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LAPC Impact of The Political and Cultural Developments in Western Societies HW

LAPC Impact of The Political and Cultural Developments in Western Societies HW.

Essay Topic:Discuss the impact of the political and cultural developments in Western societies of the ancient and medieval eras with “Law and Order” as the central theme. Make sure to incorporate the “Perpetua’s Journey” text into the essay.Directions:This is obviously a very broad essay topic. The purpose of this essay is for you to think about the material that you have studied throughout this course. Provide your own analysis of the impact and legacy of the various historical events that you have studied. You are not expected to discuss every era that we covered in this course. Pick a few that you feel are the most important and that you can relate to the concept of Law and Order I will be looking for your ability to tie various historical movements together and show how they are connected. Suggestions for proceeding with this assignment:1) Look through your previous work for this class to refresh your memory on what you have learned.2) Look through the textbook and make note of historical events that you think you would like to include in your essay, and that you can relate to Law and Order.4) Pick 3 eras to include in your essay. Read up on those from the textbook.5) Draft your essay. Put an extra emphasis on showing connections between the topics and relating them to Law and Order, and comparing the eras to each other.6) If you have questions for me, contact me by private message sooner than later. Don’t wait until the last minute.Sources: the textbook and Perpetua’s Journey, and any other readings provided within this course if and when appropriate. You do not need to conduct outside research for this essay.Length: 6 full pages to 7 pages, typed, double-spaced, 12 font. Format Options:If you submit your work Inline, I will be copying it into Microsoft Word and adjusting the font size to 12 to see the page length.If you submit your work by attaching a document, use one of these file types only: .doc, .docx, .pdf, .wpd, .rtfPreviousNext
LAPC Impact of The Political and Cultural Developments in Western Societies HW

Purdue Global University Assessing Strategy VACSP Question.

This is a two-part assignment. You started this assignment in Unit 1. You will finish and submit this assignment in Unit 2. Complete Part 2 of this assignment by executing the requirements below. You will combine Part 1 and Part 2 of this assignment in Unit 2 and submit it to the Unit 2 Dropbox for grading. Procrastination can be detrimental to your success in this class.
The following Course Outcome is assessed in this assignment:
MT460-1: Assess business strategy using a variety of seminal theories, principles, and concepts.
GEL-1.02: Demonstrate college-level communication through the composition of original materials in Standard English.
You will find the following resource to be a helpful guide in your analysis of your chosen case study: Guide to Case Analysis. This assignment will require intensive interpretation skills. Be sure to read this Case Analysis Guide to prepare. Be sure to use the grading rubric as a checklist.
Choose an award-winning company from the Baldrige Performance Excellence Program website to study. You will evaluate the “Award Application Summary” as a business case. You are the director of strategy and business Intelligence for your chosen company. You are conducting an evaluation of your chosen company for an upcoming annual report. Your goal is to demonstrate skill and expertise in the evaluation of the strategic position of your company. You will be submitting this report to C-level executives for consideration. Use the following criteria to evaluate your chosen award-winning organization to determine how its business strategy positions the company to achieve competitive advantage over its competitors.
Assignment Part 1 Requirements:

Create a thesis statement. Explain what is meant by business strategy (read pages 3–4 in your textbook). Use theories, principles, and concepts from various research resources. Give examples.
Provide background information about your chosen company, including the company name, industry sector in which the company operates, products, and target market. Elaborate and use research.
Describe the type of competitive advantage your chosen company has established (read pages 4–6 in your textbook). Explain. Use examples.
Explain how your chosen company’s strategy will evolve over time (read pages 8-11 in your textbook). Use examples.
What is your chosen company’s business model, and why is it important? (Read pages 11–12 in your textbook.) Use examples.
What makes the company’s strategy a winner? (Read pages 12–16 in your textbook.) Explain. Use examples.

Assignment Part 2 Requirements:

Critically evaluate the vision, mission, and values of your chosen company (read pages 21–29 in your textbook). Use research to explain and give examples.
Assess the objectives (stretch, strategic, and financial) for your chosen company (read pages 30–33). Give examples.
Explain why the strategic initiatives taken at various levels of your chosen company must be tightly coordinated (read pages 34–39 in your textbook). Give examples.
Evaluate what your chosen company did to achieve operating excellence and to execute its strategy proficiently (read pages 39–40 in your textbook). Give examples.
Evaluate the role and responsibility of the governance body in overseeing the strategic management process of your chosen company (read pages 40–42 in your textbook).
Use a minimum of three peer-reviewed, academic research resources (including your textbook) to substantiate your critical thinking and to provide viable reasoning for your perspectives.

Purdue Global University Assessing Strategy VACSP Question

Premier League Premier League or just Premiership (English: Premier League / Premiership) division is the highest level of English football. It officially named Barclays Premier League (Barclays Premier League) because of its sponsor – English Barclays Bank. The Premier League is the most watched sports league in the world and the richest Cup in Europe. Founded in 1992 and currently competing in her twenty team. In sixteen played so far season of Premiership champions are only be four teams: Manchester United (ten times), Arsenal (three times) Chelsea (twice) and Blackburn Rovers (once). Current champion is the team of Manchester United won the title in last round of the season 2007/08. History: Prerequisites: Some events of the mid-eighties the 20 th century clearly show the need for fundamental changes in the organization of English football. His condition in those years was very poor – stadiums are in poor condition, facilities for fans are almost zero, and hooliganism is developed so that it leads to five-year ban on British Teams participating in European club tournaments. In the early 90’s of 20 century English football started to recover positions. The national team reached the semi-finals of World Cup in Italy in 1990, part of the stadium are reconstructed after application of Reporting rules by Taylor for safety at football stadiums. This helps to increase the interest from fans who lead both to higher rates of matches and additional financial money from television rights. Established: At the end of the 1990/91 season, clubs from the then English First Division decide to create a new league, which financially to manage themselves teams, a sport-technical – by FA. The goal is very clubs to negotiate with sponsors and agree to sell television rights to matches. Official document forming the principles of existence of the new structure is signed on July 17, 1991 In 1992 all teams by the then First Division is en bloc seceding from the Football League and on May 27 In 1992 formally established the new company, called the FA Premier League. This distorts structure of English football there was no change in the past 104 years. The new Premier League takes place on top of English football pyramid and the old First Division (which retains its name) already covers the second level in the football hierarchy. Reserved are links between all divisions (and climb to relegation Teams between levels). The first season of The Premier League is held in 1992/93 Take part in the league 22 teams. Sheffield United player of Brian Dean scored the first goal in the history of Premiership victory in his team with 2:1 against Manchester United. In 1995 the number of times in the Premiership was reduced to 20. They are so today, despite FIFA’s proposals to reduce them, 18 made in the summer of 2006 Structure: The Premier League is an organization dvaysete managed by the club acquired right to participate in it with their sport results. Each club plays the role a shareholder with one vote in decision making. The clubs elect Director, Executive Director and Board directors dealing with day management of the Premiership. The FA did not actively participate in the management of the league. She plays of a special shareholders’ right to veto when making important decisions, such as choice of leadership and change rules of conduct of the competitions. General information: Competition: Match between Manchester United and Tottenham Hotspur during the season 2005/06 In the Premiership compete 20 clubs. Each team plays against every twice – once in their field and once the stadium of their opponent, which makes it 38 games per team and general 380 Premiership appearances for the whole of one season. At the end of the last three seasons Teams eliminated in the Championship, and in its take place the first two of the lower Division, with the winner of the playoffs, playing between the teams completed between 3rd and 6th place in the Championship. The teams ended the first four places in the final standings, acquire the right to participate in UEFA Champions League, the first enter directly into two group stage the third and fourth are included in third qualifying round race and must prevail over opponent in the game from two matches. Fifth automatically wins in the Premier League participation in the tournament for the UEFA Cup, while the sixth and in the seventh can also be classified Depending on the results in tournaments Both bowls: If the winner and finalist FA Cup (FA Cup) in complete first five, then six teams participated the UEFA Cup. If the owner of League Cup in the first five, then place in the UEFA Cup goes to most successful and well unconverted present place team in the league. Unlike the FA Cup, this place does not go for the finalists. Sponsorship: Since 1993, the Premier League is officially sponsored by external companies. Company-sponsor has the right and choose the name of the race, but until all adhere to tradition simply add your name constant over the Premiership. Previous sponsors are: 1993-2001 – Carling (FA Carling Premiership) 2001-2010 – Barclays (Barclaycard Premiership 2001-04, Barclays Premiership 2005-07, Barclays Premier league 2007-10) Teams: Total 40 teams are taking part in the Premiership since its inception in 1992 until today. Two other clubs (Luton Town and Notts County) signed an agreement the creation of the league in 1991, but fall into last season before and creation and have not been able to return to top English Division. Seven clubs have participated in each season from the Premier League founding until now. This is Arsenal Aston Villa, Everton, Liverpool, Manchester United, Tottenham Hotspur and Chelsea. Members of the Premiership during the 2008/09 season: Team Position in 2007/08 season in the Premiership Total seasons in the Premiership First season of current series in the Premiership (First Division) Best in the Premiership standings Arsenal 3rd 17 1992/93 (1919/20) Champion Aston Villa 6th 17 1992/93 (1988/89) 2nd Blackburn Rovers 7th 15 2001/02 Champion Bolton Wanderers 16th 10 2001/02 6th Everton 5th 17 1992/93 (1954/55) 4th Liverpool 4th 17 1992/93 (1962/63) 2nd Manchester City 9th 12 2002/03 8th Manchester United Champion 17 1992/93 (1975/76) Champion Middlesbrough 13th 14 1998/99 7th Newcastle United 12th 16 1993/94 2nd Portsmouth 8th 6 2003/04 8th Stoke Championship (2nd) 1 2008/09 – Sunderland 15th 7 2007/08 7th Tottenham Hotspur 11th 17 1992/93 (1978/79) 5th West Bromwich Albion Championship (1st) 4 2008/09 17th West Ham United 10th 14 2005/06 5th Wigan Athletic 14th 4 2005/06 10th Fulham 17th 8 2001/02 9th Hull City Championship (3rd) 1 2008/09 – Chelsea 2nd 17 1992/93 (1989/90) Champion Former members Premiership: Team Total seasons in the Premiership First season in the Premiership Last season FA Premier League Best in the Premiership standings Barnsley 1 1997/98 1997/98 19th Birmingham City 5 2002/03 2007/08 10th Bradford City 2 1999/00 2000/01 17th Derby County 6 1996/97 2007/08 8th Ipswich Town 5 1992/93 2001/02 5th Coventry City 9 1992/93 2000/01 11th Crystal Palace 4 1992/93 2004/05 18th Queens Park Rangers 4 1992/93 1995/96 5th Leicester City 8 1994/95 2003/04 8th Leeds United 12 1992/93 2003/04 3rd Norwich City 4 1992/93 2004/05 3rd Nottingham Forest 5 1992/93 1998/99 3rd Oldham Athletic 2 1992/93 1993/94 19th Reading 2 2006/07 2007/08 8th Southampton 13 1992/93 2004/05 8th Swindon Town 1 1993/94 1993/94 22nd Wimbledon 8 1992/93 1999/00 6th Watford 2 1999/00 2006/07 20th Wolverhampton Wanderers 1 2003/04 2003/04 20th Charlton Athletic 8 1998/99 2006/07 7th Sheffield Wednesday 8 1992/93 1999/00 7th Sheffield United 3 1992/93 2006/07 14th Premiership champions League: Since the foundation of the Premiership hitherto been conducted sixteen seasons, where champions are becoming: 1992/93 – Manchester United 1993/94 — Manchester United 1994/95 – Blackburn Rovers 1995/96 – Manchester United 1996/97 – Manchester United 1997/98 – Arsenal 1998/99 – Manchester United 1999/00 – Manchester United 2000/01 – Manchester United 2001/02 — Arsenal 2002/03 – Manchester United 2003/04 – Arsenal 2004/05 – Chelsea 2005/06 — Chelsea 2006/07 – Manchester United 2007/08 – Manchester United Champions of England: Following 23 teams have won the top division in English football, it’s called First Division of season 1888/89 to 1991/92 and Higher League from season 1992/93 onwards: 18 titles — Liverpool 17 titles – Manchester United 13 titles – Arsenal 9 titles – Everton 7 titles – Aston Villa 6 titles – Sunderland 4 titles – Newcastle United, Sheffield Wednesday 3 titles – Blackburn Rovers, Huddersfield Town, Leeds United, Chelsea, Wolverhampton Wanderers 2 titles – Burnley, Derby County, Manchester City, Portsmouth, Preston North End, Tottenham Hotspur 1 title — Ipswich Town, Nottingham Forest, Sheffield United, West Bromwich Albion Players: Premier League Teams have full discretion to choose the number and the type of players who purchase. Rules the tournament does not impose any ceiling the amount of money given wage nor the number of players filing. The only rules are restrictive those of the immigration authorities who grant working visas to players from countries outside the European Union. In the first round of the first Premiership season in 1992/93, only 11 is the number of players outside Britain and Ireland, which began as principals for their teams. Through 2000/01 total strangers is 36%. By season 2004/05 the percentage increased to 45%. On December 29, 1999 became the first Chelsea team from the Premier League starting line-up, done only by foreigners. On 14 February 2005 Arsenal out a composition in which both holders and reserves (total of 16 players) are foreigners. In relation to concerns, that English clubs prefer to buy cheap foreign players instead of developing their soccer schools Ministry of Interior the United Kingdom in 1999 have highly restricted for a working visas to players outside the European Union. Candidate for such visa must prove that he participated at least 75% of official matches of the its national team in two previous years. The only other way is clubs to demonstrate that this foreign player has a huge talent and would help the development of many game in England. At present the teams Premiership play over 260 players, not born in the British Isles. The class of the majority of them speak the fact that the World Cup in Germany in 2006 playing a total of 102 players from teams from the Premiership among which 21 of the 23-Mata of internationals England. Salaries: As a result of the enormous revenue generated by clubs from television rights, the salaries of players grow very fast years after the founding of the Premier League. In the first season of Premiership average annual salary for a footballer is £ 75 000. In season 2003/04 average wage reached its peak in past history of the Premiership — £ 676 000. Transfer Records: In fifteen season of existence of the Premiership record for highest transfer paid amount of football is to improve 11 times. The longest (over four years) unviolated remained the world record Transfers for the amount paid by Newcastle United for Alan Shearer in 1996 Over the years record amount paid for the following transfers: £ 3,30 million in June 1992 (Alan Shearer – from Southampton to Blackburn Rovers) £ 3,75 million in June 1993 (Roy Keane – from Nottingham Forest to Manchester United) £ 5 million in July 1994 (Chris Sutton – City of Norwich in Blackburn Rovers) £ 7 million in January 1995 (Andy Cole – from Newcastle United in Manchester United) £ 7,5 million in June 1995 (Dennis Bergkamp – from Inter in Arsenal) £ 8,5 million in July 1995 (Stan Kolimor – from Nottingham Forest to Liverpool) £ 15 million in July 1996 (Alan Shearer – from Blackburn Rovers to Newcastle United) £ 18 million November 2000 (Rio Ferdinand – from West In Ham United Leeds United) £ 19 million in May 2001 (Ruud van Nistelrooy – PSV of Eindhoven to Manchester United) £ 28,1 million in July 2001 (Juan Sebastian Veron – From Lazio to Manchester United) £ 29 million in July 2002 (Rio Ferdinand – Leeds United to Manchester United) £ 30 million in August 2004 (Wayne Rooney – by Everton at Manchester United) £ 30 million in August 2006 (Andriy Shevchenko — from Milan to Chelsea) £ 32,5 million in September 2008 (Robinho – by Real (Madrid) at Manchester City) Top scorers of the Premiership: Season: Season Scorer, club Number of goals 1992/93 Teddy Sheringham, Tottenham Hotspur 22 1993/94 Andy Cole, Newcastle United 34 1994/95 Alan Shearer, Blackburn Rovers 34 1995/96 Alan Shearer, Blackburn Rovers 31 1996/97 Alan Shearer, Newcastle United 25 1997/98 Chris Sutton, Blackburn Rovers Dion Dublin, Coventry City Michael Owen, Liverpool 18 1998/99 Jimmy Floyd Hasalbank, Leeds United Michael Owen, Liverpool Dwight York, Manchester United 18 1999/00 Kevin Phillips, Sunderland 30 2000/01 Jimmy Floyd Hasalbenk, Chelsea 23 2001/02 Thierry Henry, Arsenal 24 2002/03 Ruud van Nistelrooy, Manchester United 25 2003/04 Thierry Henry, Arsenal 30 2004/05 Thierry Henry, Arsenal 25 2005/06 Thierry Henry, Arsenal 27 2006/07 Didier Drogba, Chelsea 20 2007/08 Cristiano Ronaldo, Manchester United 31 All time: Standings Football Goals 1 Alan Shearer 260 2 Andy Cole 187 3 Thierry Henry 174 4 Robbie Fowler 163 5 Les Ferdinand 149 6 Teddy Sheringham 146 7 Michael Owen 136 8 Jimmy Floyd Hasalbank 127 9 Dwight York 123 10 Ian Wright 113 Data are as of May 12, 2008 Players with bold font are still in play Premiership.

Principle of Finance

Principle of Finance. I’m working on a Accounting exercise and need support.

answer the questions:

Abeer Inc. has debt claims of $400 (market value) and equity claims of $600 (market value). If the after-tax cost of debt financing is 11 percent and the cost of equity is 17 percent, then what is Abeer’s weighted average cost of capital?
What is the strategic role of venture capital in developing entrepreneurship in Saudi Arabia?
(a) Under what conditions do you think that the finance manager does not have to think about capital structure issue?
Discuss the various modes of recent issue of IPO by Saudi Aramco company?

(b) Discuss the various factors affecting the capital structure decisions giving appropriate examples.

Principle of Finance

Commodity Paper-04

nursing essay writing service Commodity Paper-04.

Commodification Paper Rubric:Research and write a short analysis of an important early phase (in most cases, early 20 thcentury or prior) in the commodification and globalization of one commodity(i.e., bananas, cement, chocolate, coffee, sugar, diamonds, palm oil, rubber, tobacco…). Be sure to demonstrate your understanding of our assigned readings from Weeks 2-3(Nature’s Metropolisand The Travels of a T-Shirt) in your analysis. Your paper may cite assigned class readings, or journalistic or other sources, but in addition you must also make meaningful use of at least three academic, non-class sources (peer-reviewed books or journal articles). Your paper must be edited, proofread, double-spaced, 1” margins all around, and font 12-point Times New Roman, 900-1000 words (about 3-4pages; not counting bibliography and illustrations). A detailed rubric is available in attached file.The purpose of this assignment is to be a short analysis of an important early moment (in most cases, early 20th century or prior) in the global commodification of one commodity. The criteria according to which this assignment will be graded are: how well it describes and analyzes the chosen moment of commodification, how well it integrates the moment into the readings and the larger context of the course, and how well it meets academic writing standards. Commodification is an ongoing process— nothing is ever fully commodified, merely commodified to a greater or lesser extent. In this assignment you will pick a single phase or moment in the commodification of one commodity, and analyze how that change came about. An excellent paper will contextualize this moment of commodification within the broader history of the commodity, but focus its energy on one time and place: what changes occurred, and why is it a particularly important moment? An excellent paper will use the concepts from the readings and class as an integral part of the analysis, employing quotes from the readings (and sources) where appropriate. An excellent paper will be written to academic style: along with good writing, the sources used will be appropriate to the topic, properly cited, and of academic quality. Finally, an excellent paper may use popular sources (newspapers, magazines, online sites, etc.), but it must also make meaningful use of at least 3 scholarly, non-class sources (scholarly = academic = peerreviewed journal articles or books; see below), and it must cite them properly. Note: commodities we have covered in class are not allowed for this assignment (wheat, corn, cotton, etc).Check the attached file for grading rubric!!!!
Commodity Paper-04

California University of Management & Sciences Learning Styles Reflection Paper

California University of Management & Sciences Learning Styles Reflection Paper.

I’m working on a nursing Discussion and need an explanation to help me understand better.

Learning styles represent the different approaches to learning based on preferences, weaknesses, and strengths. For learners to best achieve the desired educational outcome, learning styles must be considered when creating a plan. Complete “The VARK Questionnaire,” located on the VARK website, and then complete the following:Click “OK” to receive your questionnaire scores.Once you have determined your preferred learning style, review the corresponding link to view your learning preference.Review the other learning styles: visual, aural, read/write, kinesthetic, and multimodal (listed on the VARK Questionnaire Results page).Compare your current preferred learning strategies to the identified strategies for your preferred learning style.Examine how awareness of learning styles has influenced your perceptions of teaching and learning.In a paper (750-1,000 words), summarize your analysis of this exercise and discuss the overall value of learning styles. Include the following:Provide a summary of your learning style according the VARK questionnaire.Describe your preferred learning strategies. Compare your current preferred learning strategies to the identified strategies for your preferred learning style.Describe how individual learning styles affect the degree to which a learner can understand or perform educational activities. Discuss the importance of an educator identifying individual learning styles and preferences when working with learners.Discuss why understanding the learning styles of individuals participating in health promotion is important to achieving the desired outcome. How do learning styles ultimately affect the possibility for a behavioral change? How would different learning styles be accommodated in health promotion?Cite to at least three peer-reviewed or scholarly sources to complete this assignment. Sources should be published within the last 5 years and appropriate for the assignment criteria.Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.
California University of Management & Sciences Learning Styles Reflection Paper

Education Essays – Pupils Special Disabilities

Pupils Special Disabilities This essay critically evaluates the success of policies to promote the inclusion of pupils with special educational needs and disabilities since 1997. The essay reflects critically on recent legislation in the field and the implications of this for development, showing an understanding of how to resolve conflicting viewpoints. The essay first outlines the legislation, and policy documents, that have been enacted or published since 1997 and then critically analyses these policies in terms of answering the question of how successful these policies have been in terms of meeting special educational needs and disabilities through a review of the impact of these policies on the teaching of special needs children in mainstream schools, and the impact of this on the pupils with special needs, on the ‘normal’ children being taught alongside special needs pupils and on the teaching staff involved in teaching in classrooms containing mainstreamed special needs pupils. Special education is defined, generally, as education that is modified for students with special needs, whether these be special physical needs due to a disability or special mental needs, such as mental health problems or giftedness. The Education Act 1996 defines special educational needs thus, “children have special educational needs if they have a learning difficulty which calls for special educational provision to be made for them”, and children can be identified as having a learning difficulty if they have a significantly different ability to learn than the majority of children the same age as them and if they have a disability which prevents them from making use of facilities that would normally be used within that setting by children of a similar age. Students with special educational needs and disabilities have been catered for through a number of legislations since the late 1990s. The Education Act 1996 outlines the various roles and responsibilities of all those involved in the process of educating children within the UK: teachers and parents, for example. The Education Act 1996 contains statutes that are directly relevant to the education of children with special educational needs and disabilities, building, as it does, on the Disability Discrimination Act 1995. One of the requirements of the Act is that local authorities publish ‘disability statements’ at regular intervals, detailing the facilities provided by the local authority with regards to accommodating children with special educational needs and disabilities because one of the main requirements of the Act was to identify, assess and meet children’s special educational, or physical, needs in terms of meeting these needs within a mainstream school. Part Four of the Education Act 1996 was revised and was enacted as the Special Educational Needs and Disability Act 2001. The Government launched their publication entitled Excellence for all children: Meeting Special Educational Needs in 1997, which set out a coherent strategy for dealing with students with special educational needs and disabilities. This was enhanced through the 1998 publication of the document Meeting Special Educational Needs – A Programme of Action which, when implemented in conjunction with the 1999 Disability Task Force report entitled From Exclusion to Inclusion, reinforced the necessity of considering the rights of students with special educational needs and disabilities. Essentially, the New Labour Government wanted to extend the educational provisions for students with special educational needs and disability by placing educational provision in the broader agenda of social inclusion, within the framework of rights for individuals with special educational needs and disabled individuals (MacBeath et al., 2006)n. Following these publications, and as has been seen, Part Four of the Education Act 1996 was revised and was enacted as the Special Educational Needs and Disability Act 2001. The Special Educational Needs and Disability Act 2001 is divided in to three parts, two of which are of particular relevance for those with special educational needs and disability: Part One which made changes to the existing Special Educational Needs section in the Education Act 1996; and Part Two which deals with disability discrimination in education, amending Parts Three and Four of the Disability Discrimination Act 1995. Part One of the Special Educational Needs and Disability Act 2001 strengthens the rights of special educational needs children, in particular the right of these individuals to be schooled in mainstream schools. Part Two of the Special Educational Needs and Disability Act 2001 makes it illegal for schools and Local Authorities to discriminate against disabled people for any reason that is related to their disability: schools and local authorities have a “reasonable adjustment” duty to provide for the special needs of any individuals under their care. Since the enactment of this Act, a revised Special Educational Needs Code of Practice was developed (in 2002), which provides practical help and advice to all those involved in providing education to students with special educational needs and disabilities. Then, in 2003, a Green Paper was published, entitled Every Child Matters, which outlines the Government’s commitment to partnership with all those involved in educating students with special educational needs and disabilities, under the framework of the Children’s Services proposals. In 2004 a strategy document was published by the Government, entitled Removing Barriers to Achievement – The Government’s Strategy for SEN, which focuses on providing guidelines for early intervention, and for the provision of special educational needs. In terms of the Government’s approach to the education of students with special educational needs and disabilities, as outlined in their 2004 document Removing Barriers to Achievement – The Government’s Strategy for SEN, the Government sees it as important to remove barriers to learning and to raise both expectations and achievements, all within a framework of ensuring the application of the terms of the Disability Discrimination Act 2005. In terms of the impact of all of this legislation on the education of students with special educational needs and disability, the proportion of such students being ‘mainstreamed’ (i.e., taught within the framework of a ‘mainstream’ school, not a special school) has not been significantly affected by the legislation as many parents are still choosing to send their children to special schools, although the legislation has increased the awareness and appreciation of mainstreaming (OFSTED, 2004). From 1999 to 2003, for example, the portion of students with special educational needs and disability that were schooled in a mainstream setting remained steady, although reports from the Audit Commission have reported an increase in students with behavioural disorders being mainstreamed; conversely, since 2001, in fact, there has been a 10% increase in the number of students sent to special schools (OFSTED, 2004). Whilst the Government seems to think that mainstreaming is the best possible solution for special needs children, a recent report has suggested that school inclusion can actually be a form of abuse and that the recent policies that have been enacted to cover the education of special needs children are badly failing these children (MacBeath et al. 2006). As reported by the BBC, MacBeath has been quoted as stating, “Physically sitting in a classroom is not inclusion. Children can be excluded by sitting in a classroom that is not meeting their needs”. As reported in MacBeath et al. (2006), there is massive variability across the country as to how inclusion, and mainstreaming, is accommodated, with many schools having unresolved problems regarding inclusion of students with special educational needs and disabilities. A recent (2004) OFSTED report, which looked at the issues of special educational needs and disability and inclusion in mainstream schools found that the Government’s revised inclusion framework has promoted increased awareness of the benefits of inclusion and has led to some level of improvements in practice, but that the framework of inclusion has had little effect, as yet, on the number of pupils within mainstream schools or on the range of needs for which mainstream schools can cater, even though most mainstream schools are committed to mainstreaming special educational needs and disabled students. However, the report found that only a minority of mainstream schools meet special needs well, with expectations of achievement not well enough defined with progress in learning slower, for a vast majority of pupils, than it should be (OFSTED, 2004). Few schools were found to objectively evaluate their provisions for students with special educational needs and disability with not enough use being made of the potential for adapting the curriculum so that such students have suitable opportunities for improving their education (OFSTED, 2004). In general, classroom teaching of students with special educational needs and disability was of highly variable quality, with many lessons having many shortcomings with teaching assistants, especially, contributing to a lack of organization with regards to students with special educational needs and disability (OFSTED, 2004). Shockingly, over half the schools that were visited during the course of this report had no disability access plans and few schools liaised with special schools in order to develop better educational content for the subsequently mainstreamed pupils (OFSTED, 2004). In sum, the OFSTED (2004) report recommended that the Government and local education authorities start to work together in order to ensure that the ability of mainstream schools to teach pupils with special educational needs and disability in a better way, in terms of working closely together with special schools to forge productive links for mainstreamed special educational needs and disabled pupils, such that pupils with special educational needs and disability are enabled to play a full and active part in school life, receiving a curriculum that is relevant to their needs. Whilst noble in its aim, therefore, in terms of the actual numbers of students with special educational needs and disability being mainstreamed, and the education these children are receiving when mainstreamed, inclusion remains a significant challenge for many mainstream schools, and the education received by students with special educational needs and disability within a mainstream school setting is perhaps not as optimum as it could be in many cases, with provisions for their special educational needs and disabilities also not being as adequate as they could, or should, be (Henry, 2004). MacBeath et al. (2006) identified shortcomings in the issue of inclusion, with schools admitting they often had problems with mainstreaming of special educational needs and disabled pupils, due to issues related to resourcing and financing, admissions and capacity, balance of needs, recruitment and retention and expertise and professional development. This does not mean that inclusion policies do not work, as MacBeath et al. (2006) found that inclusion policies are often seen to work when a number of essential conditions are met, namely that staff are enthusiastic and committed, with strong teamwork across staff at the school. In addition to looking at how mainstreaming affects pupils, MacBeath et al. (2006) also looked at how teaching staff are affected by the mainstreaming of students with special educational needs and disabilities. It was found that teachers, in principle, welcome mainstreaming, but that the realities of mainstreaming in practice are very different, due to the fact that the needs of pupils with special educational needs and disabilities are very different from those of ‘normal’ children, and that this can cause problems when deciding how to allocate one’s time as a teacher; that often special needs and disabled pupils are allocated to teachers who lack the necessary skills to be able to handle these pupils; that the nature and quality of support for teachers with special needs and disabled pupils is often not present, all of which impact negatively on the ability of the teacher to teach all of their pupils, i.e., those with special needs or disabilities and the ‘normal’ children (MacBeath et al., 2006). Thus not only do policies to promote the inclusion of pupils with special educational needs and disabilities affect those children with special educational needs and disabilities, when such children are mainstreamed, these policies also affect the ways in teachers are able to carry out their job, in terms of being able to teach all children in their care equally and with equal attention. This has been noted to be of special concern when the pupils with special educational needs are children with behavioural problems (whom, as we have seen, have been steadily increasing in numbers in mainstream school settings), as these children are very demanding of teachers time, which, if the teacher pays a great deal of attention to managing these pupils behaviour can lead to the teacher having less time to dedicate to the ‘normal’ children in their class. This leads to the argument that special educational needs and disabled children should not be educated in mainstream classrooms. Seldom is the level of training sufficient for mainstream teachers to teach these children adequately, and to care for these children well enough, so that the basic care needed for these children is often not present. Conversely, if the teachers are well versed in teaching and managing pupils with special educational needs, and concentrate too much on these pupils within their classroom, this leads to the ‘normal’ children in the class missing out on the teacher’s time and attention. There is, thus, a delicate balance to be struck when a teacher’s classroom includes children with special educational needs or disabilities, between caring for that individual child and accommodating their needs, and also having adequate time for the other pupils in the class. For this reason, many educators, and many parents, argue against the idea of inclusion and mainstreaming, arguing that these policies serve no practical purpose, other than fulfilling the Government’s idea of how inclusion should ideally work. The MacBeath et al. (2006) report addresses this issue, when they ask ‘is inclusion working?’. Whilst inclusion provides social benefits for special educational needs and disabled children, in terms of them feeling more accepted by their peers, the viability of the whole concept of inclusion is brought in to question when one studies what has been happening in classrooms over the period when mainstreaming has become more commonplace. For teachers who have taught special educational needs and disabled pupils in a mainstream setting, it has been found that children with special needs often feel they have a lack of entitlement to learn and develop emotionally; that there are restrictions on learning for ‘normal’ children being educated alongside special needs children because a disproportionate amount of a teacher’s time is given to special needs children; that mainstreaming special needs children can generate feelings of inadequacy in teachers without specialized expertise in dealing with such children; that there is a great increase in the workload of teachers dealing with special needs children within their classroom and that there are massive pressures on teachers in terms of inadequate funding and resourcing by local authorities (MacBeath et al., 2006). The MacBeath et al. (2006) also addressed the impact on pupils of inclusive policies, finding that mainstreamed special needs children can benefit from interactions with their peers, but that, in the majority of cases, lack of training of teachers, and lack of resources mean that special needs pupils are not adequately dealt with and end up struggling in mainstream schools because there is a general and significant lack of expertise on the part of teachers as to how to properly and adequately deal with special needs children in a mainstream school setting. Following these conclusions, the MacBeath et al. (2006) report recommended that the implementation of policies of inclusion should not rely on individual schools to handle all the responsibility of teaching these children, rather that this should be based on a collaborative effort between special schools, mainstream schools and local authorities, and that this enhanced collaboration should ensure the best service for all children, i.e., those with special needs who are being mainstreamed and ‘normal’ children in classrooms containing pupil(s) with special needs who are being mainstreamed. It is clear that policies of inclusion, and mainstreaming, will only work, and will only continue to be suggested and developed, if this collaborative effort is strengthened and if teachers involved in teaching mainstreamed special needs children receive adequate training, allowing them to handle their special needs pupils in a way that is advantageous to those individuals, and also to simultaneously manage their ‘normal’ pupils, so that accommodating pupils with special needs does not come at the detriment of ‘normal’ pupils. For fear of a lack of adequate training and understanding, perhaps, many parents of special needs children still choose to send their children to special schools: as we have seen, the proportion of special needs students being ‘mainstreamed’ (i.e., taught within the framework of a ‘mainstream’ school, not a special school) has not been significantly affected by recent legislation, as the vast majority of parents of special needs children are still choosing to send their children to special schools and not to send them to mainstream schools (OFSTED, 2004). In terms of the success of policies to promote the inclusion of pupils with special educational needs and disabilities since 1997, then, as has been seen, these policies were introduced as a way in which to further the New Labour Government’s ideas about social inclusion, but have, in practice, been ill thought out, in terms of the actual provision of support and training for teachers and teaching assistants who are actually involved, on a day-to-day basis, with teaching mainstreamed special needs pupils. Thus, whilst there is a case to be made for inclusion with regards to special educational needs and disabled pupils, particularly in terms of the social benefits of this practice for the special needs children, there have been insufficient resources devoted to making these policies work in practice, in terms of generating a collaborative atmosphere which would foster sharing of resources and expertise, between mainstream and special schools, for example. Both MacBeath et al. (2006) and OFSTED (2004) found that when mainstreaming does works, it works only because of the extreme dedication of the individual teachers involved, not because there is a framework in place to ensure that inclusion works in practice. Such was the gravity of the situation as recorded by MacBeath et al. (2006) that their report concluded with an urgent need for inclusive practice, including a “radical re-appraisal of…the contradictions inherent in the interface of standards and inclusion agendas”. References BBC (2006). School inclusion ‘can be abuse’. Tuesday 16th May 2006. DfES (1997). Excellence for All Children – Meeting Special Educational Needs. DfES (1998). Meeting Special Educational Needs – A Programme of Action. DfES (2001). Inclusive Schooling. DfES (2002). Special Educational Needs Code of Practice. DfES (2003a). Every Child Matters. DfES (2003b). Together from the start: practical guidance for professionals working with disabled children and their families (birth to 3 years). DfES (2004). Removing Barriers to Achievement – The Government’s Strategy for SEN. Disability Rights Task Force (1999). From Exclusion to Inclusion. Dyson, A. (2003). Special needs, disability and social inclusion – the end of a beautiful friendship? In Norwich, B. (ed.) (2003). Disability, disadvantage, inclusion and social inclusion. Henry, J. (2004). Inclusion policy fails children with special needs. The Telegraph 25th September 2004. HMSO (1995). Disability Discrimination Act HMSO (1996). Education Act HMSO (2001). Special Educational Needs and Disability Act HMSO (2005). Disability Discrimination Act MacBeath, J. et al. (2006). The Costs of Inclusion. University of Cambridge Faculty of Education. Norwich, B. (ed.) (2003). Disability, disadvantage, inclusion and social inclusion. OFSTED (2004). Special educational needs and disability: towards inclusive schools.

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