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Le Corbusier Architecture Essay

Le Corbusier Architecture Essay. Le Corbusier (1887-1965) is a Swiss-French architect; he is considered by many a pioneer of modern architecture. Le Corbusier’s ambition is evident as he was an individual of many talents including painting, writing, and design. Le Corbusier’s attitude towards the home, the objects of the home and the way in which this was expressed in his art and architecture will be discussed. By assessing the ‘Five points in Architecture’ used by Le Corbusier as a structural basis for much of his architecture up to 1953, a discussion can be made of his following homes Maison Citrohan, Maison La Roche, Ville Contemporaine, “L’esprit nouveau” Pavilion, Maison Cook , The Villa Stein and Villa Savoye. Le Corbusier artwork displays an association with his architectural design these association and the influence of his artwork upon his designs will be discussed, in association with the development of purism. Additionally the response faced by his architecture of the 1920′ and 1930’s will be assessed. In 1915 Le Corbusier and friend, engineer and entrepreneur, Max Dubois evolved two ideas that inspired his style of work throughout the 1920s; One being the Maison Domino which represents the ‘Five points in Architecture’. The five points included Pilotis (columns), roof garden, free plan, free façade and ribbon windows. These elements were seen by Le Corbusier as Objects-types which he explains in detail in his book, ‘Vers une architecture’ and journal, ‘L’Esprit nouveau’. In 1918 with the help of the artist Amedee Ozenfant, Le Corbusier adopted the painting with the use of oils. Together they developed the Purism movement, ‘Ground in Neo-Platonic philosophy, Purism extended its discourse to cover all forms of plastic expression from salon paintings to product design and architecture.’ The purism movement derived from cubism in which similarly the main subject matter was the common objects of the ‘café table, the studio and the machine shop: guitars, bottles, and pipes’ which were presented in their most natural and clear forms that were expressive of modern machine age, unlike the abstract and decorative approach of cubism. ‘It was against what le Corbusier and Ozenfant regarded as the unwarranted distortions of cubism in paintings as it was in favour of the ‘evolutionary perfection of, say, thonet bentwood furniture or standard café tableware’. They collaborated on the book, ‘Apres le cubisme’, Along side poet Paul Dermee in 1920, he founded the magazine l’esprit Nouveau with its main subject matter being the arguable relation between art and industrial society which was already developed in ‘Apres le cubisme’. Many architectural ideas which were mentioned in L’Esprit nouveau developed from the planning of an ideology of modern paintings. ‘Still life (1920) is a purist painting by le Corbusier which uses flat images with the overlapping of planes similarly to cubism, however it’s different in the way the objects are made to look solid and not as abstract like in cubism. The repeated curving outline of the guitar and bottle he achieved is also a popular cubist concept. The selection of common, everyday objects which are represented in the paintings are considered objet-types. ‘the object would become an objet-type, its platonic forms resulting from a process analogous to natural selection, becoming ‘banal’, susceptible to infinite duplication, the stuff of everyday life’. The colour scheme contains only the neutral colours, black, grey, white and different shades of green. Citrohan House, 1925-7 in Weissenhofsiedlung, Stuttgart The Citrohan house is a pure prism, the use of concrete allows large uninterrupted interior space; it consists of a white box supported by columns with a flat roof and the use of consistent rectangular windows which extend to the corner columns and resemble an industrial kind. It was in relation with this building in which Le Corbusier published his ‘Five points for a New Architecture’. The Citrohan’s section and main arrangement was inspired by a café In Paris where le Corbusier lunched everyday. ‘Simplification of the light source; single bay at each end; two lateral bearing walls; a flat roof over; a veritable box which could be used as a house’. Le Corbusier believed that the house should be as standardized as a car; hence the name ‘Citrohan’ came from the name of the famous automobile company, ‘Citroen’. The idea of mass production was important and the fact the Citrohan visualized a way of a life clear from all ‘the unnecessary clutter of the customary bourgeois dwelling at the time’. Using the Maison Citrohan as his model, he was determined on using mass production processes in order to solve the housing crisis of the post-war years, similar to the way in which Ford cars where processed. In 1924 industrialist, Henri Fruges, agreed to carry out Le Corbusier’s idea of mass produced housing for his workers in Pessac using the Citrohan as its bases. This included 130 reinforced frame houses along with one common type known as the ‘sky scraper’ unit which was a combination of the Maison Citrohan and the back-to-back units he had designed for the ‘city’ of Audincourt. The Citrohan house at the Stuttgart Weissenhofsiedlung was the last in the series of Citrohan-type houses in which he developed the true version. In ‘Vers une architecture’ Le Corbusier described this house as a ‘machine for living in’, by which he meant ‘a house whose functions had been examined from ground floor up and stripped to the essentials’. Both the house and car are considered objects-types due to the fact they both have significant functions, like the machinery of a car which is enclosed within the exterior layer he believed the function of the house should also be invisible, covered in an ideal layer. Maison La Roche/Jeanneret, 1923, in Paris The Maison La Roche/Jeanneret which was designed in 1923 for Raoul La Roche, a collector of paintings, and Le corbusiers’s brother Albert and wife Lotti Raaf. The house displays many influences of the purist movement, from the fixtures of the house to its form. The use of overlapping surfaces and the transparent areas of glazing are similar to the characteristics of purist paintings which include the overlapping of planes. The fixtures used within the home also relate to the subject matter of Purism which include, ‘radiators, naked light bulbs, simple Thonet chairs, door latches, metal windows- are obviously of industrial extraction’. These are objects-types similarly to the objects represented in the purist paintings like the bottles and machine parts, these are objects that ‘tend towards a type which is determined by the evolution of forms between the ideal of maximum utility, and the necessities of economics manufacture’. Le Corbusier believed the whole modern city should be elevated up a level in order to keep the ground clear, providing a better circulation of cars. This idea was projected in the studio wing, for which a single cylindrical pilotis stands at the centre beneath, along the axis of the long access road. ‘The studio wing was a demonstration of urbanistic doctrine.’ Ville Contemporaine, 1922 ‘Contemporary City’ which was a city of skyscrapers in a park for three million inhabitants, was inspired by the Utopian vision ‘where techniques of modern construction, automobiles and aeroplanes were brought together in a n ordered diagram, with nature and the machine reconciled and harmonized’. “L’esprit nouveau” Pavilion, 1925, in Paris The Pavillon de l’Esprit Nouveau built in 1925 was a pavilion in the shape of an apartment from the ideal city which included furnishing of the modern machine age objects alongside purist works of art. Maison Cook, 1926-7, in The clarification of Le Corbusier formal theory is also partly linked to his daily experience of painting. This can be evident in Maison Cook of 1926-7 in which ‘the precise control of volume, surface and profile may be sensed’. Maison cook consist of a square plan and façade, hence its almost cubic form. The single cylindrical piloti on the central axis and the use of continuous strip windows from one side to the other helps emphasis the symmetry of its overall shape. Le Corbusier’s uses a concrete frame in order to achieve spaces of varies qualities including lighting, size and views. The curved partitions dramatize the ‘free plan’, catch the light, and stand like objects in the lucid space; inevitably they call to mind the bottles and guitars of Purist pictures’. The ‘five points’ are clearly emphasised in the Maison cook, with the piloti as a central point set back from the façade level ‘dramatizing the separation of structure from external cladding’. The use of the piloti provides a passage below the house for both pedestrian and cars. Use of the continuous windows draws attention to the free façade and also contains a roof garden on top which replaces the green area used by the building. The Villa Stein (1926-1928) in Garches The Villa Stein is an impressive example of the avant-garde movement such as the intense handling of interior space provided by a regular grid of pilotis along with it’s free plan, furthermore with its use of modern building techniques and use of industrial materials. The site for the villa was of a long and narrow stretch of land, allowing the chance for a freestanding building volume with space for a garden front and back. This enables the chance to organise an architectural journey starting from the entrance through to the garden, hence ‘touches upon old themes of villa design to do with the transition from urban to rural experience’. At first sight the villa appears to be a formal rectangular block consisting of horizontal strips of white wall and thin strips of glazing, In comparison to Maison Cook it’s rather striking. Similarly to Villa Savoye it ‘celebrates the arrival by car in an almost ceremonial way’. The lowest level includes a variety of openings including a garage, small entrance to the servants’ quarters, the main entrance and a large area of industrial glazing which represents the use of the modern building technique. Looking at the façade there is no evidence of piloti, however the way in which the windows extend to the edges suggest that the façade is a non-weight-bearing membrane. However the facades subtle rearrangement and similarities of the rectangles and slight transparency at the edges, present a visual uncertainty about the position and thickness of the façade surface. Hence, ‘The Villa Stein-de Monzie is organized as a series of layers’. This can relate to Le Corbusiers purist paintings, where the overlapping of planes occurs. The main entrance is expressed by a canopy which slightly resembles the ‘wings and struts of an aeroplane’, which Le Corbusier identifies as an objet-type for its emphasis on function. The arrangement of partitions within the whole layout reflects Le Corbusier’s paintings, ‘where curves and rectangles slide, overlap, and harmonize into a perceived unity within a rectangular frame’. There are many features within the Villa Stein which relate to the ‘engineering objects’ Le Corbusier considered objet-types, in particular the ‘Ship’. This includes a protruded, curved volume used for storage ‘recalls the funnel of a liner; other nautical allusions are found in the railings, the spiral stairs’. In ‘Vers une architecture’, in the chapter ‘Eyes Which Do Not See’, the caption ‘An architect pure, neat, clear, clean and healthy’, appears under one of the ship illustrations. This could be used to describe the Villa Stein/de Monzie due to its comparison with a ‘ship’. The Villa Savoye, 1928, in Poissy, France The Villa Savoye in Poissy designed in 1928, is a great example of Le Corbusier’s five points of architecture. The main living space elevated on pilotis, with its strong horizontal façade is centred within a breathtaking landscape; with the use of continuous horizontal windows providing clear panoramic views. One of the main parts to Le Corbusier’s machine age concepts was the provision of enough green space. This is apparent for the villa savoye site where organisations of trees and grass have a clearly framed view. ‘Nature is celebrated as dramatically as the idea of the house as a ‘machine a habiter’, or the theme of procession by car’. The use of piloti in the Garches was an important mechanism within the interior; whereas for the Ville Savoye use of piloti is predominating for both exterior and interior. From a distance Ville Savoye has been compared with a ‘Purist still life on a table-top and the associations with ships’ funnels or machine parts are not hard to make’. This relates to the engineering objects le Corbusier considered to have relevance and the right balance he aimed for as he felt the architecture of the recent past was of poor and missing significance compared to the Parthenon, the Roman baths, Mansart etc. These engineering objects include ships, aeroplanes, cars and factories which were greatly evident in his book ‘Vers une architecture’. The use of silos and factories ‘were praised for their clear and distinct articulation of volumes and surfaces: ships and aeroplanes for their rigorous expression of function’. The guitar outline emphasized in le Corbusier purist painting, ‘still life’, has a strong connection to the plan shape of the Solarium. This shows the influence his painting had on his architecture and the way in which he produced similar results, ‘because it provided him with a filter of experiences and a laboratory of forms’. Or (choose which quote) ‘The same formal intelligence working in different media achieved analogous results’. Le Corbusier Architecture Essay
Gadget Toy Company’s Network Definition Essay. Drawing Network Gadget Toy Company’s Network Purpose of Critical Path A critical path helps the management to identify the most crucial activity in every project. A critical path is the longest time that a project can take to be completed. At the same time, it is the shortest time that a project can take because it has no float time. Identification of the critical path helps the management in allocating resources and directing the activities in order to accomplish the project within the stipulated time schedule (Webb, 2002). The critical path shows activities whose duration can be reduced to reduce the overall production duration. Otherwise, reducing activities, which do not form part of the critical path, increases cost without reducing the overall project duration. The critical path outlines the most important sets of activities which when implemented the project goals will be realized (Webb, 2002). Tracking the project using the Critical path Critical path analysis allows management to monitor the development of the project while tracing its achievement (Webb, 2002). Through the critical path, the management can tell whether they will be able to meet their targeted goals or not. Any deviation arising are easily detected and remedial action are employed promptly to address any shortcomings. Moreover, the critical path helps the management to identify activities, which can be delayed in order to allocate limited resources to other activities without affecting the project duration. On the same note, the critical path helps the management make good judgments pertaining future changes in costs and other eventualities. To hasten project analysis, Critical path is used to develop Gantt Charts, which illustrates the sequence in which activities are implemented (Webb, 2002). Gantt charts also shows which activities should be completed first before initiating others, without the critical path the management may find it difficult to understand which activities to implement first. Ways Preventing Project delays To keep the project on track the management may decide to switch some resource from an activity with float time to a critical activity. This process helps to ensure that all the critical activities are ran smoothly while delaying other activities, which are not critical (Webb, 2002). Delaying such projects does not affect the overall project duration. From the network drawn above, the management of Gadget Company may opt to delay activity D (Deliver material) to allocate more time for installing tools (activity E). Secondly, the management may opt to hire additional labor, or provide for overtime (work on weekends) in order to reinstate the project back on track. However such as measure means requires additional allocation of money to hire more labor. The other way that a project can be kept on track is by working at night so as to make up for the lost time. The other alternative would involve increasing supply so as to hasten the rate project completion time. However, any decision to increase labor and supply means incurring extra cost, which may not be readily available. Finally, Gadget Toy may opt to crash one of the critical activities to reduce the operation time. Crashing an activity involves reducing the duration taken by an activity at a higher cost. Crashing cost depends on the time reduced on top of the original cost budgeted for that activity. Ways of linking interrelated projects There are several ways of linking multiple projects with interdependencies using the critical path method namely: Performance Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT), Earned Value Management (EVM) Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique (GERT) Program Evaluation and Review technique According to Webb (2002) PERT forms the foundation of planning and forecasting thereby enabling the management to prepare in advance. Apart from this, PERT provide management with ample time when it comes to decisions making especially in interrelated projects and portfolio projects. This management tool not only helps in effective utilization of resources of resource but it also ensures that all projects are completed within the stipulated time. This is made possible by visibility provided by the project as single process is used for various projects. Finally, PERT is a reliable tool for handling uncertainties because all projects are laid in a horizontal manner that makes it easier for management to detect any delay or slack. Earned Value Management (EVM) EVM is another popular method of linking project that is being used in the modern management practices. It involves analyzing various projects, portfolios and businesses, it provide management with information tools to handle several projects at ago. In addition, EVM provides insight for future changes in project implementation. In order for management to adequately prepare for the impending uncertainties, EVM provides room for prioritizing some projects while delaying others in order to facility a mutual relationship between them. Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique (GERT) GERT operates in a similar way as the Pert but have some differences because it allow looping, project branching and multiple projects handling. GERT is an improvement on PERT because it elaborates the status of a project whether it is successful or not. Incase a project branch fails to deliver the expected results the management switches attention to other branch. Benefits of Linking Projects Linking project has become a popular method of handling various projects that are interrelated, through linking such project the management derives many benefits. Firstly, the management improves planning as linkages facilitate projecting the future trends of the projects in terms of time and money requirement. With such a foresight the management plans in advance on how to overcome such challenges by delaying some projects or by increasing labor to meet the stipulated deadline. Pennypacker and Dye (1999) asserts that connecting several interrelated projects provides room for identifying repetitive activities. This helps in streamlining operation since the criteria for handling this project remains similar from one set of activities to the other. Repeated action promotes managers dexterity and confidence in handling similar projects in future thereby improving their efficiency. Integrating projects helps the managers to reschedule activities to display project interdependencies and how such relationships stretch the available resources. However, with this challenge in the mind the manager ensures proper prioritization of activities for efficiency utilization of limited resources. With the modern state-of-the- art, linking projects has also provided room for development of software to handles multi-projects in one go. Such development has acted to the best interest of managers whose role has been reduced to monitoring the progress and checking for compliance with the set time limits. Additionally, the management has the challenge of dealing with conflicts between projects and ensuring optimal allocation of resource between such projects. Moreover, the managers have the obligation of allocating resources according to the priorities set for the conflicting projects. Nevertheless, setting priority for activities forming part of the critical path has proved to be cumbersome and as a result, the management should always remain vigilant at such critical moments (Pennypacker and Dye, 1999). Reference List Pennypacker, S.J.Gadget Toy Company’s Network Definition Essay
Did you know what the financial institution is? The definition of financial institution is an organization that invests the chiefly in financial assets such as securities and loans rather than in tangible property. In the financial institutions, there have include many parts, such as banks, consumer finance companies, trust companies, savings and loans, insurance companies, credit unions, pension funds, and the mutual funds. What is the financial market? Financial markets is a market which for the exchange of the capital and credit, it including the money markets and the capital markets. In business, government and individuals often need to raise the funds. Income individuals and companies are now spending more than they, so they have funds available to invest. Individuals and organizations gathered to borrow money and those who have surplus. The financial market can be divided into two groups, that is money market and capital market. Money market is a creation and suppliers of short term funding requirements and the financial relationship. The maturity is within one year. The capital market is a market, so that suppliers and demanders to trade long-term capital. The investors encounter high risks in those securities are including liquidity risk, default risk, maturity risk and inflation risk. These two financial markets also can divide into primary market and secondary market. Next, I want to Identify and discuss the three different ways for transferring capital or fund from savers to borrowers in the financial market. The first ways is direct transfers of money and securities. This will occur when a business sells the bond and stocks directly to the savers without going to through any types of the financial institution. It is the business that delivers its securities to the savers, and who in turn give the firm the money it needs. The second ways is the investment banking house. The investment banking house is an organization that can distributes or underwrites the new investment securities and also help business obtain financing. For an example, the person name Merrill Lynch is underwrites the issue. The underwriter is serves as a middleman. It also facilitates the issuance of the securities. The company who sells the stocks or bonds to the investment bank, the major reason is they want to sells these same securities to the savers. The last ways for transferring capital or fund from savers to borrowers in the financial market is financial intermediaries. The financial intermediaries is the specialized financial firms that facilities the transfer of funds from the savers to demander of capital. The financial intermediary is such like a bank or mutual fund. It is simply to transfer the money and securities between the firms and the savers. They literally want to create the new financial products. Here, the intermediary obtains funds is from the savers in exchange is for its own securities. Then, the intermediary will use this money to buy and also hold the business’ securities. In addition, the existence of intermediaries are greatly to increases the efficiency of money and capital markets. In the financial intermediaries also have many functions. The first functions of the financial intermediaries are to reduce the transaction cost. A transaction cost is a cost that incurred in making in an economic exchange. Usually this is restated of the cost of the participating in a market. For an example, if you are a businessman, you want to open a fruits stall. Let’s say you want to sell watermelon. You consider buying the watermelons from a store. To purchase the watermelons, your costs are not only paying for the price of the watermelons itself. Why? Because you need to use your energy and effort it requires to find out what types of the watermelons that you prefer, the cost of travelling from that store to your house, where can you get the stock of watermelons, can get the watermelons at what price, the effort of the paying itself and also the time when you waiting in line. These all costs are really above and beyond the cost of the watermelons are the transaction costs. The second functions of the financial intermediaries are the facilities such as saving deposits, online banking to pay the bills, online checking your saving account, money transfer and others that can be liquidity. These all are provided generally by credit unions, banks, and the finance companies. The next function of the financial intermediaries are risk sharing. While, the risk sharing is a risk management method in which the cost of the consequences of a risk is distributed among with the several of the participants in an enterprise. Next, I want to explain about the classes of intermediaries. There have seven classes of the intermediaries. The first classes are commercial banks. Commercial banks is the traditional ‘finance department store’ into a wide variety of savers and borrowers. Expanding the services provided, including stock brokerage services and insurance coverage. Commercial banks are quite different from the investment banks. Commercial banks can lend money, while an investment bank is help companies to raise the capital from other parties. The second classes are savings and loan associations. This is the served individual savers and residential and commercial mortgage borrowers. It takes the fund of many small savers and then will lend this money to the home buyers and other type of borrowers. In the analysis of credit, it is setting up a loan, so that the collections of personal savings are more than expertise, so they reduce the costs and improve the availability of real estate loans. The third classes are mutual savings banks. This is similar with S

MGT 4472 Troy University Employee Social Interactions Questions

MGT 4472 Troy University Employee Social Interactions Questions.

Read Case Incident 1: The Place Makes the People (p. 574 of your textbook)
Then read: Why Activity-Based Working is the Cure for the Open Office Layout (Link (Links to an external site.))

This article makes a case for the use of activity-based working.

Then read: Activity-Based Workplace Design: Using Data to Drive Your Transformation (Link (Links to an external site.))

This article describes factors that need to be considered when implementing this design.

Optional: This article shows good examples of organizations using the activity-based working design:  Link (Links to an external site.)
Respond to the below questions. Your responses must reflect an understanding and integration of the above 3 readings. Note: This is an individual assignment and must not be worked on/discussed with others.
Questions to Answer:

How might different types of office designs (traditional, open, or activity-based) influence employee social interaction, collaboration, and creativity? Explain. [20 points]
Should social interaction, collaboration, and creativity be encouraged even in organizations without an innovative culture? Why/why not? [20 points]
How could you measure whether new office designs are improving the organizational culture? Explain. Be detailed. [20 points]
A generally positive view of activity-based workplace designs is presented in the above articles. What do you consider the potential downsides to such designs? Explain. [20 points]
Are activity-based workplace designs the direction of the future or just another fad to be replaced by the next “latest and greatest” idea? [20 points]

MGT 4472 Troy University Employee Social Interactions Questions

SCMG 305 APUS Week 6 Regression Analysis Forecasting Discussion

essay order SCMG 305 APUS Week 6 Regression Analysis Forecasting Discussion.

I’m working on a management discussion question and need support to help me study.

Course Objectives:CO7: Investigate cause-and-effect relationships utilizing regression analysis Discussion Prompt: Find one authoritative resource in the form of a YouTube video or Website that explains the use of regression analysis as a prediction model for forecasting. Try not to duplicate a resource already posted by another student. Insert a hyperlink for that resource so others may access it quickly. Finally, provide an explanation of what you learned from the resource that strengthened your understanding of using regression analysis for forecasting.
SCMG 305 APUS Week 6 Regression Analysis Forecasting Discussion

The effects of globalisation on women

Although the term ‘globalisation’ was only known to me from items on TV and in newspapers, I have tried to make a thorough analysis in this paper for my English course. I am not an economist, so the subject was rather new to me. In the different media, globalisation is usually dealt covered from an anti-globalisation angle. This raises the first very important question: is globalisation all negative or does a global economy also have merits? Unfortunately, because the subject is so extensive I have to narrow it down. I therefore choose to describe the participation of women in the process of globalisation. The paper is constructed around the following themes: â- What is globalisation? â- How does globalisation affect women? An introduction â- Participation of women in the economy – Effects of export, economic foundation – The Infant Industry Argument â- Women’s representation in the political process â- Women and education â- Women and health â- Modern Day Slavery â- Violence against women â- The rise of NGO’s â- An interview with an Usbek girl â- Conclusion â- What is globalisation? ‘Being spread all over the world’, that would be the literal definition of globalisation. With the means of modern technology and communication, used all over the world these days, we know almost immediately what is happening on the other side of the world. We get more connected with each other and, as a consequence, we become evermore dependant on one another. Our world has increasingly become a unity, because globalisation establishes itself on a political, economic, social and cultural level and these four groups are related. The term ‘globalisation’ is not new, some say that the process started in the 15th century when the Europeans – or more specific the Portuguese and Spanish – wanted to expand and travelled oversees, thus conquering the South and Middle-American continent. Also bear in mind the battle between the English, French and Belgians over Africa. Other sources state that globalisation began in the early eighties thanks to new information technologies such as the Internet. As a result of this globalisation, the economies of different countries met and were forced to cooperate, necessitating the construction of one system so all economies could merge. In order to realise globalisation as we know it at present it is critical that some companies and less powerful concerns are gradually replaced by big and powerful multinationals and big monetary companies. But globalisation is a much bigger process than the mere increase of international trade and foreign investments. When we take a look at companies in Belgium, we notice a strong mobility of capital and workers. Globalisation is a global realisation of a world economy; custom houses are no longer needed and therefore abolished, prices increase so the returns of companies grow bigger. We aim for as much privatisation as possible where companies part of the public sector are transferred to the private sector. â- How does globalisation affect women? An introduction. The United Nations watches over the rights of all people, including women. It estimates that over 58 million primary-school-aged girls worldwide are not enrolled in school, more than two-thirds of the world’s births occur outside health facilities. Many countries, among which the United States of America have not signed or ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). It is not very difficult to see that the life of women has greatly improved since globalisation, particularly in third world countries where women had a lot of catching up to do. Nevertheless, the development of women in areas of life such as education, health and civil rights is still very limited. According to the United States Agency for International Development and the World Bank, 55% (of a total of 72 million) of female primary-school-aged children do not attend school. Furthermore, when they do receive the opportunity to get an education, it is less likely that they complete their primary school compared to boys. International communities, such as the United Nations, use and monitor indicators of gender equality. In 2010 the United Nations wrote their ‘UN’s Millennium Development Goals’ in which they verify gender equality and the empowerment of women. Some of the indicators of gender equality used by the United Nations are levels of female enrolment at school, participation in the workplace and representation in decision-making positions and political institutions. Many international conferences have discussed the various and unique problems women have to face. The UN have created a new identity: United Nations Women. It controls gender equality and the implementation of laws regarding female rights. â- Participation of women in the economy Effect of export, economic foundation A close inspection of a few economic principles reveals that a country benefits from trade with other countries. We can safely say that a country’s welfare increases as soon as it becomes an exporting country. If the world price for a product is higher than the domestic price, a country will export its goods. By doing so, the total surplus increases. On the other hand, when the world price is lower than the domestic price, the country must import goods to have an increase in total surplus. Either way, a country’s welfare will always increase by setting up trade. The Infant Industry Argument Many third world countries are convinced they should follow the theory described in economic literature as ‘The Infant Industry Argument’, stating that trade restrictions will help a developing industry to get started. These countries think that their industry will be able to compete with foreign competitors after a period of protection. However, there are many reasons why economists are sceptical about this protectionalism. First of all, these restrictions are difficult to put into practice. Some questions the government will be faced with are: ‘which industry will be profitable?’ and ‘will the benefit of establishing these industries exceed the cost for consumers?’ Don’t forget the problem of protection mostly going to those companies that are politically powerful. Also, it is very hard to remove this ‘temporary’ policy. In addition, many economists are sceptical about the infant industry argument, even in principle. When the industry is unable to compete, but can prove profitable in the long run, the owners of the firms should be willing to incur losses. After a while, they can obtain possible profit. So, by being an exporting country, a quicker economic grow is more likely and consequently, a country that wants to expand its economy, has to be able to put many people at work. In that hypothesis, women have to be part of the working class. Closer inspection of different third world countries shows that women’s employment varies greatly. In some countries in the Middle East participation of women in the local economy is the greatest of the world. In East-Asia 67 % of all women is working while the global average is 53%. On the other hand we find very few women being part of the working population in some Arab countries, for example only 15 % in Saudi-Arabia. When we look at the reasons why there are so many and great differences in employment of women, we finally discover a difference in social-cultural factors. For example, many Maghreb countries believe that women cannot work. Likewise women are being tightly politically controlled in many Arabic countries, with laws describing what a woman should and should not do. Mostly, they have to stay at home and take care of the children and the household. Having said that, women are obviously called upon to contribute to the family earnings by going out to work when the family grows and the household increases. Yet, on the other hand, she is the first to give up her career and stay home as soon as she has children. This is not the only problem women face; in most countries, even in so-called developed ones, women are worse off than men. They earn less money for the same work and will not easily make it to decision-making jobs. More often than not women are to be found in such sectors as education and sanitation. So, what is the effect of globalisation on these issues? We can see that globalisation improves women’s economic achievements; they will be able to earn and control their income and as such, empower themselves to negotiate their role and status in their household as well as in society. Countries must change their way on women because women are essential for the increase of the national economy. Employing only men will not be sufficient to reach that goal. The gains for women who work are double: women’s employment does not only increase the economy, it also appears to improve child survival rate, family health and to reduce fertility rates. Unfortunately, the situation is not always positive. Even though a number of these countries are able to put women to work, the job is often dangerous or the working conditions are very bad. They even have to carry out jobs men turn down. Additionally, women have little rights concerning working hours, health care, privacy protection … These gender-related problems aren’t restricted to underdeveloped countries, though. When looking at Europe, for instance, it is women who are most likely to be discharged in times of recession. Also, in most European countries, women still do not earn the same wages as men. It is less likely to find a woman in an important job than a man. Mostly, the reason is that men have the positions to hire people and often they think that a man is a safer choice. In some companies it is customary not to employ women in their fertile years, because of the cost of having to employ a substitute during the woman’s maternity leave. Organisations such as Human Rights Watch zealously battle for legal protection of women labourers. They also want to strengthen their legal protection and ensure easy access to legal resources. By doing so, they aim to increase participation in work as a positive development for women, when the law is on their side, men will give them the opportunity to work outside the household. Still, every beginning is hard. Underlying factors have to be changed before serious progress can be made. As the United Nations stated: ‘Women have entered the labour force in unprecedented numbers, increasing the potential for their ability to participate in economic decision making at various levels, starting with the household’. â- Women’s representation in the Political Process Many international agreements discuss the goal of gender equality, yet many local governments lack female participation. Nevertheless, increased representation of women in decision making is crucial for the empowerment of women. World conferences like the Beijing Fourth World Conference and the Millennium Development Goals recommend several programs for this purpose. However, when we investigate recent data we notice that the process is slow and the outcome around the world is very different. Many organisations such as the Women Leaders Initiative, created by the World Economic Forum tried to up the participation of women in global economy, by increasing the representation of women leaders at global summits. The target internationally agreed upon is a female representation of 30 %. In 2010, 26 countries, among which Belgium and the Netherlands, reached this target. Some governments pulled through by introducing quotas for women’s political participation. But increasing women’s representation is not the only issue governments have to deal with. When women arrive in decision-making jobs by quota, they do not only have to be present, but they also have to be genuinely involved in the actual decision making process. Unfortunately, not all women are fully prepared for the job. In the new Bulgarian parliament, for example, women secured 26% of the votes (40% of the eligible positions were occupied by women as a result of campaigns by NGO’s). But after the election a study showed that women were not fully prepared for their career. They apparently did not want to represent women’s rights or interests. Currently, only 9 countries around the world have a female leader. â- Women and education Where education is concerned, research yields very different results in different places. In a number of African countries, women can’t go to primary school, for instance. This situation is completely the opposite in some Asian countries where there are more women than men in secondary schools. Generally speaking, girls in the poorest countries have the lowest chance of getting an education. Yet school attendance is not the only issue we have to measure; illiteracy is an extremely important problem, seeing that 64% of all illiterate adults worldwide are women. Illiteracy is one of the indicators used by the UN Millennium Development Goal to progress gender equality. The international community hopes, and I quote the Levin Institute, ‘to eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education in all levels of education no later than 2015’. We know that education is very important, educated women stand a slimmer chance of living in poverty, hence alleviating poverty in general. Non-governmental organisations such as the UNESCO also state that female education has positive effects on child health and provides other members of the household the chance to educate themselves. Furthermore, women who have enjoyed an education participate more in the economy. When looking at extremely poor countries which are mostly rural, women are not likely to complete any type of schooling. Yet, education is a basic human right and as such defined in the Universal Declaration on Human Rights. The World Education Forum hopes to see changes in attitudes, values and practices to end gender inequality. The UNESCO noted that, especially in poor African countries, it is not the policy that holds women back. A Girl’s education is not valued in many societies because women have to take care of the household. Therefore only boys can receive an education, because they have to learn skills to work outside the home. In some countries it is very difficult to go to school because of the distance. Primary schools are usually near the home, but because secondary schools are at a considerable distance, they are often not attended because if they do attend the children have to leave home. Exposing girls to the outside world seems not important . Their place is at home, doing the household. The only knowledge they need for cooking and caring for others, they learn from their mothers and older sisters. Another problem is that schools do not provide with adjusted sanitary facilities for girls. So governments have to fund schools to build lavatories for males and females. In some countries, families are offered a small fee if they send their girls to school. To eliminate fraud, the salary will only be given to the family after the children have passed their exams. By doing so, parents are also affected in the process of change. Globalisation provides the world with the opportunity to make changes. Global organisation can monitor all countries and set up rules so that women get the power they need. By giving them an education they are also given the opportunity to speak for themselves. â- Women and health Poor health is a problem numerous developing countries have to face. Reasons are limited services or access to them, lack of education and too little information about health issues. When looking at the situation of women, it is evident that they are also affected by other problems concerning health. For example, mal nutrition, sexually transmitted diseases, pregnancy complications. Although in many cultures women are the first to take care of others who are in need, they are often the last to receive medical treatment themselves. Organisations such as the World Bank try to educate women by teaching them how to protect themselves against sexually transmitted diseases like HIV. In some countries in Africa and Asia the contamination with HIV has taken the form of an epidemic among women. Studies show that women are twice as likely to be infected with contagious diseases than men, especially due to a lack of information and education. The reason that women are more affected is to be explained by gender inequality. Women are not in the position to refuse sex or to demand the use of a condom. By promoting gender equality, women’s rights organisations try to improve the bad position of girls and women. Women have to be taught to speak up for themselves and control their own lives, they have to show resistance to the often very dominating males. Educational programs developed by organisations such as the UNIFEM provide them with information about nutrition in order to have a healthier life. This is not only useful for the women themselves, but the whole household will benefit by it. One of the most important issues non- governmental organisations have to deal with is maternal health, especially when realising that the majority of maternal deaths can be prevented. In many cultures the life of a woman is worth less than the time necessary to bring her to a health centre. Often the family waits too long to seek medical help so that the woman dies before even getting to a hospital. Only by giving women proper health care and information, the number of deaths during child birth can be reduced. Via special programs women are pointed out the dangers of breast feeding when the mother is HIV positive. Along with the information regarding the risks for the baby, the mothers are offered milk powder and bottles to feed the little ones. Another very delicate problem is that of abortion. In many cultures pregnancy termination is prohibited and women have no rights to argue. Birth control methods are not used and in some religions even forbidden so that women are almost always pregnant. This way the pressure on the household is enormous, frequently with poverty as a result. Also women who have many children to look after have no time left to go out. They have nowhere for a little bit of privacy or tranquillity. The issue of birth control brings us to another problem women in poor countries have to deal with. Because abortion is not debatable, some women seek refuge in unsafe abortions as last resort when they want to terminate a pregnancy without the family knowing. These issues remain controversial, not only in third world countries but in all countries with religious societies such as Catholic and Muslim countries. Nevertheless, scientific studies show a connection between poverty and the number of children a woman has. When the poverty of women decreases, the fertility rate increases. Also, a woman who has less children to take care of is able to give these children a better education and development. The Human Rights Commission identifies the practices most threatening to women as (I quote): “Female circumcision, known as female genital mutilation to its opponents, which involves the excision of a woman’s external sexual organs; Other forms of mutilation, such as facial scarring; Various nutritional taboos; Traditional practices associated with childbirth; The problem of dowries in some parts of the world; Honor killing The consequences of preference for male babies, such as parental neglect and infanticide of female babies.” In some countries women have to face genital mutilation on religious grounds. That practice has been described by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as an insult to human rights. It shows a lack of dignity from the part of men and a lack of equality between men and women. â- Modern Day slavery Some women who lead a bad life in poverty believe they can find a better life in a developed country. They are sometimes exploited by organisations who trick them into forced labour or sexual exploitation. Globalisation made it easier to move people around the world and people get in touch with organisations who promise a better life faster. Often they are taken to a developed country with the promise of a job as a nanny or housekeeper, but when they arrive they end up in prostitution. These women do not have the opportunity to react because they depend on the person who brought them there. The traffickers hold on to the necessary papers to keep these victims in the country. Seeing they cannot get in touch with the authorities, they are forced to live an illegal life. We often see that especially women of lower class groups are vulnerable. Also the political and economic crisis in some countries contributes to the trafficking of women, as it turns out to be a very lucrative business. When talking of human trafficking we are in fact dealing with international criminal organisations, meaning, highly mobile structures that are difficult to prosecute. In some countries we find members of the local government involved in this illegal business. Also, when a certain suspect is caught and brought to justice, it is very difficult to find witnesses or victims willing to testify against these traffickers. Because of the international character of the organisations, many people fear for their lives and those of their family members. In some Asian countries children often end up in the sex industry. Non-governmental organisations try to inform the parents about the potential dangers of illegal sex trade, the risks of HIV and the legal penalties involving the issue. Not only non-governmental organisations take action, also some governments state it is illegal to travel for the purpose of sex tourism. By discouraging people to take part of the sex industry, the government can diminish the problems. â- Violence against women (VAW) NGO’s provide for rules to combat VAW. In Egypt, for example, women who were treated violently can receive legal advice and counselling on the one hand and help with other issues such as divorce and housing on the other hand. NGO’s also control the implementation of laws and policies, which is a big challenge because some informants underreport or are biased (do not want to report family or friends). Another problem is the wrong interpretation of the laws.could you provide an example? It is not entirely clear as such There is also bureaucracy; in some countries, even developed ones like the US, VAW programs are diffused across different political tendencies. The government does not want to take part for a determinate side. This is not clear In poor countries in the developing world, there is not enough money to spend on programs to inform on violence against women. They often do not have the financial infrastructure to combat VAW. Because of the intervention of NGO’s, people have become aware of the problem and pressure coming from the community increases. However, when violent behaviour is met with punishment, support from the community is lacking. Abuse still occurs, but when all members of society are involved to fight the problem, the number of incidents of abuse will decrease. â- The rise of NGO’s As a result of globalisation, various organisations defend the rights of women around the world. In the last 50 years, many non-governmental organisations defending women and women’s rights were founded. They work on different themes such as education, medical aid, development and so forth. As a result of their work, we will now find great female political leaders, even in underdeveloped countries like Benin. Those women inspire a lot of other women to educate themselves and fight for their equality. â- An interview with an Usbek girl Nastaya Buchok is an Usbek girl of 13 years old. She participated in a girls project that “provides encouragement, support and training to select a group of young computer-orientated girls”, sponsored by the International Research and Exchanges Board. This is what globalisation has done for her: Globalisation has really affected her life and that of other women too. Thanks to the program she learned that women can also be leaders and can build a future for themselves. When she has completed the program, she wants to cooperate with Youth Organisations. She says that technology can improve the status of women so they can become leaders in their community and be on the same level as men. â- Conclusion While reading about the subject of globalisation I found many pros and contras. The study on which I based my paper, mostly talks about positive results of globalisation, where women are concerned. Globalisation provides them with the opportunity to get an education and offers them the chance to stand up for themselves. Many non-governmental organisations which are zealously fighting for women’s rights have been founded as a result of globalisation. In many underdeveloped countries women think that leading a life that is dominated by men is normal. They do not know what freedom means or that they have as many rights regarding education, health, politics and so on as men do. Now they are given a voice, the chance to develop. They get the opportunity to make a difference. By training, education, providing services and support the NGO’s offer help to suppressed women. There are people who are lobbying with governments and international organisations for better policies. The process of change is very slow, but every result, even a tiny one, can make a big difference later. Because women are the ones who educate the children, the results can be seen after one generation already. If we are able to give the women of today a proper education, they will see the importance of going to school and then they will send their children to school. By doing so their children do not have to struggle to get an education, it will be the normal thing to do. If women are informed on how to build a healthy life, everyone in the family will benefit from it. Children have less chance to be undernourished and so less children will die. We can turn the tide so that mortality among children decreases. When women know how to protect themselves against diseases like HIV, the number of orphans will decrease as well as the number of children who are born with HIV or who will get contaminated by their mother because she is ignorant of the consequences of breastfeeding a child while being HIV positive. Working women have their own income, which will make them less dependent of their husbands. It also gives them a chance to build up a social network outside the home and away from the influence of the family. In every way, being in contact with other partners in adversity, they can widen their horizon. However, going outside is not self-evident for women in many societies and some religions speak negatively of women who are working. If a woman can secure a job in politics, they can fight the battle for their female population, because not every woman has the ability or the nerve to stand up for her rights. So, having strong women in politics who speak up and fight their battles for women’s rights zealously, all women’s situation can improve. In order to get more women to occupy important political mandates, NGO’s set quota for the countries. As a result of this positive discrimination some countries already succeeded in having one-third of female politicians. A lot of woman are oppressed by their husband or his family. When we have politicians who know the problems women have to face and want to defend women’s rights, laws can be made to help the weaker ones. The UN offers guidelines to countries to develop themselves and set rules to prevent atrocities like human mutilation. In the last paragraph I have given my personal conclusion on the subject ‘globalisation and women’. But I must admit that globalisation is a much more complex matter. I did not speak about the economic, environmental and cultural aspects of it. When I discussed the effect of globalisation on women, it all seemed positive. But the fact that we can travel all over the world in only 24 hours and that we in Belgium, for example, know that there has been an earthquake in Japan within a second also has negative consequences. Through globalisation many local cultures disappear and a new, multicultural society comes into existence. Because there is no break (what do you mean by this?) on economic globalisation, some natural sources are overexploited. In the early days, people only took what their society needed, now big companies reclaim without thinking of the consequences for the environment or without looking at the future. The only thing of importance is profit. Also, big companies grind down the population by putting people at work for starvation wages. They often are not averse to child labour. Another disadvantage of companies going abroad for the production of goods is that people in the ‘rich’ countries are unemployed because factories are closing. When we put all the pros and contras together, globalisation is in many ways a blessing, especially in third world countries and for people who are discriminated or suffer disadvantages. Both men’s and women’s lives have improved and will continue to do so. Also it is thanks to globalisation that organisations like the United Nations, Unicef the WHO and other non- governmental organisation have been founded and that, as a consequence, the rights of the weak participants in all societies are defended. Those organisations take a look at the whole picture and every individual in it. NGO’s watch that the Human Rights are being observed and take action if they are violated.

Statistical Analysis What type of sampling methods would you use

Statistical Analysis What type of sampling methods would you use.

This is the start of the assignment I complete steps 1 and 2, need steps 3-6 completed Step 1. What type of sampling methods would you use? With my survey, in order to get the best results I would use stratified sampling since I would be concerned with different subgroups among the population that is selected for the study. In developing your survey, you will create six questions. What are some of the specific questions that your survey should contain? What is your age? What is your gender? What is your nationality? How many times a week do you consume dairy products? i.e. cheese, milk, whey protein.. How many times a week do you consume meat products? i.e. beef, chicken, pork, lamb, deer etc. Where do you consume these products? i.e. home, restaurant etc. What difficulties do you anticipate in designing a study around the topics offered? There maybe an obstacle or two I may run across while designing study. One definitely would be the confusion a participants may face when deciding what contains dairy products or not. Step 2. How much meat and dairy are you consuming on a weekly basis? Survey Questions: What is your age? What is your gender? What is your ethnicity? How often do you go out to eat in a week? How much dairy do you consume in a week? How much meat do you consume in a w Step 3. For this assignment, you will use a data generator tool to generate hypothetical data for the questions you developed. To generate data using the survey data generator, complete the following: Open the Survey Data Generator linked in the Resources for this assignment. The Survey Data Generator will generate responses to the set of six survey questions you previously defined. It knows nothing about the particular subject of your study; it only generates a set of responses to question types that are predefined.Type the minimum, the maximum, and the expected values for questions 5 and 6 into the Survey Data Generator. (These are values for the quantitative questions from Table 1 of your completed Data Collection Template.) Note that the generator has spaces only for the values for your two quantitative questions.For the top set of boxes, enter the values for question 5.For the bottom set of boxes, enter the values for question 6.For each of these questions, you must enter a single number for the minimum, the maximum, and the expected value.For each of these questions, do not enter commas or other symbols.Select Download Excel Spreadsheet. An Excel spreadsheet will be created that contains your survey responses. Keep in mind the following about the Excel data:Excel will have six columns (A–F) and one column for each question (1–6).Columns A–D represent the responses for questions 1–4 and should only contain 0s and 1s. Columns E and F represent the responses for questions 5–6 and should contain numbers between your minimum and maximum.Each row will represent the responses from one survey participant. For example, the first row of answers represents the first survey participant’s answers to all six questions. The second row of answers represents the second survey participant’s answers to the questions—and so forth. The number of rows of answers is how many participants completed the survey.You need to use the Survey Data Generator again if a column contains all the same numbers. There must be variation in these responses for you to statistically analyze the data. Check to see that columns 1 through 4 contain a mix of 0s and 1s and that columns 5 and 6 contain a range of different numbers between your minimum and maximum.What do the 0s and 1s mean in columns A through D? The generator automatically generates 0s and 1s for the responses to your binary questions (1–4), so do not enter anything into the generator for these questions. The tool knows that the only possible responses for these questions are 0 and 1. For example, if you asked: “Are you male of female?” you could assign Male = 0 and Female = 1, or vice versa. For the next project assignment (u07a2) you will analyze the survey responses and will need to assign 0 and 1 to the two possible responses for your binary questions; it is up to you which response to assign 0 and which to assign 1. For this assignment, u05a2, you do not need to submit your assignment of these values—just keep this in mind for the future. Instructions Submit the Excel spreadsheet to your instructor in the Survey Results assignment area. No manipulation should be done to the results created by the survey generator. No statistical calculations are completed until the next project assignment. Step 4. Now that you have your unique survey data in Excel, you can perform descriptive statistics with the tools about which we learned at the beginning of the course. You may choose how you wish to analyze the data, but your work should include the following at a minimum: Assignment Instructions Complete this on one Excel sheet. Include the following components in your analysis of the data. Technology note: You may need to sort or rearrange your original data file to accomplish some of these tasks. Be sure you keep a copy of your original data file as a backup.Results note: Because the survey data generation is done without context, you will have to put aside any preconceived notions about how your data should look. Your task is to analyze, interpret, and communicate the unique results. Binary Question Note: Responses to Questions 1–4: You will need to assign the survey responses to 0s and 1s generated for questions 1–4 in columns A through D. The generator automatically generates 0s and 1s for the responses to your binary questions (1–4). The tool does not know your questions or possible responses for these questions. Assign 0 to one of your possible responses and assign 1 to the other possible response. For example, if you asked: “Are you male of female?” you could assign Male = 0 and Female = 1, or vice versa. It is up to you which response to assign 0 and which to assign 1. Part 1 Analyze the data for questions 1, 2, 3, and 4 (binary questions). Your analysis must have the following elements: Sample Size.Sample Proportion of each response.Bar Chart or Pie Chart. Part 2 Analyze the data for Questions 5 and 6. Your analysis must have the following elements: Sample mean.Sample median.Sample mode.Sample range.Sample standard deviation.Sample minimum and maximum.Histogram. Part 3 Explore your data a bit further. What are two interesting findings from your survey responses? You might investigate responses for selected variables based on responses to your binomial questions. For example, if the answer to question 1 was Male or Female, and the answer to question 6 was Annual Income, you might examine average annual income for males only and females only and compare these results. Present your findings in an appropriate table, graph, or chart. Then, write, in the same Excel spreadsheet, a 1–2 paragraph summary of your findings. Submission and Verification Instructions When you have completed this assignment, submit your Excel spreadsheet containing Parts 1–3, to your instructor in the Analyzing the Data Set Using Descriptive Statistics Assignment area. Format your findings with appropriate and easy to read labels. Before submitting it, verify you have included all of the elements for Parts 1–3. You should have:Four bar graphs (or four pie charts), one each for questions 1–4.Two histograms, one each for questions 5 and 6.Two tables, graphs, or charts to represent interesting findings from your survey responses. Include a 1–2 paragraph summary of your findings.Before submitting, refer to the Analyzing the Data Set Using Descriptive Statistics Scoring Guide to ensure that it meets the grading criteria. Step 5. At the start of the project, you documented your typical responses along with your question formulations. You did not know it at the time, but you were hypothesizing about the future survey results. Now that you have the actual survey data, you can go back and apply the tools of inferential statistics to test your hypotheses. Assignment Overview and Preparation For this assignment, you will: Calculate an appropriate 95% confidence interval for each question.Perform an appropriate one-sample hypothesis test for each question. Based on the context of your questions, you may choose to set up your hypothesis test as a one-sided test or two-sided test. Remember, we want to estimate population proportions in questions 1–4 and population means in questions 5–6 (from Unit 7). We already calculated the sample statistics for each question in Unit 7. Feel free to use this prior work to help complete the above tasks. That is, we already have sample proportions for questions 1–4 as well as sample means and standard deviations for questions 5–6. Use the Excel Analyzing Data With Inferential Statistics Template linked in the Resources for this assignment. The template has two pages. Be sure to review each one carefully. The first page is the blank template that you will complete, and the second page is a completed example. Almost every type of situation is shown, so try to model your results after the ones shown. Instructions Complete the following in order to apply the tools of inferential statistics to test your hypotheses: Open and complete the Excel Analyzing Data With Inferential Statistics Template linked in the Resources for this assignment.Calculate a 95% confidence interval for each of your survey questions (1–6). Your final product should have six confidence intervals.Perform a hypothesis test for each survey question (1–6). Your final product should have six hypothesis tests. When you have completed this assignment, submit it to your instructor in the Analyzing Data Using Inferential Statistics assignment area. See Excel attachment in folder Step 6 Now that you have completed all of the statistical calculations involved with your analysis of the survey, it is time to put the project together. Your final project submission will be a single document, which contains information from all of the previous components along with your written analysis and comments on the survey results. The format for your final project submission should include the following sections, in this order: Title Page.Executive Summary (six double-spaced pages minimum): This should be a summary of the findings and conclusions of the study you developed and conducted. Discuss each of your six survey questions.Reflection Statement (four double-spaced pages minimum): This needs to include what you learned both in the course and in this project. Review the competencies of this course, which are located in the syllabus, as well as the criteria of this project to make sure you are focusing on the correct concepts for your reflections.Appendix (This includes your supporting data):Introduction.Data Collection Plan.Descriptive Results.Inferential Statistics.Table of Data From the Survey Data Generator. The two sections that are new for this project component are the executive summary and the reflection statement. You may also need to edit your introduction to make it fit the style of a project document. The remaining items should be treated as an appendix. As you write your executive summary, you may wish to refer the reader to particular graphs or results in this supporting data section. Executive Summary Write a six-page, double-spaced summary of your course project for someone interested in your work. While you did a lot of calculations and quantitative analysis in the project, your executive summary should give the reader a quick summary of your survey intent, design, and results without an overload of numbers and formulas. Discuss each of your six survey questions. Focus on communicating the results and interpretations of your results. You will not be able to comment on every little finding, so you will have to make some judgments about what might be the most interesting or revealing results.Discuss inferential statistics and how your survey data can be used to estimate or test population parameters such as the population mean and population proportion.Your executive summary should be professionally written and follow good writing practices. Reflection Statement Write a four-page, double-spaced summary of your thoughts on how your view of statistics has changed since you started this course and this project. We have covered a wide range of topics in this course, and many learners quickly forget the formulas they worked so hard to memorize. While you may not remember the mathematical formulas, what concepts or ideas will you take from this course?How will those ideas influence or impact your personal or professional life? After you have written and integrated all of the previously described sections and items, refer to the Statistical Analysis course project description and then submit your project in the assignment area.
Statistical Analysis What type of sampling methods would you use