In the following paper, a brief description of human development will be given, along with an interpretation of the life span perspective of development. Also, an overview of two theories of life span development will be presented. Following that is an explanation of how heredity and the environment interact to produce individual differences in development. Human development can simply be defined as the process of expanding choices.
For example, human beings make a sequence of choices, whether they may be culturally, socially, economically, and/ or politically. Human development is both a process and an outcome; concerned with the process in which choices are developed and/ or better yet broadened, but also focusing on the outcomes of improved choices. Elaborating on human choices is crucially and all importantly affiliated to two issues, capabilities and functioning’s on one side and opportunities on the other.
The capability of an individual exists and stands for the various associations within the functioning’s that the individual can achieve. It demonstrates the freedom to achieve an individual’s functioning’s. Now, the functioning’s of an individual can apply to the productive things an individual can do and inclusively be, such as being active within the community and being well-nourished. Human capabilities can be increased through the development of human resources such as education and well-being, but they cannot be used unless opportunities exist in order to use them for ones spare time.
There are many characteristics that describe what lifespan perspective is in association to human development, but understanding change is one of the most significant characteristics of human development. The lifespan perspective is really about understanding and comprehending that changes occur in every period and/ or stage of development. Those changes should and must be looked at as a result of the culture and of the specific circumstances that surround the change. The lifespan perspective is life-long as it is also multidimensional, and it is not influenced nor controlled by any age stage.
It consists of cognitive, physical, and social disciplines. The lifespan perspective of development is in quest to study development over the course of existence. There are five characteristics to the lifespan perspective. Multidirectional changes take place in all kinds of directions, but always in order as a straight line. Multi-contextual life is set with plenty of factors such as history, family, and economic circumstances. Multicultural changes and/ or disparities have an impact, even intercontinental. Multidisciplinary “scientific disciplines”, are also included, but are not limited to the fields of psychology, biology, and education.
Any trait of an individual that can be adjusted at the point of development is known as a plastic characteristic. There are two theories of lifespan development. The two major theories of lifespan development are Dynamic Systems Theory and Sociocultural Theory. Dynamic Systems Theory is a flexible structure and/ or system that analyzes how many factors act together in natural settings and disciplines as varied as education, physics, and biology. In order to apprehend the richness and difficulty of development, many researchers have embraced concepts, methods, and tools from Dynamic Systems Theory.
Dynamic Systems Theory, also known as DST, has sparked off a lot of interest and enthusiasm in the psychology field and its research. For the most part, Dynamic Systems Theory is a theoretical foundation that is based on ideas and hypotheses from thermodynamics and nonlinear mathematics. In spite of that, some of the ideas and hypotheses may seem strange, but the principles are very simple and deeply to the point to the study of human behavior. The Dynamic System approach in development begins with two principles. First is that the multiple characteristics and factors of an individual work together to generate all features of behavior.
The second is that the variability in performance produces crucial facts for comprehending behavior and development. These two principles together, portray and stand for the foundation of the Dynamic Systems Theory. There are many concerns relating the lifespan perspective of human development. Ones of those current concerns come from a biological point of view. Behavior genetics concentrates on the outcome of heredity differences amongst individuals. Heredity is an important concern because it has been and is believed that related individuals share some characteristics and behaviors versus those idividuals whom are not related to one another. Changes are continuous and a part of every stage of life in human development. Comprehending the changes through evaluation of an individual’s culture, environment, and its surrounding circumstance, perceives a lifespan perspective on human development.
PANDEMICS AND GLOBAL TRADE 2 Running Head: PANDEMICS AND GLOBAL TRADE 1
PANDEMICS AND GLOBAL TRADE 2
Running Head: PANDEMICS AND GLOBAL TRADE 1
Pandemics and Global Trade
Pandemics and Global Trade
The Coronavirus outbreak and the response initiatives deployed by the World Health Organization (WHO), together with world governments have had significant implications for global trade (Baldwin & Tomiura, 2020). Travel bans, border closures, and shelter-in-place policies introduced in the early stages of the pandemic to slow down global spread disrupted production activities, resulting in long-term repercussions. A drop in demand for products and a slump in services have been attributed to disruptions in cross-border supply value chains.
As a result, businesses have reduced salaries and laid-off workers. As a result, the rate of job losses has skyrocketed, and global trade volume has decreased, with analysts predicting a drop of 8% to 10% in the year 2021. As a result, the pandemic is the worst economic downturn since the financial crash of 2009 and the Great Depression. Against this backdrop, global GDP is forecast to fall to its lowest level since World War II in 2021. According to the World Bank, global GDP will contract by more than 5.3 percent by the end of 2021, with both emerging and advanced market economies contributing.
Finally, Covid-19 has wreaked havoc on the global economy, resulting in negative growth. The world’s governments, on the other hand, have set aside funds to address the pandemic, rebuild their economies, and help health-care experts as they develop vaccines to cure or monitor the virus’s spread (Verschuur, Koks & Hall, 2021). Stakeholders in the manufacturing and technology sectors have been advised to maintain consistency in their research fields.
Baldwin, R., & Tomiura, E. (2020). Thinking ahead about the trade impact of COVID-19. Economics in the Time of COVID-19, 59.
Verschuur, J., Koks, E. E., & Hall, J. W. (2021). Observed impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on global trade. Nature Human Behaviour, 1-3.