My Topic -A study of the sources or historical events that occasioned a particular work (Ex. comparing G.B. Shaw’s Pygmalion with the original Greek myth of Pygmalion)What the Paper NEEDS -A thesis statementAn Introduction on the TopicBody Conclusion Sources Cited (Sources are referenced or quoted.)Elements of an Organized BodyThe following are two elements of an organized body:
The ideas and information are in a logical order that the reader can follow.Make sure all ideas in a given paragraph belong in that paragraph, and the information is presented in a progression that makes sense.Transitions are present and used effectively.Make sure all ideas within a given paragraph are clearly related and tied to the main idea.Make sure each section or paragraph of your paper flows clearly and logically to the next section.Organizational OptionsThe following are three organizational options for your paper:
chronological orderOrder your evidence in the order it was discovered, from oldest to most recent, or from most recent to oldest.weakest to strongest evidenceBegin with your least convincing information or evidence, and build to a strong finish.strongest to weakest evidenceBegin with a flourish of your strongest information or evidence, and compound it with the remaining information you have. Any of these options can be used effectively if the paper is well-researched and well-written with strong, specific word choice and effective transitions to guide the reader through your thought process.
Literature Research paper
The Drop Out Rate in Education in Cambodia
Introduction The number of students who drop out school in the basic education level is still very high although the government and the other stakeholders have been striving to cut down on number. It is very clear that there are number of things which cause those children to abandon their studies. It is, however, still a skeptical whether the demand side or the supply side which has the most influence on this phenomena. The government of Cambodia has considered the capacity building and human resource development as priority. In the Rectangular Strategy of the Royal Government of Cambodia has emphasized several points related to the education quality improvement at all levels. Like stated in the policies and strategies in ESP (Education Strategic Plan) 2006-10, there are a lot of reforms have been made in order to reach the Millennium Development Goals. The six EFA Dakar goals: 1- Expanding and improving comprehensive early childhood care and education, especially for the most vulnerable and disadvantaged children. 2- Ensuring that by 2015 all children, particularly girl, children in difficult circumstances and those belonging to ethnic minorities, have access to, and complete, free and compulsory primary education of good quality. 3- Ensuring that learning needs of all young people and adults are met through equitable access to appropriate learning and life-skills programmes. 4- Achieving a 50 per cent improvement in levels of adult literacy by 2015, especially for women, and equitable access to basic and continuing education for all adults. 5- Elimination gender disparities in primary and secondary education by 2005, and achieving gender equality in education by 2015, with a focus on ensuring girls’ full and access to and achievement in basic education of good quality. 6- Improving all aspects of the quality of education and ensuring excellence of all so that recognized and measurable learning outcomes are achieved by all, especially in literacy, numeracy and essential life skills. Source: UNESCO (2000 b), as cited in FE of IFL, pp 66-67 In those reforms, there have also been the strengthening tasks with other partnerships between the public and private sectors. These important tasks are really applicable for implementing the development goals for the betterment of the quality of education. Without doing the reforms, it is not effective form for the implementation because the concept or the social context does not respond to the strategic plan. The strategic plan and the resource of mobilization and utilization can not be cut off from the the understanding from the context or it will be failed to implement. (MoEYS, (2006) Education strategic plan 2006-2010). The objectives of the Ministry of Education, the implementers received the commands from the Royal Government of Cambodia, are to conduct the holistic development within the Cambodian youths. Young people are considered as bamboo shoots which can replace the old and dying bamboo, so building up the capacity among them is compulsory. The development of understanding among young people needs to be done for all sectors. In addition, the Ministry of Education attempts to contribute and engender a sense of nationalism and civic pride because it is really essential for them to determine their own identities. It also strives to upgrade the concept of high standards of morality and ethics in order to build up a good country that people can live in harmony. According to this stance, three main purposes have been set. The first purpose is the equitable access to education that indicates that all Cambodian children have right to receive education at least 9 years (finished grade 9). They receive education for free of charge in which the Ministry of Education calls for to promote this prestigious opportunity for all young Cambodians. Secondly, promote the service quality and efficiency of education; so for the Ministry strives to promote the quality of education in all levels especially the low level of education. It has created more supporting programs. In that the establishment of teaching materials is also paid the utmost care. Third, the Ministry intends to introduce the the idea of capacity building for decentralization in which new curricular has been put to manipulate this concept within young Cambodians through lesson of decentralization. The curriculum has been set by focusing much on the expansion of decentralization (Education strategic plan 2006-2010). According to the strategies and policies that the Ministry has set and determined above, it is not uncertain to fully understand what can be the things that have come as constraints to make students at basic level stop study. A long with the stimulants that the government have distributed, the families have to have some involvements to keep students remain in school. The government has continuously conducted reforms to find and to determine the weak points. Thus, this paper is to seek for the deep understanding on the hardships on the demand side and the capacity of distribution of the supply side. We also study to find out how the government of Cambodia manipulates with these challenges. Challenges That Lead to Dropping Out There are several significant challenges which lead to the dropping out among children. Some challenges are ignited by the supply sides while the other is caused by the demand sides. There have been several researches revealed the challenges that lead to the dropping out. The world Bank, in 2004, did stress the problems that lead to the drop out. Each year there is high rate of enrollment at basic level, but they eventually abandoned the school. These phenomena were caused by some factors. First, there is the increase of child labor at the very young age; children were exploited by several means without getting any care from the society or it is lack to be care by the related individuals. Second, there was late enrollment of the children and after a few years in school they felt embarrassed because they saw themselves as big; eventually, they quit. Third, there was lack of readiness for the enrollment; at the beginning of the enrollment the families seemed to have ability to send them to school and later on it was impossible to do, so they stop. Fourth, there is the significant number of incomplete the low level school. Fifth, the lack of qualified teacher was identified as the ignition of the school abandon among the young children. Finally, the identification of the cause was the lack of health-environmental facilities such as playground and libraries (WB 2004). In fact the number of enrolment at primary level is quite big. The process of their studies can proceed only for a few years and after that the big number become smaller and smaller. There are numbers of complicated obstacles for these drops out. According to the data conducted by EMIS, only 45 per cent of children who start primary school can eventually finish grade sixth and among them, there are only thirty-eight per cent can go to lower secondary school; some of them didn’t finish grade 9; in lower secondary school; there are three years which most students can only reach grade 8. It is such a big number of drop out which will be foreseen as number that will be much downgraded to reach grade 9. With this high percentage of drop out, it takes 10.8 years for a child to complete his or her education in primary school (EBEP 2006-2010). Recently, the Royal Government of Cambodia announced its practical way in improving the education system. Also it proclaimed the great achievements. In the contradict to this, there are still some big problems remain behind the achievement. The drop out rates is still high among primary school children and only small number that can accomplish grade 9. This phenomenon is a constraint for the Ministry in reaching its goal in stimulating the young people to receive basic education from grade 1 to grade 9 by the year 2015. Along with this, some constraints are identified by the Ministry of Education. In order to identify such problem, the Ministry created another department called Education Sector Support Program (ESSP) to detect and identify the problem. The challenges are found as follows: ” i) low access to basic education, particularly lower secondary schooling, among children from poor families, girls, ethnic minorities, children with disabilities, and children who are living in remote areas. ii) high dropout rates in basic education, with this most dropouts occurring in upper primary school before children have completed the full cycle. iii) uneven quality and standards in basic education” (Benveniste 2008, p 15). In 2005 the World Band wrote that the transition period is another main cause of the drop out. The drop out occurs when they finished grade 6, and they are awaiting to pursue to grade 7. The number of children about 75 percent were able to go through from primary school and among that only 52 percent went on their studies to the secondary school and finished their basic education (from grade 1 to grade 9). During this interval, the decisions of the children as well as their parents are abruptly changed for some reasons (World Bank 2005). Supply-Side Factors So far the Royal Government of Cambodia that has the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports as an acting figure in implementing the educational policies has been working really hard to reduce the dropout rate among the basic education. The Ministry itself is looking for the the causes and it invests a lot of money in building facilities and instructional materials in recent years. Moreover, the government also set up policies to reduce the house whole financial burdens by letting children to enroll school for free. A long with this the necessity for the children to study is also supported. However, this support is still not enough for the children. The significant barrier for disadvantaged children is the direct cost. In recent year, the government commanded the removal of formal entry to enable them to enroll. Moreover, the Ministry strives to disseminate the information of free of charge enrollment for children. Some educational billboards about the importance of enrollment have been displayed in public to draw the understanding among parents. Unexpectedly, when students have already enrolled, some problems still occurred associated with the informal fees through providing the extra class to students or the like. This phenomenon should be combated for it functions as great constraint that lead to the drop out (Benveniste 2008). Another strategy to combat the dropout rate is to build up relationship with the community so that they can understand; they will support the enrolment and keep their children in school. In the citation of Education Strategic Plan 2006- 2010, there is the promotion of the relationship between homes and communities. The reasons of this expansion are to promote a shadow education which is considered as the important stimulant to achieve the objectives that have been launched. The campaign aims to disseminate the community- based information of holistic intervention at the early ages. The investments in early age among children has been increased from USD 0.19 million in 2006 to USD 0.3 million by 2010. The promoting program was supported by PAP (Priority Action Program) (Benveniste et al 2008). To ensure the stimulant package to upgrade within the children enrolment, the Ministry has also launched some other practical projects. In that, child friendly schools are seen significant to push the enrollment and to persuade children to remain in school. However, the campaign to spread the information about this project is not widely done so that parents do not fully understand the significance of it. If the parents know that they will value and help to encourage their children to remain in school. World Bank (2005) addressed other kind of constraints that lead to the dropout is the quality among teachers. The word quality in here does not really focus on the knowledge of the responsible subjects, but also the art or talent of teacher to harmonize with the students. Teachers need to have psychological knowledge to call for the interest among students. Qualified teachers can help students to stay in school more. In order to reform this, the project of quality improvement interventions program is also launched and a lot of money has been used to conduct this ability upgrading project. A long with student retention, promotion, and especially in student learning is done accompanying with teacher improvement. In the program of upgrading the quality of education, one dollar per pupil has been increased. The program also focuses on teacher training and this prestige implementation lead to the increase in points the students get between 0.70 and 1.05. After the implementation, there is the observation of increase in literacy as well; one dollar was invested in the upgrading policy, one percent was also excelled in student literacy. Another important task that the Ministry of Education pays its concentration in order to reduce the dropout is the investments in health care and skills training. Besides that, it goes to the the modernization of infrastructure.(World Bank: Quality Basic Education for All 2005) The followings are the components that can be used to stimulate the aspect of pushing the students to remain in school. The practical ways of encouraging students to remain are to enlarge the services to be available such as building up more school houses so that students are easy to get to school. This should be done in both primary and secondary school. Next, there should be the expanding of operating budget for these two levels. To do this can also lead to the elimination of gathering the illegal money. Thirdly, the development of remedial classes must be done. Fourth, the instructional material must be available to improve the quality of teaching and make the learning enjoyable for students. Sometimes it is hard for students to understand the abstract concept, so the use of teaching material can help students to form pictures in mind; they can understand better (World Bank 2008). Demand-Side Factors Elimination of unofficial fees. Unofficial fees are the significant constraint that make students’ families can’t afford education for their children. In fact, under the support of the government, students do not pay for registration at the beginning of the new academic year. Surprisingly, students need to pay like bicycle parking fees; it is not a compulsory pay but students need to do unavoidable because they don’t know where to park. The parking fees are thought to be too high sometime. Other unofficial fees are the fees students pay for the extra class. Students are not put pressure directly, instead they are put pressure indirectly through, for instance, giving low mark. “Extra classes are reported in only 6-7 percent of small rural schools, but in more than 40 percent of large urban schools. Fees also vary considerably from less than R300 per class in small rural school to more than R500 in big urban schools” (Araujo 2008. p. 58). Some other problems are identified for the demand side. These problems are the obstacle to miss persuading the students to remain in school. The primary education, especially the repetition of grade 1, 2 and 3 and the drop out of grade 5 and 6 still has some issues which have to be solved timely such as: a/Documents related to Child Friendly School program are not widely available. b/ PB budgets cannot be accessed at the start of the financial year, this impacts negatively on conducting activities and the achievement of targets. c/ The teaching hours and school calendar are often curtailed. d/ Insufficient access to textbooks reduces the quality of education and coverage of the curriculum. e/ Insufficient infrastructure, including: latrines, sources of water and sanitation, libraries in many schools in remote and disadvantaged areas impacts on students’ attendance and performance. f/ There are insufficient teachers in rural and remote areas undermining the quality of education and learning in these areas. g/ The capacity of District Training and Management Teams (DTMT) in all provinces and capital city is not strong enough to help the teachers and school directors improve school performance (National Education Congress Summary Report-Academic Year 2008-09 p.4) Work force The number of dropouts in the rural areas is higher than in the urban. In rural areas, children are subject to do works such as looking after cattle in the fields; besides that, those children need to do more chores like carrying water from ponds, wells nearby, and firewood to supply home. That is a great burden for them to manage time to study. When they are so busy with this kind of work, they seem to have no feeling to read books (Dy 2004). What the Government Should Do to Reduce the Dropout Rate In order to reduce the number of dropouts, the government should do several jobs such as staff training, financing, evaluating, facility providing, setting clear policies, and other program monitoring. As stated in the Congress Report (2009), staff training is important in reducing the dropout rate for it helps students to gain their knowledge quite well. It also relates to the quality of education. When students get good academic achievement, their families as well as themselves feel really proud so that they have strong commitment towards education. Sometimes, the academic achievement can insult students and their families and in the end student can quit their studies. Another important thing for the government to do is to finance especially on building more school building quite near to their home. The government has to ensure that one village there is one primary school. Besides the school buildings, financing on teaching materials is also important to achieve the effective academic result. Moreover, the government should provide more money for teachers. If teachers have high salary, it is clear that they spiritually have committed to their teaching and their teaching will have good result. Setting up clear indicators as well as other policies related education is extremely significant. Dy (2001) stressed the importance of clear policies making. Prioritizing the policies making is to pave the way clearly that the Ministry could access their goals. The Ministry of Education that has administrators to implement the policies should particularly focus on primary education by conducting special training for all teachers as well as the school principals. Conclusion It has been observed that the dropout rate is still remaining high even though the government has been striving its works to eliminate or to reduce. The areas that are considerably indicated as high are in rural. The problem is that in those remote areas really face many difficulties for children while the urban areas students seem to use most of their time in learning. In contrast to the city children, rural children use most of their time to do house work and other non-academic affairs. Although these problems occur, the government is the one which has significant function to stimulate the reducing process of the dropout among children in lower education.
Influences of Organisational Culture on Social Care
best assignment help Influences of Organisational Culture on Social Care. Explain How Different Aspects of Organisational Culture, Including Communication and Leadership, Influence Service Provision in Social Care Organisational culture, a theoretical model of business practice, may also used to understand the systems and behaviour of other organisations, in particular the application of organisational culture theory to the understanding of social work practice. This model of business attempts to understand the positive and negative development of an organisation, through conscious and unconscious processes, and how these elements assist or limit the people within the organisation. Applying the principles of organisational culture theory to an environment which is essentially client-focussed is not straightforward, but provides social care theorists with both a way to understand barriers and limitations within the system, and the way that the principles of the organisation is applied to service provision; it may also offer a key to implementing practice reforms and changing the structure of social service organisation from within. By interpreting the social care system through this business model, it is possible to avoid the limitations which hinder better practice within social work. As this essay is based upon the terminology of Organisational Culture Theory, it is necessary to begin with a brief introduction to the theory, highlighting its concerns, and considering how this term relates to current understanding of organisational models. After this explanation, the essay will then consider each of the most important terms within organisational culture theory, including leadership, communication, and motivation. These terms will then be used to describe the aspects of organisational culture as they affect the provision of services within social care. A conclusion will discuss the relevance of organisational culture theory to social work, finishing with the consideration of how this business model is being used to alter the way in which social services are practiced, and the values which are utilised by social care. Organisational culture, the “set of beliefs, values and meanings that are shared by members of an organization” (Austin and Claassen, 2008, 349), is most often understood to refer to the practices and behaviours of a business organization. The term “Organisational culture” is not easily defined, despite its frequent usage, and theorists have therefore tended to outline the term according to their own interests. Attempts to clarify the meaning of ‘organisational culture” began in 1954: “The culture of industrial groups…from class origins, occupational and technical sources, the atmosphere of the factory which forms their background and finally from the specific experiences of the small informal group” (J. Brown, quoted in Anderson-Wallace and Blantern, page 3). This term highlights the importance of social bonding in creation of an organisational culture, which serves to unite a company around a common world view. Andrew Brown is one of many authors who have noted that the same organisation can have different organisational cultures in different countries, reflecting a difference in the social cultures of those companies: “These differences are most striking when they were detected in the subsidiary companies of the same multinational organisation, because they seemed to suggest that national cultural differences may help shape organisational design and behaviour at a local level” (Brown, 1995, page 2). Later, organisational culture would be more extensively defined by both Brown and Edgar Schein: these two works will be the basis of the remainder of this essay. It is important to note the essential elements of organisational culture theory: that this culture consists of social and localised beliefs about the operation of the business; these beliefs, or mythology, may bind a company together to the extent that it becomes isolated from outside ‘reality’: Brown uses the example of Philips Electronics: “Philips’ cultural inclination to define truth and reality according to its technological bias has led critics to charge that it is complacent, lethargic, inward-looking and risk adverse” (Brown, page 29). He also notes that critics considered the internal culture a definite factor in the economic failure of the business. Brown’s work is a general guide to organisational culture, and offers three main sources of culture within a business: “The societal or national culture within which an organisation is physically situated” – which might be one reason why multinationals operating in many countries often have a number of organisational cultures; “The vision, management style and personality of an organisation’s founder or other dominant leader” – leadership and the mythology of prominent leaders being an important influence on the culture of a business; and “the type of business an organisation conducts and the nature of its business environment” – one would not expect social care to develop the same organisational culture as a company such as Shell or Cadburys (two businesses mentioned by Brown). Schein’s work describes similar factors in a rather more abstract manner. He uses the terms ‘artifacts’, ‘expressed values’, and ‘basic assumptions’ to describe organisational culture. Schein sees artifacts as including all the tangible aspects of a culture – language, surroundings, technology and “The visible behavior of the group and the organizational processes into which such behavior is made routine” (Schein, 1992, page 17). These are the aspects most observable to outside researcher, although Schein notes that “It is especially dangerous to try to infer the deeper assumptions from artifacts alone because one’s interpretations will inevitably be projections of one’s own feelings and reactions” (Schein, page 18). Espoused values may help the researcher to better understand the culture; some of these values later become assumptions: “Only values that are susceptible to physical or social validation and that continue to work reliably…will become transferred into assumptions” (Schein, page 20). Consciously espoused values may provide a clue to the basic assumptions of a group; alternatively, they may not: “One must discriminate carefully between those that are congruent with underlying assumptions and those that are, in effect, either rationalizations or only aspirations” (Schein, page 21). Basic Assumptions are, in essence, what lies beneath; these assumptions are those held subconsciously by an organisation: “If a basic assumption is strongly held in a group, members will find behavior based on any other premise inconceivable…[they] actually guide behavior…tell group members how to perceive, think about, and feel about things” (Schein, page 22). With this understanding of basic organisational culture theory, it is now possible to consider in greater detail a number of subjects which are influenced by this culture: motivation, leadership, and communication. Motivation: Business theory is greatly concerned with the motivation of employees, and a strong organisational culture is considered essential to this. “Most organisations make strenuous attempts to motivate their employees…an appropriate and cohesive culture can offer employees a focus of identification and loyalty” (Brown, page 90). A positive organisational culture has a beneficial effect upon the motivation of the workforce, encouraging staff retention, high performance, and the intake of recent graduates; employees may also experience a better quality of life, or at least working life, avoiding stress-related illness. By contrast, a negative culture may result in loss of motivation, high staff turnaround, workers entering employment with fewer skills or qualifications, and low performance. Leadership: Leadership, particularly charismatic leaders and company founders, have a profound impact upon the organisational culture of a business. Founders, of course, by creating the business, “usually have a major impact on how the group initially defines and solves its external adaptation and internal integration problems…Founders…typically have strong assumptions about the nature of the world, the role that organizations play in that world, the nature of human nature and relationships… [and] how truth is arrived at” (Schein, page 213). The creation of the company is usually the beginning of its organisational culture and basic assumptions; and while the espoused values may change, the unconscious basic assumptions may extend back to the foundation of the business. Founders and later leaders are often charismatic, and their decisions may not be challenged directly: “The emerging culture will then reflect not only the leader’s assumptions but the complex internal accommodations created by subordinates” (Schein, 230). The charismatic leader’s personal style will also lead to the development of a mythology. These stories are vitally important in the maintenance of an organisational culture. Communication: The effective communication of ideas is essential in organisations, and often progress can be hampered through poor communication; Schein describes the development of production engineering: “Without it, engineering often designs things that cannot be built or are too expensive…Engineering is likely to perceive production as lazy and unimaginative, while production perceives engineering to be unrealistic” (Schein, 258). Organisational culture can affect communication, for example in hospitals, where “Most were discovered to suffer from a dearth of worthwhile formal communication channels” (Brown, 281). An organisational culture which avoids communicating new ideas will undoubtedly make profound mistakes and fail to co-operate. It is possible to see these aspects in the influence of organisational culture upon social care, and particularly how the provision of care is directly affected by leadership, communication, and motivational ideas. As Anderson-Wallace and Blantern explain, the perception of the recipient of care has a basic assumption (unchallenged), as its base: “One cultural artefact is an emphasis on an assessment of the individual client within their wider social environment. This is underpinned by the espoused value of the importance of a dialogue between practitioner and client. The underlying assumption is of the independent nature of the client in active negotiation with the practitioner.” (Anderson-Wallace and Blantern, page 8.) The basic assumption also reveals that the emphasis is upon the client, rather than upon the care worker. In such circumstances, it would not be surprising to see care workers being de-motivated; active participation is limited to the client, lessening the need for effective communication, and also the possibility of blaming the client for errors; against this latter lays the practice of holding social services responsible for all errors in service provision. Motivation is a major problem in social service, revealed through high turnover, poor quality of working life, and work-related illnesses such as stress: “stress is more common amongst social workers than either the general population or health care workers, due to the sensitivity and responsiveness to the difficult problems presented by clients which their work requires” (Ramon and Morris, 2004, page 7). As noted above, lack of motivation provision within organisational culture not only results in all the complications described here, but is also connected to low job performance. Here, the organisational culture influences service provision in a negative manner, by creating a culture of de-motivation, where the care worker feels impotent: “The statements indicate the relationships between experiencing stress, level of control, autonomy and flexibility within their job or role” (Ramon and Morris, page 8). There are also conflicting social cultures within the wider environment which contribute to this absence of motivation: the western world generally emphasises self-help and chastises those who are dependent upon government assistance: “A further layer was poor morale, associated with an inquiry on child protection (a feature shared with a number of similar departments), and the experience of a culture which tended to view stress as reflecting individual weakness” (Ramon and Morris, 7, but also visible in the wider media). There is in fact very little evidence for leadership as part of organisational culture within the social services, although some research has suggested that leadership culture within social care may be negative: “This vindication of the pessimistic view of the team leaders group highlights the defensiveness of some senior managers of social services departments who view constructive criticism as an affront” (Ramon and Morris, 19). The account of leadership culture within the social care department suggests an organisation that emphasises leadership above productivity and worker satisfaction – other parts of the essay note staff complaining about impolite and inconsiderate leadership styles. Despite an espoused value of worker importance, the basic assumption appears to be that leadership is most valued, and criticism by lower staff members is not acceptable. Poor communication culture lies at the heart of social care training. Ramon and Morris note “Improved communication between management and staff” as one of the goals of their research (Ramon and Morris, page 10), suggesting at the very least that the organisation culture of the social services is one of negligence towards communications, other sections of their essay suggest that communication is exceedingly poor “Poor communication and consultation within the organisational culture was identified as the major cause for stress,. As noted above, this can seriously affect performance, in this instance service provision” (Ramon and Morris, 19). In the following example, the necessary NVQ was preceded by a questionnaire upon the values of the workers involved; these reveal quite different values from those of the NVQ modules – an emphasis upon personal quality of life offered by the workers is altered to education on health care and understanding of resident’s social issues. “Almost without exception, role development was identified as important; most viewed this to be within the care sector at a higher grade or entering nurse training. Significantly, male staff perceived their role progression to be to that of care home manager or owner” (Winter and Meehan, 2004, page 6) While most of the workers described personal lives as more important or as important as work, and valued honesty and equal opportunities for staff, instead, emphasis was placed upon NVQs with modules such as “Fostering people’s equality, diversity and rights”, where the focus was upon the residents’ needs rather than staff equality. Training within the NVQ did not cater for male staff’s ambitions, or for personal quality of life. Here we can see Social Care with a series Espoused Values (care and motivation of staff; better staff retention; valuing employees) which contradict the actions of the area, with its emphasis upon residential equality and the gaining of IT skills, suggesting that the Basic Assumptions do not match – the basic assumptions might be “care of the residents is more important than staff satisfaction” and “IT training will improve motivation and help retention”, or even “training will improve the care given”. It is worth noting that, while 92% of staff thought the NVQ training would improve motivation, only 50% thought it would improve staff retention – one of the stated aims of the training. Emphasis upon training therefore appears to bear little correlation to workers’ performance; it also does not appear to have improved the motivation or turnover of care staff. The purpose of this essay has been to consider how organisational culture influences the provision of services within social care. One thing that has become clear from this research is that the organisational culture of social services relies heavily upon charismatic leadership to develop the stated values of the department. However, the culture also places limitations upon staff criticisms of leaders, meaning that desirable change may be limited or even prevented: for instance, Michelle Johnson and Michael Austin have suggested that the organization culture of local social services contained barriers to the creation of evidence-based practice, including the fact that there was “Little history, culture or expectation that evidence is routinely and systematically used to underpin practice” (Austin and Johnson, 87). This problem is undoubtedly one of leadership culture preventing better evidence-based practice from being developed. A secondary problem is that of communications – as Ramon and Morris noted, official communication was resented, being seen as an imposition from above (page 19), and there was limited value placed within the culture for cross-company consultation. These details may seem to relate only to staff members, but clearly they have a role in the outcome of service provision to clients or residents. The lack of motivation experienced by staff members, including stress and feelings of impotence, impact the service they offer to clients, particularly when the unconscious assumption is that these clients are both ‘independent’ of the care provider, and under the control of that same provider. Leadership issues prevent the adequate solving of problems – the basic assumptions of the group meaning that challenges to senior management are dismissed, or regarded as an affront to the leadership. This assumption has prevented the adoption of beneficial policies within the workplace, and has probably limited schemes which would also have aided service provision. Communication between departments within the social services has been justly criticised in the past, and it is clear that a problematic relationship with senior management is also indicative of problems in communication, data being rejected by staff members if it appears to come from management. All of these actions reveal the unconscious assumptions of social workers, both towards colleagues and towards their clients. The application of organisational culture theory to social care offers an opportunity to better understand the role that basic assumptions and values take in the provision of services to clients. Attempts to create a more evidence-based practice have emphasised the importance of a corresponding change in the culture of social work, offering an alternative to the problematic assumptions which can be found in the current organisation’s culture and practice. Works Cited Anderson-Wallace, Murray, and Chris Blantern (2005) “Working with Culture” in Organisational Development in Healthcare Peck, Edward (ed) Radcliffe Publishing, 2005. Austin, Michael J, and Jennette Claassen (2008) “Impact of organizational culture: implications for introducing evidence-based practice” Journal of Evidence-Based Social Work Volume 5 no 1-2 (2008) pp. 321-359 Austin, Michael J, and Michelle Johnson (2006) “Evidence-based practice in the Social Services: Implications for Organizational Change” Administration in Social Work Volume 30, no 3 (2006) pp 75-104 Brown, Andrew (1998) Organisational Culture Essex, Pearson Education Ltd Schein, Edgar H (1992) Organisational Culture and Leadership San Francisco, Jossey-Bass Publishers. Ramon, Shulamit and Lana Morris (2004) “Responding to perceived stress in a social services department: applying a participative strategy” retrieved 13/09/2008 from http://www.britsoc.co.uk/user_doc/Morris.pdf Winter, Jane, and Lyn Meehan (2004) “The value of integrated workforce planning across the local health and social care economy: a case study” Clinical Governance Bulletin Volume 5, no. 2 Jul 2004 pp 6-8 Influences of Organisational Culture on Social Care
Problem of Nature – Environment Degradation Research Paper
Table of Contents Introduction Discussion Conclusion Works Cited Introduction The current society is very concerned about the natural environment. Nature is under threat from various factors that affect it in one way or the other. The world is increasingly being globalized. Scientists are coming up with new strategies of approaching various issues within the society. Every aspect of life has been made easier. Communication has been enhanced through the invention of the telephones, the mass media, and the social media. Transport is also enhanced. All these inventions come at a cost. The cost of the inventions is the environment degradation. Most of the technological inventions have great negative impact on the environment. The manufacturing firms emit great amount of poisonous gases at their plants that poses great danger to the environment (Boschman 78). The wastes from the machines and other gadgets made for use by human being poses even greater challenge to the nature. This is has necessitated a lot of research from scholars who are concerned with the rate at which the environment is degraded. In literature, scholars have made an effort to fight for the environment. The scholars have used their literary weapons to defend the environment from pollution emanating from various manufacturing plants and various other sources. They have made effort to put to focus, the magnitude of environmental degradation from various human activities. This is the focus of this book. Authors have come to realize the fact that the society is under constant threat of environmental disaster due to activities of humankind. The authors have realized that there is need to get a solution to the deteriorating environmental conditions. They note that the solution that is much sought for is in the hands of the society members. Discussion The Norton Anthology American Literature Seventh Edition Volume A is a collection of books that address various themes. The books come with various themes all expressing different concerns. An analysis of the themes presented in this book starts from the cover page. The cover page of this book shows a beautiful neighborhood with beautiful vegetation. It shows a beautiful co-existence between man and nature. The woman is enjoying the shade of the tree while reading a book. The theme presented in this page is the beauty of nature presented to humankind when well protected. The relationship between man and nature is symbiotic. It is a give and take relationship (Bendixen 121). When environment is given proper care by human being, it will offer a very attractive environment to the people. The girl under the tree is a demonstration of this. She is very much at peace with the environment around her. The house is just a few meters away, but she prefers to do her reading under a tree. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The author is clearly giving the tree a preference over the house. Under a normal circumstance, it would be expected that such a person would prefer reading within the house. This is because of the comfort that the furniture and the shade of the roof offer. However, the woman has considered it wise to use the tree. This demonstrates that the tree offers more comfort than the house. The first story talks about the beginning of the world, and the flood that followed. The story tries to connect different theories that exist about the creation of humankind. The story brings various themes about the society. One of the strongest themes that come out strongly in this first story is that nature is under the control of human being. According to this story, when the world was created, it was handed over to man to take care of it. He was given the authority to take care of the environment and all that existed in it. However, this was under the instruction that man had to use it with wisdom. The flood that followed symbolized the punishment that would befall humankind if it fails to protect the environment as was expected. The flood consumed all but one family. The family had cared for the instruction given by the supreme God. The same consequence that people faced then when they failed to follow the commandments given is the same the current populace will face by failing to protect nature. The girl under the tree is enjoying the benefits of a protected environment. The story of the flood is a clear demonstration of the wrath of nature. Nature can make a very good servant. When one goes to the river for water, or cuts a tree to make a piece of furniture, the process is very enjoyable (Ferraro 32). One would feel in full control. However, when water takes over power from man, in form of a flood as demonstrated in this story, then lives will be lost. People will suffer, and the magnitude can be so severe it may end the entire humanity. The second story talks about Christopher Columbus, the great sailor that toured various continents in the world. The stories are given in the form of letters. In his letter to Luis deSantagel, this sailor talks about his first voyage. This letter is a description of the adventures at the sea. The letter brings out how nature is while on the high seas. Nature is not just on land alone. It extends. It captures various others on the high seas, each with its role. While fish is a surety of good sustaining meal while at the high seas, sharks and snakes pose serious threat to the lives of people in the high seas. We will write a custom Research Paper on Problem of Nature – Environment Degradation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The precaution that one needs to take while on land because of the dangers of nature is the same precaution one should take while on the high seas because of the same reason. In the letter to Ferdinand and Isabella, the author tries to explain the beauty of nature when left to take care of itself. The beautiful plantations are spectacular, despite the fact that no one is taking care of them. It poses a challenge to the humanity. Nature is able to take care of itself. In the first story of this book, it was demonstrated that humankind was assigned the duty of taking care of the environment. It is paradoxical therefore, that nature can protect itself better than the protection offered by humankind (Brown 21). To be specific, nature is under threat from the very being that should be protecting it. The story about the Coast of Pearl and the Island of Trinidad is another demonstration of the beauty of nature. The coastal regions form the best tourists’ attraction in every corner of the world. The coastal region in this story is no difference. When people visit the coastal regions for leisure, their driving force is always to get the best satisfaction that nature has to offer. This story clearly demonstrates that nature is beauty. In the coastal regions, various forces make the environment spectacular. The breeze from the sea, especially during the afternoon hours is very soothing. The waves at the sea brought about by the movement of wind are spectacular (Baym 21). A visit at this coastal region generates maximum satisfaction. The Island of Trinidad is natural scenery that comes with a lot of satisfaction to the visitors. However, this nature can be very devastating. This story demonstrates that nature is like a double-edged sword. It has the capacity to offer maximum pleasure to humanity. When individuals visit the beach during their leisure time, they are assured of a beautiful time at the high seas. However, when the storm finds one in the high seas, then life of such an individual can perish within a very short while. Such is nature, always having two sides, and ready to give either, depending on whether it is the master or the servant. The story by Thomas Harriot and John Smith talks about Virginia as the new found land. This book’s main theme is the nature of people, and the relationship between human being and the environment. In this case, environment means all other living and non-living things on earth besides human being. Human being, as a natural creation relates with the environment in two main ways. This first way is how the environment affects human being. Various environmental conditions will always affect human being in different ways. For instance, nature brings with it four seasons, especially in Europe and the US. During winter, the behavior of the natural environment will dictate the way human being will behave. The environment will dictate the type of clothing, and even the food eaten during such conditions. The second way in which man and environment relate is when man affects the environment. Man does various activities that have direct impact on environment. They may be characterized as pro-environmental or anti-environmental activities (Boschman 78). Based on the characteristic of the action, the impact on the environment can be very attractive, or very devastating. Not sure if you can write a paper on Problem of Nature – Environment Degradation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The above selected stories try to explain the origin of man and the relationship between man and nature. This book is very broad, and talks about other categories of stories, such as the trickster tales. All these stories revolve around nature and its relationship with human being. Conclusion The works of scientific researchers on the environment have come to overshadow the effort made by fiction writers about nature. Social scientists and natural scientist have conducted extensive research on various elements of nature and the relationship it has with humanity. Although this move is good, the effort of the fairy tale writers in defending nature should not be forgotten. The book ‘The North Anthology American Literature Seventh Edition Volume A’ is a clear demonstration f this. This book clearly demonstrates what nature is, to human being. It is a deliberate attempt to bring nature alive to the readers. The cover page of this book is the best demonstration of what the entire book is all about, in simple graphics. The young girl under the tree is reading under a very peaceful environment brought about by the beauty of nature. Because the neighborhood has cared for the environment, the environment is giving it its best. Works Cited Baym, Nina. Norton Anthology of American Literature: Beginnings to 1820. Oxford: Bound, 2007. Print. Bendixen, Alfred. A Companion to the American Short Story. Oxford: Blackwell, 2007. Print. Boschman, Robert. In the Way of Nature: Ecology and Westward Expansion in the Poetry of Anne Bradstreet, Elizabeth Bishop and Amy Clampitt. New York: McFarland, 2009. Print. Bross, Kristina. Early Native Literacies in New England: A Documentary and Critical Anthology. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2008. Print. Brown, Peter. A Companion to Medieval English Literature and Culture: C.1350 – C.1500. Chicester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009. Print. Ferraro, Thomas. Ethnic Passages: Literary Immigrants in Twentieth-Century America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993. Print.
BUSI 650 Liberty University Apple Inc Integrative Learning Project Outline
BUSI 650 Liberty University Apple Inc Integrative Learning Project Outline.
I’m working on a business project and need guidance to help me learn.
Hello,I have to have an outline done for an upcoming paper that is 16 pages long. The outline just has to break down the key topics (like how a normal outline format is) What I have attached is the progress I have completed so far. I have already completed the Annotated Bibliography and have a portion of the paper done that was suppose to be completed a couple of weeks ago. Now the next phase of the paper is coming up and I need it completed. The only part that is due this sunday 4/25/2021 is the outline. I will attach everything I have completed so far including the instructions of the outline and the actual paper–I completed two pages of the paper that was due a couple of weeks ago but there needs to be more added to it. All I put in the paper was the mission statement, Products and services, the corporate target market, value creation, and the role of christianity. It is still missing alot of information you can simply add on to the information that is already in the paper by putting that in the outline.. The information that needs to be added to the outline is in the general instructions that are attached below. I will also give you my log in information in order to access my E-Book to help you with the assignment as sources/references and key concepts that need to be discussed in the paper.Again please read all attached instruction below…this is a 3 part assignment and I am asking for part 2 to be completed which is the outline.The link to my E-book is https://mbsdirect.vitalsource.com/#/user/signin (I will send the log in information in a personal message whoever is assigned to this assignment.
BUSI 650 Liberty University Apple Inc Integrative Learning Project Outline