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Lireture Analysis: Charles Dickens Research Paper

Table of Contents Introduction Analysis Conclusion Works Cited Introduction Dickens is regarded as the master of style because he has the ability to describe scenes in colorful detail thus making the scenes being described to come alive. The two pieces of work that will be the main area of concern in this analysis are ‘A Tale of Two Cities’ and ‘Oliver Twist’. Analysis Charles Dickens’ writing reflects his extraordinary gift of observance. Not many novelists can accomplish what this author has managed to achieve in his books. He has the capacity to lay out images of things and people in a manner that the ordinary human being would not envisage. Dickens’ writings integrate what he observes with what he remembers and imagines. Seldom does one miss even the most trivial of details in his work. It is these trivialities that bring out his most critical strength in literature (Gissing 63). In ‘Oliver Twist’, the following passage exemplifies this feature: “his gaze encountered the terrified face of Oliver Twist, who, despite all the admonitory looks and pinches of Bumble, was regarding the repulsive countenance of his future master with a mingled expression of horror and fear too palpable to be mistaken even by a half-blind magistrate” (Dickens Oliver 18). The capacity to describe vividly probably stemmed from Dickens’ attention to detail even in his real life. In letters that he wrote to his colleagues, Charles often noticed the most peculiar things about people. One particular letter was written to Wilkie on the 17th of January 1858. He describes an incident in which he had gone to visit a mental asylum and found a man who was dumb and deaf. It was only during the late stages of his illness that others began to notice his insanity. Dickens asked about his occupation and found that he had worked as a telegraph operator. He speculated about the nature of messages that he sent to different parts of the world in his mental state. Charles did not think about the obvious things; he looked as the mentally-ill patient’s perspective from a totally unexpected angle. It was this talent that he transmitted to his novels. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Something else that comes to mind when reading this author’s classic tales is his propensity to find romance in unpleasant or routine scenarios. Dickens can find something valuable out of even the most wretched of places. He takes a seemingly insignificant and disagreeable occurrence and then relates it with the story in a manner that enriches it. For instance in ‘A Tale of Two Cities’, he describes a battle scene in Bastille as a “vast dusky mass of scarecrows to and fro, with frequent gleams of light above the billowy heads, where steel blades and bayonets shone in the sun” (Dickens A Tale 244). Through this description, he brings out the tense and belligerent atmosphere so effectively, and thus enriches the story. In ‘Oliver Twist’ several descriptions of drudgery and filth fill the chapters. In one scenario, he describes the tenements as “fast closed and molding away… houses had become insecure from age and decay and were prevented from falling into the street by huge beams of wood reared against the walls” (Dickens Oliver 5). It is clear from this description that the state of poverty in that tenement was excessive. The author emphasizes this state of affairs by adding the description of the beams. Such creativity makes one feel like one is in those establishments, and thus enhances the narrative. It is easy to find unforgettable scenes in Dickens’ work. The reason behind their impressiveness is his ability to paint them rather than merely narrate them. For instance in “A Tale of Two Cities”, the author refers to France for the first time in chapter five. At this moment, he talks about a broken wine cask. He then backs up the picture of wine casks with some descriptions of the surrounding noise. In another instance, the author paints a picture of the grindstone scene. He talks about the men who sharpen their swords and knives elaborately. Such scenes make the work appear as though it is an actual painting rather than mere prose. The author thus manages to affect the audience’s responses through these spatial representations (Stange 384). Like any other great writer, Dickens drew inspiration from a number of historical occurrences or figures. However, he was not interested in recapturing these crucial moments of history in every detail possible. Charles simply wanted to draw lessons from them. We will write a custom Research Paper on Lireture Analysis: Charles Dickens specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, he often told his biographer how he had read the book “French Revolution” by Thomas Carlyle hundreds of times; most structural elements of “A Tale of Two Cities” come from this book. Instead of reconstructing the past, Dickens chooses to tell the story of his characters through these historical patterns. When describing ancient practices, such as the whipping post, Charles reminds the reader that he is talking about an extinct practice. As such, one does not feel lost in a bygone era. Everything that takes place in the lives of his characters resonates with the social order of the time (Hutter 448). Therefore, the suffering and death that took place gains a lot of relevance in the mind of reader. This serves to keep all scenes highly relevant and thus captivating. It is these sorts of tactics that make Dickens’ work exceptional. On must realize that it is not just the great description of these scenes that makes Charles Dickens novels so remarkable. He also has an instinctive skill of integrating disorderly events into one remarkable and united tale. The story of ‘Oliver Twist’ exemplifies this strategy; throughout the narration, there is a mystery that must be solved by the protagonist. He needs to find his true identity, and when he achieves this, then he will find his true position in society. All of the adventures in the book are tied to this goal, even though the ambition does not seem to be so obvious in the beginning. It is these overarching themes that make the words and descriptions in the book so meaningful. Charles Dickens does not just write ‘Oliver Twist’ for the sake of writing; each description is filled with meaning. The scenes have a huge impact on the outcome of the story. For instance “Mr. Brownlow went on from day to day, filling the mind of his adopted child with stores of knowledge, and becoming attached to him, more and more,. And his nature developed itself and showed the thriving seeds of all he wished him to become” (Dickens Oliver 53). This passage captures the very essence of the book. Oliver always wanted to be independent; having grown up in the streets, he had to adopt a certain degree of self determination. On the other hand, Oliver still wanted someone else to make choices for him since the latter option would cause him to be accepted by the middle class or other respectable members of society. Not sure if you can write a paper on Lireture Analysis: Charles Dickens by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, when Brownlow fills him with knowledge, he is allowing the boy to reconcile these two needs. It takes a stroke of genius to capture such conflicting goals in small passages such as the one quoted above. Charles Dickens was able to combine verbal prowess with meaning-making perfectly in this excerpt (Miller 83). Charles Dickens’ style also elicits emotions from its audiences owing to its directness. ‘Oliver Twist’ is quite a poignant tale, but only the author’s descriptions create these effects. For instance when Dickens talks about Oliver’s imprisonment, one fully identifies the plight of this young boy. He is in an underground prison, which could fall at any time owing to its weak foundations and decaying structures (Dickens Oliver 3). Furthermore, the room is absolutely dark so that Oliver cannot see his surroundings. If one cannot see the walls, then it is almost as if one is covered by nothingness. A picture of gloom and hopelessness may take over one’s life. It is no wonder Oliver went to the corner so that he could at least touch something real. Dickens then contrasts the coldness of the walls with the gloom in the room, and asserted that the protagonist preferred the cold. The loneliness and isolation that this boy feels is unmistakable; Charles cleverly uses two highly undesirable elements to bring out the magnitude of Oliver’s troubles. If the boy was in such as state as to prefer a cold, hard surface over the nothingness, then it must have been completely unbearable for him. The witty choice of words draws out audiences’ emotions. It is only when an author is able to wear the characters’ shoes that he can think about his reactions to them. If Dickens had not imagined himself to be Oliver in that dark room, he would not have thought about the temporary comfort that the walls accorded the protagonist. Such vividness and capacity to draw out people’s emotions is what causes many readers to admire Dickens’ work. Any novelist should aim at pleasing his audience. ‘A Tale of Two Cities’ and ‘Oliver Twist’ are some of the most pleasant novels in English literature (Baysal 14). Therefore, in this realm, Dickens has succeeded as an artist. However, it should be noted that not everyone admired this style of writing during Dickens’ lifetime. Some critics such as James Stephen thought that appealing to audiences’ emotions rather than their sense of reason was crude and corny. These critics classified ‘A Tale of Two Cities’ as historical fiction, so they presumed that it should be philosophical in nature. Other critics of his time such as Aldous Haxley claimed that it was vulgar to fake emotions as Dickens had done because sincerity was a talent in literature. While these criticisms may be valid to a certain extent, they do not address the root-cause of Dickens’ stylistic preferences. Dickens wanted to write ‘A Tale of Two Cities’ in a manner that would educate the masses about an important historical event. He was not writing for the historians or the scholars, so it should come as no surprise that these audiences found his work unsatisfactory. The dates and events were accurately stated in his book and that is what mattered. Fictional writers must prioritize the needs of their readers as it is not possible to satisfy everyone. Many readers were drawn to Dickens’ work because he used characters that they were already familiar with. For those who did not about such characters, Dickens always made a point of introducing them ever so carefully. It was this element that constantly won them over. In doing so, Dickens would use habits that are common to all in order to achieve this aim. By drawing on common humanity, Charles was able to make his scenes come alive (Forster 125). “Now that he was enveloped in the old calico robes… he was badged and ticketed, and fell into his place at once – a parish child-the orphan of a half-starved drudge.. to be despised by all and pitied by none” (Dickens Oliver 8). Dickens was aware that all human beings have experienced indifference or disdain. Using phrases that captured these sentiments ensured that even the middle class could understand Oliver’s status. Conclusion Dickens was a master of style because he had a talent of observance, which manifested itself in the form of intricate details. Furthermore, he would find romance in the most unexpected places. As if these were not enough, Dickens often painted images of his scenes rather than just describing them. Perhaps the most important aspect of his work was his emotional appeal. He achieved this by putting himself in the shoes of his characters. He also introduced unfamiliar audiences to the world of his books using common humanity. It was these stylistic strategies that made him a literary genius. Works Cited Baysal, Alev. Caryle’s Influence upon A Tale of Two Cities. 8 Jun. 2007. Web. Dickens, Charles. The Adventures of Oliver Twist. Boston: Ticknor and Fields, 1867. Googlebooks. Web. Dickens, Charles. A Tale of Two Cities. NY: Bentham, 1859. Googlebooks. Web. Forster, John. The Life of Charles Dickens. Cambridge: John Wilson and Son, 1872. Googlebooks. Web. Gissing, George. Charles Dickens: A critical study. 2001. Web. Hutter, Albert. Nation and Generation in A Tale of Two Cities. PMLA 93.3(1978): 448-462. Web. Miller, Joseph. Charles Dickens: the world of his novels. Harvard: Harvard University Press, 1958. Googlebooks. Web. Stange, Robert. Dickens and Fiery past: A Tale of Tow Cities Reconsidered. English Journal 2009: 381-390. Web.

Motivation Theory Literature Review

INTRODUCTION: Motivation is naturally conceptualized either as an desire arising from within the human being or as an impulse arising from within the organism or as an attraction arising from an object external to the individual. According to Baron (1991) defines motivation as the internal processes that activate, guide, and maintain behaviour especially goal-directed behaviour. Also (Kanfer, 1998) defines as free will element of behaviour and the psychological mechanism governing the direction, intensity, and persistence of action not due solely to individual differences in ability or overwhelming environmental demands that force action. Motivation has been defined as essential to adaptive functioning and quality of life (Marin

Properties of Dopamine in Chemistry

research paper help Chapter 2. Literature Review 2.1 Introduction In recent years, natural adhesion has attracted increasing attention in the material engineering field. This can be mainly attributed to the marine mussel as it has a strong ability to attach to various surfaces in an aqueous environment where they reside. These surfaces vary from natural to synthetic, and inorganic to organic.[49-51] Previous studies on the mussel adhesive protein have discovered that 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine-lysine sequences, may be the main contributor for the versatile nature of the marine mussel.[52, 53] Dopamine, having a similar structure with this sequence, may provide a new platform for bioengineers to physically or chemically enhance the performance of other biomaterials. Several papers have already been published regarding the use of dopamine to augment other biomaterials, such as poly (ethylene glycol), carbon nanotubes and nanofibers. The first part of this review will briefly introduce the basic properties of dopamine which will be followed by its applications 2.2 Properties of Dopamine Dopamine’s properties can be divided into chemical and adhesive properties. The chemical properties mainly focus on the autopolymerization in aerated basic solutions and polymerization of dopamine based on vinyl groups. The adhesive property is dopamine’s most significant feature which gives dopamine its advantage as a biomaterial. 2.2.1 Chemical Properties 2.2.1.1 Autopolymerization in Aerated Basic Solutions Messersmith and coworkers first reported that dopamine is able to auto-polymerize in aired Tris buffer of pH 8.5.[8]. The process of dopamine autopolymerization with a pre-existing substrate results in polydopamine (PDA) films being deposited on the substrate surface. Longer substrate exposure times and higher reaction temperatures result in thicker PDA films being formed.[54] Regardless of the surface type, the inserted PDA films can be coated on the desired surface, even poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE), known for its anti-adhesive property.[8] 2.2.1.2 Polymerization of Dopamine Based on Vinyl Groups Polymers carrying pendant dopamine are normally obtained by radical polymerization of vinyl monomers with protected or unprotected dopamine. When meditating protected dopamine carried by polymers with double bone, borax (Na2B4O7·10H2O) is widely used as the protecting reactant in order to keep dopamine from forming an annular bidentate catechol subunit.[55] Normally, the polymerized reaction of protected dopamine happens in a liquid solution and forms linear chains. Deprotection reaction usually occurs in an acidic environment and results in the polymer carrying dopamine. Dimolybdenum trioxide[56], 1-dromotoluene[57] and denzophenone chloride[58] can also be used as protecting agents. Zhang et al.[59] designed a novel polymer poly (n-acryloyl dopamine) that possesses high adhesion to wood, especially when mixed with polyethylenimine (PEI) at about 150°C. They used a protected double bond dopamine as a monomer and 2,2’-azobis(2-methylpropionitrile) as an initiator via radical polymerization, following the deprotection of dopamine in an acid solution. When meditating unprotected dopamine, Lee BP et al.[60] was the first to report a creative hydrogel that copolymerizes modified dopamine with double bond and polyethylene glycol diacrylate via photo initiation by using a 2,20-dimethoxy-2-phenyl-acetonephenone (DMPA) initiator. As a result of this invention, greater attention has been given to hydrogels as a new artificial extracellular matrix (ECM) in the biomedical field. Dopamine belongs to the catechol family which leads to vinyled dopamine to act as an inhibitor.[61, 62], as a result they can react with radicals to inhibit polyreaction. The unprotected dopamine, modified with a vinyl group, is able to undergo free-radical polymerization. Several researches have done this experiment on radical polymerization to prove the reliability of this method.[63-75] The research group led by Metin Sitti, copolymerized a dopamine derivate (dopamine meth-acrylamide) with methoxyethylaceylate to obtain a reversible adhesion on the surface of nonflat glass under dry or wet condition.[65] In another publication, 2-(meth-acryloyloxy) ethyl phosphate was used to copolymerize with dopamine methacrylamide, followed by a complicated cohesion in which the copolymer bonded with positively charged polymer, divalent calcium and magnesium.[71] The chemical properties of dopamine provide the platform of its strong adhesive properties. 2.2.2 Adhesive Property The adhesive property of dopamine is one of the most significant properties of dopamine as it has proved to be very versatile in adhering to various surfaces despite the surface chemistry. The bonding between dopamine and surfaces can be generally distributed to two parts: covalent and non-covalent.[10] Surfaces which possess amine groups or thiol groups can covalently bind to dopamine via Michael addition or Schiff base reactions. However since most surfaces don’t have those groups, non-covalent bonding, like H-bond, π-π interaction and benzenediolcharge-transfer compounds are preferred to generate a valid layer and metallic chelating.[7, 53, 76-87] In a high pH environment, metal ions and medal oxides have a high chance of being hydroxylated or hydrated, which make chelate with catechol groups of dopamine much easier. This can be seen from many experiments done on polydopamine linking with metal oxides (such as Fe2O3, Fe4O3, ZrO2) through chelating bonding interaction.[82, 84, 85] This can be seen when polydopamine nanoparticle suspensions are added to a solution of KMnO4 with H2SO4. A core-shell nanoparticle structure is created in which the polydopamine act as the core and MnO2 act as shell, followed by blending the KOH solution to obtain MnO2 nanospheres. This adhesive property of dopamine provides promising opportunities for new bioengineered materials. 2.2.3 CNT For decades, carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been attracting increasing attention because of their superior features, such as thermal conductivity, excellent tensile strength and remarkable conductivity. They have been applied in various different areas, from sensors to catalysis, and from semiconductors to inductors for osteocytes. In order for CNTs to have a wide range of applications, surface modification is necessary. However, during this modification various intermediate reactions steps are required which increase the complexity of the CNT’s fabrication. Dopamine modification has been viewed as an promising alternative, leading to a coated multifunctional CNT with a polymeric shell that has tunable thickness by time, pH value and temperature.[88] The dopamine coating facilitates the addition of alternate modifications to the surface of CNTs, such as gold nanoparticles.[88] What’s more, CNTPDAs, first, were modified with ATRP initiator and then polymerized with diethylamine methacrylateto to form brushes polymer — poly (dimethylamine-thyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) on the surface.[89] Following that the functionalized CNT were quaternized in order to combine palladium nanoparticles on the CNTs’ surface. These two examples indicate the capability of dopamine coated CNTs to bind to metal complexes. 2.3 Applications There are many different applications in which dopamine could be applied in; three of them will be the focus here including applications in hydrogels, nanofibers, and biosening. These fields are of great interest currently as they show great promise for dopamine in bioengineering. 2.3.1 Hydrogel The need of a viscous hydrogel, as a unique material, is dramatically increasing in various biomedical fields. The high performance requirements of adhesive hydrogels are strict and various. This includes being sufficiently adhesive in a wet environment, satisfactory elasticity of artificial tissue scaffold and biocompatible.[60, 90] Moreover, biomedical hydrogels also need a quick sol-gel conversion for avoiding surgical obstruction. Recently, adhesive hydrogel, inspired by strong wet adhesion of mussel and cross-bonding capabilities of dopamine, has been attracted increasing attention and considered as a hopeful candidate to fulfill this technologic niche.[91] Messersmith et al.[92] reported the creation of four different adhesive hydrogels using dopamine derivative (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA)) as end-groups and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as a backbone. The difference of these four hydrogels can be divided into 2 subcategories, linear network and branched network. They applied multiple-angle laser light scattering to study the influences of different oxidative reagents on DOPA oxidation and hydrogel formation. The result showed that gelation time of PEG-DOPA gels relied on oxidative reagents, such as concentration and type. In Lee H.’s report, they also used DOPA and PEG to form hydrogels, but this time they used DOPA modified with methacryloyl chloride and PEG diacrylate instead of pure DOPA and PEG. In order to avoid introducing toxicity of oxidative reagent to the hydrogels and any loss of adhesion, the hydrogels underwent UV initiation.[60] These photo-imitated gels demonstrate appreciable elastic properties for use as a promising biomedical material. Using a similar method Phillip B. Messersmith’s research group also synthesized an adhesive hydrogel, prepared by copolymerizing DOPA with hydrophobic segments of an amphiphilic block copolymer under photo-imitation. The adhesive property of the hydrogel was surprisingly improved in the presence of DOPA in wet condition. The elasticity of the hydrogel was found to be similar to that of soft tissues leading to consider it as a encouraging candidate for biomaterial.[93] Further research conducted by Messersmith and coworkers focused on the biological capabilities of dopamine-PEG adhesive gels. In 2010 they reported that DOPA as end-caps covalently bonded with an amine-terminated 4-arm PEG. The PEG was the core in which oxidative reagents (NaIO4) were added to form an adhesive hydrogel in less than 1 minute.[94] The results of the in vivo test, performed in a murine model, showed the adhesive gels caused minimal inflammation and were stably interfaced with the surrounding tissues for more than 24 months. To form a catena degradable adhering polymer, three materials were reacted to form a semblable branched polymer, including dopamine derivative as end-group, PEG and polycaprolactone (PCL) as a backbone.[95] These polymers are able to form films whose properties, such as swelling capacity and biodegradation, were flexible by changing the ratio, or concentration of these reactants or by adding other additive agents. After coating these adhesive polymers on a biologic meshes, stronger water-resistant was exhibited when compared with fibrin sealant or cyanoacrylated polymers.[95] Applications for this biomaterial can be extended in the surgical field for hernia repair. Stewart’s group published several papers about adhesive hydrogels based on complex cohesion. In 2010 they created a bio-mimic hydrogel blending with revised gelatin and a copolymer which is obtained by a dopamine derivative reacting with monoacryloxyethyl phosphate in an alkaline condition.[71] The addition of Ca2 and Mg2 to the bio-mimic hydrogel could significantly improve the coacervation of the hydrogel, which was applied to tune agglomeration temperature to body temperature. The result demonstrated that the cohesion interaction was biodegradable, perfectly suited for medical applications. In another similar research, an adhesive hydrogel was synthesized by complicated cohesion of a positively charged copolymer and a terpolymer involving a dopamine derivative when its pH was higher than 4.[70] The bonding property of the hydrogel to hydroxylapatite was around 40% of common cyanoacrylate glue. T.G. Park’s group developed a temperature sensitive and injectable tissue-attachable hydrogel.[96] The hydrogel was synthesized by conjugating hyaluronic acid and dopamine, following by cross-linking with thiol tail-ended Pluronic F127 via Michael addition. The hydrogel precursor exists at room temperature, and a cured hydrogel is formed when brought to a temperature of 37°C. In a later paper, they used a similar strategy forming hydrogel by blending a dopamine derivative modified chitosan with thiol-capped Pluronic F127 at body temperature.[97] The adjustable gelation time of this block copolymer made it suitable for tissue-repair at 37°C. The resulting hydrogel dedicated excellent in vivo results, where chitosan served as hemostatic agent and dopamine derivative group acted as adhesive agent to soft tissues. 2.3.2 Nanofiber Tissue engineering tends to use nanofiberous biomaterials instead of a micropores matrix since the filiform and polyporous nanolevel structure allow for artificial extracellular matrix to enhance the fundamental cellular procedures.[98] Nanotechnology reformation have aided in the development of techniques for the production of such a nano-composite materials. Electro-spinning has recently obtained increasing attention, attributing to its briefness and facility for nanofiber fabrication. Through this technique, fibrous structures are easily tuned in order to coordinate it with the extracellular matrix (ECM).[99, 100] So far, this technique has been studied in a range of biological fields, such as bone and skin regeneration. The artificial polymer ECMs usually have difficulties with interfaced reactions between tissues and materials.[101] For electro-spinning nanofibers in applications of biomedicine, it is necessary to physically and chemically combine them with biomolecules or cell-recognizing ligands.[102] This subsequently provides bio-modulating or biomimetic micro- environments to contacting cells and tissues. Dopamine coating can be considered as a simple and versatile approach to modify various synthetic polymers so that they are able to serve in biomedical applications.[49-51] Ku and coworkers[103] firstly reported culturing human endothelial cells on a polydopamine treated electro-spun polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofiber membrane. They used two control groups, pure PCL nanofibers and PCL nanofibers coated with gelatin, to investigate the ability of cell attachment of dopamine. The result of the water contact angle demonstrated that polydopamine uniformly was coated on the PCL nanofibers. Polydopamine also significantly improve endothelial cells’ attachment on the nanofiber, compared with other non-adhesive substrates. Moreover, endothelial cells culture on PCL nanofibers coated by dopamine had developed cytoskeleton, positive PECAM-1 and vWF expressions and high cell extend.Rim and coworkers[104] designed dopamine functionalized electro-spinning poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) nanofibers with minimal influence on its mechanical performances, like wetting capability and roughness. The polydopamine coated PLLA nanofibers significantly enhanced cell attachment and the degree of spread, contradistinguishing with pure PLLA nanofibers. Meanwhile, its fibrous morphology had changed to more of a polygon shape instead of sphere after the polydopamine coating, which lead to higher DNA content of polydopamine treated PLLA nanofibers. The higher gene expressions of cells cultivated on polydopamine treated fibers indicated better osteogenic differentiation and vasculogenesis. Extensive research regarding the chemical or physical coating of metal on the surface of scaffolds to increase tensile strength has been done.[105] Jungki Ryu et al.[106] used dopamine to process hydroxyapatite deposits on PCL nanofiber by coating it. The result demonstrated a combination of surface activation through dopamine coating and hydroxyapatite mineralization allowing the hybridization of various shapes and surfaces. In other reported, Xie and coworkers[107] considered dopamine as a ‘superglue’, allowing minerals to easily attach to fibrous surfaces. The mechanical properties of mineral functionalized electro-pinning PCL nanofibers, such as stiffness, durability and tensile strength, were near to that of natural bone. Dopamine coated nanofibers show an improvement on existed biomaterials such as their mechanical performances, and cell adhesion. This makes them quite suitable for tissue regeneration and other related bioengineering applications. 2.3.3 Biosensing There is an enormous demand to design highly sensitive and selective biosensors for multiple applications, such as diagnostics, drug screening, and drug discovery.[108] Biosensors usually are in the microscale or nanoscale[109] and there are numerous methods to develop them, such as DNA[110] and antibody-based sensor[111, 112]. Scientists employ dopamine in order to optimize biosensor’s capabilities which have been reported by several research groups. Lui and coworkers first reported that dopamine could be used in a biosensor.[113] They used electricity to oxidize dopamine to form polydopamine on a gold electric pole with existing nicotine. The dopamine-imprinted sensor showed outstanding selectiveness of nicotine and excellent repeatability. Furthermore, Ouyang and coworkers developed a one-step well-defined structure of a dopamine-imprinted sensor.[114] They applied electro-polymerization of o-phenylenediamine (o-PD) and dopamine with existing glutamic acid (Glu). By using a potentiostatic time scan, the sensor exhibited satisfactory stereo selectiveness of bonding L- or D-Glu because their relative synthetic receptor. In a different publication, they designed protein imprinted nanowires which dopamine was also involved.[115] First, the protein-coupled alumina membrane was immersed in dopamine solution followed by an ammonium persulfate solution in order to self-polymerize polydopamine; in which afterward the removal of the attached protein is necessary. The nanowires demonstrated constant bonding capability and selectiveness of template proteins due to their cavity structure with bonding spots (like amino group, hydroxyl, π-π stacking and van der Waals force) that can bind with protein. In another research, Zhou et al. display the creation of magnetic nanoparticles coated by imprinted polymer with a pre-existing template protein.[116] The nanoparticles are able to separate target protein from the mixture. In order to investigate the versatility of the imprinted nanoparticles, they operated on a binding test by using five different proteins excluding the template protein. The result indicated that more than 80% of target proteins were rebinding with imprinted nanoparticles, suggesting imprinted nanoparticles have a bright future to be employed for separating and detecting specific protein. One of the greatest difficulties for biosensors is how to immobilize enzymes on the surface of an electric pole and preserve the enzymes’ functionalities. Wei et al. designed a novel glucose electrochemical sensor, prepared by using a polydopamine film to entrap glucose oxidase and gold nanoparticles.[117] Their research displayed a polydopamine matrix embedded with gold nanoparticles that had high efficiency of immobilizing glucose oxidase. The dopamine film embedded gold nanoparticle biosensor showed a superior sensitivity, good repeatability, linear over broad dynamic range and a low detective threshold. Furthermore, in order to assess adaptability of this sensor, they use it to test glucose concentration in attenuated human serum. The result suggested this biosensor is an attractive material for clinical applications

Anthropology homework help

Anthropology homework help. FIN/571 – 46335444 / Assignment: Week 2 Practice QuizMultiple Choice Question 53Which one of the following statements about trend analysis isÿNOTÿcorrect?This benchmark is based on a firm’s historical performance.TheÿStandard Industrial Classification (SIC) Systemÿis used to identify benchmark firms.All of these are true statements.It allows management to examine each ratio over time and determine whether the trend is good or bad for the firm.Multiple Choice Question 68Coverage ratios: Sectors, Inc., has an EBIT of $7,221,643 and interest expense of $611,800. Its depreciation for the year is $1,434,500. What is its cash coverage ratio?14.15 timesNone of these15.42 times18.34 timesMultiple Choice Question 68Multiples analysis: Turner Corp. has debt of $230 million and generated a net income of $121 million in the last fiscal year. In attempting to determine the total value of the firm, an investor identified a similar firm in Jacobs, Inc., an all-equity firm. This firm had 150 million shares outstanding, a share price of $14.25, and net income of $182 million. What is the total value of Turner Corp.? Round to the nearest million dollars.$1,715 million$1,651 million$1,191 million$1,421 millionMultiple Choice Question 46Coverage ratios, like times interest earned and cash coverage ratio, allowa firm’s creditors to assess how well the firm will meet its interest obligations.a firm’s creditors to assess how well the firm will meet its short-term liabilities other than interest expense.a firm’s management to assess how well they meet short-term liabilities.a firm’s shareholders to assess how well the firm will meet its short-term liabilities.Multiple Choice Question 54Peer group analysis can be performed bya) management choosing a set of firms that are similar in size or sales, or who compete in the same market.b) using the average ratios of this peer group, which would then be used as the benchmark.c) identifying firms in the same industry that are grouped by size, sales, and product lines, in order to establish benchmark ratios.d) Only a and b relate to peer group analysis.Multiple Choice Question 61Efficiency ratio:ÿIf Viera, Inc., has an accounts receivable turnover of 3.9 times and net sales of $3,436,812, what is its level of receivables?$13,403,567$1,340,357$81,234$881,234Anthropology homework help

Music analysis and comparison of 2 recordings

Music analysis and comparison of 2 recordings. Paper details   Are you able to assist with above topic? You should consider: keys, sections, thematic material and its development, harmony in broad terms including end of section cadences, main modulations, climaxes, particular musical features and overall form. Remember to relate your written analysis to your musical interpretation: What picture are you painting? Or is there a story line? For example: “The piece opens in B minor, with an introduction [bars 1-5] comprising a quiet, reflective right-hand melody played over gentle, left-hand broken chords (G, A and Bm). It is suggestive of a narrator bringing to mind the story he is just about to tell etc. etc. .” Also a comparison of two recordings of your piece by other artists considering differences in interpretation as evidenced by tempo, tone colour, phrasing, articulation, dynamics, pedalling etc.Music analysis and comparison of 2 recordings

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