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Literally Analysis 2

Literally Analysis 2.

A research paper is a formal paper(THIS IS NOT A RESEARCH PAPER ITS AN LITERALLY ANALYSIS OF SOMETHING THE AUTHOR WROTE) that requires reading, selecting, evaluating, and organizing material for written presentation. Because of the type of paper it is, the writer must observe certain guidelines. Some basic requirements for this research paper assignment are given below. Your paper will contain the following: MLA FORMATProposal:1. After you select your Author (John Steinbeck) in short answer form, complete the following: (Do not write an essay paragraph. Do not copy the questions.)1). Why did you choose the work(s) that you selected. What interested you?2). How are you going to introduce your subject matter, and why are you going tointroduce the material in the manner you have chosen? (organization)3). What is the exact thesis you intend to state in your paper? (Underline the thesis onyour proposal only.) Why did you choose this thesis?4). List the points (at least 3) you will use to support your thesis. 5). Why did you choose the 3 points you have listed?2. Type your proposal in MLA format.3. Your proposal needs to be a minimum of 100-150 words. Include a word count at the end. 4. For your proposal (not in the research paper), you may use either first or third person.On a separate paper, in short answer form complete the following: Questions 1, 2, and 3 (Do not write an essay paragraph. Do not copy the questions.)Reflections: 1. How successful do feel your overall efforts were in writing this assignment? 2. What do you feel are the strengths and weaknesses of your paper?3. What is your overall level of satisfaction with this assignment?4. Write your reflections in MLA format.5. Your reflections need to be a minimum of 100-150 words. Include a word count at the end. 6. You may use first or third person for this assignment but not in the research paper.Research paper (3-4) pages) Note: The research part of the paper must be 3 to 4 PAGESpages. The Proposal, Reflections, and Works Cited do NOT count as research paper pages. Each page of the research paper must go the bottom line of the page to count as a full page. Partial pages do NOT count for full pages.Works Cited (does NOT count as a research paper page but must be included)Topic: This is a literary analysis paper of a work or works by your chosen author. It is NOT a biography. You must analyze a work or works of literature written by the author (John Steinbeck) Length: (3 to 4) typed text pages. To count as a full page, the type must go the the bottom margin.Note: The Works Cited page does not count as a text page, but it does count as a necessary partof your paper.Sources: –minimum of five (5) separate quoted or paraphrased sources NOTE: You mustquote or paraphrase from five (5) different sources. You must have five (5) in- text citations from five (5) different sources. Using one (1) source five (5) times counts as one (1) source. ).–minimum of two (2) types of sources–no encyclopedias, Brainy Quotes, Spark Notes or such like, class notes, textbooks, or .com (If in doubt about a source, ask the instructor for approval.)–Use of more than five sources is acceptable. All sources must be published. –Use Textshare. Requirements:1. Your paper must include a Works Cited page (see MLA2. Your paper must contain appropriate parenthetical (in-text) citations that coordinate with the Works Cited page.Point of View: third person only for research paperNote: Do not use any form of first or second person unless in a direct quote from the source. Example: NO I, me, my, we, us, our, you, yourPurpose: to inform, explain, or persuade
Literally Analysis 2

Hey man! What’s wrong? Why are you crying? I didn’t attend the last lecture how can I do the assignment now? Oh don’t worry! I have the lecture recorded in my pen. Pen?? Yes it records video. Here take this Education is a complex subject which appears to elude definition. With the passage of time it has gathered new dimensions and stirred the human mind in unpredictable ways. Education is a continuous process and it aims at total development of the individual. “Learning is not a single activity; it includes at least three different stages: accretion, restructuring, and tuning” That is the, progress from the unsure and anxious state of the learner to the serene and experienced skill of the expert. It is not enough to understand and learn a subject. When a subject has been learned, it should be used. It should be practiced. It should be tuned until it is used effortlessly. An old proverb says, “I heard it and I forgot it, I saw it and I remembered it, I did it and I learned it.” Learning is therefore more effective when it occurs in an interactive setting that is mostly promoted through the use of educational technology. Now a day’s one can not live without technology. There is hardly an area of our life which is free from its presence whether it is health or education, industry or transport, communication or entertainment, fashion or domestic comforts technology is there all around us to serve us in every possible manner. TAL is an abbreviation of Technology Aided Learning and is one of the most commonly used acronyms within education. TAL has been increasingly used to describe the use of technology for learning purposes. The need for technology in the classroom is rapidly increasing with the changing times. What one must remember is that TAL is used to assist the user in learning or understanding a particular subject or thought in different or with interesting presentation. The key word here is Assist which means that it is not alone in this aim and that there are other methods involved too. In other words it is a small part of a much larger picture. It is relatively a new learning technique and is used for individual learning, in schools and in workplaces no matter what age groups the learner might belong to. TAL can be equally beneficial for people with disabilities. It will give them the opportunity to work side by side with peers. Technology today is flexible enough to stretch and meet their special requirements. It will help them self-advocate In workplace environment it helps everyone by keeping a breast with latest techniques and solving day to day problems. Technology today provides virtual environments in which to check the viability of projects in real life situations. According to the British Journal of Educational Technology published by the National centre for Educational Technology, U.K. – No. 2, Vol. 2, May 1971. “Educational technology basically means all the intellectual and operational efforts made during recent years to regroup, arrange and systematize the application of scientific methods to the organization of new sets of equipment and material so as to optimize learning process”. Majority of the people prefer TAL over traditional methods. TAL can cater a large number of people at the same time whereas traditional teacher centered methods can accommodate a certain number only. Technological learning commonly known as ‘E-learning’ is defined as “the use of new multimedia technologies and the Internet to improve the quality of learning by facilitating access to resources and services, as well as remote exchange and collaboration” (EC, 2001). An integral part of the e-learning is video-conferencing technology, which allows students to talk to experts and other schools and students around the world in real time via a video link-up. Virtual schools are a relatively new phenomenon that is gripping the nation which makes it possible for everyone to learn at the same time even if they are at different ends of the globe. In this way a lot of time is saved from repeating or preparing the same lecture for separate classes. It is also benefactor for all those who due to one reason or another cannot go to educational institutions by having online lectures in their homes. If such virtual schools can be developed it might prove to be a sigh of relief for all those countries who import oil and other fuels as less to and from movement from educational institutions will bring a decrease in demand for fuel import thus giving a much required relief to their withering economy and might even boost it. Such a strategy can be particularly useful in rural areas where online learning can help teachers and students in remote areas overcome distance. So in this way it can lend a helping hand in solving the current staff to student ratio crisis. Technology is the potential savior of the education system, because it can be used to personalize learning. The learner can learn at the pace he is most comfortable with and can design his learning according to his knowledge and needs, record the progress he makes. While some of the people want technology to replace traditional learning altogether others might disagree. A more moderate approach to the issue in question would be that both techniques should be employed in balance because some students from backward areas do not have the pace and are not at all comfortable with technology and also because it decreases student to student and student to teacher communication up to some extent. This strategy of blending online learning with school-based instruction is often utilized to accommodate students’ diverse learning styles and to enable them to work before or after school in ways that are not possible with conventional classroom instructions. Learners respond to information differently. As a result, it is often to the teacher’s advantage to use many different formats and modes to teach the lesson. Factors which influence the use of TAL include availability of resources and time and also on the difficulty of the topic and the strength and level of the class being taught. Use of TAL also broadens the mindset by giving every kind of information in one place. Most of the instructors just teach whatever is in the book and do not go outside its scope. Some do not employ TAL techniques due to power fluctuations and also non credibility of information up to some extent. The kind of technologies employed include internet, video conferences, audio and video cassettes regarding book content, online tests, online reference books, articles/journals and a wide range of gadgets including Projector, Camera, Electronic Board, Computer and different multimedia aids. While open educational resources are freely available over the net to every student without any discrimination, effort should be made that they meet standards of quality, accuracy and credibility as with any other educational resource. TAL is an effective learning technique.TAL provides an active learning atmosphere because different audio and visual materials appeal to the senses and completely grabs their attention. The listener of today does not want a dull lecture he prefers education through entertainment. Because of its comfortableness sometimes listener feels at ease and then might miss out a few things but TAL has the ability to reignite listener’s interest. Because of the healthy interaction between technology and students interest in even dull topics can be developed. Audience motivation increases due to the use of TAL because everyday there’s something new. Hence, if proper motivation and learning environment is provided TAL can surely enhance learning capabilities. Outside school, students constantly interact with technologies such as iPods, mobile phones, the internet and social networking sites, so it is little wonder there’s an expectation that these technologies will also support their learning in the classroom. In recent world a program has been trialled that allowed students and teachers to download free information and resources through iTunes U – an area of the iTunes store offering free education content from top institutions around the world. The department’s assistant executive director curriculum support says that, by providing online content in alternative formats, the department hopes to make the information more accessible and appealing to people in the education community. This program will also test the practicality of using alternative electronic formats to distribute the department’s information. The iTunes project also means that students can better communicate with their peers and access different perspectives on their subjects by sharing audio files to discuss their school work. Advantages of TAL in classroom include but are not limited to those mentioned here. The ideal classroom is an interactive, collaborative, and innovative place of discovery; technology is a key piece in achieving that goal. The use of TAL is increasing due to its fast and effective delivery of concepts and convenience. “One of the advantages of using multimedia is to convey information quickly and effectively to all learners-and keep them interested in learning.” (Savage and Vogel, 1996). Each and every one of the student pays 100% attention. TAL increases the interest in learning by creating an environment which is both innovative and creative and engages the student more fully. TAL makes one forget the chalk dust, the textbooks and make them a thing of the past. TAL is bliss for all those who want permanent and up to date knowledge. The use of TAL has introduced the concept of self education. When students find a term they are interested in they would simply research it and discus whatever they have found with their classmates. TAL also has an upper hand due to its diverse material. It sure is a fun way to get your students to review important material. It is certainly an advantage for all those who want to gain extra. It also saves the student and teacher from the hassle of carrying books and notes to and from the classroom. TAL expands whatever the course offers. When the same material is taught for awhile the student and even the teacher himself might find it less than exciting. A quick internet search might help you identify ways to supplement your lessons with interesting new material such as photographs, sound clips, video clips, which can more than bring your lessons to life. Hence the use of technology allows teachers to diversify their lectures, display more information, and enhance learner’s learning. All student related info such as grades, attendance, progress reports etc can be uploaded which will make it possible to access it from any computer and hence make it easier for students and parents to track the student’s progress. Technology helps us in training our students in such a way that they master the 4Cs which are creativity, collaboration, communication and critical-thinking. TAL creates a sense of independent learning and help students in experiencing real life situations in the comfortable surroundings. “With the aid of technology, many teachers take students beyond traditional classroom limits, creating virtual environments to experiment and explore” (Hamza and Alhalabi, 1999). TAL reduces the cost of instructional materials. Technology is infused in almost every aspect of our daily lives so students from institutions which employ TAL techniques frequently have an upper hand than the rest as they are already trained in the much required skills. Students with little or no interest are simply not stimulated unless given technology as the backbone to their learning. Although some technologies sound space-aged and technical, most of the technologies that students are using are the same as those in most homes; the main difference is that, in schools, their educational potential is being explored. Like everything TAL also has some disadvantages. Let’s imagine a situation where a teacher is having trouble with technological devices and it might sometimes be embarrassing when a student tells him or her how to troubleshoot the problem in question. However, that doesn’t mean a teacher can turn away from using technology altogether. Instead, workshops should be arranged to bring such teachers into this new era of education by giving them the choice of what technology to use with their students. Given budget restraints, one hears more arguments in favor of traditional learning rather than use of technology in classrooms. The best solution to the financial problem is to allow students to bring in their own devices which mean that some students will have i-pads, pods, phones and laptops while others will have nothing. Technology, in this case, will likely serve to increase the gap between the rich and the poor and create a sense of deprivation. Sometimes students take it easy and become passive in the classroom or even don’t come in the class because they know that whatever will be taught will be uploaded and they can find the same or better resources then that shown in the class. In this way they stop learning content and go to learn technology instead. Technology loses its novelty over time as its extensive use might make the lecture dull for then it will become a routine. Extra efficient people can surely find something more to do but in this way a little less motivated students will be left far behind and thus a gap will be created. TAL can be of major disadvantage for backward area people in terms of communication gap. The extensive use of technology may cause to lose activeness and brain storming etc. Some were of the view that they even serve as distraction. Some teachers might rely on technology exclusively to make their job quicker and easier, but what one must remember is that a teacher’s job is never easy. As far as technology is concerned there is a very faint line between education and environment. Teachers should be properly trained to emphasize knowledge and skills related to instructional technology use. Educational institutions in the country should be provided with modern instructional resources to facilitate teaching. The future of TAL in terms of teaching/learning and transfer of information to any individual all of them saw a bright future some even went so far as to suggest that TAL might completely replace the traditional techniques. A revolution might be coming ahead which aims to prepare students for further education and training, jobs of the future and to live and work in a digital world. Some school students ages 9-12 are even now being switched on to some of the most up-to-date technology available, from laptop computers to interactive whiteboards, video-conferencing equipment and even virtual classrooms. TAL should be employed side by side with traditional techniques rather then relying alone on technology. TAL should be employed on a larger scale and everything should be done for its promotion throughout the country. A clear cut line should be introduced so that these technologies and resources are not misused. The daily interaction with technology will help in producing students or learners being leaders of 21st century.
Analyzing Instructions. I’m working on a English exercise and need support.

Analyzing Instructions

Locate an instructional document for a general audience.
Upload the file or an image of the document.
Evaluate the success of the criteria described in section 9.1 of the Baker text (Links to an external site.).
Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the document.
Respond thoughtfully to at least two posts from your classmates.

look at the uploaded file
Analyzing Instructions

City College of San Francisco Interview an Expert in The Engineering Field Essay.

Interview an expert in the engineering field(Software engineer) of your interest.Interview Assignment Rubric 1. Is interviewee name and personal info clearly stated?2. How and where was the interview was set up?3. Did the interviewer followed ALL directions/assignment requirements? If not, which parts were not fully addressed?4. Were the questions focused and relevant?5. Were there follow up questions wherever appropriate?6. Was there a clear “wrap up” to end the interview7. Did the interviewer learn a valuable lesson from the interview?8. Is the interview cited?9. Are there grammar errors and sentence structure problems present?10. What other comment/advice/suggestion/positive reinforcement do you have?(some suggestions questions from students)Do you have any positive reinforcement to offer? In other words, can you comment on something that is working well in your opinion?What school did you attend and what did you major in?Did you participate in any extracurricular activities or on-campus organizations during your education?In what ways did you gain skills and gain experience as a beginner?Did you have any prior internship experience before landing your first job?If so, where did you intern and what tasks did you partake in?What are your tasks and responsibilities at your current company?What is the work culture like at your company?What concepts from your academics do you apply today at your current job?Are there any insight, tools, technologies, or knowledge that you wish you had known earlier?What is the daily routine for your workflow at your company?Where did you attend school, and what were your intended majors when you first began? What made you choose? Did you ever change majors & Why? Did your family influence your major decision in any way?What were you like as a student? Were you really studious or were you really laid-back? How did you study when you were a student?What kinds of internships did you do? Were there any important skills that you put on your resume that you knew employers were looking for? What is the culture like at your workplace? What things do you like and what things don’t you like about your work?What is your typical day like? Do you have to follow a strict schedule?How important is oral and written communication in your workplace?Do you find your job as exciting as when you first started?Do you have any last thoughts or advice to offer?Where did you attend school, and what were your intended majors when you first began?What attracted you to the software side?Did you have any internship, and if so, how did they help with getting a job after graduation?Where are you currently working, and what is your company’s mission? What is your official title at the company?What companies have you worked for in the past and what positions did you hold?What skills are required in your position on a day-to-day basis?What is the advancement potential in the field? What is a typical path?What is the culture like at your workplace?What do you like about your job the most?Do you find your job as exciting as when you first started?How do you organize your time?Do you wish to switch fields in the future?
City College of San Francisco Interview an Expert in The Engineering Field Essay

Grossmont Cuyamaca Community Forms of Academic Dishonesty Violates Essay

Grossmont Cuyamaca Community Forms of Academic Dishonesty Violates Essay.

Engaging in cheating, plagiarism, or other forms of academic dishonesty violates the standards of the university, and can have serious academic and disciplinary consequences. I will reflect on my involvement in academic dishonesty violations and how to uphold principles of academic integrity. I am required to write a 5-6 page reflection paper addressing the prompts below: 1. Identify and describe my level of responsibility in the incident for which I was sanctioned. How could I have prevented the violation from occurring? 2. How were my actions inconsistent with the University’s expectations of me? 3. What are my career goals and how will my SDSU degree assist me in reaching those goals? 4. How might having this violation on my record prohibit me from obtaining my goals? 5. What do I believe would happen if I engaged in similar behavior in my place of employment after graduation? 6. What advice would I give a new student attending SDSU about upholding the student code of conduct? The paper must be typed in 12 point legible font (Times New Roman, Calibri, etc.), double spaced, with one inch margins.
Grossmont Cuyamaca Community Forms of Academic Dishonesty Violates Essay

The Geological composition of Larimar Research Paper

cheap assignment writing service Introduction The essay is critical examination of Larimar. The paper will bring forth the geological composition Larimar, the importance and uniqueness, reason why it should be appreciated as well as the value of the same in USD. Larimar is in the family pectolite. It is characterized by hardness of between 4.5 and 5. The color usually ranges from white, deep blue light blue, sky blue to green blue. The crystal system of Larimar is triclinic (Websters 2). Larimar was discovered by Mendez back in 1974. Mendez decided on the name after joining factoring in the name of her daughter Larisa and Mar which is Spanish word referring to the sea. Geological composition of Larimar It is worth noting that the chemical composition (geological) of Larimar is made up of odium silicate hydroxide (NaCa2Si3O8 (OH)). It is composed of largely pectolite, the chemical composition is acidic. The formation is coined to volcanic rocks of Miocene period where andesites as well as basalts did erupt within limestone. More over, Larimar do have vugs which constitute a number of other important mineral aside pectolite. It is important to note that the pectolite fillings were secondarily occurring within the flow as result of the eruption. Due to erosion, the pectolite were washed downwards toward alluvium and gravels along the beach. A river well known as Bahoruco did carry the sediments that contain pectolite into the sea. The action of tumbling during the transportation of the sediment resulted to the blue color of Larimar (Woodruff 21). Although it has been fond in Bahamas, Larimar is a typical material found in the Central Republic of Caribbean. Two main locations where it is found are Los Checheses and Bahoruco Range. Since pectolite is a rock and it is what constitutes Larimar, this thus means that it has more set of minerals. Importance Larimar is an important resource that has been and need to be appreciated due to its uniqueness and use. This stone has been widely used in jewelry or ornamental purposes as well as in semi-precious market. Additionally, it is worth noting that in the past, the stone provided artists with a medium in which they could express their ideas. Since it was a durable material, this meant that such piece of art could be available after several years (Carlson et al. 234). On the same note, it should be appreciated and opt to be as a result of its healing properties. The local of Central Republic especially in Bahoruco believe that Larimar can heal ease the pain as a result of inflammation, curb fever as well as reducing heat of sunburn. Additionally, the precious stone is seen as a radiant of love, peace, joy as well as clarity thus need to be used by individuals who are under depression. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Value The value of Larimar varies greatly but on the basis of size, weight and shape. Records reveal that the cheapest cost $ 5.00 while the most expensive is $138.05. The two main categories of Larimar are round and oval. The table below summarizes the value of Larimar; Table 1. Value of Round and Oval Larimar Round Larimar (size, mm) Weight(Carats) Color Price 13.70 7.75 Mottled Blue $46.50 45×20 Slab Mottled Blue $18.75 Oval Larimar 9.7×13.5 – Mottled Blue $5.00 10×8 /- – ” $8.25 12×10 – ” $12.00 13.5×9.4 4.35 ” $39.15 13.9×9.9 8.00 ” $24.00 17.7×13 13.50 ” $40.50 23×14.3 15.45 ” $138.05 Source. Carlson, Diane, Plummer, Charles

SFTY 320 Embry Riddle Aeronautical Ergonomic and Human Factors in Designs PPT

SFTY 320 Embry Riddle Aeronautical Ergonomic and Human Factors in Designs PPT.

After watching the video and considering the reading material:Consider how to address the ergonomics and human factors issues of your topic ( jet lag and how the disruption of air crews’ Circadian Rhythm affects them.)- research paper is attached, titled “Jet Lag and How the Disruption of Air Crews’ Circadian Rhythm Affects Them”.Finally, analyze man-machine interfaces and show some technologies in operator performance being used today and emerging technologies of the future, based on your topic and aviation safety.To help understand what is expected in this presentation, consider your research paper, determine if the human and machine interact in some part of your research, and explain the overall aspect of it.The Power Point presentation should consist of approximately 7-10 slides (not including the title slide and the reference slide) overall. The information should be properly cited and referenced using the current APA edition.Please include notes at the bottom, as I will need to provide Audio to this presentation. Thanks!
SFTY 320 Embry Riddle Aeronautical Ergonomic and Human Factors in Designs PPT

Similarities And Differences Between Islam And Christianity Religion Essay

Similarities And Differences Between Islam And Christianity Religion Essay. In this paper we will examine some relevant similarities and differences between two widely known and practiced religions: Islam and Christianity. Although, these two religions have easily identifiable similarities and differences, they are both large players in the religious world today with an impressive number of followers. Also, each of these religions had been delivered with basic rules of guidance, although the rules in themselves were different. Islam had, from Mohammad, the Five Pillars, while Christians had been given the Ten Commandments, delivered by Moses. Another aspect of each of these religions that is very similar is that each is a “Book” religion. They each have their own book written down by disciples of their respective religion. The Islamic religion has the Koran, and the Christian religion has the Bible. Because Islam diverged from Christianity’s beliefs, there are also some notable differences between the two. For example, the way in which each religion is expected to pray. Muslims pray alone and in congregation. When congregational prayer is executed, there are many rules and strict adherences to which they abide. They must pray this way a certain number of times each day and faces in a certain cardinal direction. For Christians, the prayer which is done alone is informal and at one’s own discretion, as it is for the Islamic religion. However, congregational prayer for Christians is much less rigorous and strict, and can be done in a number of acceptable ways. Muslims are also expected to take a journey, called a pilgrimage, to their Holy Land whereas, this is not expected of Christians. Another notable difference is the way in which money is given to the church. In earlier days, and in some cases modern days, Muslims giving was in the form of a tax which was mandated. Christians give in the form of a tithe and are asked to give ten percent of their income. A very large and widely disputed part of these religions is the interpretation of the Bible. Some events that are disputed include which son Abraham sacrificed, the Virgin Birth and nature of Jesus, and the interpretation of monotheism and the Trinity. Islam and Christianity are religions based on many similar and different beliefs based on the fact that one was borne of the other. For this reason, we can pick up on a number of things that ring true in each religion and a number of things that are completely different between the two of them. Aside from the similarities and differences, each of these religions is still recognized in today’s society despite the fact that they are both centuries old. Islam vs. Christianity Despite the fact that there are many similarities and differences between Islam and Christianity, both religions are significant in today’s society, which is apparent in the grand number of followers each has amassed. Islam and Christianity are in themselves, complete religions with many followers. Islam was born of Christianity in that a large part of Islam’s basic belief structure is based on that of Christianity and some portions of the Bible. Because of this fact, there are a number of similarities and a comparative number of differences between the two religions. The beginnings of Islam are actually deeply rooted in Christianity, based on the conviction by the prophet of Islam, Mohammed that Christians had departed from belief in God’s message as revealed in their scriptures (Pike, 67). Approximately 610, the first of many revelations came to him and these visions were believed to have been delivered from God by the angel Gabriel (Pike, 17). Here we begin to see the similarities between the two religions as Gabriel is also the angel that brings news of Jesus’ birth (Jesus being the founder of Christianity) in Luke 1:26-32, of the Bible. The message that Mohammed received was that there was only one God, not many Gods as the then present day Arabs believed. This God was the creator of the world (Lewis, 8). For Christians the message of a single God was given during the inception of the Ten Commandments in Exodus 20:3 of the Bible, “You shall have no other God before me.” The creation of the world by this singular God is documented in Genesis 1:1. “In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.” In the Islamic faith it is believed that this God would judge mankind, which also rings true in Christianity in Hebrews 10:30, “The Lord will judge his people.” For Muslims, followers of the Islamic faith, their single God (known as Allah) was considered just because he would judge every person according to his deeds (Catherwood, 99). In both religions, the result of this judgment day was either heaven or hell. Another similarity between both Islam and Christianity was the idea of forgiveness. Islam teaches that God is always ready to pardon the individual and restore him to the sinless state in which he started life. In Christianity, this same basic concept of forgiveness is accepted (Wiles, 561). After the death of Mohammed, certain essential principles were singled out from his teachings to serve as anchoring points for the Islamic community. These have come to be called the “five pillars of Islam” (Pike, 99-100). Comparably for Christians, the Ten Commandments are considered daily, divine laws. Also, each of these religions is one that has a “book” by which believers follow. For Christians this is the Bible, which was recorded by prophets and disciples to Jesus including Abraham, Moses, Elijah, and many others. The Bible is for the most part, ordered chronologically and Jesus teaches in parables (Bowie, 66). Likewise for Muslims their book is the Koran, which was a collection of the sayings and deeds of Mohammad, who was believed to be inspired to teach these things by Allah (Lewis, 44-45). However, because the Koran was assembled from remembrances of those who had learned it by heart, the chronological order is not used. The passages or suras were arranged from longest to shortest. In the beginning, for both religions, these teachings were passed along orally, but were later captured via the written word. These books serve as an additional guide for believers and stress the one idea of one God (Pike, 62). Despite these many similarities between Islam and Christianity many differences exist as well. One of these differences is prayer. Islam recognizes two forms of prayer, one being the personal and more informal form of prayer. The other is a ritual prayer which is often congregational with specific words and postures, to be offered five times a day: sunrise, midday, midafternoon, sunset, and before bed. Before Muslims pray ablutions are performed by washing the hands, feet, and face. A person called the muezzin calls for prayer and chants from a raised platform or minaret tower at the mosque. This prayer is started with the imam, the prayer leader, standing at the front of the mosque facing Mecca, the holy city of Islam. (This is the holy city because it was the death place of Mohammad). Each prayer consists of several units, during which the individual is standing, kneeling, or prostrate. At every change in posture, “God is great” is recited. The chief day of communal worship is Friday and believers gather at the mosque to pray, listen to portions of the Koran, and hear a sermon based on the text. The sermon may have moral, social, or political content. Islam has no ordained clergy, but there are men trained specifically in religion, tradition, and law (Peters, 126-129). For Christians prayer is done alone as well as in a congregation like Islam, but the rigors are far less painstaking. Prayer alone is done at one’s own discretion, but traditionally is done at night or in the morning. Congregational prayer is usually headed by the preacher, priest, or another prominent member of the church. The congregation is usually seated in pews, but this can be done standing as well. Christians have a clergy that have been trained in theology and matters of religion and posses a degree from a seminary. The chief days of gathering is on Sundays, and believers pray, sing, listen to sermons, and read from the Bible during their communal gathering (Morris, 218). As you can see, this is quite different from the Islamic religion. Another large difference in the two religions is the pilgrimage. For Muslims, the pilgrimage, or hajj, is an annual Muslim rite that every believer is expected to take part in at least once in his lifetime. From the seventh to the tenth day in Dhu al-Hijjah, the last month of the Islamic calendar, thousands of Muslims converge on the city of Mecca in Saudi Arabia to visit the holy shrine of the Kaaba in the Great Mosque, which tradition says was built by Abraham. The pilgrimage was intended to reenact the hegira, the flight of Mohammad from Mecca to Medina in 622 (Catherwood, 100). Christians do not have such a pilgrimage but many do visit the birth place of Jesus, the city of Jerusalem, and consider it an honor to do so. Fasting and the giving of money are two more distinct differences between the two religions. Because the Koran was first revealed to Mohammad in the month of Ramadan, the whole month was set aside as a period of fasting. During each day, from first light to darkness, all eating, drinking, and smoking are forbidden. Upon the end of the fasting period, the second major festival of the Islamic year ensues and lasts several days. In contrast, Christians have the Lenten period, where Jesus was sent to the desert for forty days and forty nights, and was tempted by the devil. During this time, Christians usually give up something of importance, and although some fasting does happen, it is generally not as long as in the Islamic religion. The end of this forty day period is known as Ash Wednesday, which begins the holiest point on the Christian calendar (Good Friday and Easter) (Ware, 146-147). Also, the giving of money is somewhat different. For Muslims, the zakat is an obligatory tax, which is contributed to the state or community. In the modern period, the zakat has become a voluntary charitable contribution (Pike, 100). For Christians, this is known as tithe. Believers are expected to contribute ten percent of there salary to the church for God’s purposes (Morris, 197). Also, some of the differences between Islam and Christianity are clearly discerned in the holy books of the Bible and the Koran. One such example is the sacrifice of Abraham. This event is interpreted very differently in both religions. Both books make the acknowledgement that Abraham was willing to make a “tremendous sacrifice” (Shamoun, 57). However, the difference between the interpretations lies in the name of Abraham’s son. For example the bible says, “By faith, Abraham, when he was tested, offered up Isaac, and he who had received the promises was ready to offer up his only son” (Hebrews, 11:17). With this the Bible affirms that it was indeed Isaac who was offered up as the sacrifice. In Koran, however, Ishmael is the one who is purportedly offered up for sacrifice as Abraham’s only son (Sura 11: 69-73). Another incident that is disputed between the two religions is the Virgin Birth and the Nature of Jesus. The Koran does support the virgin birth of Christ, but does not support the notion that Christ was resurrected. The Koran suggests instead that the Virgin Mary gave birth to a prophet, who was free from innate sin because he was virgin born (Dew, 1). The Bible then, supports the notion that the virgin birth existed, and the Virgin Mary gave birth to the son of God, “In this was manifested the love of God toward us, because that God sent His only begotten Son into the world, that we might live through him” (Dew, 1 John 4:9, 1). Islam states that Christ is not divine, it rejects this ideal and is seen in the Koran, “The Messiah, Jesus the son of Mary, was no more than Allah’s apostle and His Word which he cast to Mary; a spirit from Him. So believe in Allah and His apostles and do not say: Three. Allah is but one God” (Dew, Koran 4: 171, 1). Jesus in the Bible, however, is believed to be “God manifest in the flesh” (1 Timothy 3:16). This leads into the Trinity of the Christian faith. Islam is monotheistic in nature, stating, “For God hath said, ‘Take not to yourselves two Gods, for He is one God.” (Dew, Sura 16:53,1). Christianity is also monotheistic, but that God is made up of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit; otherwise known as the “Trinity”. Christianity says, “The Spirit the Lord Him” (Dew, Isaiah 11:2, 1), which refers to the Holy Spirit, Jesus, and God. Islam does not support this idea and the Koran argues that Christianity supports the notion of polytheism by stating that the Godhead represents three different Gods, not one (Dew, 1). In conclusion, Islam and Christianity are two intricately woven religions that have some basic framework in common, but their beliefs diverge as well. For example, some of the similarities shared in the two are the angel Gabriel as a deliverer of important news, monotheism, God as the creator of the world, and judgment by God after death. Most of the differences seem to stem from Jesus’ role as a savior. For example, Muslims do not believe that Jesus was anything more than a prophet and therefore, the Trinity can not exist. Also, there are some deviations in similar stories that are related by each religion, like that of Abraham and his sacrificial son. Despite these difference and similarities, we can agree that Christianity and Islam are both significant players in the world of religion and today’s society. Similarities And Differences Between Islam And Christianity Religion Essay

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