Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp Definitions, Theories, and Styles of Leadership in Nursing Developing future nurse leaders is one of the greatest challenges faced by the nursing profession (Mahoney, 2001). Powerful leadership skills are needed by all nurses and especially for those providing direct care to those in top management positions. Anyone who is looked to as an authority (including, for instance, a nurse treating a patient) or who is responsible for giving assistance to others is considered a leader (Curtis, DeVries and Sheerin, 2011). A clinical nursing leader is one who is involved in direct patient care and who continuously improves the care that is afforded to such persons by influencing the treatment provision delivered by others (Cook, 2001). Leadership is not merely a series of skills or tasks; rather, it is an attitude that informs behaviour (Cook, 2001). In addition, good leadership can be seen as demonstrating consistently superior performance; further it delivers long term benefits to all those involved, either in the delivery or receipt of care. Leaders are not merely those who control others; they are visionaries who help employees to plan, lead, control, and organise their activities (Jooste, 2004). Leadership has been defined in many ways within existent academic literature. However, several features are common to most definitions of leadership. For example, leadership is a process, involves influence, usually occurs in a group setting, involves the attainment of a goal, and exists at all levels (Faugier and Woolnough, 2002). In addition, there are several recognised leadership styles. For instance, autocratic leaders set an end goal without allowing others to participate in the decision-making process (Curtis, DeVries and Sheering, 2011), whereas bureaucratic leadership occurs in scenarios where a leader rigidly adheres to rules, regulations, and policies. In contrast, participative leaders allow staff to participate in decision-making and actively seek out the participation of stakeholders within the decision. This type of leadership allows team members to feel more committed to the goals they were involved with formulating (Fradd, 2004). Laissez-faire leadership leaves employees to their own devices in meeting goals, and is a highly risky form of leadership as Faugier and Woolnough (2002) further posit. Finally, a more effective form of leadership than those hitherto mentioned, may be situational leadership. This is where the leader switches between the above styles depending upon the situation at hand and upon the competence of the followers (Faugier and Woolnough, 2002). There is a difference between theory and styles of leadership. According to Moiden (2002), theory represents reality, whereas style of leadership refers to the various ways one can implement a theory of leadership – the way in which something is said or done. Organisations should, it follows, aim for a leadership style that allows for high levels of work performance, with few disruptions, and that is applicable in a wide variety of situational circumstances, in an efficient manner (Moiden, 2002). Similarly, there is a difference between management and leadership. Managers plan, organise and control, while leaders communicate vision, motivate, inspire and empower in order to create organisational change (Faugier and Woolnough, 2002). Transactional versus transformational leadership Outhwaite (2003) suggests that transactional leadership involves the skills required in the effective day to day running of a team. However, transformational leadership also involves ensuring that an integrated team works together and may also benefit from the inclusion of innovativeness of approach in work (Outhwaite, 2003). For example, a leader can empower team members by allowing individuals to lead certain aspects of a project based on their areas of expertise. This will, in turn, encourage the development of individual leadership skills, which improve both the individual’s skills and their future career prospects. In addition, leaders should explore barriers and identify conflicts when they arise, and then work collaboratively with the members of their team to resolve these (Outhwaite, 2003). Furthermore, the leader should remain a part of the team, sharing in the work, thus remaining close to operations and being able to understand the employee’s perspective, rather than being a leader who is distanced from the actual work of the team for which he or she is responsible (Outhwaite, 2003). Transactional leadership focuses on providing day-to-day care, while transformational leadership is more focused on the processes that motivate followers to perform to their full potential. Thus, the latter works by influencing change and providing a sense of direction (Cook, 2001). The ability of a leader to articulate a shared vision is an important aspect of transformational leadership, as Faugier and Woolnough (2002) observe. In addition, transactional leadership is most concerned with managing predictability and order, while transformational leaders recognise the importance of challenging the status quo in order to enhance positive possibilities within the project that they are delivering as Faugier and Woolnough, (2002) posit. One group of authors that have described the use of transformational leadership by Magnet hospitals are De Geest et al. (2003). In so doing they discuss how the leadership style deployed within the hospitals allows for faith and respect to be instilled, the treatment of employees as individuals, and innovation in problem solving, along with the transmission of values and ethical principles, and the provision of challenging goals while communicating a vision for the future (De Geest et al., 2003). Transformational leadership is, as they further comment, especially well-suited to today’s fast-changing health care environment where adaptation is extremely important, especially with regard to changing technologies and the seemingly ever-increasing expectations of patients. In elucidating further, the authors cite a range of findings that this leadership style is positively associated with higher employee satisfaction and better performance. These, in turn, correlate positively with higher patient satisfaction (De Geest et al., 2003). One way to facilitate change using transformational leadership involves the use of action learning (De Geest et al., 2003). In this approach, leaders use directive, supportive, democratic, and enabling methods to implement and sustain change and the effects of such leadership enable better outcomes for both nurses and patients to be realised. Transformational leadership focuses on the interpersonal processes between leaders and followers and is encouraged by empowerment (Hyett, 2003). Empowered nurses are able not only to believe in their own ability but also to create and adapt to change. When using a team approach to leadership, it is important to set boundaries, goals, accountability, and set in motion structural support for team members (Hyett, 2003). Transformational leadership is thus seen as empowering, but the nurse manager must balance the use of power in a democratic fashion to avoid the appearance of their abusing the power that they have been given (Welford, 2002). Finally, as Hyett (2003) also notes, respect and trust of staff by the leader is essential for transformational leadership to work. Clinical or shared governance Clinical governance is a new way of working in which e National Health Service (NHS) organisations are accountable for continuous quality improvement, safeguarding standards of care, and creating an environment in which clinical excellence can flourish (Moiden, 2002). The requirements of several recent UK government policies require that new forms of leadership that better reflect the diversity of the workforce and the community being developed. Since Scott and Caress (2005) noted this, leadership needs have continued to be strengthened and the need to involve all staff in clinical leadership further developed. Shared governance has been, as Hyett (2003) notes, one method by which this goal has been realised. It has proven to be an effective form of leadership because it empowers all staff and makes them part of decision making processes, thereby additionally allowing staff to work together to develop multi-professional care (Rycroft et al., 2004). Such shared governance has resulted in the increased utilisation of a decentralised style of management in which all team members have responsibility and managers are facilitative, rather than using a hierarchical which, as Scott and Caress (2005) maintain, has led to increased morale and job satisfaction, increased motivation and staff contribution, the encouragement of creativity, and an increased sense of worth amongst NHS employees at all levels. Knowledge, attitudes, and skills of an effective nurse leader In addition to the skills hitherto noted in the opening sections of this assignment, nurse leaders should have knowledge of management, communication, and teamwork skills, as well as a solid understanding of health economics, finance, and evidence-based outcomes (Mahoney, 2001). These core skills should ideally be further enhanced by the possession of a range of key personal qualities. Mahoney (2001) asserts that these are desirable in all nurse leaders and include competence, confidence, courage, collaboration, and creativity. Nurse leaders should also be aware of the changing environment in health care best practice and make changes proactively. Leaders who show concern for the needs and objectives of staff members and are cognisant of the conditions affecting the work environment that also encourage productivity, as Moiden, (2003) notes, which is important as it allows a philosophy of productivity to be established. According to Jooste (2004), the three pillars essential to a foundation of strong leadership are authority, power, and influence. It follows, therefore, that to be an effective leader in today’s competitive environment, leaders should use influence more, and authority and power, less. It is more important, as Jooste (2004) further notes, to be able to motivate, persuade, appreciate, and negotiate than to merely wield power and, in advancing this line of argument, the author cites three categories of influence for nurse leaders to use in creating a supportive care environment. These include: modelling by example, building caring relationships, and mentoring by instruction (Jooste, 2004). Such skills should also, according to De Geest et al. (2003), be combined with the utilisation of five specific practices that are fundamental to good leadership: g inspiring a shared vision, enabling others to act, challenging processes, modelling, and encouraging. For example, a leader may challenge others to act by recognising contributions and by fostering collaboration. Such techniques are important because recognising contributions also serves to encourage employees in their work whilst team leadership moves the focus away from the leader towards the team as a whole (Mahoney, 2001). Applications to practice settings Hyett (2003) describes several barriers to health visitors taking on a leadership role and observes that visitors usually work in a self-led environment, which causes problems because there may be no mechanism for self-control or decision-making at the point of service, —thus stifling innovation. In addition, if nurses who do try to initiate change are not supported, they lose confidence and assertiveness and may feel disempowered and unable to support one another, which will lead to declining standards of motivation and may negatively impact upon patient care (Fradd, 2004). Management often focuses on the volume of services provided, leading to loss of self-esteem and a rise in dependence; this, as Hyett (2003) recognises, may cause workers to become disruptive, or to leave the organisation, which culminates in organisational upheaval. Further, when staff leave as a result of feeling disempowered, replacements need to be found and trained – which involves not only additional recruitment costs but training as new people are introduced into the culture of the organisation. In addition to the comments made by Hyett, focus group data from a study of implementing change in a nursing home suggests that nurses want a leader with drive, enthusiasm, and credibility to lead them and to inspire them, for they do not merely want a leader who has superiority (Rycroft-Malone et al., 2004). Further, focus group members identified the qualities desired in a leader who is attempting to facilitate change. This person should have knowledge of the collaborative project, have status with the team, be able to manage others, take a positive approach to management, and possess good management skills (Rycroft-Malone et al., 2004). Applications to the wider health and social context Nursing leaders function at all levels of nursing from the ward through to top nursing management. Over time, the function of leadership has changed from one of authority and power to one of being powerful without being overpowering (Jooste, 2004). Boundaries between upper, middle, and lower level leaders are becoming increasingly blurred, and responsibilities are becoming less static and more flexible in nature. In other words, there is a trend toward decentralisation of responsibility and authority from upper to lower levels of health care delivery (Jooste, 2004). An ongoing programme of political leadership at the Royal College of Nursing describes a multi-step model for political influence (Large et al., 2005). Some of the steps include: identifying the issue to be changed, turning the issue into a proposal for change, finding and speaking with supporters and stakeholders to develop a collective voice, pinpointing desired policy change outcomes, and constructing effective messages to optimise communication (Large et al., 2005). These can be all be viewed as important for through learning them the nurse leader can adopt to the organisational expectations of the twenty-first century NHS. Education for leadership In order for nursing practice to improve, an investment must be made in educating nurses to be effective leaders (Cook, 2001). Cook contends that leadership should be introduced in initial nursing preparation curricula, and mentoring should be available for aspiring nurse leaders not only during their formal training but throughout their careers (2001). The importance of this enlarged approach can be seen, for example, in the use of evidence-based practice which requires nurses to be able to evaluate evidence and formulate solutions based upon the best available evidence (Cook, 2001). In order for these things to occur, it is important that nurses have educational preparation for leadership during training to prepare them to have a greater understanding and enhanced control of events that may occur during work situations (Moiden, 2002). This can be seen as a step towards the greater professionalisation of the nursing profession – a movement that has also increasingly seen nurses gaining formal academic qualifications over the previous ten years. Indeed, such is the embracing of professional accreditation that the NHS has adopted the Leading an Empowered Organisation (LEO) project in order to encourage the use of transformational leadership (Moiden, 2002). By doing so, the NHS hopes to ensure that professionals may empower themselves and others through responsibility, authority, and accountability. The programme also aims to help professionals develop autonomy, take risks, solve problems, and articulate responsibility (Moiden, 2002). Strategies such as the Leading and Empowered Organisation (LEO) programme and the RCN Clinical Leaders Programme are designed to produce future leaders in nursing who are aware of the benefits of transformational leadership (Faugier andWoolnough, 2002). This is therefore not only a programme that is relevant to today’s NHS but is also one that is preparing the nursing leaders of tomorrow. Challenges and opportunities to stimulate change The health care environment is constantly changing and producing new challenges that the nurse leader must work within (Jooste, 2004). Leadership involves enabling people to produce extraordinary things whilst simultaneously performing their daily duties and adapting to challenge and change (Jooste, 2004). While management in the past took a direct, hierarchical approach to leadership, the time has come for a better leadership style that includes encouragement, listening, and facilitating (Hyett, 2003). Hyett (2003, p. 231) cites Yoder-Wise (1999) as defining leadership as “the ability to create new systems and methods to accomplish a desired vision”. Today, the belief is that anyone can be a leader and thus leadership is a learnable set of skills and practices (Hyett, 2003). All nurses must display leadership skills such as adaptability, self-confidence, and judgment in the provision of health care (Hyett, 2003). Indeed, the expectation of both higher professionals and the general public receiving care is that nurses lead care, and that they are able to move seamlessly between roles of leading and following, depending upon the individual scenario faced (Hyett, 2003). Empowering patients to participate in the decision-making process Only when health care services are well-led will they be well-organised in meeting the needs of patients (Fradd, 2004). Nurses have considerable influence on the health care experience enjoyed by individual patients, especially as patient involvement in care is most often nurse-led (Fradd, 2004). Today, patients are more aware of their own health care needs and better informed about treatments and practice; it is also imperative that patients are able to enunciate their own health care needs and contribute to discussions relating to their treatment options. Such enhanced levels of health care communication require nurses to be better equipped with analytical and assertiveness skills, especially if they need to ‘fight the patients’ corner against the opinion of an individual doctor who may place his own opinions above those of the patient (Outhwaite, 2003). Transformational leadership is ideal for today’s nursing practice as it seeks to satisfy needs, and involves both the leader and the follower in meeting needs (Welford, 2002). It is also flexible and this allows the leader to adapt in varied situations. It is logical, therefore, that if the leader accepts that things will change often, followers will enjoy this flexibility. As a result, both nurses and patients benefit because the avoidance of hierarchical structures and the embracing of new ways in which to work help organisations to put resources together to create added value for both employees and consumers (Mahoney, 2001). Into this health care mix, transformational leadership is pivotal, for it allows team nurses to enhance their role as both teachers and advocates (Welford, 2002). References Cook, M. (2001). The renaissance of clinical leadership. International Nursing Review, 48: pp. 38-46. Curtis, E. A., de Vries, J. and Sheerin, F. K. (2011). Developing leadership in nursing: exploring core factors. British Journal of Nursing, 20(5), pp. 306-309. De Geest, S., Claessens, P., Longerich, H. and Schubert, M. (2003). Transformational leadership: Worthwhile the investment! European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 2: pp. 3-5. Faugier, J. and Woolnough, H. (2002). National nursing leadership programme. Mental Health Practice, 6(3): pp. 28-34. Fradd, L. (2004). Political leadership in action. Journal of Nursing Management, 12: pp. 242-245. Hyett, E. (2003). What blocks health visitors from taking on a leadership role? Journal of Nursing Management, 11: pp. 229-233. Jooste, K. (2004). Leadership: A new perspective. Journal of Nursing Management, 12: pp. 217-223. Large, S., Macleod, A., Cunningham, G. and Kitson, A. (2005). A multiple-case study evaluation of the RCN Clinical Leadership Programme in England. London: Royal College of Nursing. Mahoney, J. (2001). Leadership skills for the 21st century. Journal of Nursing Management, 9: pp. 269-271. Moiden, M. (2002). Evolution of leadership in nursing. Nursing Management, 9: pp. 20-25. Moiden, M. (2003). A framework for leadership. Nursing Management, 13: pp. 19-23. Outhwaite, S. (2003). The importance of leadership in the development of an integrated team. Journal of Nursing Management, 11: pp. 371-376. Rycroft-Malone, J., Harvey, G., Seers, K., Kitson, A., MCormack, B, and Titchen, A. (2004). An exploration of the factors that influence the implementation of evidence into practice. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 13: pp. 913-924. Scott, L. and Caress, A-L. (2005). Shared governance and shared leadership: Meeting the challenges of implementation. Journal of Nursing Management, 13: pp. 4-12. Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp
University of the Cumberlands Week 5 Computer & Internet Security Policy Paper.
University of the Cumberlands Week 5 Computer & Internet Security Policy Paper
Collaboration: Legal and Ethical Issues Essay
Table of Contents Professionals’ Collaboration Role and Function of Professionals Initiating Collaboration Efforts Letter to the School Psychologist References Professionals’ Collaboration This paper is focused on the collaboration scenario that reveals a range of problems faced by a 14-year-old student whose family has recently migrated to the USA. It can be seen that currently, the boy fails to align with the school rules. The case may deal with several legal and ethical issues. The student admits that he has been working in the previous year to help his parents who faced financial problems. It is not clear where exactly he was employed, but according to the US laws, the only opportunity for him to work legally was to get agricultural employment with parental consent (“U.S. federal child labor law”, 2017). A principle with the help of a social worker will discuss this issue and define whether the boy was allowed to work at that time. They will try to tell if there his parents desired to make him work instead of attending school or the student did it without their permission. It will also be revealed whether his employers violated the law or not. As the family has become homeless, a social worker from the community can take him into care to ensure that he is decently treated and his health and wellness are not at risk. The professional will gather information regarding the boy’s condition obtained after the assessment maintained by a school psychologist, nurse, counselor, and teaching staff to support the claim. As the student has already lost weight and does not eat properly, it may be better for him to live under the state’s protection (Coulter, 2013). However, professionals may face ethical issues as they reveal that the boy is willing to live with his parents but his emotional and physical state is negatively affected. Not to be biased, they have to base their decision on the assessments of academic, social, and psychological conditions provided by the professionals. Through cooperation, different parties will obtain critical information needed to develop an aggregate picture of what is happening and why. In addition to that, it is significant to remember that family problems made the boy aggressive towards other children and led to suicidal thoughts. School psychologists should assess this behavior and develop a plan of action along with a counselor so that improvement within both school and personal life can be observed. All these professionals may face problems trying to define whether the boy’s misbehavior deserves punishment or not, so it is critical for them to deepen in all peculiarities of this case. The quality of this interaction will have an enormous influence on the results of the assessment. If professionals fail to find a common language or do not share the information effectively, they are likely to overlook some critical issues that were not identified initially. As a result, the interventions they propose will not reach the expected results. What is more critical, the boy can be taken from his family even though it is not needed or even make him commit suicide. Role and Function of Professionals To respond to those issues, the boy has a principal needs to involve all professionals who provide related services. In this way, he/she will ensure that the student will receive the required support. A full-time counselor and teacher will consider a student’s academic guidance and performance. Together they will be able to deal with the educational side of the problem (Ruff, 2011). The quarter-time school nurse will assess the boy’s physical condition as he suffers from malnutrition and finds out if he has other health issues (Pernilla, 2013). The school psychologist will collaborate with this professional to find out if there is a connection between physical and mental problems experienced by the boy. Together, they will be able to improve his behavior problems as well. Finally, with the help of a principle, a social worker from the community will focus on family and community factors that affect a student’s learning and well-being. They will gather information to find out how to assist the boy with general issues that determine his future. Initiating Collaboration Efforts Being a counselor working with this student, I will do my best to coordinate efforts among the team of professionals at this setting. To ensure sufficient collaboration, I will plan all team activities so that the parties will be able to reach the objectives of the task. I will write them down and send them with the help of the e-mail to each professional so that they all know their mutual values and targets. I will align these objectives with legislation so that everyone can realize how critical the problem is and why it requires resolution. For instance, according to the state laws that are adopted in New Jersey neglect of a child is observed if his/her family is “willfully failing to provide proper and sufficient food, clothing, maintenance, regular school education as required by law, medical attendance or surgical treatment, and a clean and proper home” (“NJ law”, 2017, para. 5). The boy does not eat well and has no place to leave, which means that this state law can be applied to him. In addition to that, being a child, he was not allowed to work (“Child labor laws and regulations”, 2016). To make professionals willing to participate in this investigation, I will underline ethical considerations, according to which they should make sure that “the involvement of support networks, wraparound services, and educational teams is needed to best serve students” (ASCA, 2016, p. 2). Finally, I will encourage them to collaborate and speak up reminding that they are to “report to parents/guardians and/or appropriate authorities when students disclose perpetrated or perceived threat to their physical or mental well-being” (ASCA, 2016, p. 4). I will see if all the things I do are effective only observing positive changes in the life of the boy. I will also be able to see that I am on the right track if the team finds a common language and understands one another easily so that there are no issues with information exchange. Letter to the School Psychologist Dear Ms. Brown, Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More I am writing to you to request the evaluation of a student, Sam Patrick. The main reason for my referral is that the boy is in a poor mental and physical condition due to the family issues and I believe that he may hurt himself or other people, which cannot be allowed (“Evaluation request letter”, 2015). Sam is 14 years old. His family has recently migrated to the USA, which made his emotional state unstable. It was rather difficult for the boy to adapt and he became very withdrawn. In addition to that, he has missed numerous classes and has fallen asleep during classes twice. It turned out that Sam’s family lost their house and he had to work. The boy lost weight and cannot catch up with the class. He has even had suicidal thoughts. I have obtained the parents’ permission for this evaluation already. Please, check the boy’s condition. Are his health and wellbeing at risk? Should he be taken into care or placed in a hospital? Can he hurt himself or other students and teachers? Sincerely, Ms. Smith. References ASCA. (2016). ASCA ethical standards for school counselors. Web. Child labor laws and regulations. (2016). Web. We will write a custom Essay on Collaboration: Legal and Ethical Issues specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Coulter, C. (2013). Column: Why and how are children taken into State care? Web. Evaluation request letter. (2015). Web. NJ Law. (2017). Web. Pernilla, G. (2013). School nursing: the picture in Sweden. Community Practitioner, 86(8), 38-39. Ruff, R. (2011). School counselor and school psychologist perceptions of accountability policy: lessons from Virginia. The Qualitative Report, 16(5), 1270-1290. U.S. federal child labor law. (2017). Web.
help writing ePortfolio Assignment.
First part: due: November 201. What are you thinking about writing for #1. What will be your thesis about your experiences?2. We wrote 2 main essays this semester. One essay you will use for #2 and the other you will use for #3. Which essay do you think you will use for #2 and #3?3. What essay do you think you will use for the #5 Wild Card?Second part: due: November 24ePortfolio AssignmentA portfolio gives authors the opportunity to show their audience the very best of their work and/or the ways they have improved over a period of time. Your portfolio is going to cover the work done in this class and will look a little different for every student. However, every student’s portfolio will include the following elements. The portfolio will receive a holistic grade (i.e., one grade for the whole thing together) using the First-Year Writing Rubric.Reflective IntroductionPolished Project ExhibitProcess ExhibitPeer Review ExhibitWild CardOverall Information and Suggestions: An ePortfolio is required for every First-Year Writing course at EKU starting Fall 2020. This includes all English 101, 101R, 101RZ, 102, 102R, and 105 sections. ePortfolios must include the following 5 described exhibits. Students are encouraged to use Google Drive or WordPress for housing students’ ePortfolios. Both are free and easily accessible for students and can be submitted using a single link. ______________________________________________________________________________Reflection Introduction (Need a thesis)Your portfolio introduction should have a thesis or controlling claim and should analyze and synthesize the elements of your portfolio (these are concepts you should be familiar with, should be able to distinguish, and should have experience completing after this semester). Much of your portfolio grade will be based on this essay; it is your foundation. Essentially, you will be presenting a clear, concise (around 500-750 word essay), thesis-driven project that makes a central claim about your writing, revising, and editing with regards to this class. All of the material you include in your portfolio will provide the evidence/supporting details and quotes you will need to fully develop your essay. As always, providing specific evidence to support clear topics makes a strong essay.Here are some questions you could ask yourself / tactics you could use: ● Compose a letter directed to somebody explaining your writing and the work you’ve done in this class. What would you want that person to see in your work?●Reflect on your strengths and weaknesses as a writer in any part of the writing and composing processes as described in the rubric. Show through revision your understanding of how to improve those weaknesses and emphasize the strengths.● Comment on the most interesting, most difficult, or most surprising things you learned about yourself as a writer, student, or person through writing this semester. ● Describe how the different skills used in reading, researching, drafting, editing, composing, organizing, analyzing, documenting, proofreading, and writing in this course, as demonstrated through your work, contribute to your ability to perform well in other courses or activities (think about such skills as developing critical reading skills; knowing how to support claims with specific evidence; recognizing ethos, pathos, and logos; audience awareness; or use of grammar and sentence structure).● Answer the question “Who is the ‘me’ that I want to present in my portfolio? And, how do my exhibits provide evidence for that?”APPROACHES YOU SHOULD AVOID:Writing one paragraph about each item in your portfolio.Making lots of good / bad evaluative claims about your writing with very few or no supporting examples.Telling a story about English 101R. (“I was a really bad writer until I got into English 101R and then, with the help of my instructor and my peers, I learned a lot.” or “Our first essay was about X, and I learned Y. . . Our second essay was about A, and I learned B. . .”)All these approaches make it difficult to sustain a thesis and to provide adequate support.2) Polished Project Exhibit: This should be the very best representative of your abilities developed from this semester. You should revise whichever essay or project you choose from the version your instructor last saw to present the most polished version you can. Create a one-paragraph introduction for the exhibit that explains what you learned about writing and/or critical reading from this project.3) Process Exhibit: Choose a different essay project from #2 to revise and show it in at least three different versions: an early draft with a peer review or Studio Record of Consultation, the draft you turned in to be graded, and a recently revised version. You will showcase the effective writing strategies you’ve learned throughout the semester through your revisions. This is your opportunity to show not only what you can do but also how you do it and the work you put in. Create a one-paragraph introduction for this section that explains what important improvements the reader should see in this progression. You should also annotate this entry.4) Peer Review Exhibit: One of the learning goals for this course is that you can both create your own writing anddiscuss the writing of others intelligently. In the Peer Review Exhibit, choose one peer review interaction you have had with a peer where you are giving them advice about their writing. Show their work and your comments and provide a one-paragraph introduction that explains why you’ve chosen this as your example and in what ways you feel you contributed to their becoming a better writer. 5) Wild Card: You can include anything here that you’ve authored: another piece of writing for this class, an essay from another class, a CPA/homework assignment that you thought expressed some strong critical or creative thinking, an electronic text of any kind (a blog post, for example), something from high school, an infographic explaining one of your essays, or something creative you’ve written for fun. Create a one-paragraph introduction for this section that explains why you have chosen this piece.
University of the Cumberlands Week 10 The Marketing Framework 5Cs STP and 4PCs Paper
University of the Cumberlands Week 10 The Marketing Framework 5Cs STP and 4PCs Paper.
Choose a research topic from the chapter readings or from the list provided by your professor.
Research/find a minimum at least four (4), preferably five (5) or more, different peer-reviewed articles on your topic from the University of the Cumberlands Library online business database. The article(s) must be relevant and from a peer-reviewed source. While you may use relevant articles from any time frame, current/published within the last five (5) years are preferred. Using literature that is irrelevant or unrelated to the chosen topic will result in a point reduction.
University of the Cumberlands Week 10 The Marketing Framework 5Cs STP and 4PCs Paper
Week 9 Assignment – Letter to a Legislator
Week 9 Assignment – Letter to a Legislator. In this exercise, you will write a two-page professional style letter to your state or federal representative about a current health care issue being discussed in the United States. View Healthy People 2020 – Topic Areas at a Glance on the CDC website. You will select a topic from the list provided. Step 1: Identify One of Your Representatives For representatives at the national level, you can find the name and address of the legislators that represent you at the following: U.S. House of Representatives. U.S. Senate. To identify the names and contact information of state and local representatives, visit Common Cause and put in your address. Step 2: Research Where Your Representative Stands After choosing your topic and representative, research where your representative stands on your chosen health care issue as well as where the medical profession (professional organizations, practicing medical professionals, patients, and other advocates) stands on the issue. Use GovTrack.us to look for your chosen representative and do some digging on their position on the topic. To research where the medical profession stands, you may want to look at the following websites in addition to searching the Strayer Library for publications from specific medical professional groups on the topic. HHS.gov. Healthy People 2020 – Topic Areas at a Glance. World Health Organization. Step 3: Write the Letter Once you have identified both your topic from Healthy People 2020 and the representative you will write your letter. Keep in mind this is a business letter and will require specific formatting. You will need to be sure you have the name, date, and address of the representative at the top of the page and include your name and address at the close. Take a look a look at some of these sample letters for reference: Write a Letter to Your Legislator. Sample Letter to Legislator. Template Letter to a Legislator [PDF] Sample Letter to Legislators Issue: Nurse Workforce Development Programs (Title VIII). In the contents of your letter, please include the following: Identify a health care issue that is currently being discussed at the state or national level. Summarize your representative’s position on your selected health care issue. Explain why you agree or disagree with your representative’s position. Include data and evidence to align your position from the CDC’s Healthy People 2020 – Topic Areas at a Glance and/or other government agencies. Include a title and reference page; these two items should not be included in your total page count. Use two sources to support your writing. Choose sources that are credible, relevant, and appropriate. Cite each source listed on your source page at least one time within your assignment. For help with research, writing, and citation, access the library or review library guides.Week 9 Assignment – Letter to a Legislator