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Life Cycle Assessment Concepts Implementation And Problems An Environmental Sciences Essay

Life Cycle Assessment Concepts Implementation And Problems An Environmental Sciences Essay. With the increase in industrialization and its impact on the Earth, there is an increasing concern for the future of human kind. Words like “sustainability” and “sustainable development” are being used more frequently. Sustainability is a multidimensional concept and focuses on the triple bottom line concept i.e. ecological, social and economic objectives. The aim was to achieve sustainable development through the integration of the environmental dimension into all policy areas and the shared responsibility among all the polluters, public and private. To achieve sustainable development goals must be assessed. Since sustainability is a broad concept including ecological, social and economic goals and efficient and reliable tool is required. Ness et al. (2007) consider that the purpose of a sustainability assessment is to “provide decision-makers with an evaluation of global to local integrated nature-society systems in short and long term perspectives in order to assist them to determine which actions should or should not be taken in an attempt to make society more sustainable”. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a product related tool. It is more specific than other tools as it focuses on the flows related with production and consumption of goods and services. The goal is to evaluate the consumption of natural resources and emission of environmental loads along the production or consumption chains or throughout the life cycle of a product or service. LCA is the most developed product related tool. According to Vigon et al. (1993), one of the first LCA studies was conducted by Harold Smith, project general manager for the Douglas Point Nuclear Generating Station, Canada. A later study, carried out at Coca-Cola by Harry E. And Teastley Jr., involving multiple criteria on the use of plastic vs. glass bottles for packing took into account the entire life cycle of the product. The study revealed that the plastic bottles were less polluting than the glass bottles. These partial results raised discussions on the validity of comparisons and led the scientific community to think of a standardisation process. Nowadays LCA is standardized through the ISO 14040 series. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a technique that is used to assess every impact associated with the stages of a process from cradle-to-grave. It is a holistic approach to evaluating environmental effects of a product, process or activity by looking at the entire life cycle of the product, process or activity from the extraction of raw materials through to consumer use. It maps the environmental effects throughout the entire life cycle. Figure 1 LCA is a systematic set of procedures for examining and compiling the inputs and outputs of materials and energy and the associated environmental impacts directly attributable to the functioning of a product or service throughout its life cycle. It can help in avoiding a narrow outlook on environmental, social and economic concerns (the triple bottom line). This can be achieved by following the ISO 14040 standards for LCA and doing the following: Compilation of an inventory of inputs of energy and materials and environmental outputs Identifying and determining the potential impacts related to the identified inputs and outputs Interpreting the results in relation to the objectives of the study. The framework for LCA is provided by the ISO 14040 series: ISO 14040:1997 on principles and framework of LCA, ISO 14041:1999 on the definition of goal and scope and inventory analysis, ISO 14042:2000 on life cycle impact assessment, and ISO 14043:2000 on life cycle interpretation. Before the LCA came the global modelling studies and the energy audits of the late 1960s and early 1970s. They were the precursors of the LCA and attempted to assess the cost of resources and environmental implications of different patterns of human behaviour. The extension to these was the LCA and it became vital to support the development of eco-labelling schemes currently in practice in many countries around the globe. Before eco-labels can be granted, the awarding authority needs to be able to evaluate the manufacturing process, the consumption of energy and the waste generated throughout the life cycle of the product or service and this is where the LCA came into picture. A Life Cycle Assessment practitioner tabulates the environmental exchanges (natural resources consumed and waste generated) at every stage in a product or service life cycle. The life cycle with its associated material and energy flows is called the “product system.” A LCA can be conducted to generate environmental information on the life cycle of the product and the information can be used to make decisions about changes that may be implemented in the product system to reduce the environmental impacts. To accurately assess the burdens placed on the environment by the manufacture of a product or service a procedure must be followed or a process must be used. There are two main stages in the process; the first step is data collection and the second step is the interpretation of the data. LCA is a powerful tool which can help regulators in formulating environmental policy and legislation, assist manufacturers in analyzing their processes and improving their products and aid the consumers in making informed decisions. Like most tools it must be properly used and not misused to provide publicity to a product or service. LCA has a wide range of applications. Some of the related applications which emerged during the evolution of LCA are: Internal industrial use in product development and improvement Internal strategic planning and policy decision support in industry, External industrial use for marketing purposes, and Governmental policy making in the areas of ecolabelling, green procurement and waste management opportunities. Scope of LCA Figure 2 The scope of LCA is the entire life cycle. It begins with the procurement of raw materials and ends with the disposal of the used product. A LCA may be conducted by a firm to identify where improvements can be made, in environmental terms or it can be intended to provide environmental data for the public or to meet government regulations. A recent phenomenon is the use of LCA to market and advertise products as being environmentally friendly or environmentally superior to other products. The goal in conducting a LCA study is to compare the full range of triple bottom line damage attributable to products and services and to provide information to enable decisions to be made about choosing the least burdensome one. It provides a method to account for the cascading effects of technologies used for producing goods and services. It accurately measures the impact of technology used to deliver product and services. No matter how environmentally friendly, all products have some impact on the environment. The aim of LCA is to identify which products, processes or services are more harmful (generate more pollution or waste than others and/or utilize more resources). Even for products with a low environmental impact, LCA helps to identify the stages in the manufacturing process or in use which can cause pollution and those which require high material or energy input. Examining the production process in such fine detail can also aid companies in identifying areas where scarce resources are being used and help them to substitute more sustainable products in their place. It may also lead to increased efficiency and lower cost of production and remove bottlenecks in the manufacturing process. Phases in the LCA The four distinct phases of a LCA, according to the ISO 14040 and 14044 standards, are goal and scope definition, inventory analysis, impact assessment and interpretation as shown in figure 3. Figure 3 ISO framework for LCA Goal and scope definition Since LCA is a time consuming and expensive process, the objectives and scope of the LCA need to defined at the outset in order to make efficient use of time and resources. The following six decisions need to be made at the beginning of the LCA process: 1. Define the goal of the project 2. Determine the type of information needed by the decision makers 3. Determine the level of specificity 4. Determine how the data should be organized and the results displayed 5. Define the scope of the project 6. Determine the ground rules for conducting the study In this phase the LCA practitioner decides and specifies the goal and scope of the study in relation to the particular application. The objective of the study is described in terms of a functional unit. The goal and scope address the overall approach to establish the system boundaries. The system boundaries in turn determine which unit processes are included in the LCA. The goal and scope definition phase also specifies the method used for assessing the potential environmental impacts. Inventory Analysis In the second phase, data is collected and the product is modelled. A description and verification of data is also included. All data related to the environmental and technical quantities for all relevant unit processes within the system boundaries are encompassed in this stage. To aid the process of LCA, inventories and modelling are carried out using a dedicated software package, such as SimaPro, GaBi or TEAM. TEAM (Tools for Environmental Analysis and Management) is Ecobilian’s Life Cycle Assessment software. TEAM allows the user to build and use a large database and to model any system representing the operations associated with products, processes and activities. TEAM enables to describe any industrial system and to calculate the associated life cycle inventories and potential environmental impacts according to the ISO 14040 series of standards. SimaPro, the most widely used LCA software, from PRe consultants. It offers parameterized modelling and comes with a large database included. GaBi from PE International offers Life Cycle Assessment according to ISO 14040/ 14044, design for environmentLife Cycle Assessment Concepts Implementation And Problems An Environmental Sciences Essay

Gender Studies homework help

Gender Studies homework help. Engage in what is called ‘active reading’ . Active reading means that you don’t just read over the material but that you engage with it all the way through.,Engage in what is called ‘active reading’,Be an Active Reader, Engage in what is called ‘active reading.’ Active reading means that you don’t just read over the material but that you engage with it all the way through.,Step 1, ,Secondary Sources,·         What are you reading? Is it a synthesis of the existing knowledge? Is it a historiography? Further, is it a piece of original research?, o   Read every piece without prejudice. In other words, don’t make the readings fit your assumptions!,·         Why are you reading it? Keep in mind for what purpose you are reading something. Are you reading for detailed factual information or for the author’s argument and his/her evidence?,You will often be reading “for argument” or “for the analytical points.” Yet you might not know all the facts, which means that you need to take note of them and look up information, words, and concepts with which you aren’t familiar. Sometimes, having a historical timeline and a dictionary handy makes all the difference in the world.,·         Instead of highlighting passages, write summaries of sections in the margins or on post-it notes or on a separate piece of paper. If you do the latter, make sure that you include all bibliographic information.,o   If you do the above, you will be able to track the development of the author’s argument. You will see whether it flows or if it has holes.,·         Pay attention to the author’s evidence! What materials did the author use to make his/her case? ,Look at the footnotes., What secondary sources did the author use? With which historiography did s/he engage? What primary sources did s/he use?,·         Jot down a “summary paragraph” or a list of bullet points of the above. Note the piece’s topic, argument, development of argument, evidence, and any holes/questions. Do this for every secondary source.,Primary Sources,·         Do a basic analysis of the document., What is the historical context of the document?, Who is writing?, To whom—who is the audience, explicit and implicit?, What is the document about?, What is the subtext? Also, what is implied here—keep in mind that you need to provide evidence! If you say “so-and-so is writing this but he really means that,” you need to show evidence for your assertion from the text or the context., ·         Jot down a summary paragraph that deals with the questions posed above. Do this for every primary source.,Now take a break. A nice long break., Think about what you read.,Step 2, If you are writing a larger paper that engages with several readings, consider:, How do the assigned readings “hang” together?, Do they engage the same or similar or complementary questions and/or topics?, Do they speak to each other?, Additionally, do they come to the same conclusions, or complementary conclusions, or do they stand in conflict?, What would be a smart way to discuss the materials? Can you group them? Or create a timeline of how and why the thinking about the matter has changed? Can you impose any sort of logic on them?, Jot down your notes. Be detailed.,You now have a quite a bit of information at your fingertips. Use your powers!,KBP, revised August 2020.,Attachments,Click Here To Download,Gender Studies homework help

Michael Porters Theory Of National Competitive Advantage Economics Essay

online homework help Porters Diamond suggests that the national home base of a firm plays an important role in shaping the extent a nation can create new advanced factors such as skilled labour, advanced technology and knowledge base, government support, and culture. Government and chance are two elements are not included in the four basic ones that form the diamond but integral nonetheless as either-or can influence the entire diamond. It is with these six forces and their interactions were studied for 100 industry case studies (Porter, 1990 26-27). The importance of this model is integral on these elements support or hinder these firms from developing advantages in the global arena, specifically from a firm-based perspective. Factor conditions pertain to the situation in a nation regarding various production factors, both man-made and inherited. These national factors directly affect the industries that subsequently develop. Demand conditions reflect the state of home market demand for products produced within the country, encompassing customer needs/wants, their scope and growth rate, and the mechanisms that transmit domestic preferences to foreign markets. Relating and supporting industries are key in determining a firms’ success, as the existence or non-existence of internationally competitive inputs reinforce and firms ability to innovate and remain competitive in the global arena. Firm Strategy, Structure, and Rivalry pertain to the conditions in a country that influence a firms establishment, its organization and management, as well as the characteristics of domestic competitors. Porter argues that domestic rivalry and subsequent quest for competitive advantage help provide the elements for repeating those same results in the global marketplace. In applying a real-world example, Porter’s Diamond will be used to offer explanation as to why the internet market is dominated by firms from the United States of America. Factor Conditions: An industry requires an appropriate supply of factors in its home base if it is to be successful. In the United States there are many specialized factors which apply to the internet industry in addition to generalized advantages that span across domestic industries. A high national income in unison with a large population meant expensive computer hardware and monthly internet fees could be obtained by millions and millions of U.S citizens. It is not selective factor disadvantages, but rather an abundant supply of capital, entrepreneurial orientation, and world-class educational infrastructure (computer technology included) that explain the industries’ dominance. Demand Conditions: The internet has been rapidly adopted by consumers and businesses alike. The United States has a high penetration of internet access. Virtually every major firm has a website. High disposable income means American consumers can afford to purchase a variety of goods online. This climate has created a rich environment for online only firms to develop and prosper within the U.S. Notable examples include worldwide heavyweight Google, Amazon.com, Ebay, Yahoo, Facebook, Twitter, and Netflix. Related supporting industries: The United States benefits from local suppliers eager to help prosper by helping industries production, marketing, and distribution needs. Notable is Silicon Valley for its incredibly dense population of high-technology firms; creating an ideal climate with input suppliers closely and the human capital necessary. A culture that foster’s entrepreneurship means many individuals are not afraid to risk capital in creating a new venture Firm Strategy, Structure, and rivalry: Following the tech-bubble of the new millennium, which saw the NASDAQ ** technology firms never truly recovered from their reputation as an industry that is volatile, ultra-competative, and ever changing. Many firms have sprung up with impressive growth only to crash-and-burn. This competitive environment however is key to understanding the nature of the industry. Obtaining and sustaining a competitive advantage can be enormously profitable for firms, but by being forced to closely monitor costs, raise productivity, boost product quality, and develop innovative products U.S based internet firms have been able to transfer these advantages – only at a costs much lower. Having already obtained the advantage in their home market, they can enter the international marketplace with additional leverage in areas such as Research and Development, quality control, human capital, and overall management. In order to truly understand Porter’s Diamond theory, the “International” aspect is integral in forming the platform for which this trade takes place. In The Competitive Advantage of Nations, Porter’s fundamental objective from the start was to uncover why “some social groups, economic institutions and nations advance and prosper” (Porter, 1990, p. xi). In today’s business environment with Globalization playing and ever more important role, Porter suggests that the ‘competitive advantage’ of a nation’s industries is determined by the configuration of the four aforementioned elements forming the Diamond: factor conditions; related and supporting industries; and firm strategy, structure, and rivalry. Foreign subsidiaries with strong internal capabilities and the ability to capitalize on host country opportunities may take strategic initiatives that areas important to a firm or industry as home country determinants(Morrison and Crookell. 1991). Although the domestic environment in which firms compete shapes their ability to compete in international markets, there is likely other circumstances beyond facing vigorous competition domestically in terms of continuously striving to improve their products that influence and offer insight into Firm based National Advantage. National policy and economics considerably influence firms ultimate ability to compete in the global marketplace; while Porter notes national policies may also affect firms’ international strategies and opportunities in more subtle ways, merely portraying various cultural influences, the geography, religion, climate, and political factors that greatly influence firm-based national advantage by acknowledging they affect each element of the Diamond is not adequate. Porter’s insisted that a firms’ ability to compete depends largely upon the strength of the diamond within its home national and the assertion that national economic performance depends on this. Both of these can be critiqued for relevance at a time when the world economy has become increasingly globally oriented, and the multinational corporation increasingly important. ***Dunning (1993, pp. 9-10) points out that in the 1990’s “an increasing proportion of the assets of firms in a particular country are either acquired from or are located in, another country”. Despite this, many firms have a large proportion of their operations away from their home base and it is debatable to suggest that their competitive position rests uniquely upon the strength of diamonds in their home base. It is important not to confuse this with their initial move abroad which it may have initially been the catalyst. In questioning the Clarity of Porter’s Diamond, Daly (1993) for instance claimed to have significant reason to reject Porter’s claim that exchange rates and wages are not integral to determining competitiveness. He was able to demostrate that export growth and export shares are impacted by variations in exchange rate as well as labour costs. Despite this, Porter’s definition of competitiveness is more focused on national productivity compared to export shares. In asserting that competitiveness cannot be meaningfully defined in terms of low labour costs and favourable exchange rates (CAN, p. 7). claim Porter’s case studies lack a homogenous analytical tool to determine the importance and precise impact of each determinant on the industries’ competitive position (Rugman, A. M.,

Question and Answer

Question and Answer. Paper details Hi Writer Below are the assignment details. I will provide you with the file in order to complete assignment. Read the article – then answer this question and submit: What are some of the key environmental conditions and individual personality traits and characteristics that played important roles in the career of Jacob Riis?Question and Answer

Environmental and Cultural Impact of Bottled Water Report

Table of Contents Abstract Introduction Body Conclusion Reference List Abstract An entrenched belief in people’s minds that bottled water is superior to tap water has triggered a chain of environmental and cultural challenges to policy makers and environmentalists in conserving the environment and while ensuring quality water for consumers. The problem of disposing water bottles by enforcing policies for responsible waste bottle disposal, alternative forms of producing water bottles that are environmentally friendly and economically viable alternatives to justify the existence of water bottling industries in the society defines the problem statement. Specifically, the approach to solving the problem will span a careful investigation into the effects of bottled water and waste bottles in the environment, through the collection and analysis of primary data, interviewing company executives that bottle water, and analyze methods used to curb environmental pollutions. Inn conclusion, these could result in efficient approaches to waste bottle disposal, provision of clean water in harmony with environmental and cultural environment and effective policy formulation and enforcement. Introduction Many and divergent views have been held over time by consumers of bottled water. Specifically, bottled water consumers have regarded this water as safe and of good quality for consumption. This belief has generated a chain of environmental and cultural concerns for policy makers and enforcers over the production and ineffective disposal methods. The research will focus on the impact and enforcement of disposal policies and environmental pollution, conduct an investigation into various areas, analyze different research methods, analyze research methods and draw conclusions from the study for effective approaches to environmental conservation in harmony with the cultural environment. The research will come up with strategic approaches to enforcing policies for environmental conservation, excellent and alternative methods of bottled water manufacture and better and viable alternatives for fuel saving in the production process. Body Thesis statement: Bottled water has had diverse environmental and cultural impacts spanning policy formulation and enforcement strategies. According to Hall (2007, p. 7), bottled water is a widely consumed product. This is an industry that many companies have strategically invested in. The wide usages of these products have environmental and cultural consequences that need to be addressed. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Goodman (2009, p.3), waste bottles when ineffectively disposed of litter and lead to environmental pollution that in the end become both culturally and environmentally destructive. This concern and the approaches used to manufacture these bottles is a course for concern to the researcher. In addition to that, the quest to provide quality water and efficient manufacturing processes and policy enforcement strategies will be the basis of the research. The specific audience will span policy makers and law enforcement agencies, environmental conservation groups and agencies, manufacturing and recycling companies, water bottling companies and individual consumers. To effectively formulate and implement policies for environmental conservation, the research will analyze the impact of those policies, analyze the quality of water in these bottles, the extent to which current bottle disposal approaches have polluted the environment, analyze consumer behavior and attitudes, company manufacturing and packaging methods, and critically look at available literature spanning all aspects of culture, the environment, and water consumption (Sharfstein, 2010, p. 1). Conclusion According to the research proposal, an analysis of the environmental impact of disposing waste water bottles, disposal methods, manufacturing methods, policy formulation and enforcement in the manufacturing methods and use of these bottles, and the quality of water sold out to the consumer formed the backbone of the research. In addition to that, various cultural attachments and consumer attitudes besides the recycling strategies and possible alternatives or efficient recycling methods and efficient fuel usage in the whole process was a vital consideration in the research. Reference List Goodman, S. (2009). Fewer regulations for bottled water than tap, GAO says. Web. Hall, N. (2007). Federal and State Laws Regarding Bottled Water – An Overview and Recommendations for Reform. Web. We will write a custom Report on Environmental and Cultural Impact of Bottled Water specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Sharfstein. J.M. (2010). “Regulations of bottled water”. Web.