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Law Essay

Read through each of the three objectives and chose 2 of the three to write as your term paper. It is expected that each one will be approximately 1-2 pages, typed in 12 point font double spaced.

As usual, please submit your work in the Writing Submission box below as opposed to attaching documents, which I sometimes cannot open.

1. Describe in detail the procedural stages of a civil case starting with the filing of pleadings through the trial process. Give details of each stage of the civil case.

2. Describe in detail the various judicial remedies a court may grant in a civil case.

3. Explain individually the significance of the below three criminal cases below. Then, explain how the three cases relate to each other.

Terry v.Ohio Miranda v. Arizona Mapp v. Ohio

Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten is a very significant figure in the philosophy of aesthetics, as he invented the word ‘aesthetic’ as we know it in the modern day. Baumgarten defined aesthetics thus creating a science of taste. Initially, in his first critique, the Critique of Pure Reason (1781), Kant rejected Baumgarten’s account that aesthetic judgement is a form of taste. However, in the Critique of Judgement (1790), it is evident that Kant changed his mind, as it can be seen in his third critique that he indeed was influenced by Baumgarten, as he says that aesthetic judgement is a judgement of taste. This essay will begin by looking into a general account of Kant’s view on aesthetics, which will lead to examining his third critique – the Critique of Judgement – looking at the first book: Analytic of the Beautiful, of the first section: Analytic of Aesthetic Judgement, of Part I: Critique of Aesthetic Judgement. This will then lead to what Kant describes as the four moments of aesthetic judgement – ‘disinterestedness’, ‘universality’, ‘purposiveness’ and ‘necessity’. The essay will then discuss Kant’s notion of the sublime, looking at the main difference between beauty and the sublime and the types of sublime. This will then lead to the relationship between the sublime and the beautiful according to Kant and then will conclude by examining some criticisms of Kant’s aesthetic judgement. For Kant, there are two forms of the aesthetic – the beautiful and the sublime. Although, Kant’s Critique of Judgement (CoJ) is the main source of his view on aesthetics, he also published another work on the topic in 1764 – Observations on Feeling of the Beautiful and the Sublime, however, this is considered to be more interested in psychology rather than aesthetics (Kelly, 1998: 27). Douglas Burnham states in his book An Introduction to Kant’s The aesthetic judgement is the focal point in Kant’s third critique. It can be found that he began looking at judgement in the Aesthetic judgements are essentially judgements of taste according to Kant. ‘The judgement of taste is aesthetic’ (Kant, 1790 in Cahn and Meskin, 2008: 131). When he says judgements of taste, he does not mean taste in sense of eating, but taste in the sense of whether someone has good or bad taste in something. There are four aspects of taste, which are as follows: ‘quality’, ‘quantity’, ‘relation of the purpose’ and ‘satisfaction of the object’. These four aspects through which Kant expresses his aesthetic judgments are known as his ‘Four Moments’, which are most commonly known as: 1. Disinterest 2. Universality 3. Purposiveness 4. Necessity. Kant describes aesthetic judgements firstly as ‘disinterested’, saying that it only disinterested pleasure that can ground aesthetic judgements. There are three types of satisfaction in ‘disinterest’ – the agreeable, the beautiful and the good. The agreeable is subjective and so not universal; the beautiful is subjective yet demands that others agree and the good is objective but is based on concepts. Kant argues that it is only in the beautiful that we can be free and disinterested (Wenzel, 2005: 142). Kant begins his account of disinterestedness by defining what interest is – ‘). There are two types of interest – one is by sensation (in the agreeable) and the other by concepts (in the good). Sensation has got to do with the existence of a thing. When something exists we can feel it – this is a common notion for everyone as we all say if we can feel ourselves pinching ourselves then we are not dreaming – it is real (Burnham, 2000: 51). Burnham (ibid: 52) goes on to say that ‘. This is indeed a Kantian claim, as Kant’s notion of disinterest is that of dismissing any interest when judging a thing beautiful. Aesthetic judgements are free from such interests. To be disinterested when judging art, means that interest is and as mentioned before, free from interest. Pure aesthetic judgements are unconcerned with the real existence of the object (Crowther, 2007: 68). Disinterest is at its most basic definition, an attempt to judge something beautiful, however remaining impartial while doing so. Kant talks about pleasure throughout his account of the beautiful, and to judge something aesthetically, a person is gaining a pleasure in something that they are disinterested in. Something must exist for it to be judged aesthetically, however, the judgement itself is a mental experience. As Burnham (2000: 52) says, it is the thing itself that is being judged, through the experiencing of it. This again is reminiscent of Kant’s notion of the thing in itself in his transcendental philosophy. (Kant, 1790 in Cahn and Meskin, 2008: 134). The second of Kant’s ‘Four Moments’ is that of ‘universality’. Kant claims that in being disinterested about pleasure if the beautiful object, one can claim universal validity to judgement. As can be seen from the quote above, Kant says that a judgement is universal ‘apart from concepts’ (ibid). ‘Universality’ is not based on any concepts. If the judgement has concepts then it is suggesting that beauty is the property of the object (which it often is expressed as) that is being judged and this is not the case. Kant argues that subjective judgements are not universal, for example, if I said that the taste of chocolate pleases me and somebody else said that they did not like chocolate, then both of these are individual responses and both are correct. I do not expect everybody to like chocolate; neither does the other person think that everyone will not like chocolate just because they do not like it. Thus, subjective judgements are not universal. Objective judgements are universal, however. Taking chocolate as an example once more, if one was to say that chocolate was sweet – in relation to it containing a lot of sugar – and another person said it is not, then it is evident that they are not aware of what the other meant; as it is a universal fact that chocolate is sweet (again in relation to it being full of sugar) (Burnham, 2000: 46-47). Therefore, aesthetic judgements are like objective judgments in the fact that they are both universal. However, being sweet is a property of chocolate and beauty according to Kant, is not a property of any object. Kant overcomes this obstacle of beauty becoming a property of the object by using ‘as if’. Kant acknowledges that each individual has their own taste , however, he states that and as mentioned earlier, judging the beautiful is a different story. Following on from saying that each person has their own taste, he says that: This is a notion he repeats throughout defining and explaining ‘universality’ (in ibid: 134-135) and it is how he surmounts the idea of beauty being a property of an object – he says it is ‘as if’ it is a property of an object, not actually the property of the object! So to sum up ‘universality’, when someone is judging something to be beautiful, they expect that when making this judgement, that when it is judged by others, they are expected to judge it beautiful also and gain pleasure in it (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2005). Kant’s third moment is that of ‘purposiveness’ (or ‘finality’ or ‘end’, as Kant uses in his CoJ). Kant defines this moment There are three types of purpose: external, definite and internal. External purpose is if the purpose does what it is supposed to do. Definite purpose is what the purpose is meant to do and internal purpose is what the purpose is meant to be like. In this moment, Kant is trying to portray that things are judged to be beautiful if they are perceived to have a purpose, but not a particular purpose – otherwise, the beautiful is something that is purposivenss without purpose. Kant is keeping with the ‘no concept’ (from ‘universality’) here as the purpose of an object is the concept to which it was manufactured (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2005). An example of this third moment would be that of nature. Beauty in nature appears to be purposive, however it is of no use to us and it is for this reason that the beauty of nature is pleasurable to us (ibid). The fourth and final of Kant’s ‘Four Moments’, is that of ‘necessity’. The following is how Kant describes the importance of ‘necessity’ in his CoJ: Satisfaction of encountering a beautiful object is what Kant calls a necessary pleasure and hence (‘universality’ coming into play again here) a pleasure of all perceivers of it. Aesthetic judgements must be necessary according to Kant. Along with ‘necessity’ comes common sense, however, Kant does not mean common sense in the normal everyday meaning of the phrase, he means the actual senses that we all have (Burnham, 2000: 55) – taste, touch, hearing, sight and smell. Hence, the sense of pleasure that one gets from judging something beautiful is that common sense. ‘Necessity’ is again linked to ‘universality’ in that the ‘as if’ concept comes into play again in his fourth moment. ‘As if’ in ‘necessity’ is linked to that of the condition of ‘necessity’. The condition of ‘necessity’ is what it is saying about the people who are judging an object beautiful. As Burnham (2000: 57) states, For Kant, the beautiful is not the only form of the aesthetic – the other is the sublime. The Concise Oxford Dictionary (year: 1214), It is this ‘…awe…’ that differentiates the beautiful from the sublime. The sublime is something that is beyond beauty. Kant defines the sublime as . Kant divides the sublime into two types – the mathematical and the dynamical’ (ibid)). The mathematical is concerned with when we encounter vast, extensive, large objects – size is the key component here – we cannot get our heads around something that is so monumentally extensive. Because of its size, we cannot grasp it sensibly and so it brings about a terror within us. We cannot take it all in at once so it becomes too overwhelming (Burnham, 2000: 91). It contains feelings of exhilaration and being overwhelmed. Take the example of a violent storm; if I am frightened by the storm, this inevitably leads to an interest in saving myself. Once I have expressed an interest, then I cannot experience the sublime as the sublime, like the beautiful, involves ‘disinterestedness’. It is so great in size that we cannot comprehend it as it almost becomes so vast that our imagination runs away with itself (McCloskey, 1987: 98). The dynamical sublime relates to power. It concerns our experience of the mighty, the powerful, dangerous objects or phenomena which we regard from a position of safety. Take again the example of a violent storm – a natural disaster. When we see something like this violent storm we know that it can crush and overpower us, however, we as rational beings can summon up enough moral courage to resist the terror and fear that the storm gave rise to. Summoning up this moral courage is something that only a rational being can do. Because we are experiencing the storm from a safe distance, we know that we are safe so that interest of saving ourselves does not exist and thus we can experience the sublime. For Kant, the sublime is essentially something we experience (influence of Heidegger here). The Wanderer above the Sea of Fog by Caspar David Friedrich, is probably the best painting that represents Kant’s idea of the sublime. As can be seen below, Friedrich used nature to portray the sublime. The painting illustrates a man standing alone, looking out onto vast scenery of thick fog covering a mountain range, observing it from a position of safety – suggests that this image is that of the dynamical sublime. Kant begins his Analytic of the Sublime (Book II of The Critique of Aesthetic Judgement) with the similarities between the beautiful and the sublime. What can be seen first is evident – both are aesthetic judgements. Both involve disinterested pleasure; that is when making an aesthetic judgement, the person judging must remain impartial while judging the object beautiful; the sublime – in the case of dynamical sublime, taking the example of the storm again, when experiencing the storm from a safe distance where the person knows no harm can be done to themselves, they can view the sheer effect that the storm is having and thus experience the sublime. Both the beautiful and the sublime also have a universal aspect to them – the force of the storm and looking at its impact from afar, should indeed have the same effect on everyone. However, it can be established that the third ‘moment’ – ‘purposiveness’ is not in common to the two types of the aesthetic. As Burnham (2000: 90) mentions, Kant describes pleasure in the introduction to the CoJ, as’ However, the sublime does not allow an achievement of an end. Kant’s aesthetics has been criticised by many a philosopher since. Gadamer (who was highly influenced by Heidegger) criticised that Kant’s aesthetics was ultimately subjectivist. Gadamer stresses that Kant’s aesthetics is not linked to a proper knowledge. Gadamer says that Kant limits his aesthetic judgement to mere experience of the pleasurable. He says that by limiting our experience through the ‘four moments’, it does not challenge us enough in making the judgements [1] . Many critics have also tried to criticise Kant on what disinterested pleasure actually is. It has also been criticised that Kant’s notion of the aesthetic judgement say nothing about art as a developing concept. This essay has examined Kant’s ‘four moments’ of aesthetic judgement of the beautiful, looking at aesthetic judgements as being made by a person who must remain impartial and not interested in the object of judgement; seeing all aesthetic judgements as ‘universal’, that is that if an aesthetic judgement is made then everyone will agree. Each aesthetic judgement is made with purposive but without an end in sight and all aesthetic judgements are necessary. It has then gone on to discuss the sublime, looking at the two types of sublime – the mathematical and the dynamical; the mathematical concerning that which is so extensive in size, it overcomes us and the dynamical being that we are observing something very powerful from a position of safety and so are able to experience the sublime. The essay then looks into the relationship that the sublime and the beautiful have by looking at the similarities and differences that are in each; similarities being that they are both forms of the aesthetic, they are both reflective judgements, they both involve ‘disinterestedness’ and are both ‘universal’. This essay has concluded by looking at a few criticisms of Kant’s aesthetics looking at Gadamer (and Heidegger) who thought that Kant’s view on the aesthetic was too subjectivist and has also looked at how Kant’s aesthetics shows nothing of how art in the aesthetic judgement as a developing concept. It is evident that Kant indeed influenced many aesthetic philosophers after him as his aesthetic theory can be seen in many a philosopher of art since then, both of influence and criticism.
San Jose State University Security Challenges in Cloud Computing Discussion.

I’m working on a computer science question and need an explanation to help me learn.

I selected this topic because although cloud computing is considered safe and reliable, it is still associated with several security concerns that may result in data breaches and allow attacks. Therefore, through this study I wish to explore various security challenges related to cloud computing in healthcare. Identifying security risks will make it possible to recommend solutions that can be used to prevent the occurrence of security concerns. Chikhaoui, Sarabdeen & Parveen (2017) conducted a quantitative research based on a survey to assess the use and challenges of cloud computing in healthcare. The research participants included associates working in healthcare. The survey was used to understand the perceptions and understanding of associates on adoption of cloud computing, its benefits, challenges and concerns related to trust, security and privacy. A sample of 50 participants were included in the research. The research also relied on content analysis where literature and laws in security concerns were assessed.Some of the questions used to guide data collection include:The opportunities and barriers of cloud computingCompare current privacy and data legislation protectionsIdentify security challenges in cloud computing.Suggest recommendations for challenges arising from cloud computingNote:(Minimum 160 words) + 1 reference APA formatMust be entirely focused on the specific content.Add some generic points that could applyPlease check plagiarism, Grammarly
San Jose State University Security Challenges in Cloud Computing Discussion

Keiser University Organization for Economic Corporation and Development Discussion

Keiser University Organization for Economic Corporation and Development Discussion.

The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Convention is an unusual international agreement in that it seeks to coordinate disparate legal and ethical systems in order to arrive at a minimum standard with respect to an important form of white collar crime. It obliges signatory countries, which now include all 30 OECD member countries plus a growing number of non-members, to make the bribery, corruption, extortion, and/or insiders trading of a foreign public official a crime under their laws. Why is this such a difficult policy to implement?Policy: You must make a minimum of three substantive contributions on two separate days of the learning week to each discussion topic, with the first to the professor. Post your response to the first discussion question early in the learning week (no later than Wednesday), and then respond to a minimum of two other classmates’ posts using critical thinking skills – meaningful and thought provoking. Your initial post must be 3 paragraphs 6 lines in length with a minimum of 2 peer-reviewed references in APA format. No Wikipedia, BLOGS with ads from yahoo.com or search engines, as they present a biased opinion. Use peer-reviewed articles to support your thoughts!
Keiser University Organization for Economic Corporation and Development Discussion

Discussion

essay help online Discussion. I’m trying to study for my Psychology course and I need some help to understand this question.

Describe how would you design and construct the workshop for the wait staff?
Scenario:
Sarah is a manager at a local restaurant that has recently been purchased by new owners. The new owners have worked extensively with Sarah in illustrating their concept and how they want customers to be treated, and Sarah has shared this same messaging with the waitstaff, but they do not seem to be getting the message as she intended it. Some are giving customers lackluster service, while others are giving good service but spending too much time with each table and neglecting other customers. The owners are getting frustrated with Sarah for her seeming lack of ability to change the behavior of the servers, customers are getting frustrated with the inconsistent service, and the waitstaff is complaining about lower-than-average tips. Sarah has been given a final chance to turn the behavior of the waitstaff around and has scheduled a full-day workshop for them that she will deliver.
Discussion

Comparison of the Atlantic Slave Trade

Although slavery was not a new institution during the 1600 – 1800’s however, there were great contrasts in the way slaves were treated in the Atlantic World. Slaves throughout this era were treated in various ways and from having some legal rights to having none, and from having freedom to virtually no chance of freedom. Although it did take over 150 years, slavery finally came to an end in most of the Atlantic regions. England/America and Slavery In tracing back slavery in Britain and then the America’s one can go back to ancient Rome. However unlike the 1500’s – 1800’s instead of being slave holders, the British themselves were slaves to the Romans whom they had captured and made prisoners of war and then shipped of for sale in the Roman markets. After the fall of the Roman Empire, which historians disagree on the dates which can be between 476 A.D. to 1453 A.D. or that Rome never fell, but rather adapted (Gill, 2010). Unlike slavery in England or the English colonies there were many stations of slaves in Ancient Rome which included: agaso- which was a groom, atriensis, who were stewards, auri custos- were jewelery attendants, bubulcus- which were ploughman, calator – who were footmen, cantrix – singers, cellarius – storekeepers. Slaves were also classified as cooks, messenger, game fatterners, chain gang, market gardeners, doorkeepers, reapers messengers, nurses, obstetricians, shepherds, chaperons, attendants, pages, planters, even hairdresser, masseurs, and cloths folders. Also under Roman law slaves could gain their freedom in various ways which included: Per censum, when a slave with his master’s permission places his name in the censor’s roll. Per vindictam, when a master took his slave to the praetor or consul or pro-praetor or pro-consul and declared “I desire that this man be free, according to the custom of the Romans”(Roman Slaves, 2008), if then the praetor approved he would then put a rod on the head of the slave and pronounce “I say that this man is free, after the manner of the Romans” (Roman Slaves, 2008). At this point the master or a lector (bodyguard) would turn him around in circle and give him a blow on the check which signified that leave was granted to him to go wherever he wanted. A slave could gain his freedom by Per testamentum which was when a master gave his slaves freedom at his own will. Finally Slaves that fought in the arenas could gain their freedom by fighting well. Although the English justified slavery during the 1500’s – 1800’s on the reasoning that the Ancient Romans used slavery, the institutes were radically different. The beginning of slavery in England and the English Colonies began with indentured servants who would sign on to leave England and start a new life but to pay their fair they sold themselves to work for a certain time span, usually three to five years. Many of this were criminals, prostitutes, or owed debt and were willing to leave to start a new life rather than going to prison or even put to death with the majority being young men in their teens to early twenties. After their committed time was up they then were free to start their own lives. Due to the growth in the colonies there began to be a lack of indentured servants so there had to be another way to get the labor needed for the plantations. There were various schemes that brought slaves to the New World which included kidnapping and being European did not protect you from being kidnapped and sent into servitude. Many would find themselves on the way to Virginia after having a beer with a friend in a European city (Hines, 1996). In contrast, most Roman slaves were prisoners of war and were freed on the whelms of their masters. In the beginning slavery in America was neither slavery nor limited to Africans, but was indentured servitude where the servants including Africans were released after serving their time. Africans then would join the community where they were normally farmers and even voters as being equal members of the community. Under indentured servitude if children were born they were considered free which was in contrast to slavery. Under indentured servitude there was no racism. This was to change when under the case of re Negro John Punch in 1640 that made a racial distinction among indentured servants and made blacks indentured servants for a lifetime (Slavery and Indentured Servants). In 1705 the Virginia Slave Code was established that set laws concerning the treatment and legal status of slaves in the English colonies. Under the code a child’s status was determined by the status of his mother instead of the father which had been normal in England, if the mother was a free woman then the child was free, but if the woman was a slave the child was considered to be a slave. Marriages between blacks and whites (the Virginia Code also prohibited marriage between other groups such as Amerindians, Irish, Turks, etc.) were illegal. Under the Virginia code the conversion of slaves to a certain religion was not a top priority, and many masters did not encourage the conversion of their slaves to Christianity since they had such a low opinion of the slaves character that they felt conversion was worthless as well as impractical (Hast, 1969. p. 221). Slaves therefore were made to work on Sunday’s and other holy days. Under the Virginia Code a person that was a Christian or from a Christian nation was not to be sold, however if a slave converted to Christianity they were not allowed to be freed. Also under the code slaves were not to be educated in either religion or a trade since the attitude of the master was the slaves (who were black) were inferior and not capable of learning. Slaves had no rights, a slave was not allowed to hit a Christian, however if a slave was struck and was killed by a white master, the master was not held accountable for murder. Slaves were limited on their contact with slaves from other plantations in order to cut down the chances of rebellion. In the area of family, marriages between slaves were not allowed. The justification of slavery was surprisingly not over race but actually religion due to the notion that black Africans were heathens and would undercut the religion of the Europeans. Thus this ideology was the backbone for justifying lifetime slavery for Africans. Ironically Virginia then enacted laws that allowed Black Christians to serve as slaves and here we see the beginning of a history that dominates racial attitudes to this day. One may ask why the change in the social make up from indentured servitude to slavery and there are several answers to that question. One is that they were in a New World and plantation owners were adapting to problems as well as opportunities. One of the problems with indentured servitude was indentured servants tended to run away and if they were either Native American or European they were able to blend in easily with the rest of the population. On the other hand the free African-American population was very small so if an African escaped he/she was more noticeable, another problem was under the contract of indentured servitude any European that served out their contract was to be given a weapon and plot of land. This gave an increase of armed, lower-class whites that lived in the frontier and who had not sympathy for the plantation owners who had enslaved and oppressed them for years. In 1676 under the leadership of Nathaniel Bacon these people banned together and burned Jamestown. As a result the departe elite plantation owners needed a way to ease this situation and that lead to the paradox of racial slavery. The Virginia plantation owners/aristocrats the focused on the difference of skin colr and were able to present the perception of a colonial society that placed all Caucasians into a category of a master race. Economically it was also easier to keep Africans in servitude and this factor caused a flood of Africans to the Americas over the next 150 years. With the approach of the American Revolution there was a mixed blessing by both free African-Americans as well as slaves. The principles of the revolution had implied the end of slavery but the revolutionaries was never able to deliver that promise. It had been the desire of Thomas Jefferson to end slavery with the formation of the new nation, yet it was ironic that he never freed his slaves. Jefferson was not the only person of his day that wanted to see salves free but there were men like Samuel Sewall who advocated freedom for African-Americans and even had pamphlets published and distributed that countered the arguments that the men of his time used to promote slavery. Sewall stated in his pamphlet The Selling of Joseph: A Memorial “‘Tis pity there should be more Caution used in buying a Horse, or a little lifeless dust; than there is in purchasing Men and Women: Whenas they are the Offspring of GOD, and their Liberty is, …” (Sewall, 1700). Here he basically stated that men took more time and caution in buying horses and gold than they did in buying people. Despite its promise of freedom and rights to all men, the revolution did not grant African-Americans that freedom. This double standard was not lost on African-Americans who had fought on both sides of the war believing one side or the other would have been more likely to grant slaves the freedom they desired. The American Revolution started with an African-American named Crispus Attucks, who happened to also be the first martyr. On Sunday March 5, 1770, which is the date given as the start of the Revolution, was a day full of problems in the city of Boston. The relationship between the colonist and British Soldiers and become strained and filled with frequent violence. The days before this Sunday there had been numerous tavern brawls and street fights between the British soldiers and the colonist. In one incident three British soldiers were beaten and ran out of town but returned with reinforcements. On this day a group of soldiers had just emerged from their barracks and were confronted by a gang of boys that include African-Americans, Irish, and others. After trading insults the two groups began to fight. Lead by Crispus, the Americans were able to drive the soldiers back to their barracks. After much confusion and angry by the citizens of Boston a British sentry ended up being attacked and then called for backup. A British soldier happened to be hit in the head with a stick and as a result his musket fired and killed Crispus. Several more shots ended up being fired and after the smoke cleared five people had been shot to death. This incident, which became known as the Boston Massacre, was the turning point in the relationship between America and the British with everyone realizing that the bonds between England and America had been irreparably severed. It is a great irony of history that the first battle of the revolution was not planned and the first hero of the war was an African- American who had been a former slave and whose courage and passion led the angry crowd to stand up against the British and whose death was the first in a long struggle for freedom and independence. However it would be another seven years before the first state, Vermont, would abolish slavery and then another 88 years before slavery was abolished in the United States. In 1791 as the United states was beginning as the first republic in the Western hemispheres, on the French Island of Haiti events began to unfold for another American revolution. Unlike the revolution in the British Colonies, the revolution in Haiti was driven by slaves who outnumbered their French plantation owners. August 22nd of 1791 was the day that the Haitian was for independence began under the leadership of Dutty Boukman when over one hundred thousand slaves began their revolt against the much hated French. These men and women had been slaves all their lives and they not only wanted freedom, but revenge for the harsh treatments they had endured under the French. Over the next three weeks the Haitian slaves executed any Frenchman they found had burned every plantation in the fertile regions of Haiti. Other leaders for Haiti’s fight for independence were François Dominique Toussaint L’Ouverture, and Jeam-Jacques Dessalines. It would not be until November 28, 1803 that Haiti would become the second republic in the Western hemisphere. Africa and Slavery Although the majority of slaves that came to America were from Africa, there was a vast contrast in how slaves were treated on both continents. Slavery had been a part of African cultures from the Sahara to the Kalahari long before colonialism thus they were not much different from other parts of the world. Like everywhere else in the world, slaves in Africa were considered legal property of their owners. However, slavery in Africa differed in practice from its European counterpart in practice. African slaves would normally be integrated into the home of the owner and it was not unusual for former slaves to rise to positions of trust within the family of his former owner or even to authoritative positions within their society. Another difference between African slavery and that of European slavery was the treatment of slaves. Under African masters slaves were not subjected to continual inhuman and brutal treatment as was the case under European ownership of slaves. Portugal was the first European nation to make a sustained contact with sub-Saharan Africa, and the slaves they obtained were originally used in domestic capacities and with the limited demand at the time slaves were just a part of trade that involved other commodities, however this would change with the discovery of the Americas and the colonization that would soon follow. By the end of the 16th century over 13,000 slaves were imported to the America’s per year and as more of the Americas and Caribbean Islands were conquered and the demand for slaves increased it is believed that between 1800 and 1865 around four million slaves were imported to the America’s (The African Slave Trade – Slaves in Africa, 2006). With the growing realization of the negative impact that the slave trade was having on their population there began to be a growing opposition to the Trans-Atlantic slave trade. The kings of Congo and Benin, which is now a part of Nigeria, were among the first rulers that came to oppose the slave trade. Around 1865 these factors are what lead to the end of the Trans-Atlantic slave trade. It is thought that 15-50 million Africans were taken as slaves from Africa to the slave plantations in the Americas, with half dying on the journey (The African Slave Trade – Slaves in Africa, 2006). Although this paper focused on just the two continents of America and Africa, the slave trade had left a legacy on the continents of Asia and Europe as well. The Trans-Atlantic slave trade was also a pointer to the way men can be inhuman to fellow men. Conclusion Where and when slaves served in servitude determined their way of life, from having rights and a chance of freedom to virtually having no rights or chance of freedom. Although slavery was not a new idea during this time period, the way slaves were treated did vary, not only by continent and differing civilizations, but by time as well.

Types Of Connective Tissue Disorders Diseases Biology Essay

Types Of Connective Tissue Disorders Diseases Biology Essay. Connective tissues are among the most widely distributed and abundant tissues in the body (Volk, 2010). These tissues are involved in many functions among which are providing shape and mechanical support of cells, modulation of cell migration, nutrient transport within and between cells, cell growth and differentiation. The basic components of connective tissue are ground substances, fibrous components and migrating cells (Connective Tissue, 2010). The fibrous component is made up of collagenous, reticular and elastic fibers, which differ markedly in their chemical and physical structures and properties. The most abundant component is collagen which can be found in many cell types. Elastin fiber can be stretched and returned to its original shape; it is the major component of skin. Ground substances are composed of carbohydrates and carbohydrate-protein complexes; the more common ground substances being chondroitin sulfate, and hyaluronic acid. The cells of connective tissues may be the migrating type (macrophages, eisonophils, plasma, mast cells) or stationary like adipocytes and fibrocytes (Connective Tissue, 2010). Connective tissues are highly diverse but can be categorized to be either loose or dense. The regular dense connective tissues are the tendons and the ligaments. Loose vascular tissue has the synovial membrane which produces synovial fluid which functions as a lubricant for the joints. Cartilage is a connective tissue that has a large amount of ground tissue responsible for its gel-like consistency and flexibility. Other cartilages are made up of hyaline and elastic fibers. Bone and blood are two other kinds of connective tissues. Red blood cells comprise blood tissues while calcium phosphate is an important component of bone tissue (Connective Tissue, 2010). Types connective tissue disorders/diseases Connective tissue disorders result when the tissues are damaged and become dysfunctional. There is a wide and diverse range of these diseases, but they can be grouped into three main categories (Connective Tissue Disease, 2010). The first type of connective tissue disorder occurs when there is damage and inflammation when one’s own immune system attacks the connective tissues. These diseases can be characterized by an overproduction of antibodies that can be measured in the blood. The second type of connective tissue disorders are due to inherited genetic defects or gene abnormalities. Usually, the inherited disorder also causes tissue abnormalities in other organs like the h eart, lungs, eyes, and bones. Some connective tissue disorders also show general symptoms for the early stage of the disorders, but the symptoms may or not progress to a full stage disease. These disorders fall under the third and general classification of “undifferentiated connective tissue disorder” or UCTD. The pathophysiology and diagnosis of the autoimmune connective tissue diseases Although there are many types of autoimmune connective tissue disorders, this paper will only discuss lupus, rheumatoid arthritis and scleroderma. These have a higher prevalence in the population compared to the other diseases. In these diseases, the immune system attacks the connective tissues resulting in inflammation and abnormalities in the blood vessels. The reason for these autoimmune attacks is the subject of many studies, but no coherent theory has been forwarded yet. Systemic lupus erythematosus Lupus or SLE is a chronic inflammation of the connective tissues which can affect the skin, joints, lungs, kidneys and other organs of the body (Ginzler, 2008) (ChoiTypes Of Connective Tissue Disorders Diseases Biology Essay

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