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Leadership Trends Within a Changing Healthcare Environment

Leadership Trends Within a Changing Healthcare Environment.

This week, assigned Presenters should post a PowerPoint presentation with detailed notes section that contains the following:Incorporation and analysis of the Learning Resources from this 2-week unit, including identification of any apparent gaps in the literatureAn original research topic related to the week’s literature (the proposed research topic can be related to the general topic for the week or to gaps in the literature for the week, or it can be related to a specific reading for the week)Background information on the research topic, including identification of principal schools of thought, tendencies in the academic literature, or commonalities that define the academic scholarship regarding your topicEvaluation of the main concepts with a focus on their application to business/management practice and their impact on positive social changeA minimum of 10 peer-reviewed, scholarly new referencesNote: the three learning resources are the attached pdf files.You need to use the presentation template attached (APA format)
Leadership Trends Within a Changing Healthcare Environment

Florida Atlantic University Live Run To The Water Discussion.

I’m working on a humanities discussion question and need support to help me study.

Choose one of the songs in the “Contemporary Connections” section. Try to convince your classmates that the singer is drawing on ancient concepts in the humanities. (Explain the concepts and show similarities between the ancient sources and contemporary media.)Read at least one of your classmates’ posts and challenge the argument. Are there reasons for thinking the connection is weak? Is there a better connection with an ancient idea? Are the ideas far too distinct to be related?
Florida Atlantic University Live Run To The Water Discussion

Iowa Western Japan Faces an Urgent Need to Develop Autonomous Transport Article Discussion.

Description:Each student will have the opportunity to present a current news article(s) relevant to transportation sometime during the semester. The student will receive a maximum of 150 class points for completing the presentation.Instructions:1. Find a news article(s) written within 9 months of the presentation day that is relevant to transportation. Have fun with this! Many industries and organizations use transportation of some type, so look for something of interest to you (e.g., sports, hobbies, favorite restaurants, past jobs, the company you hope to work for someday, etc.)2. Print the article(s) to turn in.3. Present the article(s) to your classmates. This should be a brief presentation (5 minutes) and should include the following:What are the key points in the article including an identification of the key players in the supply chain?Why is the article important? How does it relate to class? How does it relate to or impact transportation?Why should your classmates or those in industry care?
Iowa Western Japan Faces an Urgent Need to Develop Autonomous Transport Article Discussion

Concerns over Energy Outage Discussion

Concerns over Energy Outage Discussion.

In your own words, answer this unit’s discussion questions in a main post (recommended minimum 200 words), and respond to at least 2 peers’ postings (recommended minimum 75 words).After you have reviewed the Assignment Details below, click the Discussion Board link under the My Work heading above to open the Discussion Board and make your post.
Review this tutorial on How to Post to the Discussion Board.Assignment Details Power’s on, Power’s Off!How convenient is it to have electricity come right to your home? We use electricity for so many things: lighting, heating, cooling, entertainment, cleaning, food storage and preparation, and even for taking this class!Generating electricity from any source creates varying levels of environmental damage, including ecosystem disruption, water contamination, or polluting gas emissions. If we reduce energy use, then we reduce these environmental impacts.We make choices about our energy use based on how we feel about conservation, the environment, and convenience. Reflect on your energy use, and review the following resources:
Review the tips at this site for ideas to reduce energy use at home.
Review this site for power outage readiness. Respond to the questions for ONE of the following scenarios:
Power’s off!

When the power goes out, explain your biggest inconvenience. What do you manage to live without?
If the power is out for 3 days or more, what are your main concerns? What are the absolute essentials? How do you know food is safe?
Explain what the best back-up source for a power outage would be (for example, solar panels, a gas-powered generator, or even a power inverter for your car).

Include 1 benefit and 1 drawback. What is your back-up plan?
Power’s on!

In the U.S., heating, ventilation, and air conditioning accounts (HVAC) for 48% of home electricity costs (DoE, 2018). Describe one behavior you can change to reduce heating or cooling energy use.
Americans pay 9% of their electricity costs for lighting (EIA, 2018a). Explain how changing all of your light bulbs to LEDs can help save energy.
On average, 18% of home electricity costs go to heating water (EIA, 2018b). Describe one way to reduce hot water use. How easy or difficult is this to do? In your own words, post a response to the Discussion Board, and comment on at least 2 other postings. You will be graded on both level of engagement and the quality of the contribution to the discussion.
Concerns over Energy Outage Discussion

Chemistry homework help

assignment writing services Chemistry homework help. Post-Buyout, Genentech’s DNA Is DominantBy Dermot Doherty and Rob Waters July 01, 2010When Roche Holding executives held an investor-day briefing in New York in March, Morgan Stanley analyst Andrew Baum had a question that had nothing to do with new drugs, licensing deals, or health-care legislation. Did the Genentech team hide the ties of the Roche executives? he asked. Richard H. Scheller, a veteran scientist at Genentech, the Silicon Valley biotechnology powerhouse Roche took over last year for $46.8 billion, quipped that he doesn’t own one. Turns out his Roche colleagues on the stage, led by Chief Executive Severin Schwan, didn’t want him to look out of place so they ditched theirs.”I’d never seen them without suits and ties before,” Baum said. To him, the informal attire “reflected the willingness of Roche to be seen to bend toward Genentech, rather than the other way around.”Genentech’s impact on the Swiss drugmaker goes beyond the wardrobe of its executives. Unlike many acquired companies, the biotech leader is retaining its own culture even though it’s under new ownership. Roche has placed Genetech scientists in key jobs, such as head of drug development for the combined company. The U.S. operations of Basel, Switzerland-based Roche bore the brunt of job cuts following the merger, and Genentech’s research structure has been adopted across the company. Meanwhile, at Genentech’s base?1 DNA Way in South San Francisco?employees say not much has changed.”Success ultimately equates into power, and that’s exactly what we are seeing at Roche/Genentech,” said J”rg de Vries-Hippen, chief investment officer for European equities at Allianz Global Investors in Frankfurt. “Now that the full integration has taken place, it’s the Genentech guys being promoted and getting the key positions.”Besides the billions it spent to buy Genentech, Roche has another reason to handle the biotech company carefully: its lucrative cancer drugs. Three of Genentech’s cancer therapies?Avastin, MabThera (sold in the U.S. as Rituxan), and Herceptin?together logged sales of 17.6 billion Swiss francs ($15.36 billion) last year, topping the revenue for Roche’s 10 best-selling non-Genentech medicines. Genentech generated revenue per employee of $1.2 million in 2008, compared with $527,664 at its Swiss parent, according to data compiled by Bloomberg.Wall Street analysts now tie Roche’s future to Genentech’s continued success. “Roche’s long-term sales growth is better than its peers mainly due to a subsidiary that’s been churning out its key blockbusters, while its own research unit hasn’t been as productive,” said Carri Duncan, an analyst at Macquarie Group in Zurich. “It appears to be a case of, ‘If you can’t beat ’em, join ’em.’ “That’s certainly true in Roche’s executive ranks. Genentech’s Hal Barron, a 14-year veteran, is now head of Roche global development. Genentech CEO Ian Clark heads Roche’s North American commercial operations. Pat Yang, who joined Genentech in 2004, moved to Basel to run global manufacturing. Scheller took a seat on Roche’s 12-member executive committee.Roche CEO Schwan said the shakeup of research led to initial uncertainty, particularly in Basel. Also, for the “first time ever in our history of acquisitions or mergers,” global-management positions moved from Switzerland. Decision-making had in the past been concentrated at Roche headquarters.Roche also preserved many Genentech jobs. Parent Roche shut its Palo Alto (Calif.) facility and axed 500 of about 3,000 jobs at its Nutley (N.J.) site as part of a manufacturing shakeup. More cuts may be in store, said Karl-Heinz Koch, an analyst at Helvea in Zurich. Nutley is home to Roche’s labs for research and early development of compounds to treat cancer, viruses, and inflammation. Genentech labs are also targeting those same therapies, he said.Roche is changing how its own labs work after its scientists saw that Genentech’s setup made more sense, CEO Schwan said. In the past, Roche maintained separate departments for laboratory research and early-stage drug testing in people. Now it’s adopted Genentech’s practices of combining them.Schwan said that Roche’s concerns over losing Genentech staffers led to the integration being handled differently than previous acquisitions. “If we look back a year ago, it was of utmost importance to keep the spirit and the culture of Genentech and to keep innovation thriving,” he said. “It was really, really important to retain people and to retain scientists.” Roche distributed $375 million in payments to prevent defections, and none of the top scientists from Scheller’s research and early-development group left, even after the retention payments ended, Schwan said. In fact, staff fluctuation rates at Genentech are lower than they were before the purchase was announced, he said.One reason: Roche didn’t tamper with Genentech’s culture of research and innovation, which encourages employees to pursue their own projects and creates a workplace where jeans predominate, hierarchy is kept to a minimum, and scientists have easy access to top managers, said Mark Sliwkowski, a 19-year veteran there.”Genentech has always had as an explicit goal being a great place to work,” Clark said. “I don’t think that was such a conscious goal for Roche, and that may be one place where our culture can rub off a bit.”The bottom line: Many analysts worried Genentech would lose talent and its innovative culture after its acquisition by Roche. Yet, so far, it’s thriving.With Eric Burg and Ellen GibsonDoherty is a reporter for Bloomberg News in Geneva.Waters is a reporter for Bloomberg NewsQuestion:Post-Buyout, Genentech’s DNA is Dominant, Business week, July 5, 2010 (Weblink provided separately)ÿPlease answer these questions:Q#1: Identify: (a) the basic assumptions and values which underlie Genentech’s culture, and (b) the characteristics which define organizational structure of Genentech.ÿQ#2: Present your opinion as to whether Genentech’s culture and structure are appropriate given the type of business and the goals they pursue? Why?Q#3: Frequently, the parent or acquiring company imposes its own culture on the acquired company. Is it appropriate for Roche (parent co.) to do it the opposite way, i.e., change its own culture based on Genentech’s (acquired co.) culture? Provide your arguments.Chemistry homework help

Assessing Globalization In Saudi Arabia

Assessing Globalization In Saudi Arabia. Globalization is defined as a process in which people companies and governments of different countries interact and integrate among each other. This process has been found to be driven by international trade and is also significantly aided by information technology. Since we are more interested in its effect on the economic condition of Saudi Arabia, hence the term that is of greater importance for us is the term economic globalization that refers to the integration of national economies to form an international economy. When talking of economic globalization we are more interested in knowing the foreign direct investments, migration, capital flows and the spread of technology for a country. The process of globalization affects the environment, culture economic developments, prosperity and the physical well being of humans. As people going to different places and performing business at different places have an effect on the people of that place and thus we can say that globalization has resulted in widening of cultural boundaries around the world. Although globalization is thought of as a relatively new process but if we go in depth history we find that globalization has been affecting the people around the world for years. If we go into the history we find signs of globalization since the time when China and Europe were connected to each other through the famous Silk Road in the Middle Ages. If we the features of compare current wave of globalization with the time just before the First World War in 1914 we find that there are many similarities Although there have been instances of globalization since ancient times but the speed at which the world globalized was never the same as it is in the current era. The main reason for this have been technological advancements and the policies implemented by the countries in the past few decades. Going into the details of figures we find that the volume of world trade has become 20 times of its volume in the year 1950. The pace of globalization can also be observed by observing the foreign investments taking place around the world. Observing this factor our statement gets even more support as flows of foreign investments were observed to be doubled in a span of just two years in the period from 1997 to 1999 when they increased from $468 billion to $827 billion. Thus observing these figures we can say that the globalization today is taking place at a much faster rate than it has ever been in the past. Observing the increase in the pace of globalization it is important to observe the factors behind this rapid increase in the rate of globalization around the world. The policies adopted by the governments of various countries around the world have served as an accelerator for globalization. The policies of governments around the world since the second world have led to opening up of economies around the world. The countries have adopted free market economic systems around the world. These steps have led to numerous opportunities for international trade and investments. It has also been observed that various restrictions on foreign trades and investments have been relaxed over the past few years especially the last two decades. Thus these policies have helped in the achieving the aim of international, industrial and financial business structure. Since the Second World War the politicians have been planning to break down borders that hampered trades in the process they have found several international institutions intended to see that this process could be easily facilitated. Institutions like World Bank and International Monetary fund (IMF) were setup in the process. There were many agreements on opening up of trades after the Second World War which led to the formation of General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). Since then World Trade Organization (WTO), which was found as result of agreements signed under GATT has been working with an aim of promoting Global trades freely. As mentioned above technology has served as one of the key drivers for globalization. Information Technology in particular has played a dramatic role in transforming economic life around the world and has played a key role in promoting globalization it has brought consumers, investors, business together by means of internet and e-commerce. It has brought all the information from around the world available to each person who wishes to get access to the information. It has resulted in faster and more detailed analysis of economic trends, has made the transfer of assets easier and has also made communication between distant people much easier. History of Saudi Arabia: Saudi Arabia, the homeland of Arabs is also considered to be the place of origination of the second largest religion- Islam. The holy cities of Mecca and Medina are situated in Saudi Arabia which attracts a large number of pilgrims each year to the country. Ibn Saud who ruled from 1882-1953 is considered to be the main creator of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Ibn Saud was a descendant of Wahhabi leaders and emerged out as a leader of the Arab nationalist movement. The discovery of oil in 1936 served as a milestone for Saudi Arabia as Saudi Arabia is a major producer of oil and has huge reserves of oil since ancient times. With the beginning of commercial production of oil during the World War II huge revenues started flowing into the country thus leading to a large amount of wealth for the country. As a result free health care and education were provided to the residents of Saudi Arabia without any collection of taxes. Saudi Arabia was permitted to become to be the charter member of United Nations even though it was neutral during the World War II. The country became a member of the Arab league in 1945 and played an important role in the 1948-49 war against Israel and still does not recognize Israel as a country. The year 1953 marked the death of the king that is considered as the creator of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. With the death of Ibn Saud 11 year long reign of his son Saud began. Saud’s reign was marked by increasing hostility of Egypt’s Gamal Abdel Nasser towards radical Arabism. In 1964 Saud was dethroned and replaced by the Prime Minister. Crown Prince Faisal was appointed as the prime minister of Saudi Arabia. Faisal did not give any military support to Egypt during the 1967 Arab – Israel war but gave only vocal support. Faisal was assassinated in 1975 by a degraded kinsman. This assassination shook the Middle East but Faisal’s kingdom remained unperturbed and he was succeeded by his brother Prince Khalid. Prince Khalid’s support Egypt during negotiations on withdrawal of Israel from Sinai desert was quite influential. King Khalid died due to a heart attack in 1982. King Khalid’s half brother, Prince Fahd Bin Abdulaziz became the successor of Prince Khalid but he chose his half brother Abdullah as the crown prince. With the fear of becoming Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini’s next target if Iraq was conquered by Iran Saudi Arabia along with smaller oil rich states of the Arab on the Persian Gulf made huge financial contributions in the 1980s towards Iraqi war effort. Due to conserved efforts of oil consuming nations and Saudi Arabia being cheated by other members of Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) led to a reduction in oil prices. The revenues coming from oil into Saudi Arabia reduced from $120 billion to $25 billion within a span of 5 years from 1980 to 1985. After suffering an incapacitating stroke, King Fahd passed his authorities to Crown Prince Abdullah. In 1998 Saudi Arabia entered its first recession in six years when its oil income fell by 40% due to a worldwide decrease in oil prices. An overview of Saudi Arabia’s economy and the state of their economic progress: During the last fifty years the economy of Saudi Arabia has developed at a swift pace as the Saudi state has been established and expanded. The country is economically very diverse but the income coming from oil revenues has played a significant role in the development of the state by the help of modern institutions of bureaucracy. It would have been quite difficult to think of a separate state of before the discovery of oil. Before 1930s the region which later came under the state of Saudi was composed od several regions with different regions depending on different products for their income. The Hijaz which was a western province, for example was dependent chiefly on subsistence agriculture, long distance trades and pilgrims coming to visit the holy places of Mecca and Medina as a source of revenue for the state. Since there many deserts in Saudi Arabia and the living conditions were quite hostile due to its harsh climate and lack of water there was a huge geographical separation between people of the country as most of the population concentrated at places where water was available. The influence from the outside world was quite negligible a as it was not only difficult to travel within the country but also the country lacked natural resources that could attract people from outside. There three main events that have led to the current structure of the Saudi Arabian economy. These events were the discovery of oil just six years after the establishment of Saudi Arabia, the rebuilding of Europe after the World War II which was greatly based on industrialization and the increasing demand of oil. All these events worked as a catalyst in increasing the growth rate of Saudi Arabia and led to enhancement in its position. With the discovery of oil there was a huge increase in revenues flowing into Saudi Arabia and the country witnessed a huge increase in the treasury during the rule of Abd Al Aziz Al in Abd also known as Rahman Saud from 1932 to 1953. This inflow of funds helped him to exert greater economic and political control over the territories under his control. This control helped him to implement all his ideas effectively and efficiently and during his reign the state saw a significant economic change with a shift from the traditional economy to an economy which depended primarily on state’s outlay. The huge reserves of oil in Saudi Arabia have not only driven huge revenues for the country but have also added to the importance of Saudi Arabia to the world. Initially with industrialization Europe was dependent on Saudi Arabia but today the flow of oil has become very essential the economic stability of the world. Saudi Arabia being the only major oil producing country that has significant excess capacity of crude oil has made the oil production and investment policies of Saudi Arabia an issue of international importance as the country has a strong influence on prices and supplies of oil internationally. Despite the attempts of authorities to diversify the economy and develop a non oil based sector in the country but practical implementation of these plans have proved to be more difficult than was expected by the authorities as Saudi is still under the influence of its traditional customs and although huge revenues have been flowing into the country since the invention of oil but the average standard of living of an average citizen of Saudi Arabia has increased as would be expected. Hence the real income source for Saudi Arabia is still the revenues coming from export and trading of oil. In the 1990s Saudi Arabia set out to meet the challenges of increasing oil production with the increasing demand and lower supplies from the former Soviet Union countries. As a result the authorities applied expansion plans for oil industry. In the process firstly the national oil company, Saudi Aramco planned to increase the domestic crude oil production from 8.4 million barrels per day in 1992 to between 10.5 million and 11 million barrels per day in the year 1995. In the process increased the share of production of lighter grades of crude oil. As a result of pollution and global warming becoming important aspects for all countries and with the demand of oil increasing Saudi Arabian Marketing and Refining Company (SAMAREC) decided to upgrade its refineries in order to meet high environmental standards followed in the western world. This step could also be seen as a step to increase production and keeping the demand of oil for Saudi Arabia constant without being affected by the lack of demand due to higher standards of oil required by the western countries. Thirdly the country acquired refineries in other countries and also planned to purchase refineries in places closer to their key consuming markets in order to reduce the cost of transportation incurred by the company and also led to an increase in the market share of Saudi Arabia in the world market. There was a sharp increase in the oil prices during 1970s and early 1980s which led to a huge increase in revenues for Saudi Arabia. This increase helped Saudi Arabia to get out of the chronic financial constraints that Saudi Arabia had been facing during the last few years. Since Saudi Arabia’s economy was not one of the best at time so its absorption capacity was also limited which resulted in delays in using the funds which led to creation of a large amount of funds for both government and private sectors of the Dubai economy and a large part of these surpluses were in international financial institutions and in securities of western government. In 1982 the emphasis of the government changed from managing surpluses to dealing with growing budgetary and concentrated on balancing payments shortfall. During the same time the world saw a decrement in the oil prices which resulted in a decrease in revenues for the country. This led the government into a problem as they were largely committed to big projects and the government had to make a large budget which resulted in a drawdown of foreign assets of the country. The country was also hit by the devaluation of dollar in the international market as the oil payments are made in dollars so the country had to face a double blow due to a reduction in oil prices and the weakening of dollar. The impact of rapid economic change or growth on employment and the workforce of the country: There have been many rapid economic changes in the world today. Most of these have affected almost all the countries across the world. Economic changes around the world have taken place since ancient times but with the opening up of economies around the world their effect is felt by almost all companies around the world. As today most of the countries are engaged in cross border businesses and trades. The effects of globalization have affected almost all the countries. Even though Saudi Arabia still has a relatively much close economy but it too has been affected by the rapid changes taking place around the world. Saudi Arabia is a major exporter of oil and its products which has become a necessity for any country around the world hence the economy of Saudi Arabia is bound to be affected by any economic changes taking place globally. As oil payments are made in dollars a change in dollar prices affects Saudi Arabia. Any recession hitting the world also affects Saudi Arabia as the demand for oil reduces during even a hint of recession. Out of the many rapid changes, globalization has been a change that has affected the world greatly and there have been positive as well as negative responses of globalization. With globalization economies have opened up and restrictions on trades have been reduced greatly. Restrictions on imports and exports have been relaxed greatly in all parts of the world. The world today has become a global village. As a result of globalization which has been one of the most significant economic changes over the last few years the quality of oil produced within the country has been increased. The workforce of the country although still comprises mostly of the residents of Saudi Arabia only as the economy has not opened up as much as other countries have opened up. Also the education system and the traditional ways of working are still followed in Saudi Arabia. The employment has increased with the recent changes and the world turning up to industrialization more and more oil refineries have been setup in order to meet the increasing demand of oil around the world. Challenges and opportunities for Saudi Arabia: The opening up of the world and the closed structure of Saudi Arabia’s economy has also created some challenges for the country. It has been internationally recognized that the standard of living in Saudi Arabia is not as good as other parts of country. The mindset of the people living is still more influenced by the Arabic and Islamic cultures and the people are not quite open to accept views of others even if they might be better than what they might have thought. The country today also has a challenge of improving the education standard of the people living in the country. As the education standard of people living in Saudi Arabia is far below standards. Also the technological advancement is far slower than other parts of the world. The major challenge for the economy of Saudi Arabia is to develop other sectors of the market also and reduce its dependency on oil as oil being a non – renewable source will be exhausted one day and it is important to have other sources of income also. Although the country also has many opportunities and also has the inflow of income required to help them achieve their goals. The income coming in from their oil reserves can be implemented in order to develop other sectors of market. The people of the country need an exposure to the outside world which may be possible if the economy opens up. The standard of education is currently a big concern which needs to be tackled properly. The current up comings have revealed that the government of Saudi Arabia has understood the importance of English and has started laying stress on promoting English amongst the people of the country. If the country is able to develop technically and the standard of education could be increased then there are probabilities that the outcome for the country would be quite good and self explanatory and will have a fortifying effect in its position among other countries of the world. Interesting Facts about Saudi Arabia: Some of the interesting facts about the country are listed below: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is the official name of Saudi Arabia. The system of absolute monarchy s followed in Saudi Arabia. In terms of area it is the largest country in the Middle East. Saudi Arabia is also known as ‘the land of two holy mosques’ as it houses Mecca and Medina the two holiest places in Islam. Oil accounts for more than 75% of the governments revenues and forms part of more than 90% exports from Saudi Arabia. The largest oil producing company ARAMCO is situated in Saudi Arabia. The first university in Saudi Arabia was found in 1957. Conclusion: From the study made to prepare this paper it is quite clear that the economy of Saudi Arabia is based on revenues coming from oil. The study has also revealed the closed structure of economy of Saudi Arabia and has exposed the lower standards of living and education standards in this country which is the largest producer of oil in the world. The country has a good impact on the world as it is the largest producer of oil in the world and oil is essential for any country in today’s era of industrialization. All to compete with the world in a more profound manner it is important for them to improve their base in technological sectors and also improve the education standards of the country. The emphasis on English also has to be increased in order to promote talks internationally and remove third party intervention in international talks. Lastly I would like to say that the country has large inflow of income due to its richness in oil reserves and if the funds coming in from the oil production are applied in right direction and with emphasis on technology and education Saudi Arabia can develop into a country which can compete with any world class country. Assessing Globalization In Saudi Arabia

Executive Branch of Russian Government Qualitative Research Essay

The first competitive and free elections which were held in March 1990 to elect the Congress of People’s Deputies led to the birth of the executive arm of the Russian government. The office of the president, who is the leader of the government, was created although the office had existed for a year after Gorbachev had created the same on his own in 1990 (Fish 56). When elections were held in June 1991, Boris Yeltsin became the first legitimate president (Sakwa 33). Yeltsin guided the country throughout the four years despite the coup attempts by Gorbachev Soviet government. Before the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Russian government had controlled the military while the Soviet government had control over the country’s budget as well as that of the Soviet Union. After the failed coup attempts in 1991, Yeltsin appointed a new government in which he also became the first prime minister in an acting capacity. Under this arrangement, the president, Yeltsin, had the power to appoint ministers, administrators in the localities, presidential representatives, the prime minister, issue decrees among others (Eckert 33). However, a referendum that was held December 1993 led to the clear separation of legislative, executive as well as judicial branches as independent arms of the government. The purpose of the study is to provide an understanding of the current executive arm of the Russian government by defining the elements of the executive branch of the government, their roles and responsibilities, and how they are coordinated. The executive branch of the government is typically mandated to run the government and country and ensure the growth of democratic institutions. It is the executive arm of the government that manages the economy of the country. Russia has one of the best government structures particularly the executive arm and this has been the reason behind its stability and economic growth of above 7%. BTI 2010 rates the level of democracy in Russia at 5.25 within 1-10 status index (Bertelsmann Stiftung 1). The statistics presented above are of real significance considering that Russia had been under the autocratic Soviet government and had no well-defined constitution of their own. Initially, the powers which were bestowed to the president could not allow him to steer economic growth. However, such situations changed, and Russia is now among the most democratic states in the Asian continent as well as globally. It has also maintained a stable economic growth. It is these reasons that motivate me to study the executive arm of the Russian government. Therefore, to be able to understand how other countries, especially in the Asian, South American and African continents, can restructure their governance structure to expand their democracies, and institute effective systems for checks and balances, and as a result, improve their economic growths. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The reasoning behind the continuing revolution in the Arab world that began in Tunisia means that there is the need for improvement in the governance structure particularly in the executive arm of such government as well as constitutional reform to guarantee citizens democracy, better leadership, and economic growth. Russia is a federal presidential state with a dual executive and a vertical power structure where executive power is shared between the President and the Prime Minister, although the president s the key figure in the executive wing of the government. The executive arm of the Russian government is headed by the president who exercises executive power in the Russian Federation. The other members of the executive wing of the Russian government include the prime minister, two first deputy prime minister, seven deputy prime ministers, and seventeen ministers. The president of the Russian Federation appoints the prime minister, who again has to be approved by the State Duma, which is the lower house. The current president is Dmitry Medvedev who came into power in 2008, while the prime minister is Vladimir Putin who had been the president for two consecutive terms beginning 2000 to early 2008. The prime minister is the Chairman of the government deputized by the deputy prime minister, who is also an appointee of the president. The president is the Russian Chief of State and stays in office for six years as per the 2008 amendment that was done to the president’s term in office, which used to be four years. However, the current president will be in office for four years as per the original provisions in the constitution. The president has no vice president meaning that it is the prime minister who gets into office should the office remain vacant due to impeachment, resignation, poor health or death of the president in acting capacity till the next elections are held, generally within three months (Caraway 1). The president wields more executive powers as compared to the prime minister, who is his appointee ((Treisman 42). He or she determines the direction of the country’s domestic as well as foreign policy ((Treisman 42). The president also represents the state in foreign affairs as well as within the state. We will write a custom Essay on Executive Branch of Russian Government specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As such, he or she conducts international talks and is mandated to sign international treaties. He or she is the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces as well as the leader of the Security Council. The Russian Security Council ensures individual as well as state security. The Russian president also has the power to appoint the prime minister and the deputy prime minister with the approval of the State Duma. However, the constitution also permits the president to pass decrees without the permission of the lower house, State Duma. Again, the president has the authority to dissolve the State Duma if repeatedly frustrates his efforts to appoint the prime minister and the deputy prime minister ((Treisman 42). The president also has the powers to appoint and dismiss the members of the cabinet which includes the deputy prime minister. Also, he or she chairs cabinet (government) meetings. He or she appoints Russia’s ambassadors after consultations with the legislature and may also recall the country’s foreign representatives. Again, the president forwards the names of those proposed for the post of Chairman of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation to the State of Duma and may also ask the State of Duma to sack the chairman (Treisman 42). Besides, he or she forwards the names of the proposed candidates to be appointed as justices in Supreme Court, Prosecutor General, the Constitutional Court, as well as, the Superior Court of Arbitration to the Federation Council. The president is also empowered to appoint justices to work in the federal district courts. As the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, the president consents to defense doctrines. He or she has the power to appoint or dismiss commanders of the armed forces. Besides, the president has the authority to declare a state of emergency as well as regional states or national martial law although the Federation Council can reject or confirm the decree (Troxel 102). Another critical issue as regards the executive branch of the Russian government is presidential elections. After the 2008 amendment on the term of office of the president, the president’s term in office is now six years, beginning in the next government which comes into office in 2012, and serves for a maximum of two consecutive terms (US Library of Congress 4). The minimum age for a presidential candidate is set at 35 years and must be a Russian citizen who has stayed in the country for the last ten years. One unique feature of the elections of the president is the Law on Presidential Elections which requires a presidential candidate to acquire 1 million signatures from the electorates. A presidential candidate is not supposed to obtain more than 7% of the 1 million signatures from one federal jurisdiction. This rule is created to ensure that each presidential candidate proves that he or she is supported across territorial regions (US Library of Congress 4). For presidential elections to be considered valid, a minimum of 50% of eligible voters must participate in the elections (US Library of Congress 4). Again, the Law on Presidential Elections states that for one to be declared the president of Russia, he or she must have garnered over 50% of all the votes casts. However, should no presidential candidate receive the required more than 50% of the votes, the winner in the elections plus the runners up face off in a runoff election to determine the winner (US Library of Congress 4). The runoff must be conducted within fifteen days after the general elections. In that case, whoever wins between the two regardless of the percentage becomes the president. Not sure if you can write a paper on Executive Branch of Russian Government by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Central Election Commission of Russia (CEC) reserves the right to ask the Supreme Court to ban a presidential candidate who proposes a violent transformation of the constitutional order (US Library of Congress 4). The CEC may also ask the Supreme Court to ban a presidential candidate who proposes a violent transformation of the Russian Federation. Since the president is the appointing authority of the prime minister, the activities of the prime minister are highly influenced by the president. As the chairman of the government, the prime minister performs more of an administrative role. Since the president significantly influences the position, the prime minister performs his/her administrative functions in line with the presidential decrees as well as constitutional laws (US Library of Congress 5). The prime minister nominates members to be appointed to the cabinet and also chairs the implementation of domestic policy. The prime minister is expected to forward the list of nominations of all the subordinate cabinet positions which includes the deputy prime ministers as well as the federal ministers within one week of his or her approval by the State Duma as prime minister. Thus, he or she distributes duties in the cabinet, decides on the operating priorities of the office, organizes its work following the provisions of the law and presidential decrees, and informs the president on cabinet activities. The prime minister signs acts of the cabinet and suggests rewards as well as punishment for the office to the president. Finally, the prime minister represents the cabinet in foreign relation issues within the country. As the chairman of the cabinet, the prime minister chairs the cabinet commission charged with the responsibility of monitoring foreign investment in the country, state border commission, as well as governmental commission on budget. The cabinet, also known as the government, is a significant arm of the executive branch of the Russian government. It is made up of the prime minister who is also its chairman, first deputy prime ministers, deputy prime minister as well as federal ministers. The cabinet’s roles include executing monetary and crediting policies as well as defense and foreign policies. It also performs state security functions and guarantees the rule of law. They ensure the protection of property, respect for civil as well as human rights. Also, the cabinet implements measures to fight crime. The cabinet is also charged with the responsibility of formulating the state budget which is submitted to the State Duma (US Library of Congress 5). To accompany the report is an implementation plan for the budget. However, the State Duma may reject the budget, thus, forwarding it to the conciliation commission. It has to ensure the implementation of the budget. Also, it has to report on the progress of the implementation process. It is also mandated to manage the federal property. Again, the cabinet has to ensure that state policies as regards to education, science, culture, ecology, social security as well as health protection are implemented uniformly across the country. However, if the cabinet issues implementing directives as well as decrees which are not in line with presidential decrees or the legislation, the president has the power to overturn them. In Russia, the constitution allows several bodies to check the powers of the executive which makes the governance of the country to be democratic and more representative of the public’s wishes. One such authority is the State Duma. The State Duma may force the president to dismiss the prime minister and the entire government especially if the government can not make important policy decisions (The Constitution of the Russian Federation 5). For the State Duma to force the president to dissolve the entire cabinet, it has to pass a censure motion against the cabinet twice in three months. However, if that only happens once, the president does not necessarily have to dismiss the cabinet as he may choose not to. The president of Russia is empowered to dissolve the State Duma any time that the body frustrates his or her efforts especially if the body declines to consent to the nomination of the prime minister on three consecutive occasions. Again, the president may also decide to dissolve the State Duma if the body passes a censure motion against the cabinet twice within three months (Remington and Smith 58). However, due to the constitutional role of the State Duma in the governance of the country, the president is not allowed to dissolve the body within twelve months from parliamentary elections (Remington and Smith 58). This means that the president can not manipulate the appointment as well as dismissal of the Plenipotentiary for Human Rights, the Chairman of the Accounting Chamber plus its staff auditors, the Chairman of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation, within his or her last year of his or her term to for personal reasons (The Constitution of the Russian Federation 6). This means that the integrity of the bodies are maintained until the president leaves the office or the next government. In countries where the constitution allows the president to dissolve the body charged with the responsibility of approving such appointments, the president takes advantage on the powers vested in his office to suspend the body and make appointments which suit his or her ambitions as has been the case in some autocratic governments. Another body that checks the executive powers of the Russian president is the Federation Council, which is the upper chamber. Even though the president of Russia is the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and is empowered to declare a state of emergency and to introduce martial law in the regional states or at the national level, he or she must notify both the upper and lower chambers (The Constitution of the Russian Federation 7). The upper chamber, which is the Federation Council, has the authority to reject or confirm such declarations. Due to the weight of such decrees and martial laws on the country or state, their implementations are subject to the approval of the Federal Council. Besides, the Federal Council is empowered to make decisions on the activities of the Russian Armed Forces outside the Russian territory (The Constitution of the Russian Federation 7). These provisions in Chapter 5 of the Russian constitution ensure that the president does not abuse the powers bestowed upon him or her while ensuring the security of the country and individuals. The Federation Council also holds an important role as regards the appointments judges to the Supreme Court of Arbitration, the Supreme Court as well as the Constitutional Court. The body also has the power to appoint or remove the Prosecutor-General as well as the Deputy Chairman of the Accounting Chamber plus half its audit staff (The Constitution of the Russian Federation 7). In all these appointments, it is the president who submits candidates to be appointed for the above posts. These powers of the bestowed upon the Federation Council ensure that the president’s appointments are approved by the upper chamber hence improving the integrity of the institutions as well as their legitimacy. This means that the president can not make an appointment which is not in line with the wishes of the majority and that the officeholders perform their constitutional mandate, failure to which the Federation Council can remove them. Thus, the checks and balances help improve transparency in the executive. Unlike most countries where it is the president who declares the presidential election date, in Russia, the Federation Council has to call for presidential elections. This means that the president can not call for a snap election at a time when the country, and in particular, the opposition is not prepared, for his or her advantage. This promotes the spirit of democracy within the state. Although the Russian executive branch has a dual executive with a vertical power structure, it has a governance structure which allows it to check the powers of the executive. The Federation Council and the State Duma provide checks on the powers of the president and approve most government undertakings which include the budget and its implementation, the activities of the Russian Armed Forces among others. The two bodies approve important appointments which include major legislative offices, the prime minister, the Chairman of the Central Bank among other offices. These powers that have been granted to the Russian Federal Assembly ensure that the President does not abuse the powers bestowed upon him or her while governing the country. Thus, the Russian executive branch structure could be copied by other nations which wish to improve their governance structure, democracy, leadership, and transparency. Works Cited Bertelsmann Stiftung, BTI 2010 — Russia Country Report. Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Stiftung, 2009. Print. Bertelsmann Stiftung, BTI 2010 — Russia Country Report presents the country’s report on its transformation status. Of significant importance to the study are the index ratings on the country’s democracy as regards its stateness, political participation, the stability of democratic institutions, the rule of law as well as the social and political integration. Another significant aspect of the country’s transformation presented in this article is economic performance as well as the sustainability of Russia’s market economy. Caraway, Bill. Russia: Land of Firebird Government. Journey to Assia, 2011. Web. The article provides information on the three arms of the Russian government which includes the executive, the legislature and the judiciary. It presents a historical background of the Russian governance structure beginning early 1990s. It explains the composition of the executive branch of the government as well as the roles of each office, particularly that of the president. Eckert, Mark and Shevtsova Liliia Fedorovna. The Problem of Executive Power in Russia. Journal of Democracy 11.1 (2000): 32-39. Print. The journal “The Problem of Executive Power in Russia” discusses an executive power with an effective system of checks as well as balances in a democratic government. It explains that such a system would be significant for the operations of the Russian government. It presents the Russian transformation period since 1990 and continues to explain Yeltsin’s period in power in which the former president concentrated much power on the office of the president, thereby compromising the other political actors within the system. Fish, Steven. Democracy Derailed in Russia: The Failure of Open Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005. Print. “Democracy Derailed in Russia: The Failure of Open Politics” provides information on the Russian political system after the collapse of the Soviet Union. It compares the level of democracy in Russia at that time to that of other states to explain the democratic transition of the Russian political system since 1991. Remington, Thomas and Smith Steven. The Politics of Institutional Choice: The Formation of the Russian State Duma. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011. Print. The book provides a background of the Russian Federation from the 1980s. It provides information on the political institutions of Russia which include the legislative institutions, the Russian electoral body, the State Duma among others. It provides incredible data on the Russian Duma as well as its composition which was very important for the study. Sakwa, Richard. The Crisis of Russian Democracy: The Dual State, Factionalism and the Medvedev Succession. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011. Print. The book presents an interpretation of Russian politics by conducting an empirical analysis to explain the dynamics of the Russian political system. It reveals that Russia faces a democratic crisis due to the interference of the constitution by the administrative regime. It, therefore, proposes consolidation of the subjective authority of the administrative system. The Constitution of the Russian Federation. Section One: Chapter 5. The Federal Assembly. Web. The Constitution of the Russian Federation presents a section of the constitution which outlines the composition of the Russian Federal Assembly, which is the State Duma and Federation Council, their election into office, including the election requirements and procedures, their terms of office, defines their roles and jurisdictions, their compositions as well as their relation with the president. Troxel, Tiffany. Parliamentary Power of Russia, 1994-2001: A New Era. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. Print. “Parliamentary Power of Russia, 1994-2001: A New Era” traces the progress of the Russian parliament beginning 1994 up to 2004. It provides information on the authority of the Russian parliament particularly in the policy process and discusses the relationship between the parliament and the executive. The book proves the parliament checks Russia’s executive powers. Treisman, Daniel. The Return: Russia’s Journey from Gorbachev to Medvedev. Glencoe, Illinois: Free Press, 2011. Print. “The Return: Russia’s Journey from Gorbachev to Medvedev” presents the evolution of Russia’s political system from Gorbachev’s reign to the period of the current president, Medvedev. It shows Russia’s maturity process into a more democratic political system with checks and balances on the executive. US Library of Congress. The Constitution and the Government Structure. Web. US Library of Congress, “The Constitution and the Government Structure” provides a rich source of information about the Russian executive branch including its transformation since 1990. It presents information on the composition of the executive branch, presidential powers, the cabinet, presidential elections, as well as, power centers plus the informal powers of the president.