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Literature Review: The Use of Clinical Systems to Improve Outcomes and Efficiencies

Literature Review: The Use of Clinical Systems to Improve Outcomes and Efficiencies. Paper details To Prepare: Review the Resources and reflect on the impact of clinical systems on outcomes and efficiencies within the context of nursing practice and healthcare delivery. Conduct a search for recent (within the last 5 years) research focused on the application of clinical systems. The research should provide evidence to support the use of one type of clinical system to improve outcomes and/or efficiencies, such as “the use of personal health records or portals to support patients newly diagnosed with diabetes.” Identify and select 4 peer-reviewed research articles from your research. For information about annotated bibliographies, visit The Assignment: (4-5 pages not including the title and reference page) In a 4- to 5-page paper, synthesize the peer-reviewed research you reviewed. Format your Assignment as an Annotated Bibliography. Be sure to address the following: Identify the 4 peer-reviewed research articles you reviewed, citing each in APA format. Include an introduction explaining the purpose of the paper. Summarize each study, explaining the improvement to outcomes, efficiencies, and lessons learned from the application of the clinical system each peer-reviewed article described. Be specific and provide examples. In your conclusion, synthesize the findings from the 4 peer-reviewed research articles. Use APA format and include a title page.Literature Review: The Use of Clinical Systems to Improve Outcomes and Efficiencies
MKT 441 University of Phoenix Research Design Discussion.

:Just need 150 words for:Discuss the research design used in your project, such as qualitative, quantitative, or mixed.Write a 525- to 700-word paper in which you examine the applicability of different marketing research tools to the scenario that you selected in your Week 2 Learning Team Assignment: Market Research Implementation Plan: Problem Identification and Project Outline. Address the following in your paper: Describe your business scenario.Explain secondary market search considerations and apply them to the selected scenario.Discuss the research design used in your project, such as qualitative, quantitative, or mixed.Develop at least one data collection instrument to address your market research scenario.Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.Submit your assignment.
MKT 441 University of Phoenix Research Design Discussion

Oxidation And Hydrolysis Of Acetylcysteine. Acetylcysteine is an antidote used for paracetamol overdose. Different tests had been chosen and conducted to ensure the quality of the product in the drug preparation is within the acceptable range as stated in the British Pharmacopoeia (hereafter referred to as ‘the BP’). The level of purity and changes in the structure/condition of acetylcysteine can be known based on the value of specific optical rotation; a negative value suggests that the compound has an anticlockwise rotation, and a positive value suggests otherwise. The amount of acetylcysteine in a sample can be determined by iodine and sodium hydroxide titration respectively. The results obtained were then being analysed via HPLC analysis, where the peaks on the chromatogram reflect the level of impurities present in the sample. On top of that, a standard addition plot was constructed to determine the level of zinc in acetylcysteine. On the other hand, the weight of ‘pure’ acetylcysteine can also be known based on the calculation of weight loss upon drying, a low percentage allows us to assume almost little to no impurities were present in the sample before drying. Introduction Acetylcysteine is a derivative of the natural amino acid L-cysteine. It is a mucolytic agent and is used in combination with hypromellose to treat tear deficiency and impared or abnormal mucus production. (1) It is also used to treat paracetamol overdose. It acts as a dietary supplement as well as it has been shown to increase the levels of glutathione within the body which is a powerful antioxidant. (2) Acetylcysteine is a white powder and freely soluble in water. Acetylcysteine can used to treat paracetamol overdose by helping protecting the liver and restore the levels of glutathione. It helps to bind toxic metabolites produced from the large amount of paracetamol being metabolised. (2) The exact mechanism however is not known. It is used a mucolytic agent too where it helps to reduce the viscosity of the mucus produced by breaking the disulfide bonds present. (2) Below is the structure of acetylcysteine. Acetylcysteine can undergo oxidation and hydrolysis. When oxidation occurs, a sulphur bond is formed between two sulphur atoms from two different acetylcysteine molecules. Under hydrolysis, the COCH3 is substituted with a hydrogen atom resulting in a secondary amine. Oxidation and hydrolysis of Acetylcysteine In this experiment, different tests had been conducted to ensure the quality of acetylcysteine lies within the acceptable range as required in the BP. Quality control is a part of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) to ensure that a product will be yielded complying to its specifications and its level of safeness, well-being and protection had been increased to maximum for the patients. In this experiment, the optical rotations for acetylcysteine in old and freshly prepared solutions were obtained using a polarimeter. The readings are then converted to specific optical rotations using the equation below. The specific optical rotation values directly reflect the direction of rotation of the molecule, where a positive value would mean the molecule rotates light in a clockwise direction when light is passed through it, and a negative value suggests otherwise. If zero value is obtained, it would mean the sample was a racemic mixture. Other than that, assay for acetylcysteine was conducted as well to determine the percentage impurity of the sample. Two types of titration were used to test the percentage of acetylcysteine in the sample which are iodine titration and sodium hydroxide titration. Starch is used as the indicator for iodine titration while phenol red and phenolphthalein are used in sodium hydroxide titration. Different indicators will give different value of percentage of acetylcysteine containing in the sample due to their sensitivity at different pH range. Therefore, factors causing the difference in value are going to be discussed. Based on the chromatograms obtained through the HPLC analysis, the level of impurities in acetylcysteine can be identified and calculated based on the peaks present on the chromatograms. The content of zinc in the acetylcysteine sample can be determined as well by using the standard addition method where a graph of absorbance against concentration of zinc added into solution is plotted. From the standard addition plot, the amount of zinc contained in the sample can be known and compared to the limit stated in the BP. Weight of ‘pure’ acetylcysteine in sample, assuming no impurities were present in it initially, can also be calculated based on the amount of weight loss upon drying where water is being removed from the sample via evaporation from the surface. All these tests will give an overall conclusion to provide a guarantee for the stability of acetylcysteine in the preparation. Reference [1] British National Formulary 57th Edition, 2009 (pg 29-30, 595) [2] Ben Venue Laboratories. (2007). Acetylcysteine. Available: ( Last accessed 10th Jan 2011 [3] MPH114 Pharmaceutics I, Good Manufacturing Practice, Uni. Of Sunderland, 2009 [4] MPH215 Experiment 7 Lab Handouts, Uni. Of Sunderland, 2010 Experimental 1: Specific Optical Rotation Method Specific optical rotation: 21° to 27° The optical rotations of the freshly prepared and old solutions of acetylcysteine were recorded. These were prepared by dissolving 1.25g acetylcysteine in a mixture of 1ml of a 10g l-1 solution of disodium edentate, 7.5ml of 1M sodium hydroxide and sufficient mixed phosphate buffer pH 7.0 to 25ml. Results Solution Reading (°) [α] Old -3.40 -34.00 Fresh 2.42 24.20 The equation below is used to find [α], Where α = reading obtained â„“ = path length = 2dm c = concentration of sample, expressed in % w/v Concentration of Sample, c 1.25 g of acetylcysteine is used to make up the mixture solution of 25mL. Therefore, in 100mL of solution, the amount of acetylcysteine in it is 1.25 x 4 = 5.0 g. Hence, c = 5% w/v Calculation of [α] [α]old = = -34.00 [α]fresh = = 24.20 Discussion 3 Assign Chiral Centre as R or S 2 4 1 Assign priority numbers Place the hydrogen so you are looking down at it Draw arrow from 1 through 2 to 3. Clockwise is R and Anticlockwise is S. Anticlockwise suggests S stereoisomer. Chiral centre is at the C attached to NH(1), COOH(2), CH2SH(3), and H(4). There is only one chiral centre present in the molecule, marked with asterisk (*). It is a non-symmetrical R-enantiomer. It may also be called a 2R-enantiomer because the chiral centre is located at the second carbon in the carbon chain. The specific rotations for the fresh and old samples are greatly different. This could be due to aggregation of the excess enantiomers in the solution, presence of impurities such as the growth of highly rotating microbes or their production of rotating products, or changes of chemical structure of acetylcysteine under extreme storage conditions, e.g. direct or long term exposure to sunlight. On the other hand, specific rotation for the fresh acetylcysteine sample, 24.20° complies with the BP specification, i.e. 21° to 27°. This shows that there is about [(100%)(24.40/27.00)] = 89.63% to [(100%)(24.20/21.00)] = 115.24% of R-acetylcysteine present in the sample. This may suggest high purity, but the accuracy of this method is strongly doubted as any highly rotating impurities present in the solution may affect the outcome greatly. Therefore, other methods were enforced to increase the accuracy in determination of the presence of impurities. References [1] Adapted from: Lecture handouts of MPH 115, Prof. Roz Anderson, University of Sunderland. Lecture handouts of MPH 115, Dr. Jonathan Harburn, University of Sunderland. [2] Molecular Libraries Roadmap Initiative, National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). (2004). Acetylcysteine – Compound Summary (CID 12035). Available at: [Last accessed on 29 December 2010] [3] British Pharmacopoeia Commission Secretariat of the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency, British Pharmacopoeia 2011 Online. Available at: “ And Hydrolysis Of Acetylcysteine
Assessing the Head, Eyes, Ears, Nose, and Throat.

Photo Credit: Getty Images/Blend ImagesMost ear, nose, and throat conditions that arise in non-critical care settings are minor in nature. However, subtle symptoms can sometimes escalate into life-threatening conditions that require prompt assessment and treatment.Nurses conducting assessments of the ears, nose, and throat must be able to identify the small differences between life-threatening conditions and benign ones. For instance, if a patient with a sore throat and a runny nose also has inflamed lymph nodes, the inflammation is probably due to the pathogen causing the sore throat rather than a case of throat cancer. With this knowledge and a sufficient patient health history, a nurse would not need to escalate the assessment to a biopsy or an MRI of the lymph nodes but would probably perform a simple strep test.In this Case Study Assignment, you consider case studies of abnormal findings from patients in a clinical setting. You determine what history should be collected from the patients, what physical exams and diagnostic tests should be conducted, and formulate a differential diagnosis with several possible conditions.To PrepareBy Day 1 of this week, you will be assigned to a specific case study for this Case Study Assignment. Please see the “Course Announcements” section of the classroom for your assignment from your Instructor.Also, your Case Study Assignment should be in the Episodic/Focused SOAP Note format rather than the traditional narrative style format. Refer to Chapter 2 of the Sullivan text and the Episodic/Focused SOAP Template in the Week 5 Learning Resources for guidance. Remember that all Episodic/Focused SOAP Notes have specific data included in every patient case.With regard to the case study you were assigned:Review this week’s Learning Resources and consider the insights they provide.Consider what history would be necessary to collect from the patient.Consider what physical exams and diagnostic tests would be appropriate to gather more information about the patient’s condition. How would the results be used to make a diagnosis?Identify at least five possible conditions that may be considered in a differential diagnosis for the patient.The AssignmentUse the Episodic/Focused SOAP Template and create an episodic/focused note about the patient in the case study to which you were assigned using the episodic/focused note template provided in the Week 5 resources. Provide evidence from the literature to support diagnostic tests that would be appropriate for each case. List five different possible conditions for the patient’s differential diagnosis and justify why you selected each. CASE STUDY:is a 50-year-old male with nasal congestion, sneezing, rhinorrhea, and postnasal drainage. Richard has struggled with an itchy nose, eyes, palate, and ears for 5 days. As you check his ears and throat for redness and inflammation, you notice him touch his fingers to the bridge of his nose to press and rub there. He says he’s taken Mucinex OTC the past 2 nights to help him breathe while he sleeps. When you ask if the Mucinex has helped at all, he sneers slightly and gestures that the improvement is only minimal. Richard is alert and oriented. He has pale, boggy nasal mucosa with clear thin secretions and enlarged nasal turbinates, which obstruct airway flow but his lungs are clear. His tonsils are not enlarged but his throat is mildly erythematous
Assessing the Head, Eyes, Ears, Nose, and Throat

The Concept Of Civic Education

The concept of civic education had its origin in the ancient Greek city-states. ‘Citizen’ is the agent who react the ‘state’ politically. In Plato’s ideal state, there are three classes of citizens: rulers, soldiers, and the people. ‘Citizen’ of the different levels should accept different civic education. Duties of good citizen are depend on their abilities and role in life. They should do what their best suited to do, and they should create value for society. For example, ruler must have the virtue of wisdom; soldiers should have the virtue of courage. And the rest of the people, such as merchants and farmers must exhibit the virtue of moderation. In my opinion, the organization of Plato’s ideal city, every class’s responsibility is clearly stated; it makes them know their place and cultivates their civic patriotism. After World War II, some countries are aware that such a narrow view of the civic education leads a lot of contradictions. Therefore, patriotism begins to fade. It is not just talk about rights and obligations, but more emphasis on universal values, such as equality, freedom, justice, and aims to train students to become citizens of the world. In the contemporary scholarship on civic education J. Mark Halstead believe that civic education should be analyzed according to three aspect, namely the ‘about citizenship’, the ‘good citizenship’ and the ‘active citizenship’. In ‘about citizenship’, civic education cultivate well-informed citizens. The ‘good citizenship’ emphasis students socialize in society, such as obedience, commitment, patriotism and authority of citizenship. In ‘active citizenship’, children should have active participation in the political, civil and social life of the community. Davison and Arthur (2006) further stated that citizenship can be divided into passive citizenship and active citizenship. In passive citizenship, as the member of society, citizen performs one’s obligations, such as obey laws, be polite. Also, citizen develops the ability to participate in society individually. The development of the critical thinking, and enable an individual to participate in society are necessary for ‘active citizenship’. In Hong Kong, according to Leung, civic education cultivates the sense of belonging to China and the sense of pride of being a Chinese in ‘One Country, Two Systems’ policy. According to the Basic Education Curriculum Guide of Moral and Civic Education, there are five priority values and attitudes that are essential to students’ personal and social development, such as ‘Perseverance, Respect for Others, Responsibility, National Identity and Commitment’. The aim of civic education in Hong Kong is to help students to become knowledgeable and responsible citizens and committed to the well-being of their fellow humans. In other hand, national education can be divided into five forms: ‘cosmopolitan nationalism’, ‘civic nationalism’, ‘cultural nationalism’, ‘anti-colonial nationalism’ and ‘totalitarian nationalism'(Leung, 2002). First, ‘cosmopolitan nationalism’ is the all human ethnic groups are who on his mind believe that people are equal and show respect, deep concern and love, in disregard of race, gender, nationality, religion, class and believe that the improvement of mankind is the responsibility of individuals. Second, ‘civic nationalism’ defines the nation as an association of people with equal and shared political rights, in disregard of race, color, creed, gender, language of ethnicity. Citizen’s participation in governing and policy of the nation is not limited. Third, ‘cultural nationalism’ is a form of nationalism in which the high cohesion of nation by a shared culture. Cultural nationalism builds up a national identity by the same cultural traditions, historic territory, and the unity and national consciousness of the nation. Fourth, ‘Anti-colonial nationalism’ defines the nation stand against oppressive, imperialist and colonial regimes. Citizen has strong desire to fight against foreign rulers of political and economic independence and racial equality. Parmenter (2005) had proposed that national unity and national identity can be developed through national education. National education systems inevitably co-exist with nationalism. A nation can be unified by the administrative systems of national education systems. And become a sense of the ‘imagined community’ of the nation (Anderson, 1991). The aim of National education feels they are take part in the national sense of belonging. Through National education, citizens are ‘educated’ to see themselves as part of the nation, and ‘educated’ into ways of behaving and thinking appropriately as a member of the nation (Reicher and Hopkins, 2001). The Minister of Education in the People’s Republic of China, Yuan Guiren claims that all nationals should receive national education. And the former deputy director of the Hong Kong and Macau Affairs Office, Chen Zuoer said that national education is essential in every nation, so Hong Kong people should have responsibility to contribute to the country. But some scholars refute the argument that why Hong Kong people have to accept to receive national education as a citizen. It showed the problem that there is a contradictory relationship between ‘civic education’ and ‘national education’. Parmenter (2005) holds that National unity and national identity thrive on difference with outsiders, and this is where national education can come into conflict with cosmopolitan identity and citizenship, which is based on the premise that all people are equal and similar citizens of the world. First, ‘National education’ is too much emphasis on increasing sense of belonging. If national education emphasize on increasing sense of belonging in a large part, national education fosters patriotism. According to Leung, identity is a two-edged sword, it can build up national patriotism of citizens, but it can also lead to serious consequences. ‘Totalitarian nationalism’ represents the term ‘patriotism’. It emphasizes the loyalty and absolute obedience to the state and the ideology of the party and its leaders. The love for the country is equivalent to the love for the ruling political party and its ideologies, and the citizen firmly believed that the ruling political party is the savior of the nation. Hong Kong people definitely reject education for totalitarian nationalism, because all related concepts communism, communist party, socialism and the politics in Mainland China. It very alien to people and political culture of Hong Kong people and they were afraid of the politics of Mainland China. Also, Leung criticizes the education bureau discarded ‘civic education’ and change into “national education”. ‘National education’ excludes the universal value of ‘civic education’. Leung criticizes national education only focuses on emotional recognition, establish sense of identity through glory of nation. It will cover up all the faults of the party of nation, lack of criticism of the party, and ignore the civil and human rights. It not helps thinking about the discussion of human rights of the nation. The core values of Hong Kong is freedom, democracy, human rights and the rule of law etc., is also known as the universal values of human rights, democracy, freedom. It is not expedient that Democracy and human rights is the value of belonging to the world of the country. Leung points out that the National domain of national education does not mention national issues from the point of view of the world. It may limit the horizons of the students, and narrow space of interpretation, lead the universal values change into the ‘Chinese characteristic values’ ‘National education’ emphases on patriotic rituals like flag raising ceremonies. The flag-raising ceremony of national flag and SAR flag is raised every morning once a month. According to Fairbrother, patriotic rituals such as the flag-raising ceremony are formalities that have no educational purpose but indoctrination. Leung believes that national education emphasize the Emotion and national identity, it ignore the critical thinking. According to Cheng, positive teaching materials of national education cannot nurture a critical thinking attitude on the part of students. Worries about the essential areas of civic education, such as human rights, democratic education were neglected because the national education is in high priority between national education and civic education. Choi Po King pointed out that if the national education emphasized instill identify with the political consciousness of the country, it violate the principle of civic education, such as independent and critical thinking, emotional and irrational (Choi Po King, as cited in Leung, 1995). The model of national education in China is outdated. Morley claims that a nation’s shrinking national boundaries are shirked and blurred through travel, media and electronic networks. The concept of territorial identity and citizenship is not necessary. Also, the concepts of ‘place’, and specific ‘place’ of their location, are changing (Morley, 2000). Parmenter (2005) holds that there is no theoretical reason why there are conflict between national education and civic citizenship because the coexistence of state and world citizenship are accepted in the ancient Greek. Individuals should realize that they have of multiple identities and they are in various territorial spheres of life. The concept of multiple identities is based on the notion of as a composite of multiple, often contradictory, self-understandings and identities.They think that they are “the I fluctuate among different and even opposed positions” (Hermans, Kempem

The role and importance of effective operations management

cheap assignment writing service The role and importance of effective operations management. In the world of organisation there are many essential parts of successful operation. Many people believe that marketing, planning, production sales are the most important part of any business but after research or study its proves that operation management is moral fibre of any business process. Operation management includes all aspects of business process and connected them to create efficient and innovative process. Definition: Operation management is concerned with the managing the resources that directly produce the organisation’s service or products. The resources usually consist of people, material, technology, and information but may go wider than this. These resources are brought together by a series of process so that they are utilised to deliver the primary service or product of the organisation. Thus, operation management is concerned with managing inputs through transformation processes to deliver outputs. Role of Operation Management: The above definition of operations management covers all aspects of an Organisation that is involved in the creation and delivery of products and Services to customers. As such, operations management plays a critical role in The success of organisations. The exact role of operations management can be Viewed from multiple perspectives. One could look at it as a standalone unitary Function within an organisation. It is also possible to look at operations Management as it is practiced across all functional areas in the organisation. Further still, since outside parties such as suppliers and customers are Inherently involved, there is a logical reason to view operations management From this extended perspective that is described as supplychainmanagement. Aside from the functional role, operations management can be analysed for The strategic role it plays in organisations. In this section, all these roles are describes. Operations are mostly seen as basic functional area along with other important area such as finance and marketing. Operation management main function is produce the goods and providing best services to their clients. While operations management has a strong long-term strategic role to play In organisations, it has an equally strong short-term, daily operational role as Well. A large part of operations management deals with the planning, organising, controlling, leading and monitoring of day-to-day use of resources. Somebody has to run and oversee the daily activities of the organisation’s Production of its goods and services, and this is indeed a key part of operations Management. In support of these operational activities, a plethora of tools and techniques have been developed over time to assist in the detailed and localised decision-making and management processes. Many of these are quantitative models, whilst others are more conceptual in nature. Many of these are discussed throughout this book. As an example: Reliance Industries of India when it started it only deals with petroleum products ,but to survive in this competitive world , reliance industry change it policy and take a decision to expand there industry. For this recently it starting reliance super mall in India. In this mall the customer get all basic products. but after some time it again research that this mall are not reaching to some backward areas of India, so for that it start super store in which the rural area people get the products by cheaper price also with this it also provide home delivery service. For stick this customer they also started membership card and a point system. Now his new project is put a step in to milk industries for that he directly dealing with milkmen and than provide good quality milk to their customers. There are also some negative points and sides of this industries. Reliance Industry opened Reliance mall in one state of India just like Gujarat in this state there have already one competitor for Reliance .for beginning time its have good sales because of its good skims and marketing policy. Because of transportation problem n there is dispute between supplier and some small vendors now its in trouble .because of not getting services and products on time customer move to its competitor again. By seen this example we can say that because of not proper operation management the company is now in trouble. Importance of operation management: Its helps company in RThe role and importance of effective operations management

Week 7 Debating the Right to Health Care Learning Scenario Paper

Week 7 Debating the Right to Health Care Learning Scenario Paper.

Week 7 Assignment: Debating the Right to Health Care Learning Scenario
Attached is the scenario.
this assignment, you are asked to reflect on responses to the presented
scenario. This should not just be writing down your first reaction or
what you already know. Reflection involves critical thinking, which
means rethinking your existing knowledge and previously held opinions in
light of what we have learned about theories of ethics, logic, and
reasoning. You will need to question your existing knowledge and
beliefs. Why do you feel the way you do about the right to health care? Of the four responses offered in the Debating the Right to Health Care scenario, which do you feel is the most ethical and why? Also mention the other opposing responses and why the one you choose is the best ethical answer. To complete this assignment: Complete the entire scenario. Compose your reflection in a Word document. Of the four responses offered in the scenario, which do you feel is the most ethical and why?Support your conclusions with evidence and specific examples from the textbook, as well as other sources as needed.Your reflection must be at least 350 words in length and follow APA (6th ed.) formatting and citation guidelines as appropriate.
Week 7 Debating the Right to Health Care Learning Scenario Paper

Fiji Water Case Case Study

CREST (N) Analysis Competitive landscape The bottled water industry is a competitive industry (MarketLine, 2013). There are numerous companies in the industry, with the US market comprising of highly established firms such as Coca Cola and PepsiCo. The Australian market, on the other hand, has about 1000 different brands competing in the market. Generally, the primary competitors include Dasani and Aquafina, which are the brands marketed by global giants Coca Cola and PepsiCo respectively. The companies use either tap water or rain water to package water in bottles and market it to both the domestic and international market. Regulatory The government mainly uses the executive, legislature, and judiciary to undertake industry regulation. The executive issues directives, while the legislature passes bills in parliament, which are transformed into laws in the country. The judiciary adjudicates on complaints that are raised by industry players, who may object to any of the executive directives or legislations passed by the parliament. Economic factors The global economy is still recovering from a financial credit crisis that was experienced between 2007 and 2012. Most economies are yet to fully recover, thus affecting their domestic markets’ purchasing power (Han, Pagano,

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