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Lethal Impact of p-Nonylphenol on Snake Head Fish

Lethal Impact of p-Nonylphenol on Snake Head Fish. Lethal impact of p-Nonylphenol on snake head fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch, 1793) D.P. Khandale, N.A. Adbale, P.J. Khinch and A.M. Chilke Abstract: Para-Nonylphenol (NP) is an organic phenolic compound present in the domestic and most of the industrial discharge. It has extensive impact on the plants and animals. However, fish is highly responsive aquatic vertebrate as far as toxic effects of xenobioticsubstances are concerned. When the fish was exposed to low concentration of NPit does not showed any behavioural changes but, when the concentrations were gradually increased fish started showing the sign of distress. In the present study the lethal concentration of p-Nonylphenol was calculated to be 15.51 ppm and beyond 16.50 ppm Channa punctatus exhibited 100% mortality. The linear regression values obtained is y=20.32x-263.29. The coefficient correlation obtained is R2=0.7139. Throughout the experimental tenure the pH and temperature of water was maintained to get rid of its impact towards mortality of fish. Keywords: p-Nonylphenol LC-50 toxicity Fishes. INTRODUCTION Industrial revolution giving us a gift called pollution. The mother planet earth has been severally getting affected by all kinds of pollution and hence we all living beings are equally prone to pollutional threat. Beside air pollution the water pollution is common threat to both the aquatic flora and fauna and also the dependent. There are innumerable types of organic and inorganic chemicals being dumped in the water in unbelievable concentration. It is of course leading to destruction of several micro and macro flora and fauna of aquatic ecosystem. Systematic study can be reveal to what extent this pollution would have destroying the organism at species level and unbalancing the aquatic ecosystem. NP is chemical pollutant occurs abundantly pollutant in the aquatic environment (Kim et al., 2006) and from there it comes to the aerial and terrestrial environment. It is widely used in many of the industrial and agricultural products and it is discharged into the aquatic ecosystem in large amount (Ying et al., 2002). It is also recorded to accumulate in the internal organs of many fish and avian species, reaching its concentration 10-100 times higher. It is of course the public and scientific issue because it passes down to humans though the food chain and mimics the actions of natural hormones like estrogenic compounds in the body. In the present study we chose NP to find out the exact LC-50 by keeping in mind the great reduction of Channa punctatus species in the river Wardha having at its bank very famous paper mill industry (BILT). MATERIALS AND METHODS In the present study, all the fingerlings of snake headed fish Channa punctatus were bought from the native fisherman of Mulchera (District-Gadchiroli). The fingerlings brought to the laboratory in healthy condition were kept for acclimatization for complete fortnight. The glass aquarium was thrice washed out with the solution of disinfectant potassium permanganate. Similarly fishes were also dipped in the solution for a while prior to start the acclimatization process. During this period fish were fed with boiled eggs and minced dried prawn in alternated days. Injured fingerlings were removed in order to avoid the cause of infection to the healthy fishes. The level of oxygen, pH-7.4 and temperature (27-30°C) was maintained throughout acclimatization period. The chemicals such as Ethanol and p-Nonylphenol (NP) used for this study was purchased from HiMedia Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai. NP is soluble in organic solvents and does not dissolve in water. Fingerlings were sorted (Size and weight) before exposing to NP. The various concentration of NP were prepared and fractionated for parts per million (ppm). Five tanks were set for different concentration of NP and a tank without NP was treated as a control. In each tank 10 fish were placed. Dead fish were quickly removed in order to avoid the infection.Water of both experimental and a controlled tank were changed every day. The present experiment was carried out for 4 days i.e. for 96 hrs. LC-50 was calculated according Finney (1971) and graph were prepared by using the Microsoft Excel-2010. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Disposal of phenolic compounds includes p-Nonylphenol (Fig.1) has been increasing with the gradual increase in size of population worldwide. NP isbiodegradable compound but degrades very slowly in the nature (Ahel et al., 1994). It is also suggested that this compound accumulates gradually in the living system and gets heavily deposited in the organism of topmost tropic level of the food chain. NP variedly affects the system and lead to cause variety of dysfunctions. In Gilthead Sea bream (Sparus auratus), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and Zebrafish (Danio rerio) NP interfere with osmoregulation (Weber et al., 2003; Arsenault et al., 2004; Carrera et al., 2007; Lerner et al., 2007). Figure 1. Structural formula of p-Nonylphenol (NP) In present study, the fingerlings of Channa punctatus was exposed to NP at concentrations 5, 10, 15 and 20 ppm for 96 hrs. It was observed that at concentrations 5 and 10 ppm fish fingerlings showed no death and even no sign of any distress were observed till four days. At 15 ppm concentration 20% of fingerlings were died. However at 20 ppm no fish fingerlings were survived, on the very first day of exposure within an hour all 10 fish fingerlings died. In order to assure, same experiments were repeated thrice and found same results. The severe sign of distress were observed in those fish died within an hour. Fingerlings started striking to glass panels, opercular and opening and closing of mouth was increased. Later fingerlings started showing fast whirling action and after this suddenly became calm and got died. We could not understand the said action but it could be due to neurotoxic effect of NP. Some workers also have reported the neurotoxic ettects on cell growth (Kudo et al., 2004 and Kim et al., 2006). Figure 2. Graph showing 50% mortality of C. punctatus at conc. 15.51 ppm. Figure 2. Graph showing 50% mortality at log e101.19 ppm of p-Nonylphenol. Figure 3. Graph showing Regression curve for NP. NP is xenoestrogen and is recognised as endocrinal disruptor. It is suggested that bioaccumulated nonylphenols adversely affects fish fauna (Ahel et al., 1993; Cox, 1996). However its low concentration can cause death of fish (Staples et al., 2004; Vazquez-Duhalt et al., 2005). Indeed very little work has been done to find out the effect of lethal concentration (LC) in fish, Rivero et al., (2008) suggested 0.032 ppm LC for Orychroeis niloticuls and Satyanarayanan et al., (2011) reported 3.48 ppm for Clarias gariepinus. The environmental protection agency (EPA) recommended that if on an average one hour concentration of nonylphenol should not exceed 28 ppm for more than every three years in orde to not affect the freshwater life (Vincent and Sneddon, 2009). Variable concentrations of NP were formulated in order to trace out the lethal concentration and LC-50 for 96 hours was calculated to be 15.51 ppm. The fingerlings of C. punctatus were further exposed at concentration 15.51 ppm to assure the LC-50 for 96 hrs (Fig.2 and Fig.3). Thus finally we assured the LC of NP for Channa punctatus. The linear regression values obtained is y=20.32x-263.29. The coefficient correlation obtained is R2=0.7139 (Fig.4). Beyond the calculated concentration fingerlings of C. punctatus exhibited 100% mortality. Acknowledgement: The authors are very much thankful to the Principal, Shree Shivaji Arts, Commerce and Science College for providing the laboratory facilities and constant inspiration during work. References: Ahel M, McEvoy J and Giger W (1993) Bioaccumulation of the lipophilic metabolites of nonionic surfactants in freshwater organisms. Environmental Pollution, 79: 243-248. Ahel M, Giger W, and Schaffner C (1994) Behaviour of alkylphenol polyethoxylate surfactants in the aquatic environment. 2. Occurrence and transformation in rivers. Water Research, 28:1143–1152. Arsenault JT, Fairchild WL, MacLatchy DL, Burridge L, Haya K and Brown SB (2004) Effects of water-borne 4-nonylphenol and 17beta-estradiol exposures during parr-smolt transformation on growth and plasma IGF-I of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Aquatic Toxicology,66: 255-65. Carrera EP, Garcia-Lopez A, Martin del Rio Mdel P, Martinez-Rodriguez G, Sole M and Mancera JM (2007) Effects of 17beta-estradiol and 4-nonylphenol on osmoregulation and hepatic enzymes in gilthead sea bream (Sparus auratus). Comparative Biochemistryand Physiology-Part-C-Toxicologyand Pharmacology,145: 210-217. CoxC (1996) Nonylphenol and related chemicals. Journal of pesticide reform/Spring, 16(1) (corrected 4/2003). Finney DJ (1971) Probit Analysis, 3rd ed., Cambridge University Press, London and New York. Kim SK, Kim BK, Shim JH, GilJE, Yoon YG and Kim JH (2006) Nonylphenol and Octylphenol-induced apoptosis in human embryonic stem cells is related to Fas-Fas ligand pathway. Toxicological Sciences, 94(2): 310-321. Kudo C, Wada K, Masuda T, Yonemura T, Shibuya A, Fujimoto Y, Nakajima A, Niwa H and Kamisaki Y (2004) Nonylphenol induces the death of neural stem cells due to activation of the caspase cascade and regulation of the cell cycle. Journal of Neurochemistry,88: 1416-23. Lerner DT, Bjornsson BT and McCormick SD (2007) Larval exposure to 4-nonylphenol and 17beta-estradiol affects physiological and behavioral development of seawater adaptation in Atlantic salmon smolts. Environmental Science and Technology,41: 4479-85. Rivero CLG, Barbosa AC, Ferreira MN, Dorea JG, Grisolia CK (2008) Evaluation of genotoxicity and effects on reproduction of nonylphenol in Oreochromis niloticus (Pisces: cichlidae). Ecotoxicology, 17: 732-737. Satyanarayanan SK, Chokkalingam K, Mathan R, Tamara G (2011) Toxicity studies of nonylphenol and octylphenol: hormonal, hematological and biochemical effects in Clarias gariepinus.Journal of Applied Toxicology, DOI 10.1002/jat.1629. Staples C, Mihaich E, Carbone J, Woodbrun K, Klecka G (2004). A weight of evidence analysis of the chronic ecotoxicity of nonylphenol ethoxylates, nonylphenol ether carboxylates, and nonylphenol. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 10: 999-1017. Vazquez-Duhalt R, Marquez-Rocha F, Ponce E, Licea AF, Viana MT (2005) Nonylphenol, and integrated vision of a pollutant. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, 4: 1-25. Vincent MDV, Sneddon J (2009). Nonylphenol: An overview and its determination in oysters and wastewaters and preliminary degradation results from laboratory experiments. Microchemical Journal, doi:10.1016/j.microc.2009.02.005. Weber LP, Hill RL Jr and Janz DM (2003) Developmental estrogenic exposure in zebrafish (Danio rerio): II. Histological evaluation of gametogenesis and organ toxicity. Aquatic Toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 63: 431-46. Ying GG, Williams B and Kookana R (2002) Environmental fate of alkylphenols and alkylphenol ethoxylated-a review. Enviornment International, 28: 215-226. Corresponding Author: Dr.Arun M. Chilke, Lethal Impact of p-Nonylphenol on Snake Head Fish
Educational Program for People with Disabilities.

After you completed a needs assessment, you were asked to research one of the unmet needs found in your community or organization. This week, you will be designing a program that addresses this need.One way to design a program is to use a logic model. Chapter 3 of your text described how to do this. Basically, it is a picture or diagram that shows how your program is supposed to work. It identifies the activities that the program should include to address the need and the expected outcome of these activities. The sections of the model will create a framework of action for the program.The general sections of your model include the purpose or mission, the context, the inputs or resources, the activities or interventions, the outputs or proof the activities were done, and the effects or results. For example, the Community Tool Box uses this diagram to illustrate these sections:Using the drawing tools in Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, or Visio to create a logic model for your program design. Then, in a 1-2 page paper, expand on each section of your model to thoroughly explain the intentions of your program.
Educational Program for People with Disabilities

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Stability is the prevention for denture base to move in a horizontal direction and from sliding front or back and side to side.It is more important in lower complete denture.If the ridge is higher and broader than there will be better stability. Support is the ability of denture to move vertically towards the arch.It is provided by gums and buccal vestibule in mandibular arch while in maxillary arch palate helps to support denture.In order to get good support denture flanges should be larger. IMPORTANCE OF COMPLETE DENTURE Now a days.the dietary habits of the people increases need of using denture as the tooth decay or loss may occur as a result of careis,periodontal destruction and uncontrolled diabetes.In order to achieve success in treatment,some of the matters should be considered.In complete denture,the attitude and motivation of the patient should be evaluated.The dentist should know about the patient’s problem and demands and keeping in mind try to meet expectations.The whole procedure in the fabrication of complete denture including problems in retention,support and stability of denture must be explained to the patient.After this the dentist must work with the patient to get success in matters such as speech,mastication,esthetics and neuromascular control.By solving pateints complain positively,dentist can satisfy the patient and even train the patient to solve their problems in future.At last,it is the duty of dentist to inform patient that the success of complete denture depends on the maintainance of denture at home as well as giving regular visits to dentist. FACTORS AFFECTING RETENTION OF DENTURE ANATOMICAL FACTOR (DENTURE BEARING AREA) Retention also depends on the size and quality of denture bearing area.The retention increases as the increase in size of denture bearing area.Maxillary denture bearing area is 24 sq.cm and mandibular denture bearing area is less 14 sq.cm. So mandibular denture has less retention than maxillary denture. http://www.drchetan.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/maxilla-mandible-denture-bearing-area.png Dr. Chetan ;Objectives of Impression making in complete denture; 2010 ROLE OFIMPRESSION MAKING FOR RETENTION The impression of complete denture is a very important step.The impression of the upper and lower jaw the periphery of ridges,post dam area,recording of retromylohyoid fossa and recording of the depression of coronoid process in upper impression is important in to form good retentive denture.The displacement of tissue during impression making is also important in this regard. “Displacement of the tissues also affect the retention. Those tissues which were displaced during impression making can rebound while using dentures, leading to loss of retention.” Dr. Chetan 2010. ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE The atmospheric pressure is considered to have some role in complete denture retention.It is only workable when there is lower pressure under the denture and presence of vaccum.The vaccum is created by applying pull which increase the volume between denture base and underlying tissue to maintain seal around some area for lower pressure to be constant.Thus the retention is produced because of pull and displacement.Some times the proper seal of acrylic to mucosa is not formed and some the other factors are required. “Thus, all parts of the system of denture and wearer are exposed to the atmospheric pressure, and the hydraulic nature of the soft tissue means that, under ‘resting’ conditions this will be transmitted into the region between denture and tissue hydrostatically”. Under normal conditions as there is no pressure difference and no static retaining force so the atmospheric pressure has no bearing on retention. “(B. W. Darvell,and R. K. F. Clark.) ADHESION Adhesion is the physical interaction between two unlike molecules with one another.In denture it is mainly applicable among the saliva and the denture base material(acrylic resin).The closer the surface of denture and saliva,the adhesion is increased.The adhesion is more if contact angle is less.The wetting of saliva is more on oral mucosa than on denture base.thus adhesion also depends upon the viscosity of saliva.The thin layer binds more effectively than thick but ropy saliva may have some advantage especially resisting flow into space between denture base and mucosa,this is negated if the film formed is thick in first place. COHESION This is a physical attraction of similar molecules with each other and occur in saliva layer.If the saliva is less,there is marked reduction in cohesive force.This means if the larger the surface area of denture base,there are more chances of cohesive force will act.These forces are less effective than cohesive forces.The formation of bubbles in saliva will also decrease retention. http://www.drchetan.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/retention-factors-impression.png Dr. Chetan ;Objectives of Impression making in complete denture; 2010 SURFACE TENSION It is the difficulty to seprate two well adapted surface having thin film of liquid between surfaces which is due cohesive forces occur at surface of liquid.It is same to the forces which causes the liquid to rise in capillary tube. These forces are increased when the denture base is close to the mucosal surface.The flatter the palate,difficult to displace the denture as compared to high palate. WETTABILITY When a solid surface is wetted by liquid ,its retention increases .Some of the strength is required to break the adhesion between them.It there is no or less wetting,the less force is needed for the sepration of denture from saliva and there is lack of retention.Although,the acrylic is wetted by water but as the saliva is rich in proteins and mucoplysaccharides form a strong bond and create a more wettable surface.If the surface is treated by any material may be adsorbed by saliva so may not help in providing good retention. SURFACE ROUGHNESS If the surface roughness is increased ,the adhesion between saliva and denture is also improved. GRAVITY It is only appied when the denture is resting on mucosa under its own weight.In order to hold the denture gravity should be raised but in case of upper denture it may result in lack of retention and dropping of denture as person wearing denture face in downward position.The lower denture is only few grams in mass and increasing it can be resulted in fatigue of the jaw carrying load and may contribute to temporomandibular joint problems. VISCOSITY The viscosity of saliva plays an important role in a sepration of two surfaces after the force is applied.The viscosity of saliva is not under control and is time dependent.The viscous material is useful in denture retention to some extent as washing of it with time can reduce efficacy. SEATING FORCE After the inserting denture in oral cavity ,a pressure or force is applied to get retention. “The instantaneous effect will be to confirm the thinnest possible saliva film and so the best result is caused by the viscous retardation of displacement. This must also be achieved at the expense of some displacement of the supporting soft tissue, and if this created a better fit, it would not last long as that tissue rebounded elastically”. (B. W. Darvell, and R. K. F. Clark) PERPHERAL SEAL In order to get good retention denture base is closely attach to the oral mucosa with a thin film of saliva between them .The disruption of this may result in loss of retention. This can occur on the borders of denture because the movement of tissue here is under the control of musculature.so a layer of saliva should be maintained at the external surface of denture.If the flange of denture is thin and the tissues is at rest, the saliva flows rapidly between the tissue surfaces ,flange and then to the fitting surfaces will result in the easy displacement of denture.If the space between denture flange and tissue is narrow,there is slow and even flow of saliva and the good retention of denture.The dimension of the flange of denture should promote the proper movement of muscle and overlying tissues without displacing denture base. If extension of denture is too far in the sulcus than the muscular movement can result in displacement of denture along with sulcus ulceration.If it is less extended into sulcus there is less retained saliva and the loss of retention.The upper denture is extended as far as possible but not on the soft palate.This shows that the posterior seal is not present.It is obtained if the displaced tissue also move with the denture during function.This can be done by making post dam area by creating raised grooves on posterior surface. Buccal Compliance Low pressure Narrow space for viscous flow Surface tension (B.W Darvell and R.K.F CLARK; The Physical Mehanism Of Complete Denture Retention;2000) ORAL AND FACIAL MASCULATURE The normal movement of oral and facial musculature can also provide retention,if the denture work in harmony with the muscles.The flanges of upper denture slope outwards and upwards in way that the action of buccinator muscle helps to seat the denture.During incision,forces acting anteriorly on the denture is may tend to tip the denture and posterior border of denture move downwards because posteriorly the base of tongue may respond forces which occur anteriorly on denture. In case of lower denture,the buccal flange move outward and downward from the teeth so that the buccinators propely seat the denture.The lingual flange slopes towards floor of mouth helping the tongue to rest against it.The distal end of flange rests in retro mylohoid fossa to maintain peripheral seal and to prevent displacement of denture against lateral forces. OCCLUSION The placement of artifical teeth and arch form should me maintain in the same postion as that of natural teeth so that they will work in a harmony with musculature.The teeth is then better to place in a neutral zone.In order to get balance occlusion the maximum number of teeth should be in contact with eachother.After the insertion of denture,high occlusal spots should be removed to enhance the efficacy and retention of denture. MECHANICAL AND OTHER FACTORS AFFECTING RETENTION The under cut which is present on one side of the ridge helps in retention but bilateral under should be surgically corrected as they cause difficulty in retention of denture.The use of denure adhesives and pastes also improve the retention of denture.The magnets and suction disc also play an important role in this regard.Now a days,the use of suction disc is prohibited as continuous use of denture with suction disc affect the palate and may result in oroantral communication. The continuous use of denture in diabetic patient may loss retention due to bone resorbtion.Thus relining or rebasing of denture is required to increase retention.In pshycomotor patient retention of denture is a problem which is solved by proper counselling of patient.” A training device is made in combination with an exercise program to teach muscle control for retention of a mandibular denture. It consists of a shellac record base which is connected with string to an extraoral spring balance scale. The patient is guided to use the tongue, cheek and lip muscles for denture retention. The patient is then instructed to displace the seated record base by pulling on the scale. The increase in measurements on the scale show good resistance to displacement of the denture base”.( Escoe R 1989) REFRENCES 1.Escoe R. Psychomotor patient training to enhance retention of complete dentures. (1989) May-Jun;2(3):243-4. 2. Dr. Chetan. Objectives of Impression making in complete denture( 2010). 3. Terry Weber.Comfortable Dentures Need Support, Stability and Retention. 4. David M. Roessler. Complete denture success for patients and dentists(2003). 5. B. W. Darvell, and R. K. F. Clark, The physical mechanisms of complete denture retention(2000). Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp

Southern New Hampshire University Simple Object Access Protocol Discussion

Southern New Hampshire University Simple Object Access Protocol Discussion.

I’m working on a computer science exercise and need support to help me learn.

OverviewThroughout this course, you have learned the differences between web services and APIs, as well as languages and protocols associated with web services. Specifically, you have considered the planning and needs connected to an organization, and have created an implementation web service plan referencing your understanding of web service architecture.PromptFor this reflection assignment, consider your general knowledge of web services and how that has changed throughout this course. Describe how these services impact your life now, and how you think they will impact you in the future.For this assignment, you may reflect on any of the areas of study covered within this course, such as:Collecting and storing web service dataWeb service architectureTroubleshooting methodsSecurity measures in relation to risks and vulnerabilitiesWeb service needs through both a user and developer perspectiveGuidelines for SubmissionYour reflection must be clearly written and convey the change in your general knowledge of course concepts and the impact they will have on you in the future.Module Eight Reflection RubricCriteriaExemplary (100%)Proficient (85%)Needs Improvement (55%)Not Evident (0%)ValueComprehensionExceeds proficiency in an exceptionally clear, insightful, sophisticated, or creative mannerDevelops a reflection with an organized, clear point of view or idea, using course concepts and ideas from module materialsDoes not develop a reflection with an organized point of view or ideaDoes not attempt criterion85Articulation of ResponseExceeds proficiency in an exceptionally clear, insightful, sophisticated, or creative mannerClearly conveys meaning with correct grammar, sentence structure, and spelling, demonstrating an understanding of audience and purposeShows progress toward proficiency, but with errors in grammar, sentence structure, and spelling, negatively impacting readabilitySubmission has critical errors in grammar, sentence structure, and spelling, preventing understanding of ideas15Total:100%
Southern New Hampshire University Simple Object Access Protocol Discussion

PSYC D004 DAC Stress Trauma and Psychopathology Impact on Actions Discussion

programming assignment help PSYC D004 DAC Stress Trauma and Psychopathology Impact on Actions Discussion.

We will have covered a considerable amount of very important and informative material in the 12 weeks that we’ve been together. While the primary learning objective for the course was for you to become proficient in the topics representative of the field, our additional aim and hope was that you found some of this material relevant and practical to your daily life. We’re confident that you have, and we’re very interested to learn more about the impact that the material has had on you. So, please select a particular insight, concept, theory, discussion topic, video, etc., from the course and discuss: 1. How it has furthered your understanding of your self and others; and, 2. How you intend to apply these insights, or how it has already impacted your daily way of being in the world and relating with others. Please be specific.1.5-2 pages in length and please cite material when appropriate.Write about Stress, Trauma, and Psychopathology
PSYC D004 DAC Stress Trauma and Psychopathology Impact on Actions Discussion

The Indian Tourism Industry Tourism Essay

Atithi Devo Bhava means Guest is God. In India guest is treated as God. Max Muller stated that If we were to look the whole world to find out the country most richly endowed with all the wealth, power, and beauty which nature can bestow- in some parts a veritable paradise on Earth- I should point to India. If I were asked under what sky the human mind has most fully developed some of its choicest gifts – I should point to India. Tourism is at a rising industry in India. Tourism is considered as major foreign earnings for Indian nation. India as an ancient cultural cradle of the world is considered as exotic tourist destination. It has fascinating tourist destinations like the Taj Mahal, The Khajuraho temples, The marble mountains, The Gateway of India, The Red fort and The Qutub Minar, The Ajmer Palace, The Bharatpur, Bird Sanctuary, The city of Canals and many moreThe foreign tourist longs for a tryst with India and loves to visit each and every corner of this vast country. Tourism is the largest service industry in India, with a contribution of 6.23% to the national GDP and 8.78% of the total employment in India. India witnesses’ more than 5 million annual foreign tourist arrivals and 562 million domestic tourism visits. The tourism industry in India generated about US$100 billion in 2008 and that is expected to increase to US$275.5 billion by 2018 at a 9.4% annual growth rate. The Ministry of Tourism is the nodal agency for the development and promotion of tourism in India and maintains the “Incredible India” campaign. According to World Travel and Tourism Council, India will be a tourism hotspot from 2009-2018, having the highest 10-year growth potential. The Travel

Problems that Researchers in the Arab World Encounter Exploratory Essay

Research is very important in economic and social development of any particular country (Davidson 23). Arabic countries such UAE have made tremendous progress in research despite the many challenges that researchers in those countries face. Researchers in companies and those in universities make a significant contribution to the overall development of a nation (Davidson 23). A good number of universities in UAE have introduced research based programs in order to improve the quality of research in the country. Researchers in the Arabic world face similar problems when it comes to research activities. In order for these countries to fully participate in the global knowledge economy, the countries need to come up with strategies that can enhance research activities in the region (Davidson 23). Researchers have to find a favorable environment to conduct their research through funding and support from the governments concerned. The social and economic challenges in UAE and other Arabic countries can only be addressed if researchers in institutions of higher learning can focus on basic research. Government spending on research and development is still very low in the Arabic world compared to other regions (Davidson 23). Researchers in UAE and other Arabic countries have always faced many challenges with some countries in this region not willing to make any effort towards addressing the plight of researchers (Davidson 54). Educational standards in the Arabic world are still very low because there is no much emphasis on both academic and socio-economic research (Davidson 54). It is very difficult for a researcher who is not motivated to produce the desired results. This paper will highlight some of the challenges faced by researchers in UAE and the various initiatives being undertaken by UAE and other Arabic countries to boost research activities in the Arabic world. Research in UAE is yet to be well structured and developed because the country is still a new state (Davidson 54). Despite researchers showing a great interest in research, the support for population research is yet to be fully developed. This poses a great challenge for researchers because the majority of socio-economic research activities involve the country’s population (Davidson 54). It is difficult for researchers in UAE to conduct qualitative and quantitative research because the composition of the country’s population is very varied while its mobility is very unpredictable. Researchers in UAE have limited access to demographic records (Davidson 112). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Most of the people in UAE and other Arabic countries are always reluctant to act as respondents in field studies especially when the issues being studied are always very sensitive. This poses a great challenge to researchers because carrying out a particular research without a substantive research sample is not easy (Davidson 112). The credibility of research findings sometimes depends on the size of the sample population. A communication breakdown between researchers and the study population is a great hindrance to population research. The other challenge that researchers in UAE face is lack of collaboration among researchers from different institutions (Davidson 112). Researchers depend on each other and therefore lack of collaboration and interaction among researchers is a great problem. There are no clear laws in Arabic countries to protect researchers and give their activities some legitimacy. The life of researchers is always in danger in a case where their research activities are not protected by the law. The situation becomes more desperate in cases where the research involves citizens. There are no proper guidelines in place to align research finding with socio-economic needs in UAE (Davidson 112). Lack of proper structures to apply research finding makes researchers feel as if their work is being taken for granted. Researchers feel very motivated if their findings are used to solve the challenges being faced by their country (Davidson 112). The relationship between researchers and the local community is very important in field research (Davidson 156). Researchers in UAE are yet to be embedded with the local people and this makes it difficult for them to obtain research information from the local population. Researchers can only be able to engage the local people if there is a good relationship between them (Davidson 156). Lack of avenues to engage in the global community research is another problem that researchers in UAE and other Arabic countries face. The quality of research can not be high if researchers rely on local information alone (Davidson 156). The global research community facilitates knowledge exchange and in the process improving the quality of research findings. The constant hostile reception from the local community always discourages many researchers and at the same time changes their perception about research (Davidson 156). The researchers lose interest in research in a case where the community fails to cooperate with them. Plagiarism is another challenge that researchers in UAE encounter because there are no clear laws to guard against the vice (Davidson 156). We will write a custom Article on Problems that Researchers in the Arab World Encounter specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The plagiarism problem discourages researchers because most of their research findings are copied by other people but they are unable to sue them because there are no clear laws to guard against plagiarism. Many researchers in UAE do not have adequate training in research methodologies because many institutions do not take into account the importance of training researchers on research methodologies (Davidson 156). Access to relevant literature is very important for researchers in order for them to come up with the desired findings. Access to government records is a great challenge for researchers in UAE. Accessing government documents sometimes takes a lot of time due to the lengthy processes that researchers have to go through (Davidson 156). This is a big problem because the time taken to conduct a particular study is prolonged. Researchers in UAE find it difficult to access some specific research centers due to security reasons (Shaw 76). Some centers also charge visiting researchers high entry fees before they are allowed to conduct their research within the centers. This is a great challenge for researchers with limited funding (Shaw 76). Publishing expenses are very high in many countries across the world and UAE is not exempted. Researchers in UAE find it difficult to publish their research findings because of the high costs of publishing. The situation is worse in UAE because the country has very few publishers. It is very expensive to publish research finding in international journals and magazines. Student researchers are the most affected because they have limited resources to publish their works (Shaw 76). Researchers require a lot of funds in order to conduct conclusive and quality research. Research expenses include travelling expenses, paying of respondents, paying for research centers and publishing the research findings. The costs involved in conducting research are very high and researchers desperately need sponsors in order to fund their research activities. Researchers in UAE have been facing funding problems for a long time with very limited support from the government (Shaw 76). Presenting research findings in international conferences is the dream of every researcher because it presents them with a perfect opportunity to progress in their careers. UAE is not yet fully committed to facilitate international travels for its researchers (Abed 212). Conducting social research in the volatile Arabic region is very risky because the participants may be harmed by the rest of the people due to their involvement in research (Shaw 76). The knowledge base and professional relationships can be badly damaged in areas where participants feel that their lives may be in danger. Conducting regional research in the Arabic world is still very risky because of the political instability in some Arabic countries. The recent unrest in Arabic countries such as Afghanistan and Syria makes it difficult for researchers to conduct their research especially if the research being conducted involves people (Shaw 76). Not sure if you can write a paper on Problems that Researchers in the Arab World Encounter by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Researchers conducting their research in that kind of environment suffer a lot because wars and conflicts completely destroy the knowledge base of researchers. Although some countries such as UAE and Abu Dhabi enjoy some stability, it is still very difficult to conduct conclusive research if the neighboring countries are not peaceful. It is sometimes a great challenge to get a travelling visa if a particular country faces international sanctions and such a situation is not good for researchers who are interested in international research (Shaw 91). The relative peace in UAE has made the country to make a significant improvement in research compared to other Arabic countries. Despite the challenges mentioned earlier in this paper, UAE researchers are enjoying a significant advantage over researchers in other Arabic countries (Shaw 91). The social, political and economic situation in Arabic countries may not improve if the countries do not put much effort in promoting research activities and taking care of researchers (Shaw 91). The UAE government has realized the importance of research in national development and has come up with quite a number of initiatives to boost research activities in the country (Shaw 105). These initiatives are aimed at making sure that researchers have the necessary financial and moral support when conducting their research activities (Shaw 105). To begin with, the UAE government is trying its level best to promote interaction and collaboration beyond institutional boundaries. The legislative body in UAE has come up with various legislations to guide research studies and protect researchers (Shaw 105). The recent improvement in research activities in UAE is attributed to the legal protection that researchers are enjoying. The other notable thing is that research conducted on behalf of the UAE is now aligned with the socio-economic needs of UAE (Brooks 16). This initiative enables researchers to conduct their research with some purpose. The UAE government has realized the importance of the local community in promoting research activities and has facilitated interaction between researchers and the local people (Brooks 16). The UAE government has arranged for seminars across the country to educate the local community about the importance of research and the returns it can bring to the community. The National Research Foundation is one of the most successful initiatives by the UAE government aimed at promoting research activities (Brooks 16). The NRF foundation falls under the ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research. This foundation was created to enhance research in universities and other institutions of higher learning. Research teams and companies in UAE have enhanced their research activities with great assistance from NRF (Brooks 16). The NRF foundation was created in 2008 to support initiatives through funding and leadership. The initiative coordinates all research activities in UAE. All researchers in UAE are funded by the NRF on competitive basis. Research projects that contribute to socio-economic development in UAE are given the first priority by the foundation (Brooks 34). The vision of NRF is to promote and support competitive research and innovation in UAE through creation of a favorable research environment that can enable researchers conduct world-class research (Brooks 34). The mission of NRF is to build a research capacity of international standards that can enhance socio-economic development in UAE (Brooks 67). UAE has been able to produce and retain good scientist because of the competitive research capacity that has been built in the country for the last four years (Brooks 67). The lives of UAE citizens have improved because research has been able to generate wonderful business technological ideas in the country (Brooks 67). The foundation supports research in relevant disciplines that are of national importance. NRF has played a vital role in enhancing inter-institutional research among companies, universities and the government. Inadequate research infrastructure is one of the major challenges that the UAE government has tried to solve through NRF (Brooks 67). Since its inception in 20008, the foundation embarked on improving standards of research infrastructure in the country. NRF has also played a major role in promoting competitive innovation and entrepreneurship through world-class research (Brooks 67). The National Research Foundation has increased awareness about the benefits of research to both the government and the local community (Abed 221). The Foundation ensures that all the research projects that it funds deliver the expected results. The United Arab Emirates University signed collaboration deals with the Emirates Institution of Science and Technology to conduct applied research together (Brooks 70). The collaboration between the two institutions has improved applied research in the country. Conducting joint research activities creates avenues for generation of new ideas and knowledge that are necessary for development (Brooks 70). Scientific and technological projects can now be executed through the joint initiatives by the main institutions of higher learning in UAE. The Memorandum of Understanding signed between the two institutions to conduct joint research activities has developed the culture of innovation in the country (Brooks 70). Faculty members from different fields are now able to corporate through sharing of data and other important research information (Brooks 70). The two institutions organize research conferences and workshops that are very important in sharing research findings (Brooks 70). Sustainable development in UAE is now a reality thanks to the positive results obtained from joint research initiatives by the two prime institutions of higher learning in UAE (Brooks 102). Research beyond institutional boundaries has brought to light the scientific and technological potential of UAE. The Information and Communication Technology Fund is another initiative in UAE that has done a tremendous work in funding research involving ICT projects (Brooks 102). The main aim of the ICT Fund is to promote the ICT sector in UAE by sponsoring research and innovation activities in the ICT field. The ICT fund is a global initiative that has focused on promoting ICT development in UAE and other Middle East countries because they have always lagged behind when it comes to technological research (Brooks 102). The ICT Fund also supports innovation and development projects in the ICT field. The initiative offers scholarships for talented ICT students to enhance technological sustainability. UAE has invested over US $ 25 million in the improvement of ICT research and development (Brooks 102). Research institutes and centers receive funding from the UAE government to improve research capacity in ICT (Brooks 102). The UAE government in partnership with the global ICT Fund plans to invest over US $ 50 million in promoting the ICT business in the next one year. Students in learning and research institutions have been encouraged to come up with new ICT ideas because of the prospect of receiving support from the ICT Fund (Brooks 109). Research and scientific development are very important for any country because modern economy that is knowledge-based. The UAE government has realized this and that is why it continues to invest heavily in research activities. The ICT Funds supports an average of ten ICT projects in universities and companies every year (Brooks 109). The ICT projects in public institution receive support of up to 75% of the total budget from the ICT Fund whereas the projects developed in companies receive half of the project budget (Abed 223). Some of the ICT projects funded by the ICT Fund include satellite communication systems, fiber optic and next generation wireless. The Qatar Foundation is another initiative that has played a vital role in promoting scientific research in Qatar and other Arabic countries (Brooks 109). The initiative‘s mission is to encourage generation of new technological knowledge through scientific research. Conversion of applied research into a commercial reality is among the key priorities of Qatar Foundation (Brooks 116)). UAE is among the privileged countries in the Middle East that have benefited in great way from the Qatar Foundation. The Foundation has managed to build regional research networks that encourage homegrown solutions to the social-economic problems facing Arabic countries (Brooks 116). The research culture has grown in the Arabic world through various programs initiated by Qatar Foundation (Brooks 116). University Research Programs and Qatar Foundation programs are some of the categories of programs developed by Qatar Foundation to promote knowledge-based society (Brooks 116). Qatar Foundation facilitates international research collaborations and funds scientific and development-based research in Qatar and other Middle East countries such as UAE (Brooks 116). Qatar Foundation has established its own research institutions which facilitate the exchange of scientific knowledge within the region and at the international stage (Brooks 178). Qatar Foundation spends up to $ 3.5 billion every year in funding research projects both regionally and globally (Brooks 178). The Qatar Science and Technology Park is an example of research projects that have been commercialized. Increased awareness and funding has improved research activities in UAE and other countries in the Arabic world over the last five years (Brooks 178). Initiatives such as NRF, the ICT Fund and Qatar foundation have really changed the concept of research in UAE and other Middle East countries. The perception of government and the local people about research has completely changed and research initiatives taken seriously (Brooks 178). It is important to note that researchers in the Arabic world have enough motivation and support to inspire socio-economic development through scientific, technological, entrepreneurial and social research (Brooks 178). Works Cited Abed, Ibrahim. United Arab Emirates: A New Perspective, London: Trident Press Ltd, 2001. Print. Brooks, Rachel. Changing Spaces of Education: New Perspectives of the Nature of Learning, New York: Routledge, 2012. Print. Davidson, Christopher. Dubai: Vulnerability of Success, New York: Columbia University Press, 2009. Print. Shaw, Ken. Higher Education in the Gulf: Problems and Prospects, London: University of Exeter Press, 1997. Print.

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