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Literature Research paper

Literature Research paper.

My Topic -A study of the sources or historical events that occasioned a particular work (Ex. comparing G.B. Shaw’s Pygmalion with the original Greek myth of Pygmalion)What the Paper NEEDS -A thesis statementAn Introduction on the TopicBody Conclusion Sources Cited (Sources are referenced or quoted.)Elements of an Organized BodyThe following are two elements of an organized body:
The ideas and information are in a logical order that the reader can follow.Make sure all ideas in a given paragraph belong in that paragraph, and the information is presented in a progression that makes sense.Transitions are present and used effectively.Make sure all ideas within a given paragraph are clearly related and tied to the main idea.Make sure each section or paragraph of your paper flows clearly and logically to the next section.Organizational OptionsThe following are three organizational options for your paper:
chronological orderOrder your evidence in the order it was discovered, from oldest to most recent, or from most recent to oldest.weakest to strongest evidenceBegin with your least convincing information or evidence, and build to a strong finish.strongest to weakest evidenceBegin with a flourish of your strongest information or evidence, and compound it with the remaining information you have. Any of these options can be used effectively if the paper is well-researched and well-written with strong, specific word choice and effective transitions to guide the reader through your thought process.
Literature Research paper

Film analysis Essay. The first page has to be a description, short summary of the movie. The next 3 pages are meant to be an analysis section of three concepts about the course which is government, as in the presidency, court cases, bills and law, health acts, etc. When explaining the concepts it has to be related to the film as well like using characters or the plot. Each concept has to be a 1-2 paragraphs. Then concluding remarks at the end. Formatting is Introduction Film summary Concept 1 Concept 2 Concept 3 Concluding remarks Film suggestions are: 1776 1984 American president JFK Legally blonde 2 Hamilton Lincoln Malcom X Born on the Fourth of July Twelve angry men Fahrenheit 451Film analysis Essay
The Response to Failed Leadership: What Can Be Learned from Rwanda in 1994 and Kenya in 2007-08 “The world is a dangerous place to live; not because of the people who are evil, but because of the people who don’t do anything about it.” – Albert Einstein Leadership will always fail at some point. Humans have allowed sin into the world and as a result humans will fail, sometimes to catastrophic levels. There is no better example of these catastrophic failures than the early 1990s in Rwanda and 2007-08 in Kenya. These African countries are rich in natural resources, have a capable labor force and bustling capital cities, yet they are also ravaged with poverty, malnutrition, and corruption even at the highest level of government. Leaders provoked and manipulated citizens, countries set up other countries to fail, global courts failed to bring justice, all of which contributed to the devastation in the eastern region of Africa. Were any of these actions preventable? What are the lessons that can be learned from these events of the past? What are the biblical implications? After meticulously analyzing these two horrific events, the questions began to rise. What could have been done to prevent this? How do these two countries move on? What can other countries learn from these events? Which countries need to learn from these events so that they do not repeat history? And of course, how can the Bible be implemented to these situations and the healing and restoration that is needed in these countries and the world in general? Surely, there were failures in leadership that enabled these events to take place, such as the failure of the UN in Rwanda and the failure of the UN and US in Kenya. Hindsight is 20/20 and looking back, there are ways that the UN and the United States could have better addressed these crises, but no action was taken. The reason that UN did not engage in Rwanda was because of the deaths of US soldiers in Mogadishu, Somalia 5 months earlier. Nonetheless, at the beginning of the Rwandan conflict, 6 Belgian soldiers were killed by Rwandan extremists.[1] The US had similar reasons for avoiding involvement. The Clinton administration was still addressing the fallout from the events in Mogadishu, so they did not want to commit any more US troops back to East Africa.[2] All these decisions beg the question, “did their end justify their means?” Rwanda In October 1990, Rwanda entered a civil war that would begin one of the most gruesome mass genocides in history. The conflict revolved around the two main people groups in Rwanda, the Hutus and the Tutsis.[3] The conflict between these two people groups had lasted a long time before anyone labeled it a “civil war.” From 1884 to 1916, Germany controlled the territory that consists of today’s countries Rwanda, Kenya, Mozambique, Tanzania, and Burundi.[4] The Hutu and Tutsi people groups have been established in Rwanda since the 15th century, but the first real interaction that they had with one another during the colonization period was during German rule. In 1916, during World War I, Belgium took over the territory that is Rwanda. As tensions rose for the struggle of power in the 1900s, violence between the Hutus and Tutsis grew rapidly. Germany and Belgium favored the Tutsi people group and this led to acts of violence against the Tutsis by the Hutus. That all changed in 1959 when the Hutus revolted against the Tutsi-led government.[5] They displaced ~100,000 Tutsis who then became refugees in their own country for decades. These Tutsis went on to form the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF). In October 1990, tensions between the RPF and the Rwandan Armed Forces (FAR) finally boiled over.[6] The Rwandan civil war lasted just shy of 4 years. The war officially came to an end in July 1994, but the violence that gripped the country was more than just the Rwandan civil war itself. In July 1993, the United Nations was tasked to keep peace in Rwanda but that was far from what happened. After the war ended, Hutu powers in government were already developing plans that would result in the Rwandan genocide in 1994.[7] The “spark” of the genocide took place in October 1993, when the newly elected president (Hutu) of neighboring country Burundi was assassinated by Ugandan Tutsi extremists. This caused a massive thought pattern from the Hutus that the Tutsis were an imposing and threatening evil that needed to be eliminated. Through propaganda and persuasion, the Hutu government officials were able to convince Hutu citizens to carry out egregious acts of violence against their former countrymen.[8] On April 6, tensions were further escalated when the Rwandan president Juvénal Habyarimana and Cyprien Ntaryamira, the Hutu president of Burundi, were killed when the plane they were riding in was shot down. Many historians mark this as the exact moment when the actual genocide in Rwanda began. This was the point where the UN had told UN troops on the ground to “not engage” and the Clinton administration promptly pulled all U.S. citizens living in Rwanda out of the country.[9] The UNAMIR (United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda) general Roméo Dallaire was assigned the difficult task of keeping peace on the ground without engaging with either the Hutus or the Tutsis.[10] The reason that this was so difficult was because Dallaire was to oversee changes in the Rwandan government where Tutsis were supposed to be given certain positions in the predominantly Hutu government.[11] The U.S. also commanded troops not to engage with either Hutus or Tutsis in fear of a similar result to that of Mogadishu. The Clinton administration was aware of the situation that was happening in Rwanda, but decided that intervening was not in the best interest of the country.[12] The conflict in Mogadishu, Somalia was just 7 months prior to what was happening in Rwanda and the battle of Mogadishu resulted in 19 U.S. killed and 2 Black Hawk helicopters shot down.[13] President Clinton did not want to intervene because of the “freshness” of the wounds to the nation.[14] The genocide in Rwanda lasted from April 7 – July 15, 1994 and in that time, 500,000 – 1,000,000 Tutsis were murdered and 250,000 – 500,000 women were raped, which resulted in 400,000 orphans and HIV-AIDS with a firm grasp over the survivors.[15] The genocide eventually came to an end when the RPF army consisting primarily of Tutsi survivors and refugees from Burundi started taking back small parts of the capital city, Kigali, and eventually overthrew the government on July 4, 1994.[16] Kenya The post-election violence that took place in Nairobi in 2007-08 is on the same spectrum but not on the same scale to the events that took place in Rwanda. In 2007, President Mwai Kibaki was elected to a second term as President of the National Republic of Kenya. President Kibaki, a man from the Kikuyu (tribe), which is one of the largest ethnic groups in Kenya, comprising roughly 6.5 million people.[17] Kibaki’s opponent was Raila Odinga. A politician that held many different offices, Odinga was the son of the first vice president of the Republic of Kenya. Raila Odinga is from the Luo tribe, another people group in Kenya comprising around 4.5 million people.[18] On December 30, 2007 it was announced that Mwai Kibaki had won the very close and hotly contested election by 232,000 votes. President Kibaki was sworn in on the same day marking the beginning of his second term. Raila Odinga did not sit by and accept the results.[19] He called for action and accused Kibaki and his team of rigging the election. There was some truth to his claims. It had been reported that some of the constituencies that voted for Kibaki reported over 100%.[20] The reporting over 100% was a clear indicator that the polls had been tampered with since it should have been impossible to report over 100%. There was evidence of tampered polls from both sides of the election.[21] There was even a conspiracy that claimed a member from Odinga’s camp had been sent out to kill a popular promoter for President Kibaki. It also had also been found out later that the commissioner of the electoral committee, Samuel Kivuitu had been pressured by Kibaki’s camp to announce the results of the election hastily without Kivuitu actually knowing who won the election. As soon as Kibaki was sworn in for his second term, violence in the streets of Nairobi erupted. Protestors were targeted, police brutality ensued, rioting and looting transpired, and chaos fell upon Nairobi, particularly the slums for weeks. Raila Odinga, the leader of the people that were inciting this violence only added fuel to the fire. There were plans set in place by Raila’s team to hold a rally to announce him as “The People’s President,” but that idea was shut down by the police immediately. However, there was still a rally held where over one million of Odinga’s supporters showed up and Raila riled them up further by saying that they would not just sit back and accept the election results.[22] Odinga said that he would not be willing to negotiate with Kibaki unless Kibaki resigned. This only “stirred the pot” further and Odinga supporters resumed their acts of violence and rioting in the streets and slums. After about a month, the UN finally stepped in. The UN stood firm on the stance that Kibaki had won the election but because tension and violence was rising, they had to intervene. Raila Odinga and President Kibaki met with Secretary-General of the United Nations, Kofi Annan on January 24, 2008 but there was no clear decision met.[23] Violence continued to break out in parts of the country and 2 members of parliament were murdered in the ensuing days after the Annan meeting. The next month was a month filled with negotiating mediated by the UN and other leaders from countries in East Africa. On February 28, 2008, President Kibaki and Raila Odinga signed an agreement that created the new post of Prime Minister, and opened up talks about re-writing the constitution (which was finally finished, voted on, and implemented in 2010).[24] This new “coalition government” did not operate smoothly initially because roles were not defined other than purely titles. People did not know who had power over who and that was a big deal in Kenya. In March and April, violence had decreased but tensions were still high as the negotiations and details of the new coalition government were being finalized. After the sides were able to come to an agreement, Raila Odinga was sworn in as the second Prime Minister of the Republic of Kenya on April 17, 2008. This marked the official beginning of the coalition government.[25] This new format of government has since come to an end as of 2013 when Uhuru Kenyatta, the son of the legendary first president of Kenya Jomo Kenyatta won the presidency in the 2013 over none other than Mr. Raila Odinga.[26] Furthermore, Uhuru recently won a second term of presidency in 2017 over Raila Odinga, again.[27] The future is not certain but chances would have it that Raila Odinga will run again in 2021 at 77 years old. Many Kenyan citizens have very strong opinions about Raila Odinga and his refusal to quit running for president. “Raila Odinga is not good for the country and is a corrupt man.”[28] “Raila Odinga has made his money. He should just take his rich a** to an tropical island and not bother Kenya for the rest of his life.”[29] The opinions of Mr. Odinga are still strong among the people and even though there are still some Raila supporters, there are a great deal of Kenyans that wish he did not exist anymore, let alone run for office again. Kenya is still dealing with the effects of the post-election violence that amassed 1,300 casualties and over 600,000 people displaced.[30] There is still tribal tension whenever political decisions arise and though the two elections since the 2007 election have been relatively peaceful for Kenya, there have still been small acts of violence and rioting that has arisen. The country has not been able to completely set aside their differences for the good of the country, similar to the animosity seen in recent elections of the US There are a few key moments in both the situations in Rwanda and Kenya where leadership really “dropped the ball.” One of the main parallels that can be drawn from both situations is that the leadership that was in place was looking out for themselves and not for the good of the country. How often can that be seen all over the world and not just in these East African countries? It would be difficult for a person that is knowledgeable on politics to say that in most countries, “the leaders have the citizens’ interests at the top of their priorities.” So much of politics and the game surrounding politics is based on the competition and winning. The “importance” of politics has become, “Who can gain the most votes, who can be known for this landmark in a country’s history, who can spend the most amount of time in office.” These are quantitative pieces of information that too many politicians care about and they are motivated by these pieces of information which explains their true intentions. The similar kind of bad intentions also are what drove Rwanda to genocide. The whole feud between the Hutus and Tutsis was fueled in the early 1900’s because these tribes wanted to be viewed as favorable in the eyes of the “white man” (Germans).[31] This competition intensified into pure hate when the country was left up for grabs and Rwanda gained their independence. It became a real and fatal power struggle, but if the leaders of the Hutus and Tutsis could see past their selfish motives, they would see the harm that they were causing to their people and the deaths that would occur because of THEIR power struggle. Kenya has dangerously decided to test fate again. In 2013, Uhuru Kenyatta was elected as the 4th President of the Republic of Kenya. Uhuru Kenyatta is the son of the first president of Kenya, Jomo Kenyatta. After the post-election violence of 2007-2008, Jomo Kenyatta was one of the six men that was charged with “crimes against humanity” by the International Criminal Court (ICC). The charges specifically, were for planning and funding violence in certain regions of Kenya.[32] The charges were not officially dropped by the ICC until 2015, one whole year after Uhuru had been elected president. It was the opinion of some Kenyans that in order to leave history in the past, Kenya should not have elected leader that had charges against him for crimes against humanity.[33] Kenyans are a very discrete and quiet people. One of the more eye-raising facts about the Uhuru ICC case is that many of the witnesses that were going to testify against Kenyatta at The Hague either disappeared or died before they had the chance to testify.[34] The decision that Kenya made as a country to elect Uhuru as president is a decision that shows the growing that Kenya has yet still to do. Electing this man dangerously comes close to the line of pardoning what he may or may not have done to contribute to the crimes that were committed in 2007 and allowing him to become leader of the country. Some that argue that he was the best option between the candidates that were running (Odinga being the main competition). There are many countries that fall into this unfortunate situation where the citizens feel like they are voting for the “lesser of the evils.” These types of elections have almost become the norm in societies all over the world. Another level of leadership failure that goes unnoticed in East Africa in both periods of time is the failure of the bordering East African countries like Tanzania, Uganda, and Ethiopia. None of these had the resources to fully step in and demilitarize militarized zones but meetings could have been set up amongst the leaders of Kenya and Rwanda to try and work out some kind of peace deals. Theses East African countries that neighbored Kenya during the time Kenya was experiencing post-election violence should have tried to make contact with Raila Odinga and Mwai Kibaki because of the effect that the post-election violence was going to have on their own country. The GDP of Tanzania fell 1.5 percent because of the blockage to the main port of Mombasa, Kenya.[35] Uganda also experienced hardships during the post-election violence in Kenya because 80% of their imports pass through Mombasa.[36] The roads from Mombasa to these destination countries were blocked by more than 40 illegal roadblocks during 2008-2009.[37] As for Tanzania, tourism also fell because many people that seek to climb and explore the highest mountain in Africa, Mt. Kilimanjaro travel through Kenya to get there.[38] Comparisons Another way leadership failed in 1994 and 2007 is the UN and the United States neglectingto intervene in the atrocities that they knew were going on. There were a lot of variables at play in both scenarios but this is a section that can be related to a teaching that children are taught in schools at a young age; “If you see something, say something.” In schools, this phrase is taught in the context of bullying, suicide, or even school shootings in the world today. The way that this teaching is intended to work is that when a child that sees something that even he/she knows is wrong at a young age, they tell someone in a leadership position and that leader does something to correct or prevent a problem from occurring. The United States and the UN were in that leadership position during the crises in Kenya and Rwanda, and they were told and well-informed of the situations, yet they chose not to do anything about the bullying and shootings that were taking place across the ocean. Politics can be tricky, and they are not as simple as President Clinton and Kofi Anan getting on the phone and telling US and UN troops to go into Nairobi and Kigali and start shooting those that are shooting others. However, for Kofi Anan to tell UN troops not to engage and for the Clinton administration to not send Marines to aid in protection of government officials, many believed to be wrong.[39] One of the saddest stories from the Rwandan genocide took place when US Marines drove to the US Embassy in Kigali to collect the 13 US citizens that were left in the country. The US citizens in Rwanda had made their way to the embassy so that they could be evacuated from the country. A few of the citizens had brought some of their Rwandan friends to the embassy with them to hide because they knew that as long as they were there with the Americans, they would be safe.[40] When the Marines showed up at the embassy, they drove right past a group of Hutu rebels waiting for their chance to storm the gates and kill the Tutsis that were seeking refuge in the American embassy. As soon as the US citizens were collected and evacuated, the Hutus stormed the embassy and killed the 30 Tutsis that were inside.[41] The United States allowed that to happen. A nation that prides itself on protecting others and protecting the rights of others enabled the slaughter of 30 Rwandans and even more innocent lives by not intervening and doing something in Rwanda. Standing up for what the Bible says is always right, and a biblically-based government and world-peace organization would have stood up for the people that were being killed. What happened in Mogadishu, Somalia was a tragedy but the Clinton administration was eyeing re-election[42], and it did not want to do something that would make them unfavorable at the polls. Many innocent lives were taken because of that mindset. The United States has built an impressive legacy over the 239 years it has been a country. The United States was a classic underdog story of patriots and revolutionary minds that had had enough of being ruled and taxed by the British Empire. They had enough, and they decided to form their own country and call it the United States of America. Since, the United States has thrived. There have been minor blemishes and even a few major ones such as the Civil War in the mid-1800’s, the attacks on Pearl Harbor, and 9/11. But the successes of the nation have outweighed the negatives. The United States became the “gold standard” for countries to try and emulate because of their GDP, its technological advances, and the strong sense of loyalty and patriotism throughout the country. The latter is starting to fail the United States and poses one of the biggest threats to tearing down the once-great nation. In sports, a team that does not have the most talent but has the most chemistry is often better than a team that has the most talent but lacks chemistry. The United States’ chemistry showed flaws leading up to, during and post the 2016 presidential election. During presidential election’s countries tend to split on who they want to become the next leader. The 2016 United States Presidential election presented two polarizing figures of the likes that had not been seen before in a presidential election: a woman running for the first time vs. a TV personality turned politician. The election was filled with name-calling, and the results of the election were not taken particularly well by the nation as a whole. With social media at everyone’s disposal, the name-calling, colorful debates, and speaking over one another continued well past the results of the election. A lot of citizens with a keyboard or a touchpad felt like they had something to say and that their voice was the one that needed to be heard. Sam Sanders from NPR weighed in on the idea of social media in an article he wrote in 2016. “So we end this campaign season with social media platforms seemingly hardwired for political argument, obfuscation and division. We are a public more concerned with scandal than policy, at least according to the social media data. And our candidates for higher office, led by Trump, seem more inclined to adopt the combative nature of social media than ever before.”[43] The parallels between what was happening in America and what happened in East Africa were eerily similar. Simply, leaders wanted power so through social media and televised debates they took shots at one another and that let the citizens feel like it was also okay for them to take shots at one another over social media and in person. [44] [45] The United States obviously has the establishment and the police capacity to mitigate the targeted killings and violent rallies that can be found in third-world countries, but there were still small acts of violence and targeted hate that slipped through the cracks. Just because the United States was an established nation, does not mean that it was immune to the civil struggles that plagued Rwanda and Kenya in the 1990s and late 2000s. “In total, fifty-three electoral violence events were recorded in the study: 37 incidents, 4 acts of intimidation, and 12 threats. Forty-four of the 53 incidents occurred before Election Day, with most incidents occurring during the Primary Phase of the electoral cycle.”[46] Another interesting undertaking where the United States seems to struggle is identity. Many, after the election felt like they did not have an identity and the nation as a whole struggled to grasp who they were and who they were going to be moving forward with this new leader. The realistic view states that each country is their own sovereign nation that should be able to operate how they want and it is not appropriate for other nations to get involved. This was the view that was held by President Clinton during the Rwandan genocide and the view that was held by Barack Obama during most of his presidency. The opposite to the realistic view is the liberalist view that wants to impose and make every country like their country. George W. Bush held this view in Iraq and Afghanistan post 9/11. The interesting thought that can be drawn from this in within the context of identity is that the US did not want to enter Rwanda, wanted to pull troops from Iraq and Afghanistan, and in society wants citizens to be able to express themselves as much as possible. The problem is that during the election in 2016, there was a sharp 180-degree turn and all of a sudden, citizens wanted to convince other citizens how to think and act and if they did not conform to what was being said, bitterness and hate welled up. This is the identity struggle of the United States. The common theme that binds what is happening in the United States to what happened in East Africa is that many people fail to heed the advice of others. The definition of behavior is, “a process by which information is exchanged between individuals through a common system of symbols, signs, or behavior.”[47] Listening and processing information that the other party is conveying is part of the communication process. What tends to happen during political debates and during the political season is that people forget the listening part and try to speak the most to get their point across. The presence of social media has allowed that type of “communication” to be even easier because social media allows an individual to get what they want to say out and not listen to what the other party has to say. The church, particularly in the United States, is also not immune to the problems that political leaders face. The congregation of a church can be a hard group of people to manage because there are so many opinions on what direction the church should go, where the church should spend its money and how the church should handle doctoral issues. Just because the church is filled with Christians does not mean that the people in the church do not have opinions that they want to have heard. The church needs to come together especially during times where the country struggles to find its identity to show the nation that the church is a place that is a safe haven for those looking to escape the name-calling and hate that exists in the world. What This All Means for Leadership It is clear that leadership has often failed at the international level and also in the United States. Many times, leadership even fails in churches. However, the millennial generation has a chance to set wrongs right and to “turn the ship around.” All things considered, it is clear that the millennial generation is going to be assuming senior leadership roles within the next twenty years and in order to be successful leaders, the practice has to start early. Leadership is not leadership only when an individual fills a role. Individuals are leaders and they do not even know it. Individuals can be leaders at school, in their own family, at church and in other settings. All of these lower level types of leadership are good practice for when senior leadership opportunities present themselves. Millennials are the next generation to “step up to the plate” and guide the nations moving forward. The situation was similar in Kenya. When one party lost, the other party did not, and still does not take losing the election well. The losing party’s leaders called for rallies and called for his supporters to not accept the results but to “stand up for what they believe in.”[48] Now, there are some biblical parallels to this. Jesus did not just lay down and allow what was happening in the law and politics at the time to just run their course. He stood up for what He knew was right and He preached His word right under their noses even though He knew that they did not approve and that they would eventually put Him to death. Standing up for God’s Word is one thing. What Raila Odinga incited his supporters do in 2007 because of what he believed to be right was wrong. Not laying down for God’s Word will always be the right thing to do because it is GOD’s Word, not the thoughts and ambitions of sinful human beings. (Proverbs 3:5-6). When leaders look out for what is best for themselves, this steers the country that they are responsible for down a very dangerous path. In addition to the selfish perspectives of leaders in the country, the selfish perspectives and evil that are rooted in Rwanda and Kenya cannot be ignored. Great Britain ruled Kenya and Germany/Belgium ruled the Rwanda for decades. When these countries were colonizing the territories, times for the aborigines were hard.[49] The Europeans came in, claimed the land as theirs, and put the aborigines to hard manual labor for their own benefit. The European settlers barely acknowledged the Kenyans and Rwandans as people, and often times sold them in the slave trade.[50] When these third-world countries finally gain their independence, the European countries dropped the trade and operations that they had going on and just left the country (for the most part), leaving the country up for grabs to the people that were just being treated poorly. How are countries like Rwanda and Kenya supposed to react when they have seen how “successful” European countries treat other people? They have seen first-hand that these Europeans didn’t have respect for people, so why should they? From their perspective, if they could snatch the power at the top, they could be the ones that are respected and can have others work for them. This selfish motive was planted by the European countries when they colonized Kenya and Rwanda. This just adds yet another level of leadership failing. The dimensions of a good leader consist of five key elements. Two-way communication is the first. Two-way communication is the art of being able to voice an opinion and get a point across but also listen, process and internalize the opinions of another party. The other party’s opinions might even be different but the art of two-way communication is looking past the differences and trying to come to a compromise and see what can be worked out. The second key element is the element of humility. This ties directly in with 2-way communication. It takes a humble person to admit when they are wrong and admit that someone else’s ideas are better. This did not happen in Rwanda, Kenya, and it certainly has not happened in the United States during the wake of the 2016 presidential election. Mark McLoughlin, a Senior Vice President at VWR, accredits some of his success as a leader in the company to surrounding himself with others that are “smarter” than him that give him good ideas that he really listens to and takes into account.[51] The third key element is focus. There has to be a drive the motivates the leader to be a good leader. There are leaders that are thrust into the position of leadership that do not know how to cope with being a good leader. These leaders often fail the ones that they are trying to lead. The fourth key element of a good leader is integrity. A good leader has to have a good track record with people and has to be someone that can be trusted when no one is watching. Even if the leader makes a mistake, they must own up to the mistake and do what is right to fix the problem. Integrity goes a long way in solid leadership because once integrity is compromised, it becomes difficult to trust that person again and their leadership will be followed with questions. The firth key element of a good leader is a person that has a proven track record of completing goals and getting results. This individual is someone that sets goals and completes them efficiently. The need for these kind of leaders is great. The need for these kind of leaders with one more dimension is even greater. In order to be a good leader, the person has to have a Biblical outlook. This key element can be rooted in the previous five and the previous five elements cannot exist on their own without this one for a successful leader. No leader is going to be perfect. All men have sinned and therefore no leader is going to make all of the right decisions all of the time. But for a successful leader to thrive, they must be well-rounded in the five key elements and also have a Biblical outlook in their lives which translates to their leadership decisions. Without the Biblical outlook, the leader is not leading with a good human morality. Human morality cannot be trusted so therefore there has to be some set of morals that guides effective leaders and that should be the Bible because of the only truth the Bible offers. [52] The chart above is a radar chart that charts the six key elements of a successful leader in Rwanda, Kenya, and the United States. Rwanda is represented by the purple color in the middle of the chart, Kenya is represented by the red shape and the United States is represented by the tan color with the black outlining. The chart shows that all of the countries’ leaders struggled with humility and integrity. These are two qualities that cannot be compromised and they definitely cannot be compromised together. The radar chart shows that the United States is not far from the problems that Kenya and Rwanda faced and depending on who plots the points on the chart, the results could be even more drastic. A perfect leader would have every point reaching the border of the hexagon and the whole hexagon would be shaded so this chart goes to show that Rwanda, Kenya and the United States have all fallen short of good leadership. The outcome in Kenya resulting from the lack of these key characteristics was a nation that was divided by the “leaders” that were promising change to the country if they were to be elected. The outcome was total and complete civil chaos that led to the country’s reputation being damaged and Kenya’s citizens killing one another. The outcome in Rwanda was genocide. One of the worst genocides in history. Another outcome was a nation that is still struggling to recover from one of the worst genocides in history. The outcome in the United States is a country that will not be humble, listen to one another and is divided where news stations constantly attack another and people go after one another on social media. A marginalized civil society of sorts. The need for leaders with these six qualities is greatest amongst up and coming millennial leaders. The millennial generation is the generation that has the best opportunity to take hold of solid leadership and lead by example. The two-way communication is going to be a huge struggle because of social media. Listening is a lost skill amongst current politicians so it is up to the millennial generation to regain that skill. Social media is not just a negative tool however. Social media can be used for spreading positivity and can be used for a platform of sparking conversations. Another way that social media can be used positively is actually exposing evil people for their evil deeds. Social media has the capability of keeping people accountable for their actions. Many scandals are being exposed because of social media and the truth is being brought to light about individuals through social media and the media in general so the increase in technology and connectivity can be used to spread news. The one downside of that is the people behind the cellphones and the keyboards, the media. The media played a huge role in Rwanda, Kenya and the United States’ election in 2016. The media has the power to change the public’s perception of a person or an issue so in their own right, the media are leaders too which just reinforces the point that this next generation of leaders will have to be the most well-rounded yet. Unfortunately, in today’s society social media posts and reports have to be taken with “a grain of salt.” A reader simply cannot just agree and believe everything he or she reads. A tangible way to make sure that social media is used for good and not used for spreading negativity is to always think about who might be offended and really think if one post is worth offending someone over. A common excuse is “everyone is offended by everything” or “there will always be someone that is offended.” On one hand, these are true statements, but on the other hand, if the post is going to directly offend someone, it should not be posted. Jesus Christ valued conversation and meeting people face to face. There are raw emotions that can be shared when one person sits down and talks with another person face to face. These face to face conversations make it difficult to talk over one another like what happens on social media. A challenge for millennial leaders is to have more face to face conversations with one another practicing two-way communication and less posts and debate on social media. Just because millennial leaders are the next leaders of the world does not mean that the generations before can just “take off” the rest of their lives. “Generation X” and the “Baby Boomers” have the great responsibility of training these millennial leaders and teaching them from the mistakes that they made as a generation. No generation will be perfect so there is no sense casting blame on these prior generations but these generations should admit their mistakes, own up to them and try to train the next generation of leaders on how to avoid making these mistakes and how to react when trials and tribulations arise. This process is all about continually improving and not digressing. The same responsibilities will be placed on millennials when they have the same responsibilities of training the next generation of leaders that will precede them. John 10:11 says, “I am the good shepherd; the good shepherd lays down His life for the sheep.” (NASB) This verse has leadership parallels to the six dimensions of leadership that were shown in the radar chart. A “good shepherd” or the leader of the flock is a selfless leader. This is the kind of leader that will put their own neck on the line for their followers. In Rwanda and Kenya, it was exactly the opposite. The leaders pitted their followers against one another to cause chaos and violence. The biblical idea of leadership is the best idea of leadership because it aligns closely with the other five dimensions of leadership but adds the golden standard to lead by because human morality cannot stand on its own. The “good shepherd” is also driven by results (keeping the flock protected) and exemplifies humility to humble himself for sheep. The metaphor that Jesus is using is for Himself dying on the cross for the sins of the world. Jesus died and laid His own life down for what equivocated to be “sheep” for Himself. If Jesus had let sinful man die without opening that path to heaven, it would not have made a difference to Him but instead He humbled Himself and died for sinners that did not stand a chance without Him. “ Being found in appearance as a man, He humbled Himself by becoming obedient to the point of death, even death on a cross.” (Philippians 2:8, NASB) The perfect example of a leader is Jesus Christ. A leader that is able to identify that and lead using the knowledge that Jesus has left on this earth for people to read truth is the leader that is going to be the most successful. Another way that Jesus sets an example as a leader that differs from “leaders” today is the way that He conducted His ministry. Jesus was not a self-promoter. This is one of the true characteristics of the humility dimension of a good leader. Matthew 3:13-15 says, “Then Jesus came from Galilee to the Jordan to be baptized by John. 14 But John tried to deter him, saying, “I need to be baptized by you, and do you come to me?” 15 Jesus replied, “Let it be so now; it is proper for us to do this to fulfill all righteousness.” Then John consented.” (NASB) How often are politicians today going out and doing good things so that they are recognized for those acts? Jesus gave all of His glory to God the Father and He took no credit for Himself. It is difficult, and some would argue that it is impossible for a human being to complete a completely selfless act without looking for any credit for themselves. The outcomes of a generation that trends towards the six dimensions of leadership is a vibrant civil society that listens to one another and is slow to anger. James 1:19 says, “his you know, my beloved brethren. But everyone must be quick to hear, slow to speak and slow to anger;” (NASB). The United States has begun a downward trend violence and hate in civil society due to being quick with the tongue and slow with the ears when it should really be the other way around. It is imperative that millennials lead by example and show that they are able to co-exist with one another despite having separate opinions. There is hope that the millennial generation is trending in the right direction as well. Kimberly Fries, a contributor to Forbes released a study about millennials and how they are already changing leadership without even knowing it. One of the points that she has found is that millennials want leadership positions and that they are embracing a “flat management structure.” This “flat management structure” values opinions from all parts of an organization and focuses less on “climbing the ladder” to navigate the way to the top of the management chain. “Also, as potential leaders, they value an organization where movement within the organization does not simply go ‘up the ladder’. A flat management structure facilitates both communication and career development both upward and laterally.”[53] Another outcome of this new six-dimensional leader is a more Biblically-based society. There are only good results from basing society off of the Bible. The Bible is the one “true” true source of truth. Christians believe that to be true but the rest of the world does not so it is an impossible task to base all of society on the Bible. Progression in small “bite-size” samples is the key. The goal should not be to progress towards this style of leadership in one big wave rather to progress individual by individual. These individual changes in leadership in their own circles (family, church, work, etc.) will progress into larger, more sweeping changes when millennials begin positions in senior leadership. God being that sixth dimension outweighs all of those other dimensions of leadership. The “God factor” is the most important factor for the long-term health of the people and the country as a whole. Just because sinners commit sinful acts because humans have allowed sin to enter the world does not mean that other humans should just sit idly and let these acts happen. It is the responsibility of (1) humans, (2) Christians, and (3) millennials to be change in their circles and communities. Millennial Christians have the greatest responsibilities to lead their communities by the laws that God has set in the Bible bringing in that sixth dimension of leadership. The benefits that will follow from biblically based society will not ensure ease and perfect economic successes but it will ensure a nation that will be able to respond when trials and tribulations attack the country. The small changes that will start to occur in families and communities will ignite change at higher levels because millennials are the next great leaders in management and government positions. The time is coming where leadership will change over to millennials so they need to be well-equipped and trained for when that moment comes. Leadership will always fail at some point. Leadership will fail until the ultimate leader; Jesus Christ returns to earth for His followers. It is up to the human race until then, to take control of their actions and ensure that tragedies of the likes of the genocide in Rwanda, and the post-election violence in Kenya never happen again. The United States as a nation came dangerously close to that scale of civil unrest in 2016, it is up to the millennials, the Christian millennials to ensure that the United States does not come close to that line again and sets an example to other nations as it has been for so many years. Appendix A – Map of Rwanda[54] B – Map of Kenya[55] Works Cited “Donald Trump Twitter Capture.” Bipartisan Report, 3 May 2016, “Hillary Clinton Twitter Capture.” Yahoo! News, Yahoo!, 9 June 2016, “Rwanda Profile – Timeline.” BBC News, BBC, 6 Aug. 2017, “The World Factbook: KENYA.” Central Intelligence Agency, Central Intelligence Agency, 5 Feb. 2018, “Timeline: Kenya’s Post-Election Crisis.” Financial Times, 31 Jan. 2008, Aglionby, John. “Subscribe to the FT to Read: Financial Times Kenya Election Re-Run Puts Further Damper on Economy.” Financial Times, 4 Oct. 2017, Akwiri, Joseph. “Fears of Election Violence to Dent Kenya Tourism.” Reuters, Thomson Reuters, 14 Dec. 2012, Araida, Saki, et al. “ELECTORAL VIOLENCE A Study of the 2016 United States Presidential Election .” Georgetown University, Dec. 2016, Bates, Francesca. “Washington State University.” Spring 2015 British Rule in Kenya Comments, 19 Jan. 2015, Bowcott, Owen. “Kenya’s Uhuru Kenyatta Becomes First Head of State to Appear before ICC.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 8 Oct. 2014, Dallaire, RomeÌo. Shake Hands with the Devil: The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda. Da Capo Press; 1st Carroll

The Drop Out Rate in Education in Cambodia

Introduction The number of students who drop out school in the basic education level is still very high although the government and the other stakeholders have been striving to cut down on number. It is very clear that there are number of things which cause those children to abandon their studies. It is, however, still a skeptical whether the demand side or the supply side which has the most influence on this phenomena. The government of Cambodia has considered the capacity building and human resource development as priority. In the Rectangular Strategy of the Royal Government of Cambodia has emphasized several points related to the education quality improvement at all levels. Like stated in the policies and strategies in ESP (Education Strategic Plan) 2006-10, there are a lot of reforms have been made in order to reach the Millennium Development Goals. The six EFA Dakar goals: 1- Expanding and improving comprehensive early childhood care and education, especially for the most vulnerable and disadvantaged children. 2- Ensuring that by 2015 all children, particularly girl, children in difficult circumstances and those belonging to ethnic minorities, have access to, and complete, free and compulsory primary education of good quality. 3- Ensuring that learning needs of all young people and adults are met through equitable access to appropriate learning and life-skills programmes. 4- Achieving a 50 per cent improvement in levels of adult literacy by 2015, especially for women, and equitable access to basic and continuing education for all adults. 5- Elimination gender disparities in primary and secondary education by 2005, and achieving gender equality in education by 2015, with a focus on ensuring girls’ full and access to and achievement in basic education of good quality. 6- Improving all aspects of the quality of education and ensuring excellence of all so that recognized and measurable learning outcomes are achieved by all, especially in literacy, numeracy and essential life skills. Source: UNESCO (2000 b), as cited in FE of IFL, pp 66-67 In those reforms, there have also been the strengthening tasks with other partnerships between the public and private sectors. These important tasks are really applicable for implementing the development goals for the betterment of the quality of education. Without doing the reforms, it is not effective form for the implementation because the concept or the social context does not respond to the strategic plan. The strategic plan and the resource of mobilization and utilization can not be cut off from the the understanding from the context or it will be failed to implement. (MoEYS, (2006) Education strategic plan 2006-2010). The objectives of the Ministry of Education, the implementers received the commands from the Royal Government of Cambodia, are to conduct the holistic development within the Cambodian youths. Young people are considered as bamboo shoots which can replace the old and dying bamboo, so building up the capacity among them is compulsory. The development of understanding among young people needs to be done for all sectors. In addition, the Ministry of Education attempts to contribute and engender a sense of nationalism and civic pride because it is really essential for them to determine their own identities. It also strives to upgrade the concept of high standards of morality and ethics in order to build up a good country that people can live in harmony. According to this stance, three main purposes have been set. The first purpose is the equitable access to education that indicates that all Cambodian children have right to receive education at least 9 years (finished grade 9). They receive education for free of charge in which the Ministry of Education calls for to promote this prestigious opportunity for all young Cambodians. Secondly, promote the service quality and efficiency of education; so for the Ministry strives to promote the quality of education in all levels especially the low level of education. It has created more supporting programs. In that the establishment of teaching materials is also paid the utmost care. Third, the Ministry intends to introduce the the idea of capacity building for decentralization in which new curricular has been put to manipulate this concept within young Cambodians through lesson of decentralization. The curriculum has been set by focusing much on the expansion of decentralization (Education strategic plan 2006-2010). According to the strategies and policies that the Ministry has set and determined above, it is not uncertain to fully understand what can be the things that have come as constraints to make students at basic level stop study. A long with the stimulants that the government have distributed, the families have to have some involvements to keep students remain in school. The government has continuously conducted reforms to find and to determine the weak points. Thus, this paper is to seek for the deep understanding on the hardships on the demand side and the capacity of distribution of the supply side. We also study to find out how the government of Cambodia manipulates with these challenges. Challenges That Lead to Dropping Out There are several significant challenges which lead to the dropping out among children. Some challenges are ignited by the supply sides while the other is caused by the demand sides. There have been several researches revealed the challenges that lead to the dropping out. The world Bank, in 2004, did stress the problems that lead to the drop out. Each year there is high rate of enrollment at basic level, but they eventually abandoned the school. These phenomena were caused by some factors. First, there is the increase of child labor at the very young age; children were exploited by several means without getting any care from the society or it is lack to be care by the related individuals. Second, there was late enrollment of the children and after a few years in school they felt embarrassed because they saw themselves as big; eventually, they quit. Third, there was lack of readiness for the enrollment; at the beginning of the enrollment the families seemed to have ability to send them to school and later on it was impossible to do, so they stop. Fourth, there is the significant number of incomplete the low level school. Fifth, the lack of qualified teacher was identified as the ignition of the school abandon among the young children. Finally, the identification of the cause was the lack of health-environmental facilities such as playground and libraries (WB 2004). In fact the number of enrolment at primary level is quite big. The process of their studies can proceed only for a few years and after that the big number become smaller and smaller. There are numbers of complicated obstacles for these drops out. According to the data conducted by EMIS, only 45 per cent of children who start primary school can eventually finish grade sixth and among them, there are only thirty-eight per cent can go to lower secondary school; some of them didn’t finish grade 9; in lower secondary school; there are three years which most students can only reach grade 8. It is such a big number of drop out which will be foreseen as number that will be much downgraded to reach grade 9. With this high percentage of drop out, it takes 10.8 years for a child to complete his or her education in primary school (EBEP 2006-2010). Recently, the Royal Government of Cambodia announced its practical way in improving the education system. Also it proclaimed the great achievements. In the contradict to this, there are still some big problems remain behind the achievement. The drop out rates is still high among primary school children and only small number that can accomplish grade 9. This phenomenon is a constraint for the Ministry in reaching its goal in stimulating the young people to receive basic education from grade 1 to grade 9 by the year 2015. Along with this, some constraints are identified by the Ministry of Education. In order to identify such problem, the Ministry created another department called Education Sector Support Program (ESSP) to detect and identify the problem. The challenges are found as follows: ” i) low access to basic education, particularly lower secondary schooling, among children from poor families, girls, ethnic minorities, children with disabilities, and children who are living in remote areas. ii) high dropout rates in basic education, with this most dropouts occurring in upper primary school before children have completed the full cycle. iii) uneven quality and standards in basic education” (Benveniste 2008, p 15). In 2005 the World Band wrote that the transition period is another main cause of the drop out. The drop out occurs when they finished grade 6, and they are awaiting to pursue to grade 7. The number of children about 75 percent were able to go through from primary school and among that only 52 percent went on their studies to the secondary school and finished their basic education (from grade 1 to grade 9). During this interval, the decisions of the children as well as their parents are abruptly changed for some reasons (World Bank 2005). Supply-Side Factors So far the Royal Government of Cambodia that has the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports as an acting figure in implementing the educational policies has been working really hard to reduce the dropout rate among the basic education. The Ministry itself is looking for the the causes and it invests a lot of money in building facilities and instructional materials in recent years. Moreover, the government also set up policies to reduce the house whole financial burdens by letting children to enroll school for free. A long with this the necessity for the children to study is also supported. However, this support is still not enough for the children. The significant barrier for disadvantaged children is the direct cost. In recent year, the government commanded the removal of formal entry to enable them to enroll. Moreover, the Ministry strives to disseminate the information of free of charge enrollment for children. Some educational billboards about the importance of enrollment have been displayed in public to draw the understanding among parents. Unexpectedly, when students have already enrolled, some problems still occurred associated with the informal fees through providing the extra class to students or the like. This phenomenon should be combated for it functions as great constraint that lead to the drop out (Benveniste 2008). Another strategy to combat the dropout rate is to build up relationship with the community so that they can understand; they will support the enrolment and keep their children in school. In the citation of Education Strategic Plan 2006- 2010, there is the promotion of the relationship between homes and communities. The reasons of this expansion are to promote a shadow education which is considered as the important stimulant to achieve the objectives that have been launched. The campaign aims to disseminate the community- based information of holistic intervention at the early ages. The investments in early age among children has been increased from USD 0.19 million in 2006 to USD 0.3 million by 2010. The promoting program was supported by PAP (Priority Action Program) (Benveniste et al 2008). To ensure the stimulant package to upgrade within the children enrolment, the Ministry has also launched some other practical projects. In that, child friendly schools are seen significant to push the enrollment and to persuade children to remain in school. However, the campaign to spread the information about this project is not widely done so that parents do not fully understand the significance of it. If the parents know that they will value and help to encourage their children to remain in school. World Bank (2005) addressed other kind of constraints that lead to the dropout is the quality among teachers. The word quality in here does not really focus on the knowledge of the responsible subjects, but also the art or talent of teacher to harmonize with the students. Teachers need to have psychological knowledge to call for the interest among students. Qualified teachers can help students to stay in school more. In order to reform this, the project of quality improvement interventions program is also launched and a lot of money has been used to conduct this ability upgrading project. A long with student retention, promotion, and especially in student learning is done accompanying with teacher improvement. In the program of upgrading the quality of education, one dollar per pupil has been increased. The program also focuses on teacher training and this prestige implementation lead to the increase in points the students get between 0.70 and 1.05. After the implementation, there is the observation of increase in literacy as well; one dollar was invested in the upgrading policy, one percent was also excelled in student literacy. Another important task that the Ministry of Education pays its concentration in order to reduce the dropout is the investments in health care and skills training. Besides that, it goes to the the modernization of infrastructure.(World Bank: Quality Basic Education for All 2005) The followings are the components that can be used to stimulate the aspect of pushing the students to remain in school. The practical ways of encouraging students to remain are to enlarge the services to be available such as building up more school houses so that students are easy to get to school. This should be done in both primary and secondary school. Next, there should be the expanding of operating budget for these two levels. To do this can also lead to the elimination of gathering the illegal money. Thirdly, the development of remedial classes must be done. Fourth, the instructional material must be available to improve the quality of teaching and make the learning enjoyable for students. Sometimes it is hard for students to understand the abstract concept, so the use of teaching material can help students to form pictures in mind; they can understand better (World Bank 2008). Demand-Side Factors Elimination of unofficial fees. Unofficial fees are the significant constraint that make students’ families can’t afford education for their children. In fact, under the support of the government, students do not pay for registration at the beginning of the new academic year. Surprisingly, students need to pay like bicycle parking fees; it is not a compulsory pay but students need to do unavoidable because they don’t know where to park. The parking fees are thought to be too high sometime. Other unofficial fees are the fees students pay for the extra class. Students are not put pressure directly, instead they are put pressure indirectly through, for instance, giving low mark. “Extra classes are reported in only 6-7 percent of small rural schools, but in more than 40 percent of large urban schools. Fees also vary considerably from less than R300 per class in small rural school to more than R500 in big urban schools” (Araujo 2008. p. 58). Some other problems are identified for the demand side. These problems are the obstacle to miss persuading the students to remain in school. The primary education, especially the repetition of grade 1, 2 and 3 and the drop out of grade 5 and 6 still has some issues which have to be solved timely such as: a/Documents related to Child Friendly School program are not widely available. b/ PB budgets cannot be accessed at the start of the financial year, this impacts negatively on conducting activities and the achievement of targets. c/ The teaching hours and school calendar are often curtailed. d/ Insufficient access to textbooks reduces the quality of education and coverage of the curriculum. e/ Insufficient infrastructure, including: latrines, sources of water and sanitation, libraries in many schools in remote and disadvantaged areas impacts on students’ attendance and performance. f/ There are insufficient teachers in rural and remote areas undermining the quality of education and learning in these areas. g/ The capacity of District Training and Management Teams (DTMT) in all provinces and capital city is not strong enough to help the teachers and school directors improve school performance (National Education Congress Summary Report-Academic Year 2008-09 p.4) Work force The number of dropouts in the rural areas is higher than in the urban. In rural areas, children are subject to do works such as looking after cattle in the fields; besides that, those children need to do more chores like carrying water from ponds, wells nearby, and firewood to supply home. That is a great burden for them to manage time to study. When they are so busy with this kind of work, they seem to have no feeling to read books (Dy 2004). What the Government Should Do to Reduce the Dropout Rate In order to reduce the number of dropouts, the government should do several jobs such as staff training, financing, evaluating, facility providing, setting clear policies, and other program monitoring. As stated in the Congress Report (2009), staff training is important in reducing the dropout rate for it helps students to gain their knowledge quite well. It also relates to the quality of education. When students get good academic achievement, their families as well as themselves feel really proud so that they have strong commitment towards education. Sometimes, the academic achievement can insult students and their families and in the end student can quit their studies. Another important thing for the government to do is to finance especially on building more school building quite near to their home. The government has to ensure that one village there is one primary school. Besides the school buildings, financing on teaching materials is also important to achieve the effective academic result. Moreover, the government should provide more money for teachers. If teachers have high salary, it is clear that they spiritually have committed to their teaching and their teaching will have good result. Setting up clear indicators as well as other policies related education is extremely significant. Dy (2001) stressed the importance of clear policies making. Prioritizing the policies making is to pave the way clearly that the Ministry could access their goals. The Ministry of Education that has administrators to implement the policies should particularly focus on primary education by conducting special training for all teachers as well as the school principals. Conclusion It has been observed that the dropout rate is still remaining high even though the government has been striving its works to eliminate or to reduce. The areas that are considerably indicated as high are in rural. The problem is that in those remote areas really face many difficulties for children while the urban areas students seem to use most of their time in learning. In contrast to the city children, rural children use most of their time to do house work and other non-academic affairs. Although these problems occur, the government is the one which has significant function to stimulate the reducing process of the dropout among children in lower education.

Influences of Organisational Culture on Social Care

best assignment help Influences of Organisational Culture on Social Care. Explain How Different Aspects of Organisational Culture, Including Communication and Leadership, Influence Service Provision in Social Care Organisational culture, a theoretical model of business practice, may also used to understand the systems and behaviour of other organisations, in particular the application of organisational culture theory to the understanding of social work practice. This model of business attempts to understand the positive and negative development of an organisation, through conscious and unconscious processes, and how these elements assist or limit the people within the organisation. Applying the principles of organisational culture theory to an environment which is essentially client-focussed is not straightforward, but provides social care theorists with both a way to understand barriers and limitations within the system, and the way that the principles of the organisation is applied to service provision; it may also offer a key to implementing practice reforms and changing the structure of social service organisation from within. By interpreting the social care system through this business model, it is possible to avoid the limitations which hinder better practice within social work. As this essay is based upon the terminology of Organisational Culture Theory, it is necessary to begin with a brief introduction to the theory, highlighting its concerns, and considering how this term relates to current understanding of organisational models. After this explanation, the essay will then consider each of the most important terms within organisational culture theory, including leadership, communication, and motivation. These terms will then be used to describe the aspects of organisational culture as they affect the provision of services within social care. A conclusion will discuss the relevance of organisational culture theory to social work, finishing with the consideration of how this business model is being used to alter the way in which social services are practiced, and the values which are utilised by social care. Organisational culture, the “set of beliefs, values and meanings that are shared by members of an organization” (Austin and Claassen, 2008, 349), is most often understood to refer to the practices and behaviours of a business organization. The term “Organisational culture” is not easily defined, despite its frequent usage, and theorists have therefore tended to outline the term according to their own interests. Attempts to clarify the meaning of ‘organisational culture” began in 1954: “The culture of industrial groups…from class origins, occupational and technical sources, the atmosphere of the factory which forms their background and finally from the specific experiences of the small informal group” (J. Brown, quoted in Anderson-Wallace and Blantern, page 3). This term highlights the importance of social bonding in creation of an organisational culture, which serves to unite a company around a common world view. Andrew Brown is one of many authors who have noted that the same organisation can have different organisational cultures in different countries, reflecting a difference in the social cultures of those companies: “These differences are most striking when they were detected in the subsidiary companies of the same multinational organisation, because they seemed to suggest that national cultural differences may help shape organisational design and behaviour at a local level” (Brown, 1995, page 2). Later, organisational culture would be more extensively defined by both Brown and Edgar Schein: these two works will be the basis of the remainder of this essay. It is important to note the essential elements of organisational culture theory: that this culture consists of social and localised beliefs about the operation of the business; these beliefs, or mythology, may bind a company together to the extent that it becomes isolated from outside ‘reality’: Brown uses the example of Philips Electronics: “Philips’ cultural inclination to define truth and reality according to its technological bias has led critics to charge that it is complacent, lethargic, inward-looking and risk adverse” (Brown, page 29). He also notes that critics considered the internal culture a definite factor in the economic failure of the business. Brown’s work is a general guide to organisational culture, and offers three main sources of culture within a business: “The societal or national culture within which an organisation is physically situated” – which might be one reason why multinationals operating in many countries often have a number of organisational cultures; “The vision, management style and personality of an organisation’s founder or other dominant leader” – leadership and the mythology of prominent leaders being an important influence on the culture of a business; and “the type of business an organisation conducts and the nature of its business environment” – one would not expect social care to develop the same organisational culture as a company such as Shell or Cadburys (two businesses mentioned by Brown). Schein’s work describes similar factors in a rather more abstract manner. He uses the terms ‘artifacts’, ‘expressed values’, and ‘basic assumptions’ to describe organisational culture. Schein sees artifacts as including all the tangible aspects of a culture – language, surroundings, technology and “The visible behavior of the group and the organizational processes into which such behavior is made routine” (Schein, 1992, page 17). These are the aspects most observable to outside researcher, although Schein notes that “It is especially dangerous to try to infer the deeper assumptions from artifacts alone because one’s interpretations will inevitably be projections of one’s own feelings and reactions” (Schein, page 18). Espoused values may help the researcher to better understand the culture; some of these values later become assumptions: “Only values that are susceptible to physical or social validation and that continue to work reliably…will become transferred into assumptions” (Schein, page 20). Consciously espoused values may provide a clue to the basic assumptions of a group; alternatively, they may not: “One must discriminate carefully between those that are congruent with underlying assumptions and those that are, in effect, either rationalizations or only aspirations” (Schein, page 21). Basic Assumptions are, in essence, what lies beneath; these assumptions are those held subconsciously by an organisation: “If a basic assumption is strongly held in a group, members will find behavior based on any other premise inconceivable…[they] actually guide behavior…tell group members how to perceive, think about, and feel about things” (Schein, page 22). With this understanding of basic organisational culture theory, it is now possible to consider in greater detail a number of subjects which are influenced by this culture: motivation, leadership, and communication. Motivation: Business theory is greatly concerned with the motivation of employees, and a strong organisational culture is considered essential to this. “Most organisations make strenuous attempts to motivate their employees…an appropriate and cohesive culture can offer employees a focus of identification and loyalty” (Brown, page 90). A positive organisational culture has a beneficial effect upon the motivation of the workforce, encouraging staff retention, high performance, and the intake of recent graduates; employees may also experience a better quality of life, or at least working life, avoiding stress-related illness. By contrast, a negative culture may result in loss of motivation, high staff turnaround, workers entering employment with fewer skills or qualifications, and low performance. Leadership: Leadership, particularly charismatic leaders and company founders, have a profound impact upon the organisational culture of a business. Founders, of course, by creating the business, “usually have a major impact on how the group initially defines and solves its external adaptation and internal integration problems…Founders…typically have strong assumptions about the nature of the world, the role that organizations play in that world, the nature of human nature and relationships… [and] how truth is arrived at” (Schein, page 213). The creation of the company is usually the beginning of its organisational culture and basic assumptions; and while the espoused values may change, the unconscious basic assumptions may extend back to the foundation of the business. Founders and later leaders are often charismatic, and their decisions may not be challenged directly: “The emerging culture will then reflect not only the leader’s assumptions but the complex internal accommodations created by subordinates” (Schein, 230). The charismatic leader’s personal style will also lead to the development of a mythology. These stories are vitally important in the maintenance of an organisational culture. Communication: The effective communication of ideas is essential in organisations, and often progress can be hampered through poor communication; Schein describes the development of production engineering: “Without it, engineering often designs things that cannot be built or are too expensive…Engineering is likely to perceive production as lazy and unimaginative, while production perceives engineering to be unrealistic” (Schein, 258). Organisational culture can affect communication, for example in hospitals, where “Most were discovered to suffer from a dearth of worthwhile formal communication channels” (Brown, 281). An organisational culture which avoids communicating new ideas will undoubtedly make profound mistakes and fail to co-operate. It is possible to see these aspects in the influence of organisational culture upon social care, and particularly how the provision of care is directly affected by leadership, communication, and motivational ideas. As Anderson-Wallace and Blantern explain, the perception of the recipient of care has a basic assumption (unchallenged), as its base: “One cultural artefact is an emphasis on an assessment of the individual client within their wider social environment. This is underpinned by the espoused value of the importance of a dialogue between practitioner and client. The underlying assumption is of the independent nature of the client in active negotiation with the practitioner.” (Anderson-Wallace and Blantern, page 8.) The basic assumption also reveals that the emphasis is upon the client, rather than upon the care worker. In such circumstances, it would not be surprising to see care workers being de-motivated; active participation is limited to the client, lessening the need for effective communication, and also the possibility of blaming the client for errors; against this latter lays the practice of holding social services responsible for all errors in service provision. Motivation is a major problem in social service, revealed through high turnover, poor quality of working life, and work-related illnesses such as stress: “stress is more common amongst social workers than either the general population or health care workers, due to the sensitivity and responsiveness to the difficult problems presented by clients which their work requires” (Ramon and Morris, 2004, page 7). As noted above, lack of motivation provision within organisational culture not only results in all the complications described here, but is also connected to low job performance. Here, the organisational culture influences service provision in a negative manner, by creating a culture of de-motivation, where the care worker feels impotent: “The statements indicate the relationships between experiencing stress, level of control, autonomy and flexibility within their job or role” (Ramon and Morris, page 8). There are also conflicting social cultures within the wider environment which contribute to this absence of motivation: the western world generally emphasises self-help and chastises those who are dependent upon government assistance: “A further layer was poor morale, associated with an inquiry on child protection (a feature shared with a number of similar departments), and the experience of a culture which tended to view stress as reflecting individual weakness” (Ramon and Morris, 7, but also visible in the wider media). There is in fact very little evidence for leadership as part of organisational culture within the social services, although some research has suggested that leadership culture within social care may be negative: “This vindication of the pessimistic view of the team leaders group highlights the defensiveness of some senior managers of social services departments who view constructive criticism as an affront” (Ramon and Morris, 19). The account of leadership culture within the social care department suggests an organisation that emphasises leadership above productivity and worker satisfaction – other parts of the essay note staff complaining about impolite and inconsiderate leadership styles. Despite an espoused value of worker importance, the basic assumption appears to be that leadership is most valued, and criticism by lower staff members is not acceptable. Poor communication culture lies at the heart of social care training. Ramon and Morris note “Improved communication between management and staff” as one of the goals of their research (Ramon and Morris, page 10), suggesting at the very least that the organisation culture of the social services is one of negligence towards communications, other sections of their essay suggest that communication is exceedingly poor “Poor communication and consultation within the organisational culture was identified as the major cause for stress,. As noted above, this can seriously affect performance, in this instance service provision” (Ramon and Morris, 19). In the following example, the necessary NVQ was preceded by a questionnaire upon the values of the workers involved; these reveal quite different values from those of the NVQ modules – an emphasis upon personal quality of life offered by the workers is altered to education on health care and understanding of resident’s social issues. “Almost without exception, role development was identified as impor­tant; most viewed this to be within the care sector at a higher grade or entering nurse training. Significantly, male staff perceived their role pro­gression to be to that of care home manager or owner” (Winter and Meehan, 2004, page 6) While most of the workers described personal lives as more important or as important as work, and valued honesty and equal opportunities for staff, instead, emphasis was placed upon NVQs with modules such as “Fostering people’s equality, diversity and rights”, where the focus was upon the residents’ needs rather than staff equality. Training within the NVQ did not cater for male staff’s ambitions, or for personal quality of life. Here we can see Social Care with a series Espoused Values (care and motivation of staff; better staff retention; valuing employees) which contradict the actions of the area, with its emphasis upon residential equality and the gaining of IT skills, suggesting that the Basic Assumptions do not match – the basic assumptions might be “care of the residents is more important than staff satisfaction” and “IT training will improve motivation and help retention”, or even “training will improve the care given”. It is worth noting that, while 92% of staff thought the NVQ training would improve motivation, only 50% thought it would improve staff retention – one of the stated aims of the training. Emphasis upon training therefore appears to bear little correlation to workers’ performance; it also does not appear to have improved the motivation or turnover of care staff. The purpose of this essay has been to consider how organisational culture influences the provision of services within social care. One thing that has become clear from this research is that the organisational culture of social services relies heavily upon charismatic leadership to develop the stated values of the department. However, the culture also places limitations upon staff criticisms of leaders, meaning that desirable change may be limited or even prevented: for instance, Michelle Johnson and Michael Austin have suggested that the organization culture of local social services contained barriers to the creation of evidence-based practice, including the fact that there was “Little history, culture or expectation that evidence is routinely and systematically used to underpin practice” (Austin and Johnson, 87). This problem is undoubtedly one of leadership culture preventing better evidence-based practice from being developed. A secondary problem is that of communications – as Ramon and Morris noted, official communication was resented, being seen as an imposition from above (page 19), and there was limited value placed within the culture for cross-company consultation. These details may seem to relate only to staff members, but clearly they have a role in the outcome of service provision to clients or residents. The lack of motivation experienced by staff members, including stress and feelings of impotence, impact the service they offer to clients, particularly when the unconscious assumption is that these clients are both ‘independent’ of the care provider, and under the control of that same provider. Leadership issues prevent the adequate solving of problems – the basic assumptions of the group meaning that challenges to senior management are dismissed, or regarded as an affront to the leadership. This assumption has prevented the adoption of beneficial policies within the workplace, and has probably limited schemes which would also have aided service provision. Communication between departments within the social services has been justly criticised in the past, and it is clear that a problematic relationship with senior management is also indicative of problems in communication, data being rejected by staff members if it appears to come from management. All of these actions reveal the unconscious assumptions of social workers, both towards colleagues and towards their clients. The application of organisational culture theory to social care offers an opportunity to better understand the role that basic assumptions and values take in the provision of services to clients. Attempts to create a more evidence-based practice have emphasised the importance of a corresponding change in the culture of social work, offering an alternative to the problematic assumptions which can be found in the current organisation’s culture and practice. Works Cited Anderson-Wallace, Murray, and Chris Blantern (2005) “Working with Culture” in Organisational Development in Healthcare Peck, Edward (ed) Radcliffe Publishing, 2005. Austin, Michael J, and Jennette Claassen (2008) “Impact of organizational culture: implications for introducing evidence-based practice” Journal of Evidence-Based Social Work Volume 5 no 1-2 (2008) pp. 321-359 Austin, Michael J, and Michelle Johnson (2006) “Evidence-based practice in the Social Services: Implications for Organizational Change” Administration in Social Work Volume 30, no 3 (2006) pp 75-104 Brown, Andrew (1998) Organisational Culture Essex, Pearson Education Ltd Schein, Edgar H (1992) Organisational Culture and Leadership San Francisco, Jossey-Bass Publishers. Ramon, Shulamit and Lana Morris (2004) “Responding to perceived stress in a social services department: applying a participative strategy” retrieved 13/09/2008 from Winter, Jane, and Lyn Meehan (2004) “The value of integrated workforce planning across the local health and social care economy: a case study” Clinical Governance Bulletin Volume 5, no. 2 Jul 2004 pp 6-8 Influences of Organisational Culture on Social Care

Problem of Nature – Environment Degradation Research Paper

Table of Contents Introduction Discussion Conclusion Works Cited Introduction The current society is very concerned about the natural environment. Nature is under threat from various factors that affect it in one way or the other. The world is increasingly being globalized. Scientists are coming up with new strategies of approaching various issues within the society. Every aspect of life has been made easier. Communication has been enhanced through the invention of the telephones, the mass media, and the social media. Transport is also enhanced. All these inventions come at a cost. The cost of the inventions is the environment degradation. Most of the technological inventions have great negative impact on the environment. The manufacturing firms emit great amount of poisonous gases at their plants that poses great danger to the environment (Boschman 78). The wastes from the machines and other gadgets made for use by human being poses even greater challenge to the nature. This is has necessitated a lot of research from scholars who are concerned with the rate at which the environment is degraded. In literature, scholars have made an effort to fight for the environment. The scholars have used their literary weapons to defend the environment from pollution emanating from various manufacturing plants and various other sources. They have made effort to put to focus, the magnitude of environmental degradation from various human activities. This is the focus of this book. Authors have come to realize the fact that the society is under constant threat of environmental disaster due to activities of humankind. The authors have realized that there is need to get a solution to the deteriorating environmental conditions. They note that the solution that is much sought for is in the hands of the society members. Discussion The Norton Anthology American Literature Seventh Edition Volume A is a collection of books that address various themes. The books come with various themes all expressing different concerns. An analysis of the themes presented in this book starts from the cover page. The cover page of this book shows a beautiful neighborhood with beautiful vegetation. It shows a beautiful co-existence between man and nature. The woman is enjoying the shade of the tree while reading a book. The theme presented in this page is the beauty of nature presented to humankind when well protected. The relationship between man and nature is symbiotic. It is a give and take relationship (Bendixen 121). When environment is given proper care by human being, it will offer a very attractive environment to the people. The girl under the tree is a demonstration of this. She is very much at peace with the environment around her. The house is just a few meters away, but she prefers to do her reading under a tree. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The author is clearly giving the tree a preference over the house. Under a normal circumstance, it would be expected that such a person would prefer reading within the house. This is because of the comfort that the furniture and the shade of the roof offer. However, the woman has considered it wise to use the tree. This demonstrates that the tree offers more comfort than the house. The first story talks about the beginning of the world, and the flood that followed. The story tries to connect different theories that exist about the creation of humankind. The story brings various themes about the society. One of the strongest themes that come out strongly in this first story is that nature is under the control of human being. According to this story, when the world was created, it was handed over to man to take care of it. He was given the authority to take care of the environment and all that existed in it. However, this was under the instruction that man had to use it with wisdom. The flood that followed symbolized the punishment that would befall humankind if it fails to protect the environment as was expected. The flood consumed all but one family. The family had cared for the instruction given by the supreme God. The same consequence that people faced then when they failed to follow the commandments given is the same the current populace will face by failing to protect nature. The girl under the tree is enjoying the benefits of a protected environment. The story of the flood is a clear demonstration of the wrath of nature. Nature can make a very good servant. When one goes to the river for water, or cuts a tree to make a piece of furniture, the process is very enjoyable (Ferraro 32). One would feel in full control. However, when water takes over power from man, in form of a flood as demonstrated in this story, then lives will be lost. People will suffer, and the magnitude can be so severe it may end the entire humanity. The second story talks about Christopher Columbus, the great sailor that toured various continents in the world. The stories are given in the form of letters. In his letter to Luis deSantagel, this sailor talks about his first voyage. This letter is a description of the adventures at the sea. The letter brings out how nature is while on the high seas. Nature is not just on land alone. It extends. It captures various others on the high seas, each with its role. While fish is a surety of good sustaining meal while at the high seas, sharks and snakes pose serious threat to the lives of people in the high seas. We will write a custom Research Paper on Problem of Nature – Environment Degradation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The precaution that one needs to take while on land because of the dangers of nature is the same precaution one should take while on the high seas because of the same reason. In the letter to Ferdinand and Isabella, the author tries to explain the beauty of nature when left to take care of itself. The beautiful plantations are spectacular, despite the fact that no one is taking care of them. It poses a challenge to the humanity. Nature is able to take care of itself. In the first story of this book, it was demonstrated that humankind was assigned the duty of taking care of the environment. It is paradoxical therefore, that nature can protect itself better than the protection offered by humankind (Brown 21). To be specific, nature is under threat from the very being that should be protecting it. The story about the Coast of Pearl and the Island of Trinidad is another demonstration of the beauty of nature. The coastal regions form the best tourists’ attraction in every corner of the world. The coastal region in this story is no difference. When people visit the coastal regions for leisure, their driving force is always to get the best satisfaction that nature has to offer. This story clearly demonstrates that nature is beauty. In the coastal regions, various forces make the environment spectacular. The breeze from the sea, especially during the afternoon hours is very soothing. The waves at the sea brought about by the movement of wind are spectacular (Baym 21). A visit at this coastal region generates maximum satisfaction. The Island of Trinidad is natural scenery that comes with a lot of satisfaction to the visitors. However, this nature can be very devastating. This story demonstrates that nature is like a double-edged sword. It has the capacity to offer maximum pleasure to humanity. When individuals visit the beach during their leisure time, they are assured of a beautiful time at the high seas. However, when the storm finds one in the high seas, then life of such an individual can perish within a very short while. Such is nature, always having two sides, and ready to give either, depending on whether it is the master or the servant. The story by Thomas Harriot and John Smith talks about Virginia as the new found land. This book’s main theme is the nature of people, and the relationship between human being and the environment. In this case, environment means all other living and non-living things on earth besides human being. Human being, as a natural creation relates with the environment in two main ways. This first way is how the environment affects human being. Various environmental conditions will always affect human being in different ways. For instance, nature brings with it four seasons, especially in Europe and the US. During winter, the behavior of the natural environment will dictate the way human being will behave. The environment will dictate the type of clothing, and even the food eaten during such conditions. The second way in which man and environment relate is when man affects the environment. Man does various activities that have direct impact on environment. They may be characterized as pro-environmental or anti-environmental activities (Boschman 78). Based on the characteristic of the action, the impact on the environment can be very attractive, or very devastating. Not sure if you can write a paper on Problem of Nature – Environment Degradation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The above selected stories try to explain the origin of man and the relationship between man and nature. This book is very broad, and talks about other categories of stories, such as the trickster tales. All these stories revolve around nature and its relationship with human being. Conclusion The works of scientific researchers on the environment have come to overshadow the effort made by fiction writers about nature. Social scientists and natural scientist have conducted extensive research on various elements of nature and the relationship it has with humanity. Although this move is good, the effort of the fairy tale writers in defending nature should not be forgotten. The book ‘The North Anthology American Literature Seventh Edition Volume A’ is a clear demonstration f this. This book clearly demonstrates what nature is, to human being. It is a deliberate attempt to bring nature alive to the readers. The cover page of this book is the best demonstration of what the entire book is all about, in simple graphics. The young girl under the tree is reading under a very peaceful environment brought about by the beauty of nature. Because the neighborhood has cared for the environment, the environment is giving it its best. Works Cited Baym, Nina. Norton Anthology of American Literature: Beginnings to 1820. Oxford: Bound, 2007. Print. Bendixen, Alfred. A Companion to the American Short Story. Oxford: Blackwell, 2007. Print. Boschman, Robert. In the Way of Nature: Ecology and Westward Expansion in the Poetry of Anne Bradstreet, Elizabeth Bishop and Amy Clampitt. New York: McFarland, 2009. Print. Bross, Kristina. Early Native Literacies in New England: A Documentary and Critical Anthology. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2008. Print. Brown, Peter. A Companion to Medieval English Literature and Culture: C.1350 – C.1500. Chicester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009. Print. Ferraro, Thomas. Ethnic Passages: Literary Immigrants in Twentieth-Century America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993. Print.

BUSI 650 Liberty University Apple Inc Integrative Learning Project Outline

BUSI 650 Liberty University Apple Inc Integrative Learning Project Outline.

I’m working on a business project and need guidance to help me learn.

Hello,I have to have an outline done for an upcoming paper that is 16 pages long. The outline just has to break down the key topics (like how a normal outline format is) What I have attached is the progress I have completed so far. I have already completed the Annotated Bibliography and have a portion of the paper done that was suppose to be completed a couple of weeks ago. Now the next phase of the paper is coming up and I need it completed. The only part that is due this sunday 4/25/2021 is the outline. I will attach everything I have completed so far including the instructions of the outline and the actual paper–I completed two pages of the paper that was due a couple of weeks ago but there needs to be more added to it. All I put in the paper was the mission statement, Products and services, the corporate target market, value creation, and the role of christianity. It is still missing alot of information you can simply add on to the information that is already in the paper by putting that in the outline.. The information that needs to be added to the outline is in the general instructions that are attached below. I will also give you my log in information in order to access my E-Book to help you with the assignment as sources/references and key concepts that need to be discussed in the paper.Again please read all attached instruction below…this is a 3 part assignment and I am asking for part 2 to be completed which is the outline.The link to my E-book is (I will send the log in information in a personal message whoever is assigned to this assignment.
BUSI 650 Liberty University Apple Inc Integrative Learning Project Outline