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Literature Review About Team Building To Achieve Performance Commerce Essay

From the beginning of time, people have formed groups. Groups provide the basis for family living, protection, waging war and work. Every time youre in a meeting, whether with one other person or twenty, youre in a group. Group behaviour has ranged from total chaos to dramatic change, but it is increasingly evident that groups enjoy their greatest success, but it is increasingly evident that group enjoy their greatest success when they become more productive units called teams. Companies are relying mostly on their human assets (the knowledge, competence and capabilities of the workforce) as a source of competitive advantage. They must be managed and developed as “knowledge-based resources include all the intellectual abilities and knowledge possessed by employees, as well as their capacity to learn and acquire more knowledge” (Jackson et al., 2003, p. 9). Today’s business environment changes rapidly in financial, technological and social arenas, resulting are greater complexity than a single individual can handle. The pressures of the competitive environment have forced the organizations to change their organizational structure to the team-based organization (Johnson, 1993; Mohram, 1993). Changes in our world are bringing changes to team. Teams are highly interdependent, engage in difficult relationships and work towards common goals with incorrectly matched values and different ideas about how they must do things. Whether new or established, teams evolve and organizations can do their bit to help them realize their full potential. One way is through team building process. A team built from scratch needs to bond together and develop shared values and group dynamics. How to create effective teams is a challenge in every organisation. “Sticks in a bundle are unbreakable.” Kenyan Proverb History of Team and Team Working The emergence of the team idea can be drawn back to the late 1920s and early 1930s with the now model Hawthorne Studies. These involved a series of research actions intended to study in-depth what happened to a group of workers under a variety of circumstances. From past literature reviews, the first crude productivity teams were developed in USA in the production of muskets for revolutionary war. In the late 1950’s W. Edwards Deming and J.M. Juran with the help of Dr Ishikawa introduced quality circles which became a success during World War II across Japan. A key aspect of teams and team working is ability of the group of individuals that comprises the team to be more creative than any of the individuals working alone. Teams are viewed as being more appropriate for difficult tasks because they let members to divide the workload, develop and contribute expertise on subtasks, and monitor the work behaviours of other members. Teams having clear roles and mutual expectations provide a stable internal coordination for the team which leads to improved team performance (e.g. Janis, 1982, Choi 2002). Definitions of teams have been influenced by different group concepts in psychology and social psychology (Hackman, 1990). Several concepts with similar meanings are widespread, such as: self-directed work groups, self-regulating work groups, self-managing work groups, semi-autonomous work groups, etc. (Benders and Van Hootegem, 1999; Mueller et al., 2000). “Individually, we are one drop. Together we are an ocean. Ryunosuke Satoro From the wider literature there are three types of teams identified: real (distinct roles for members, task interdependence, outcome interdependence, clear objectives, team recognised both internally and externally, Borrill et al., 2001); Pseudo (groups whose work is interdependent, but this is not recognised, Katzenbach and Smith, 1993a, b); and Quasi teams (groups in which individuals admitted to being a team but who could not affirm all four of the following features: Clear objectives, working together, different roles and recognition (Borrill et al., 2001). Group Work and Team Work Many managers seem satisfied with group performance. Other managers are creating a climate where individuals are willing to give their best and work together in teams with the same number of people doing similar jobs with same technology while improving productivity. For teamwork and group work, the aim is to achieve an outcome that is beyond that which can be successfully attained by an individual member. In spite of these common areas it is difficult to achieve the same level of synergy with group work as occurs with teamwork. Group work and Group Dynamics A group consists of individuals grouped together for administrative purposes only, working independently, sometimes at cross purposes with others. Members are told what to do rather than being asked what the best approach would be. Groups are developed through the application of group dynamics theory and knowledge in ways that help groups to become more effective, performing and cohesive. The main aim is the minimization of growing pain and maximisation of continual improvement and performance. “There is no such thing as a self-made man. You will reach your goals only with the help of others.” George Shinn Group Dynamics Group dynamics is the study of groups, especially of smaller groups (less than 20 people) and also a general term for group processes because people in small groups interact and influence each other in dominant and difficult ways, groups develop many dynamic processes that separate them from a random collection of individuals Group dynamics is one of the frontiers of social psychology and seeks new ways to understand group behaviour. The emphasis is on then applying this knowledge to help groups function better. Kurt Lewin ((1890-1947) identified two aspects involved namely Interdependence of fate. A group exists when people in it realize their fate depends on the fate of the group as a whole’ (Brown 1988: 28). Task Interdependence. If the group’s task is dependent on each other members for achievement, then a powerful dynamic is created. Team work Before going into further discussion, the differential aspect between a group and a team has to be identified to better understand what results are expected from employees. When an employee joins a firm, he/she works in groups to give out expected results at the end of the day. Teams challenge the concept of bounded rationality and make employees think out of the box to achieve more than expected and mainly for the achievement of the strategic view of the firm. The difference can be showed in the table (refer to Appendix). “It is not a question of how well each process works; the question is how well they all work together.” Lloyd Dobens Not all groups in organizations are teams, but all teams are groups. The disparity between a team and a group is that a team is mutually dependent for general performance. A group meets the requirements of a team only if its members focus on helping one another to complete organizational objectives. “A team is a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to common purpose, performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable.” (Katzenbach and Smith, 1993) In recent years, teams have flourished in a variety of structures and functions. There are problem-solving teams, cross-functional planning teams, self-directed work groups, and empowered teams, quality improvement, problem solving and newly virtual teams. The purpose of all these teams often designed to improve collaboration, knowledge, and communication, empower employees, improve creativity and innovation, and cut costs. The responsibilities of teams are quite comprehensive, and may include distribution of duties, planning and programming of schedules, making decisions about products and services, creating new ideas and solving problems (Kirkman and Shapiro, 1997) “Many hands make light work.” John Heywood Team Building Team building is an emerging aspect in the economy. The main objective is to make employee rethink their strategies, processes, systems, and the way in which they work together to achieve organizational goals. One of the primary objectives of teambuilding is maximizing performance. The aim and purpose of a team is to perform, get results and achieve victory in the workplace and marketplace. Buller (1986) defined team building as a planned intervention facilitated by a third-party consultant that develops the problem-solving capacity and solves major problems of an intact work group. Woodman and Sherwood (1980) proposed that team building was designed to enhance organizational effectiveness by improving team operation through developing problem-solving procedures and skills and increasing role clarity (cf. Beer, 1976, 1980; DeMeuse

BHA FPX4106 Capella Managing the Healthcare Information Lifecycle Proposal

BHA FPX4106 Capella Managing the Healthcare Information Lifecycle Proposal.

Develop a section (3-5 pages) of a proposal to study whether a group of physicians provided quality of care related to an identified disease or condition and population. Include a plan to manage the information from collection to destruction and an analysis of legal considerations.IntroductionFor this assessment and others in this course, you will assume the role of an office manager for a physician group. In most fields, whether manufacturing, the service industry, or health care, organizations are looking for ways to improve the quality of service they provide to their customers. An eye on quality helps them remain competitive in the marketplace and stay in business. Otherwise, their customers will go elsewhere. This is especially true in the health care field where people’s health and lives are at stake.Demonstration of ProficiencyBy successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the course competencies through the following assessment scoring guide criteria:Competency 1: Outline the steps of the health care information life cycle.Apply steps of the health care information life cycle.Competency 2: Apply laws governing health information confidentiality, privacy, and security. Differentiate between required confidentiality and security measures.Apply laws governing health information confidentiality, privacy, and security.Competency 3: Assess system applications used to operationalize health information.Evaluate which information system or systems best provide needed information.Competency 6: Communicate in a manner that is scholarly, professional, and respectful of the diversity, dignity, and integrity of others, and consistent with the expectations for health care professionals.Write clearly with correct spelling, grammar, and syntax, and good organization.Apply proper APA formatting and style to references and citations.PreparationYour physician group is no different than other organizations. It wants to find ways to improve the quality of care it provides to patients. This, in turn, helps the physician group remain profitable and stay in business. As a result, the senior leaders of your physician group have asked you to provide a documentation review of the quality of care provided by the office. As the office manager, you are the one responsible for the management of the health information within the office and the review of information to determine whether providers met quality of care standards. Determining this will require you to:Identify a disease or condition served by the physician group.Determine what patient information is needed and from where to retrieve it.Compare your overall office data to the national benchmarks.Typically, in the workplace, the physician group’s specialty area (cancer, diabetes, dermatology, et cetera) would dictate the disease or condition for which you would be collecting information. For the purpose of this assessment, however, you may select the disease or condition that interests you from this list:Asthma.Diabetes.Myocardial infarction.HIV/AIDS.Cancer.Select the disease or condition that is important to you and that you want to study. Perhaps, you have the disease or condition. Perhaps, a family member or friend does. Remember you will be working with this condition in the remaining course assessments. Now that you have determined the disease or condition you are going to study, you will need to begin collecting protected health information (PHI) for the patients treated by your physician group who have the condition you are studying. You will need to consider carefully the privacy, security, and confidentiality of the information within the patients’ office records. Determining how you as the office manager will maintain data security is a key aspect of your work. You are responsible for knowing and understanding the types of documentation, applications, and information systems used within and outside of the office. All information moves through a life cycle from creation to destruction. Regulations, policies, and procedures strictly control this ongoing process. The office manager needs to know this life cycle and where to locate information when it is needed.For this assessment, you will write a section of a proposal about how the documentation on previous patient care will be retrieved, from where it will be retrieved, and how that data will be kept secure during retrieval and review. Remember that you are focusing on retrieving and analyzing existing documentation within the office.For this section of your proposal:Identify the disease or condition and the population that will be the focus of your study.Explain your plan to manage this information from collection to storage to destruction.Identify legal considerations and a plan for compliance for the PHI you are collecting.In later assessments in this course, you will continue on with your proposal and begin to plan for how you will compare the office data you have collected to the national benchmarks. Remember: You will not be able to actually do this comparison. You are simply preparing a proposal for senior leaders about how you would go about performing this work.Please read the scoring guide for this assessment to better understand the performance levels relating to each criterion on which you will be evaluated.InstructionsYou will not be writing the entire proposal for this assessment, only parts of it. You will add to your proposal in later assessments and complete it in Assessment 3. Be sure this part of your proposal includes all of the following headings, and your narrative addresses each of the bullet points:IntroductionIdentify the disease or condition from the following list for which you will review the quality of care:Asthma.Diabetes.Myocardial infarction.HIV/AIDS.Cancer.Explain the reasons for your choice.Information CollectionComplete the following:Determine the patient population to be reviewed.Evaluate which information system or systems best provide the needed information.Determine the specific documentation you are looking for. Explicitly state the reasons for each and all of your choices. Be sure to answer all of the following questions in your narrative:Do you want to review information only from your office? Or do you also want to review information for hospital admission and/or emergency room visits?Do you wish to review all patients who have ever been treated for the selected condition? Or only those treated within a specific time frame? Will you only review patients within certain demographic parameters?What type of documentation do you want to review? This may include:History and physical (H&P).Discharge summary.Progress notes.Labs.Radiology.Others.Identify where you are going to find the information you need. Which information system or systems would be best to use, and what information can you collect from each system? Possibilities include:Pharmacy.Point of care (POC).Results management.Computerized physician order entry (CPOE).Determine the type of system or systems (financial, administrative, clinical, et cetera) you would use.Information Life CycleComplete the following:Describe how you plan to manage this information from collection to destruction. Be sure to address all of these questions in your narrative:How will the information be collected and documented? By whom? In what context?How will the information be stored?How will you control access to the information?How can you ensure the documentation meets interoperability standards?What are the advantages and disadvantages of integrating your office information with an HIE? What challenges exist regarding the standardization of health information?When and how will the information be destroyed?Legal ConsiderationsComplete the following:Differentiate between the legal aspects of health information confidentiality, privacy, and security, as it applies to your proposal.Apply laws governing health information confidentiality, privacy, and security.Determine whether the information you are retrieving requires the use of PHI.If not, why not?If so, summarize how the PHI will be used.Plan for how the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) will impact health care personnel, policies, and procedures in your proposal.ConclusionBriefly summarize the value of the documentation review you are proposing to be performed.Additional RequirementsYour assessment should meet the following requirements:Written communication: Your paper does not need to be in APA format. It does need to be clear and well organized, with correct spelling, grammar, and syntax, to support orderly exposition of content.Title page: Develop a descriptive title of approximately 5–15 words. It should stir interest yet maintain professional decorum.References: Include a minimum of two citations of peer-reviewed sources in APA format.Length: 3–5 typed, double-spaced pages, not including the title page and references page.Font and font size: Times New Roman, 12 point.
BHA FPX4106 Capella Managing the Healthcare Information Lifecycle Proposal

GEO 101 CSU Water on Mars Light from The Stars Essay

assignment writer GEO 101 CSU Water on Mars Light from The Stars Essay.

Water on Mars Light from the Stars
Introduction
Welcome to the final lab activity of GEO 101C! In the first part of this week’s lab, we will leave Earth behind and venture to our neighboring planet of Mars. Using Google Mars, we will explore the terrain of the Red Planet, looking at evidence of past water flow across its surface. In the second part of the lab, you will build a spectrometer, a device for observing the spectra of different light sources.  Spectrometers enable astronomers to determine the composition of distant stars, as well as how far away they are from us. Before beginning this lab, take a few minutes to review the list of materials required to complete Part 2, on page 6.
Your final product for this lab will be a lab report.  It is not necessary to submit this worksheet.  Your report should cover all of the questions you have answered here (in paragraph essay form, not question and answer format). It should discuss how these two tools – Google Mars and spectrometers – can be used to study distant places (planets and stars).    
Part 1:  Water on Mars
Begin by clicking here (Links to an external site.) to open the website containing the location files you will use this week.  Under “Other Materials”, click on “Placemarks – Mars Fluvial Features” to download the file to your computer. Once it is downloaded, open it, and it should open automatically in Google Earth Pro. 
Once Mars appears, you’ll have a different set of layers from Google Earth to explore. The Global Maps layer can be used to change the surface layer (you may have to expand this folder to see these options): use the radio button to choose the layer and click the blue layer name to bring up a brief description of that dataset. The “Visible Imagery” contains the highest quality images, but the Viking Color Imagery layer is more uniform and may be easier to use in some places. The Daytime Infrared, Nighttime Infrared, and Colorized Terrain are interesting to explore but will not be used here.

Locate the volcano Apollinaris Mons (also called Apollinaris Patera). The placemark is located on one side of the caldera: zoom out so you can see the flanks of the volcano as well.

Describe the linear features that surround Apollinaris: if these were stream channels, what type of drainage would this be? To answer that question, click here (Links to an external site.) to view a number of different drainage patterns; which one fits the features around Apollinaris the best?  Include a simple sketch of the drainage below; take a digital photograph of your sketch to include in your lab report.
Consider the material that makes up Apollinaris: what does the presence of these linear channels suggest about the strength (ability to resist erosion) of the underlying material? Suggest an appropriate composition for this material as part of your answer (note the brief description given of Apollinaris in the instructions above.)

Locate the feature Warrego Valles. This question is best answered using a “eye alt” of about 200 km/120 miles – set your zoom level so the eye alt value in the lower right corner of the window is about 200 km or 120 miles.
In the space below, sketch the general shape of Warrego Valles. Take a digital photograph of your sketch to include in your lab report. What type of drainage does this appear to be – and what implications does this have for how Warrego Valles might have formed? Again, use this resource (Links to an external site.) to help identify the type of drainage pattern present.
Locate the crater Orson Welles and examine the valley that starts at the crater’s NE rim (Shalbatana Valles). Briefly describe the valley below. Include a simple sketch of the valley; take a digital photograph of your sketch to include in your lab report. Identify any evidence of erosion/deposition in the valley floor and suggest a process by which this valley may have formed.
Locate Noctis Labyrinthus (this feature is on the western edge of Vallis Marineris, the “Grand Canyon of Mars”).

Assume that water has flowed through this area: what type of drainage pattern is present here? Include a simple sketch of the drainage; take a digital photograph of your sketch to include in your lab report. Again, use this resource (Links to an external site.) to help identify the type of drainage pattern present.
What does this type of drainage pattern suggest about the underlying bedrock?

Locate the “Feature in Eberswalde”, and zoom to an “eye alt” of 11 miles / 18 km with the placemark in the center of the window.
Sketch the feature below and suggest how it may have formed (this is very much a mystery, with no right answer). Take a digital photograph of your sketch to include in your lab report.

Part 2:  Light from the Stars (Building a Spectrometer)
The instructions below describe how to build a spectrometer. Here is a link if you wish to view the site where the instructions are from: Lab, Camera, Action: Make your own CD spectrometer (Links to an external site.).
Materials needed:

A CD or DVD that can be sacrificed to this project. Old software CDROMs work great.
A cereal box. Any size that can hold a CD or DVD disk will do.
A sharp knife or razor blade to cut into the cereal box.

Our spectroscope has three main parts. There is a slit made from a razor blade to make a path for the light, a diffraction grating made from a CD disk, and a viewing port.
To construct your spectroscope, you need to put a slice in one side of the box at roughly a 30-degree angle. This will hold the CD. Place the CD in the slot to determine where to place the other two cuts. On the top of the box, cut a hole about half an inch to an inch square above the CD. On the side opposite the CD, make a very narrow slit opposite the CD. Alternatively, you can cut a larger slit, and cover it with 2 pieces of foil to control the size of the slit. Spectroscope complete!
Photograph your finished spectrometer and include the photo in your lab report.
Once you have assembled your spectroscope with the instructions in the lecture and above, use it to examine the spectra of three different light sources. Make sure that at least one of them is the sun or moon, but the others can be incandescent lights, compact fluorescent bulbs, LED lights, halogen or xenon bulbs, televisions, computer screens, candles, fireplaces, etc. Aim the slit towards the light source you are investigating, then look through the viewing hole to see the spectrum on the disk.
Answer the following questions:

Identify each light source you viewed and describe the spectra you observed from that source.  For each description, include colors, if the colors are blended together or separated, and if the colors are fuzzy or distinct. 
What feature of the light source do the spectra represent? In other words, what is it that you are actually analyzing?
Why do you think spectrometers are so valuable for studying celestial objects?

GEO 101 CSU Water on Mars Light from The Stars Essay

CJUS 550 Liberty University Crime Prevention and Policing Discussion

CJUS 550 Liberty University Crime Prevention and Policing Discussion.

First, you will post a thread of 400 words or more. Three additional sources beyond the course material (i.e. textbook, readings, and presentations) are required for the thread as well as a biblical referenceThe mission of policing was described by the author as covering six key areas: enforcing the law, apprehending offenders, preventing crime, predicting crime, preserving the peace, and providing services. With the advent of various forms of terrorism and transnational crime, the police mission has expanded beyond the traditional borders of burglaries and domestic disputes.Beginning with the material conveyed in the assigned reading and presentation, select two scholarly articles from the university criminal justice databases, and integrate those resources to discuss the use of intelligence-led policing (ILP) and the development of fusion centers to equip law enforcement for their expanded mission. Finally, integrate within your discussion the impact of a Judeo-Christian viewpoint on ILP and the development of fusion centers.
CJUS 550 Liberty University Crime Prevention and Policing Discussion

Grand Canyon University End of Life Decisions Case Study

Grand Canyon University End of Life Decisions Case Study.

The practice of health care providers at all levels brings you into contact with people from a variety of faiths. This calls for knowledge and understanding of a diversity of faith expressions; for the purpose of this course, the focus will be on the Christian worldview.Based on “Case Study: End of Life Decisions,” the Christian worldview, and the worldview questions presented in the required topic study materials you will complete an ethical analysis of George’s situation and his decision from the perspective of the Christian worldview.Provide a 1,500-2,000-word ethical analysis while answering the following questions:How would George interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative, with an emphasis on the fallenness of the world?How would George interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative, with an emphasis on the hope of resurrection?As George contemplates life with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), how would the Christian worldview inform his view about the value of his life as a person?What sorts of values and considerations would the Christian worldview focus on in deliberating about whether or not George should opt for euthanasia?Given the above, what options would be morally justified in the Christian worldview for George and why?Based on your worldview, what decision would you make if you were in George’s situation?Remember to support your responses with the topic study materials.Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is required.This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
Grand Canyon University End of Life Decisions Case Study