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Lobbying and Fiscal Policy Essay

Organization’s Lobbyist Marcy’s organization is a chain of retail stores and websites dealing with various merchandise such as children’s, women’s, and men’s wear, accessories, apparel, cosmetics, and furniture, among other consumer products. The company operates about eight hundred and fifty stores in forty-five states within the United States and three other neighboring countries (International Debate Education Association, 2007). Due to the nature of the company, its degree of operation is usually seasonal since there are times when business sales are high and times of low sales due to seasonal events and festivals such as the Christmas holidays. The Federal government fiscal policy requires that the financial statements report be prepared by the accounting principles applied in the United States. Besides, the management of every organization is obliged by law to provide estimates and presumptions that directly influence the number of stated assets and liabilities and reported income and expenditure during the period of writing. However, these kinds of estimates and presumptions do not go without inherent uncertainties due to the difference in the actual and reported amounts. Owing to the business’s seasonal nature, the outcome of operations during 13 weeks between 3rd May 2008 and 5th May 2007, excluding the Christmas season, does not necessarily indicate the actual fiscal outcome for the year. Some reclassifications had to be made before the financial year’s amounts to march the classifications of the current year’s financial totals (Honnungar, 2010). A financial policy also referred to as the federal government’s fiscal policy is the policy strategy that is put in place by the federal government and is concerned with the changes in taxation and spending with a view to either trying to bring about expansionary or contradictory policies. Since this company mainly relies on seasonal marketing trends, the fiscal policy should be formulated so that there are short term intervention measures so that our business does not suffer in the economic downturn. The company cannot afford to wait for the average business cycle period to end when, naturally, it then reemerges to survive. The government should increase its spending during the festive seasons such as Christmas since it provides a sales boom for the company season and reduces spending at some other low seasons in our sales (Weil, 2008). However, monetary policy is mainly concerned with the steps taken by central banks in a bid to achieve macroeconomics on lending and interest rates. The monetary policy should be such that more money is released from the Federal Reserve into the market with reduced taxation during the festive seasons instead of only when the recession is being expected (Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, 2010). Following the local and state legal matters, the company is obliged to give tax returns, subject to various state authorities’ examination. This type of petty and stringent state laws should be scrapped off, particularly for Macy’s company since it has already acquired all legal licenses authorizing its operations. Your Opinions On Lobbying Regarding Lobbying should continue in the United States with regards to issues affecting the interest groups. This is important because there are so many different special groups with conflicting interests (Reuters, 2009). The government itself is an example of an interest group. The larger subset of the entire citizens is another example of a particular interest group within the public domain. It is, therefore, essential that each group be allowed to lobby based on what its interest is. However, lobbying does not warrant the obvious granting of the demands by the lobbyists. Many supporters of the idea of rally view it as fundamental human rights, such as that of a company looking at its interests by petitioning the government to intervene in some unique ways to the particular interests of given groups (Plunkett, 2008). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Anyone who is free and has a passion for the service to the people cannot accept money from other fraudulent sources if they have the interest of the people at heart. It is indeed costly to run an election in the US in the tune of millions of dollars. A politician relying on significant sums of money from interest groups would, therefore, most likely turn to serve the interest of such particular organizations that funded him/her rather than serve the public. Many organizations, therefore, should come in place and support the aspirants so that once elected, the politician does not help only one interest group of people but several groups of people with different kinds of needs. In so doing, a more significant share of the community is reached. Nevertheless, lobbying is still substantial to some extent in that such practices can only be condemned through lobbying by organizations that hold a different opinion on this matter. As a matter of fact, the amount of money required by politicians to the campaign has tremendously increased such that one may need to solicit funds from different sources in order to mount reasonable drives. In addition, the special interest groups would be willing to fund foreign politicians on opposing parties in order to ensure that their interests are taken care of irrespective of whoever wins the elections. It is against this background that lobbying should be limited by law since the interest groups wield too much power and influence that they define the course of action of the government, thus dictating the entire interest of the larger public. Lobbyists may sometimes lack reliable and adequate evidence supporting their claims; therefore, their complaints should be investigated and brought before the law. Additionally, selfish political interests should be monitored so that it does not camouflage itself with dedicated lobbyists’ demands. The United States should learn from the British system of politics whereby stringent limits are put on the spending of the individual candidates, and television ads are banned but giving free access to parties. In so doing, politicians will be less vulnerable to the influence of the interest lobbying groups. Hence, lobbying practices should still be permitted, although there is a need to monitors all forms of lobbying to ensure that specific claims being pursued do not contravene what is expected. References Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (2010). What is the difference between monetary policy and fiscal policy, and how are they related? Web. Hungar, J. (2010). Generic Study on Monetary and Fiscal Policy. Norderstedt. GRIN Verlag. International Debate Education Association (2007). Politics
Firm based trade theories hinge on the concept that multinational companies drive international trade (Anderson 95). Trade between nations can, therefore, be explained according to a complex relationship of parameters that touch on the operation of multinational companies (Feenstra 80). Here, economists have incorporated areas that refer to brand strength, quality of service, market availability, and customer loyalty in their trade inflow models (Kemp 102). The country similarity theory was proposed by Linder in 1961 (Anderson 95). Here, Linder argues that trade for manufactured produce is likely to be high between countries which have the same per capita income. Firms will first produce products for the local market (Feenstra 80). As companies seek for expansion opportunities, they are likely to invest in areas where consumers have a similar liking of their produce as their local consumers (Neary 430) The product life cycle theory proposes a three stage development process for manufactured products. A product will first undergo a new product stage followed by a maturing stage, and then a standardization stage (Krugman 194). Countries that have consumers who have a continued demand for improved products will produce products that are highly competitive, hence, highly marketable on the global market (Bernard 1290). Once a product has surpassed the maturing stage, transfer to a manufacturing location can start due to factors like cheap production costs, available technology and market opportunities, as the production process is standardized to maintain desired quality (Bernard 1290). The transfer of many production plants from western countries to some developing countries like China and India can be explained by the product life cycle theory. Another modern firm based theory is the global competitive theory. Here, there is a proposal that firms will invest in areas where they are likely to obtain a strategic advantage over their rivals (Melitz 1721). Among the most important areas that contribute to the competitive advantage of firms are entry barriers (Melitz 1721). Entry barriers include factors like research and growth opportunities, production costs, market opportunities, copyright laws and availability of raw materials (Bernhofen 50). According to developing theories that attempt to understand the phenomenon of global trade, the national competitive advantage theory was proposed by Michael Porter in 1990 (Eaton 1760). Here, Porter stated that the competitiveness of a given country in a specific industry was based on the capacity of that country to innovation and improvement in the given industry (Eaton 1760). Porter attempted to understand why some countries were more competitive in given industries (Bernhofen 50). Porter identified four interdependent parameters that were crucial in promoting the competitive advantage of a country in a given sphere (Dixit 113). These four parameters include the availability and capacity of local resources, the attributes of local corporations, the local market demand for firm products and the presence of complementary industries. The four factors above are highly significant in determining the competitive advantage of a given country in a specific industry (Dixit 113). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Works Cited Anderson, James. “Trade Costs”, Journal of Economic Literature, 42.5 (2003): 691-751. Print. Bernard, Andrew. “Plants and Productivity in International Trade” American Economic Review, 93.2 (2003):1268-90. Print. Bernhofen, Daniel. “A Direct Test of the Theory of Comparative Advantage: The Case of Japan”, Journal of Political Economy 112. 3 (2004): 48-67. Print. Dixit, Avinash. (1986): “Gains from trade without lump-sum compensation”. Journal of International Economics, 2.5 (1986):111-122. Print. Eaton, Jonathan. “Technology, Geography and Trade,” Econometrica, 70.5 (2002): 1741-1779. Print. Feenstra, Robert. Advanced International Trade: Theory and Evidence, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2003. Print. Kemp, Murray. “Gains from trade with and without lump-sum compensation” Journal of International Economics, 21.4 (1986): 99-110. Print. We will write a custom Essay on Firm-Based Trade Theories specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Krugman, Paul. “Scale Economies, Product Differentiation, and the Pattern of Trade” American Economic Review, 70.5 (1994): 950-59. Print. Melitz, Marc (2003), “The Impact of Trade on Intra-industry Reallocations and Aggregate Industry Productivity”, Econometrica, 71.6: 1695-1725. Print. Neary, Peter. “Factor Content Functions and the Theory of International Trade”, Review of Economic Studies 53.8 (1996): 421-32. Print.
Sullivan University In General Equity Corporation versus Honis Case Study.

General Equity Corporation enters into a contract with Honi, who agrees to create artwork for General’s main office building. Honi delays and eventually refuses to perform. Meanwhile, General contracts to sell the building to Ideal Investments, Inc., but before the transaction is complete, Jewel Funds Company offers to pay a higher price. General re-fuses to transfer the building to Ideal. In separate suits by General against Honi and by Ideal against General, each plaintiff seeks specific performance. How might the court rule in each case, and why?
Sullivan University In General Equity Corporation versus Honis Case Study

Nowadays, a successful company or organization requires one common characteristic which is determine and provide products or services that customer needed and satisfy them profitably. According to the Chartered Institute of Marketing, marketing is defined as the management process that identifies, anticipates and satisfies customer requirements profitably. In addition, Kotler also defined as the human activity directed as satisfying human needs and wants through an exchange process. In short, we knew that marketing is delivering customer satisfaction at a profit. Perusahaan Otomobil Kedua Sdn Bhd (PERODUA) is the Malaysia’s second largest automobile manufacturer after Proton. As the competitor of Proton, Perodua mainly manufactures small and compact cars, so Perodua actually does not compete with Proton for the same market. Although Perodua is not as well-known as Proton, but Perodua’s cars often catch the sight of Malaysian and achieve high value of sales. Because of the reason above, the author has decided and chosen the Perodua Company as the title of this assignment. In this assignment, the author will discuss about the company background of Perodua, marketing mix variables such as product, price, place and promotion that used by Perodua to achieve high value of sales and some further recommendation for Perodua to improve in the future. 2.0 Company Background 2.1 History of the Company Perusahaan Otomobil Kedua Sdn Bhd, also abbreviated to Perodua, established in 1993. To strengthen up the company, Perodua allies with the Japanese company which includes Daihatsu Motor Co. Ltd, Mitsui

Natural Sciences: Biodiversity and Human Civilisation Essay

Natural Sciences: Biodiversity and Human Civilisation Essay. Abstract Schwartzman (2014) observes that the existing biodiversity and human civilization have been grossly affected by catastrophic climate change (3that Cs). The review begins by noting that an effective prevention program is necessary to avoid the impending threat of climate change. In other words, threats associated with climthe ate change are inevitable. Global pandemic and nuclear war also pose similar threats to humanity, although they are not inevitable as it is the case with catastrophic climate change. Past studies confirm that the human race has continued to burn the fossil fuel reserves with impunity. The study goes on to illustrate withthat governments across the globe and especially major emitters of toxic gases have not demonstrated firm commitment to cut down their emission quarters. The author inquires if there is sufficient time left to avoid environmental threats posed by climate change. The available opportunity to reduce harmful emissions is gradually narrowing down according to estimates provided by climate scientists. Within a period of five to ten years, the world might begin to experience irreversible climate change with a definite rise of 2 degrees centigrade of global temperature. A similar estimate has been provided by the International Energy Agency (IEA). The author suggests that major emitters of greenhouse gases can opt for clean energy sources such as solar, wind, or hydro power instead of transforming global economies from capitalism to socialism. Evaluation The author seeks to explore whether zero economic growth is the best solution for catastrophic climate change that seems to endanger biodiversity. Schwartzman (2014) objects the idea that the world should divert from capitalistic to socialist economy in order to minimise environmental threats posed by greenhouse gas emission into the atmosphere. The author argues that it is not technically achievable to lower the expected temperature rise if the current emission quotas are not checked. The article is constructed around literature reviews of both past and current studies on catastrophic climate change. For example, the 2012 World Energy Outlook report proposed a significant reduction in the consumption of fossil fuels if the five-year emission target is to be achieved. The ability of the global society to attain ecological sustainability will be largely determined by governments if they are willing to use alternative sources of energy. The author in conjunction with a team of other researchers used a modelling study to illustrate the fact approximately 2 percent of global energy is currently being deployed in the generation of wind and solar power. A number of secondary research studies have also been used to support research findings of the model. Transnational political power is probably a major stumbling block in the realisation of emission goals. Schwartzman (2014) reiterates that the inevitability of dangerous change in climate should not be accepted at all because there are unlimited options for reducing threats associated environmental pollution. From the above analysis, it is indeed evident that the author has remained objective and sound throughout the article. He has done his job well especially by incorporating both primary and secondary research. Both sides of the argument have been presented by the author with the aim of shedding light on the issue at hand. Second, the author has highlighted and discussed the pros and cons of proposals made by the green energy revolution. However, there is still some gap in the review study. Most of the pieces of evidence presented by the author in the article are past theoretical studies. A study of this magnitude demands some raw quantitative data that can be used to substantiate arguments and assertions. There are no graphs or pictures used in the article. However, they may not be necessary for this type of a review. Nonetheless, I agree with the author since he has offered practical solutions for reducing greenhouse emission without necessarily resorting to zero economic growth. Reference Schwartzman, D. (2014). Is zero economic growth necessary to prevent climate catastrophe? ScienceNatural Sciences: Biodiversity and Human Civilisation Essay

Santa Monica College Kierkegaard & Nietzsche Discussion

research paper help Santa Monica College Kierkegaard & Nietzsche Discussion.

Discussion Questionyou can google for more information about topic, please no copy and paste.Answer minimum 400 wordsDiscussion QuestionKierkegaard & Nietzsche – Kierkegaard and Nietzsche are Existentialists, and Wittgenstein is a language philosophy. Racism, White Supremacy, and HyperpolarizationPrimary QuestionCan we love the unlovable as Kierkegaard suggests insofar as doing so is the key to overcoming despair, angst, and boredom? Kierkegaard’s three spheres of existence can be useful for knowing thyself, How can it be applied to our current crisis, the pandemic, systemic racism, hyperpolarization? How might Nietzsche’s suggestion of living life as though it were one’s art, making life beautiful, a means to motivating lasting, positive change? Thinking about Wittgenstein, how is our language misleading us and perpetuating systemic racism and other forms of hate?STUDENT 1 MADELINEReply Thought minimum 250 wordsI think that loving others come easier when we are happy with our own self. When we are happy with ourself and have self-love, the feelings of angst, disparity, and boredom dissipates. I think that self love is a product of being happy and knowing thyself. Kierkegaard sees the importance in aesthetics, ethics, and spiritual as the three spheres. Kierkegaard is also a believer of Christ and believes that we should ask the question,” what would Jesus do?” For non believers following the philosophy of Kierkegaard, I feel like it would be hard to understand how to live life like God. Jesus if fully human, but also fully God. I think that we can try to live ethically and morally like Jesus as an outline, but humans are born sinners which make it hard to live like Jesus. I think that the expectations of trying to live like God would be impossible, but we can always try our best to follow Chrisitian morals even if we do not believe in Christianity. I think that learning right and wrong in a sincere matter would rid this world of evil including systemic racism and hyperpolarization. I also think that living an ethical life that allows people to make moral judgments on societal norms, laws, and cultural practices will allow people to respect and make their own decisions. We should always make an effort to live ourself, friends, and lovers. I think that it may not come easy, but we owe it to ourself and others to try our best. Also according to Neitzche, living beautifully for ourselves will make the lives of others beautiful as well. We should try to get away from negativity and live a life with amor fati. We should make the best out of every situation with positivity and not let negativity and doubt sway us. I also think with that we can change the way that we choose to speak to others even in disagreement. According to the philosophy of Wittgenstein, all of our words and sentences carry meaning and we should change our language and get rid of words that have a negative connotation that can hurt others and ourself.STUDENT 2 MATTHEWReply Thought minimum 250 wordsKierkegaards three spheres of existence can be useful to know thyself better, and can be applied to contemporary crises like the pandemic, racism and hyper polarization in many ways. One way his spheres of existence can be applied to the pandemic is applying the ethical sphere. People who have surpassed the aesthetic sphere and have graduated to the ethical sphere can now look for and distinguish what is right or wrong during this pandemic. People have different opinions and what is right or wrong when it comes to wearing a mask or not wearing a mask. Those who are in the ethical sphere have to determine whether wearing a mask is right or wrong meaning they are looking at the world and the crises in “black and white”. Trying to become woke in the ethical sphere is bringing the previous aesthetic to the commitment. The same ethical sphere and decisions making between what is right or wrong applies to systemic racism and hyperpolarization as well. One interesting way the aesthetic sphere of existence applies to the pandemic and our lives is how “ boredom is the root of all evil, rotation of the crops”. During the pandemic people for the majority are the most bored they have been in a long time. Without being able to go outside as much as we used to people have been having to find new ways to rotate the crops or relieve themselves of boredom at home and elsewhere to the best way they can while staying safe. Many younger people today are still in the aesthetic realm and therefore are unaware of the right and wrong about the rules of the pandemic and other things. Younger people sometimes believe that it is ok to go out and have contact with other people that are not necessarily known to them and going out without a mask sometimes too. They can fail to realize that they think they can be invincible but many of the studies show and more people know now that some people could get infected and not show symptoms or have very little symptoms and still be able to pass the virus onto other people and loved ones. Also with systemic racism younger ones in the country who are in the aesthetic realm can not know whether it is right or wring to be racist because others have taught them to be that way. People who have reached the spiritual level of existence learn to becoming a self and to seek outwards of themselves. People who look outside themselves and focus on the bigger picture of contemporary problems are people like speakers for the black lives matter movement and the ones participating, to the doctors and scientist trying to find a vaccine to end the pandemic and virus spread as best as they can. In the rotation of the crops Kierkegaard states, “when an individual has perfected himself in the art of forgetting and the art of recollecting he is then able to Paul shuttlecock with all existence” (Kierkegaard 1). He is saying that once someone perfects the way they look inwards then they can reflect and make better decisions in life. In the film BlacKKKlansman I believe they used the laughter of superiority and relief in the film. He used relief when someone is close to getting caught or something bad Is about to happen and superiority when they won against the klan.PLEASE TITLE YOUR ANSWER WHICH ONE FOR WHICH

Santa Monica College Kierkegaard & Nietzsche Discussion

The Neoclassical Economic Theory

This is the newest theory of migration and states that the main reason for labor migration is wage difference between two geographic locations. These wage differences are usually linked to geographic labor demand and supply. It can be said that areas with a shortage of labor but an excess of capital have a high relative wage while areas with a high labor supply and a dearth of capital have a low relative wage. Labor tends to flow from low-wage areas to high-wage areas. Often, with this flow of labor comes changes in the sending as well as the receiving country. Neoclassical economic theory is best used to describe transnational migration, because it is not confined by international immigration laws and similar governmental regulations.[25] The resulting differentials in wages cause work-ers to move from low-wage, labour-surplus regions to high-wage, labour-scarce regions. Migration will cause labour to become less scarce at the destination and scarcer at the sendingend. Capital is expected to move in the opposite direction. In a perfectly neo-classical world, this process of “factor price equalization” (the Heckscher-Ohlin model) will eventually result in growing convergence between wages at the sending and receiving end. At the micro-level, neo-classical migration theory views migrants as individual, rational actors, who decide to move on the basis of a cost-benefit calculation. Assuming free choice and full access to information, they are expected to go where they can be the most productive, that is, able to earn the highest wages. This capacity obviously depends on the specific skills a person possesses and the specific structure of labour markets. Dual labor market theory Dual labor market theory states that migration is mainly caused by pull factors in more developed countries. This theory assumes that the labor markets in these developed countries consist of two segments: primary, which requires high-skilled labor, and secondary, which is very labor-intensive but requires low-skilled workers. This theory assumes that migration from less developed countries into more developed countries is a result of a pull created by a need for labor in the developed countries in their secondary market. Migrant workers are needed to fill the lowest rung of the labor market because the native laborers do not want to do these jobs as they present a lack of mobility. This creates a need for migrant workers. Furthermore, the initial dearth in available labor pushes wages up, making migration even more enticing.[25] The new economics of labor migration This theory states that migration flows and patterns cannot be explained solely at the level of individual workers and their economic incentives, but those wider social entities must be considered as well. One such social entity is the household. Migration can be viewed as a result of risk aversion on the part of a household that has insufficient income. The household, in this case, is in need of extra capital that can be achieved through remittances sent back by family members who participate in migrant labor abroad. Theseremittances can also have a broader effect on the economy of the sending country as a whole as they bring in capital.[25] Recent research has examined a decline in U.S. interstate migration from 1991 to 2011, theorizing that the reduced interstate migration is due to a decline in the geographic specificity of occupations and an increase in workers’ ability to learn about other locations before moving there, through both information technology and inexpensive travel.[26] Other researchers find that the location-specific nature of housing is more important than moving costs in determining labor reallocation.[27] Relative deprivation theory Relative deprivation theory states that awareness of the income difference between neighbors or other households in the migrant-sending community is an important factor in migration. The incentive to migrate is a lot higher in areas that have a high level of economic inequality. In the short run, remittances may increase inequality, but in the long run, they may actually decrease it. There are two stages of migration for a worker: first, they invest in human capital formation, and then they try to capitalize on their investments. In this way, successful migrants may use their new capital to provide for better schooling for their children and better homes for their families. Successful high-skilled emigrants may serve as an example for neighbors and potential migrants who hope to achieve that level of success.[25] World systems theory World systems theory looks at migration from a global perspective. It explains that interaction between different societies can be an important factor in social change within societies. Trade with one country, which causes economic decline in another, may create incentive to migrate to a country with a more vibrant economy. It can be argued that even after decolonization, the economic dependence of former colonies still remains on mother countries. This view of international trade is controversial, however, and some argue that free trade can actually reduce migration between developing and developed countries. It can be argued that the developed countries import labor-intensive goods, which causes an increase in employment of unskilled workers in the less developed countries, decreasing the outflow of migrant workers. The export of capital-intensive goods from rich countries to poor countries also equalizes income and employment conditions, thus also slowing migration. In either direction, this theory can be used to explain migration between countries that are geographically far apart. According to the newest labour migration theory, precisely, neoclassical theory, the main reason which cause migration outflow abroad is the difference in wages between two geographic locations. So, those foreign countries with lack of labour and surplus of capital tend to have higher wages (). Ukraine is considered to be a country with high supp of labour and lack of capital, therefore, it has low wages. As a result, Ukrainian labour migrants move to high-wage countries. Dual labour migration theory explains that migration flows are primarily caused by pull factors in more developed countries. Consequently, these countries require low- skilled workers on the secondary labour market which is more labour intensive. () Ukrainian labour migrants are needed to fill the gap in secondary labour market. The new economics of labour migration theory emphasizes that intensity of migration outflow is much higher in the regions with high economic inequality level. One of the most important indicators of socio-economic development of the country is migration. Migration processes facilitate the movement of population and labour from countries with worse socio-economic situation to the countries where living conditions, employment and earnings are much better. The current migration situation in Ukraine is characterized by stabilization of migration processes. Nowadays, Ukraine can be defined as one of the largest donors of labor force in Europe where labor migration outflow has become an objective reality (Institute for Demography and Social Studies, 2010).

Make major revisions to White Paper already written for Writing Class

Make major revisions to White Paper already written for Writing Class.

Here is what the professor had to say about my rough draft “WHITE PAPER”:”You need to begin by showing exactly, with facts to back you up, how much of a problem security is. You can’t just make sweeping statements like “most healthcare personnel don’t care”–that’s just patently not true. How many breaches are there, how many patients are affected, how many doctors really don’t care?? You need to make the problem very clear before you can solve it. “YOU MUST BE FAMILIAR WITH HOW A “WHITE PAPER” IS WRITTEN…PLEASE VISIT THE OWL WEBSITE FOR SAMPLES. PLEASE OPEN MY ROUIGH DRAFT AND MAKE MAJOR EDITS BY ADDING SUPPORTING EVIDENCE (SCHOLARLY SOURCES) TO BACK UP MY REASONS OF HOW MUCH A PROBLEM SECURITY IS. ALSO REMOVE THE STATEMENT ABOVE MENTIONED BY MY PROFESSOR ABOUT PERSONNEL NOT CARING. I NEED TO SEE MAJOR ADDITIONS AND EDITS!PLEASE USE THE TRACKER SO I CAN SEE WHAT HAS BEEN CHANGED!!!
Make major revisions to White Paper already written for Writing Class