical perspectives on research. Epistemology is particularly concerned with drawing conclusions from claims about how we can know the world (Hughes and Sharrock, 1990). Although, it is generally agreed that the aim of enquiry is to find an explanation that allows for control and prediction of phenomena whether it is human or physical (Von Wright, 1971), One central issue in this context is the question of whether the same general principles and procedures used by natural science can and should be used to study the social world. On these bases, several philosophical perspectives on research or research paradigm (as it is also called) exist, but initially, inquirers concentrated on what later became known as ‘positivism’ (Guba, 1990) and the focus of positivism is objectivity and a precise description through quantification and classification. Paradigm is most commonly referred to as a basic set of belief (Guba, 1990). According to Bryman (2008), the two basic epistemological positions (philosophical perspective) are positivism, which imitate the natural science and ‘interpretivism’, which denotes an alternative to the positivist orthodoxy that have been held for decades. It connects together (logically) the views of writers who belief that the subject matter of the social science i.e. people and their institutions, is fundamentally different from that of the natural science and therefore requires a different logic of research procedure that reflects the distinctiveness of humans (Bryman, 2008). Ontology as mentioned earlier is concerned with the nature of reality. The questions of social ontology are concerned with the nature of social entities, so that the central issue is the question of whether social entities can and should be considered objective entities that have a reality external to social actors, a position frequently referred to as “Objectivism”, or whether they can and should be considered social constructions build up from the perceptions and actions of social actors, a position also frequently referred to as “constructionism” (Bryman, 2008). Against this backdrop, there is no right or wrong paradigm or philosophical perspective, although their usefulness depends on their relevant to individual research question (Denzin and Lincoln, 2000). The opposing epistemological and ontological positions/assumptions mentions above are the background upon which the different philosophical perspectives on research emerged. Bearing in mind the objective of the research question for this study (to describe), three philosophical perspectives were found to be relevant to the research question. They include Positivism, critical theory, and Post-positivism. The decision to consider these three perspectives (paradigms) emerged from careful review of the positivist, interpretivism and objectivist position. The constructivist position was rejected because it is not in line with the study objective. 2.2.1. Positivism (naïve realism) One very important feature of positivist philosophies of science is the believe that advancement in knowledge is the product of empirical research; through the gradual accumulation of facts about the world to produce the generalisations known as scientific laws (Hughes and Sharrock, 1990). This is the basis for the epistemological position of positivism, which advocates the use of the methods of natural science to study social reality. Neuman (2006) characterized positivism by its fixed belief in objectivity and attributes the inability of social science to be as rigorous as natural sciences, to its immaturity. According to Sim and Wright (2000), the ontological position of positivism is the existence of a single objective reality, which is similar for everyone, irrespective of individual value, attitudes or perception. This makes it impossible to measure non-observable entities. Denzin and Lincoln (2000) tried to explain this position by say that the different ways of defining the real world are all rooted in phenomena existing outside the human mind but can be thought of, experienced or observed even though they are sometimes beyond direct apprehension. The author concluded that ontologically, positivism assumes that there is a single objective reality, an objective epistemology that require observers to be detached from that which is being observed, and an empirical experimental methodology. And any compromise to the independence of the ‘knower’ from the ‘knowable’ renders the validity of research finding questionable (Shanks 2002). 2.2.2. Critical Theory (Historical realism) 2.2.3. Post-positivism (critical realism) In response to criticism faced by positivist, a modified version of positivism emerged. Although, it still holds the same basic principles with positivism with relation to the existence of a real world driven by natural laws, the essence of this new position is the realisation that the social world cannot be fully comprehended and so inquirers need to be critical in the process of their enquiry in consideration of the imperfect nature of humans (Guba, 1990; Denzin and Lincoln 2000). In contrast to positivist ontological assumption of an objective reality that exist out there waiting to be discovered, post-positivism adopt believe that reality cannot be completely discover. Wisker (2008) added that reality can only be understood by interpretations in the context of data gathered inductively. This is a recognition that it is unrealistic for inquirers to be completely objective while conducting social research, instead a social researcher can aim to be as objective as possible. This position fits well and proves to be the most relevant position to adopt for answering the research question for this study. For example, theorists who share common ontological assumptions and ways of understanding social life are grouped together and their theoretical and philosophical perspective provides a way of looking at the social world; this highlights certain aspects while at the same time making other aspects less visible (Blaikie, 2000) so that a shift in assumption or perspective changes the shape of the social world (Gilbert, 1993). To provide further guidance for the method and design of this research study, the different philosophical assumptions of research will also be discussed. 2.3. Research strategy: qualitative and quantitative research In a quest to determine the best methodology to adopt for the purpose of this study, the researcher found a practical guide by Dawson (2009) to be very helpful. He suggested that perhaps the easiest way to go about this is to first of all decide whether to consider a qualitative or a quantitative research. It is a common mistake to belief that quantitative research is better than qualitative, so it is important to note at this point that neither is better than the other; they are just different and each one has its own strengths and weaknesses which is also influenced by the skills, training and experience of the researcher (Dawson, 2009). Consider the role of theory again when deciding on methodology pg 10-13, pg 21-23. The research question, ” ?” for this study is descriptive in nature in that it’s main concern is to describe the existing distribution of variables (knowledge, attitude, practice of farmers) with no regards for causal or other hypothesis. Research strategy, also called logic of enquiry, provide a starting-point for research by means of which ‘What’ and ‘Why’ questions can be answer. Rationale for the chosen Methodology Provide importance information about literature review, the advantages and disadvantages of undertaking a review before 3.2 Literature review A methodology literature review is a comprehensive study and interpretation of literature that relate to a particular topic (Aveyard, 2007). It seek to review, analyse and then summerise the body of existing literature relating to a particular topic in a format that can be easily accessible and comprehendible by professionals, who want to be up-to-date with current research or study one particular topics but do not have the time to read and assimilate all the informations needed to do that (Aveyard, 2007). The need to be up-to-date became very important because of the vast amount of information available for health care professionals, which is still expanding on a daily basis making research evidence to become out dated in a short period of time and there has been an increasing emphasis on the need for evidence-based practice (EBP) in the field of health and social care. Appleby (1995) defines EBP as: ‘A shift in the culture of healthcare provision away from basing decision making on opinion, past practices and precedent, towards making more use of research and evidence to guide clinical decision making’. There is a large pool of evidence resulting from the increasing number of researches carried out in the field of health and social care, hence, an increasing demand for getting research findings into practice (Aveyard, 2007). EBP entails identifying a research question, reaching evidence relevant to the question (findings of qualitative research studies), and applying the evidence for the care of the individual/group/population whose need prompted the research question (Aveyard, 2007). A comprehensively and rigorously carried out review allows a practitioner to base their decision (i.e. the answer to their research question) on a body of literature rather than relying on the findings of an individual research. In the context of this study, a literature review will enable public health practitioners to design intervention programmes to prevent human infections with avian influenza, based on the evidence provided by a body of research surveys conducted to determine the knowledge, attitude and/or practices of individuals that deal with poultry. Importance of Boolean search The logic operator ‘OR’ ensures that any or all of the key words entered in a search are searched for, whereas ‘AND’ ensures that all key words entered in a search are searched for and present in the literature identified. A survey design provides a quantitative or numeric description of trends, attitudes, or opinions of a population by studying a sample of that population (Creswell, 2009), the choice of survey as the study design adopted by these authors was appropriate for the aim of their study. Conclusion With regards to the second point on methodology, when doing a literature review, it is very important to demonstrate to the reader that a methodology literature review is the right tool to answer the research question (Aveyard 2007; Petticrew and Roberts 2006). In response to this, the previous chapter (methodology chapter) presented a comprehensively discussion of the assumption behind the various methodological approaches to research and provided an explanation for the choice of a literature review as the appropriate methodology to answer the research question for this study.

Staff Development

best assignment help Staff Development. Help me study for my English class. I’m stuck and don’t understand.

Objective: Develop individual staff development plans in coordination with assessment and conferencing techniques.
Please use the following form for your paper:
I. Statement of the competency: Develop an individual staff development plan in coordination with assessment and conferencing techniques.
II. Narrative: This section should explain how this project addresses an unmet need or area that needed improvement in your program. Explain the process in determining the actions you took to address the need and how this submitted project illustrates the implementation of your chosen improvement plan. (Minimum 200 words)
III. Submission of project: (You may incorporate and expand on your previous assignments and discussions in this section of the paper). IV. Show how this plan will form a framework for the development and design of the supervision plan for your teachers going forward.
Staff Development

NOVA W4 Julius Caesar Funeral Orations Discussion

NOVA W4 Julius Caesar Funeral Orations Discussion.

Here is his lectures that you need to watch before getting to the play. Again, he grades very hard to see whether you watch his lectures or not. The you need to read the play, I hope you would be familiar with this play. I do have pdf file of the play (attachment), and I also have audio book link and the video link. The professor just suggests that you should not watch the video before reading it. Audio book: (Amazon Prime – Free):, let us make this assignment a lead-up (or lead-in) to the final project/paper. That paper, as you know from the syllabus and that you will see from the other assignment sheet, is devoted to your reactions to Doran’s Royal Shakespeare Company’s production of the play. But you need to have a grip on the play first.So, I want you to talk about Brutus and Antony and the funeral. Brutus’s speech to the Roman plebeian starts on III, 2, lines 12 ff (following) and Antony’s speech appears III, 2, lines 85ff. These orations are very similar and very different. How are they different? How are they similar? Why is one in prose and one in verse? What kind of argument does Brutus make? What kind of argument does Antony make? Which do you think is the better speech? Why is it better? The movie might help you here–how do the actors deliver these speeches?These questions are only hints and goads. You do not have to answer all of them, though you should probably keep them all in mind.Your posting should be no less than 250 words and should be in the Queen’s English with proper punctuation and all that good stuff. I know these may take to long time to finish reading, listening, or watching, but they may help you with my final paper, which I will post right after this. Please understand and help me! Thank you so much
NOVA W4 Julius Caesar Funeral Orations Discussion

Plan for Project Scope: Scope Management Plan (SMP)

Plan for Project Scope: Scope Management Plan (SMP).

For this assignment, you will create a project Scope Management Plan (SMP). Planning how you will collect requirements and develop the project scope is critically important to ensure the project scope development process is well thought out and meets customer’s business needs.Assignment FormatBelow are some key guidelines you will want to ensure you follow in creating this assignment. Think of this short list as a quality control checklist, along with the attached grading rubric. SMP template must be complete, pls submit in Ms Word (.doc, .docx) or .pdf formats You should format the documents professionally Please ensure that you remove all instructions (in red) and any examples provided within the template Please be sure to review the attached rubric. It along with these assignment instructions will ensure you have a solid understanding of the assignment requirements.
Plan for Project Scope: Scope Management Plan (SMP)