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language generated from the grammar needs LL(5), assignment help

language generated from the grammar needs LL(5), assignment help.

1. Define a grammar that the language generated from the grammar needs LL(5) recursive descendant
parser. The grammar doesn’t need to be complicated, as long as it satisfies the requirement. 2. Use the patterns you learn to implement the LL(5) parser for the grammar you design in 1. 3. Your submitted report needs to have: 1) (40%) Grammar 2) (40%) List of source codes of your parser, including a test class. 3) (20%) Screenshots on how you make sure your implementation is working correctly.
3. One paper report need be submitted 
language generated from the grammar needs LL(5), assignment help

Globalisation and the spatial structure of the economy: Critically discuss how changes related with globalisation can affect cities and the spatial patterns of economic activities? Globalisation has become one of the key concepts in the social sciences at the turn of the twentieth century. A term that has come to be used globally which relates to the processes of social relations acquiring relatively distance-less and borderless qualities that place can be argued as a homogenous landscape (Scholte, 1997). However as Julius (1997) finds there is confusion about globalisation continuing within the disagreement over whether it is “a process or an end-state”. Globalisation can be seen as the world-wide interconnectedness between nation-states. In which social arrangements such as power, culture, politics and norms become intangible from their spatial context due to the acceleration, diffusion and expansion of transnational flows of people, goods, finances and information (Berkens, 2004).Globalisation can be seen as essentially a process driven by economic forces, having profound effects on cities and the economy (Sideri, 1997). Globalisation can be argued as a more recent expansion of the previous emerging relationship between urbanisation, industrialisation and economic development which initially began in Western Europe in the late fourteenth century; associated with the development of European wide trade links (McCann, 2013). However the concept can date as far back to Colonialism and the colonial power of Europe. The first era beginning with the arrival of Christopher Columbus in America (1492) combined with the expansion of the Spanish and Portuguese empires (Friedman, 2007). This westward colonial expansion of Spain to America after 1492 proceeded the sixteenth century with the transatlantic trade links; the first economic global expansion for European countries, the development of overseas empires in non-adjacent regions (McCann, 2013). This concept enabled globalisation to be defined as an economic structure whilst being a political phenomenon, shaped by negotiations and interactions between institutions of transnational capital and nation states (Guttal, 2007). Dating Globalisation back to the colonisation of Asia, Africa and America alongside the search for new markets and sources of wealth fanned by the industrial revolution; resulted in the production of international commodity markets and mercantilist trade (Guttal, 2007). By 1800 Britain was argued as most industrialised country in the world due the enhancement of the industrial revolution. London was seen as the second largest city in the world and some 57% larger than Western Europe’s second largest city (McCann, 2013). Due to the establishment of colonies and industrial trade links since the Second World War much of the world has become more interlinked through innovations and advances within transportation, communication and information technology (Guttal, 2007). During the 1980’s the development of engineering techniques and technologies facilitated the reduction in skilled labour and movement towards machinery within batch production. Variety and availability being the main drivers of these advancements resulted in an alteration of the economy; a reduction of jobs and movement of manufacturing out of the city to suburb locations (Duffy, 1995). Furthermore labour intensive sectors located in innermost locations such as clothing and tobacco have been outsourced overseas to cheaper labour intensive factories in order to maximise profit. The new jobs created will need white collar workers and will require meeting the need of the consumer, so location needs to optimise their competitive advantage (Duffy, 1995). By the latter of the twentieth century there was an unprecedented increase in economic capacities, power and reach of private corporations which many were operating transnational. New York was seen as the principal city whilst all cities had become the economic engines increasing in size and increasingly interlinked (McCann, 2013). Globalisation has been as a result of modernisation and capitalist expansion, engaging the incorporation of all economic movement into a “global” homogenous market place. Materialisation of this integration is due to the collapse of nation barriers to external trade and finance centres, deregulation of the economy, expert driven economic growth and the facilitation of free market capitalism (Guttal, 2007). The modern structure of regions has enabled regional organisations to combine highly contrasting elements of zones of abandonment, with areas of primary resources whilst comparing and contrasting the reurban/suburban areas to the outlook of the urban zones (Claval, 1998). In the past decade the notion of globalisation yielded numerous pieces of literature and has led to widespread debates over the explanation. Various disciplines have deliberated the subject area merely concluding that the concept involves change whilst new arrangements are emerging that differs from those in previous times (Berkens, 2004). This notion of change has altered cities and economies spatially. Globalisation has led to the homogenisation of consumer tastes, the amalgamation and expansion of corporate power, increases in wealth and poverty, the “McDonalisation” of food and culture and the growing of democratic ideas (Guttal, 2007). All of which have caused the outsourcing of production overseas. Trans National corporations (TNCs) today are seen as the main drivers of globalisation; they are the primary beneficiaries of international trade and the most powerful promoter of liberalisation, deregulation and privatisation of production. TNCs are global interconnected businesses which segment the manufacturing process, due to collapse of trade barriers and global regulations (Buckley and Ghauri, 2004). This outsourcing multiple partial operation approach of production combined with the development of cheap transportation and communication networks has allowed an increasing division of production globally. This spatial dispersion of economic activity (Sassen, 2001) has allowed for TNC’s to outsource manufacturing to subtracting independents many of which are located within South East Asia and Mexico. This outsourcing approach allows for companies to meet the demand of the consumer induced population whilst maintaining profits and cheap transportation and communication costs (Claval, 1998). This reorganisation of production overseas resulted in the expansion of international trade and the integration of financial markets. The expansion and spatial dispersion of economic activity has brought about capital mobility. This reorganisation of the financial industry has been typified by the sharp growth production of innovation and multiplication of financial firms whilst shifting the industry away from American transnational banks to major hubs of finance. The integration of markets being a defining characteristic of globalisation (Buckley and Ghauri, 2004) has enabled the integration of local markets into regional trading systems which obtain continental links as a result of the overseas journey of innovation. This spatial change of economic activity from the movement of jobs from highly developed areas to less developed low wage locations has enabled capital mobility. This is not only comprised spatially but through the technologies that provide capital mobility and by maintenance of the decentralised global production system (Sassen, 1988). This increased mobility of capital has altered the geographic organisation of production and the network of financial markets whilst reorganising the employment structure. Financial markets goods, services or labour are all moving towards social integration. This change has meant no individual national capital market can have a sustainable independent existence. Regional economic integration is becoming increasingly efficient in integrating goods and services whereas labour markets are functionally separate at national level and integration being resisted by national governments (Buckley et al, 2001). Due to this the largest multi-national enterprises can exploit these differences within the markets to maximise profits (Buckley and Ghauri, 2004). The increase in volume of financial industries (Sassen, 2001) has given major cities a key role in the management and control of such global network. The importance of centralisation has enabled cities like New York, London and Tokyo to become centres of finance and global servicing. All have contributed to the increase of centralised services for management and regulation of the economy accelerating transactions globally (Sassen, 2001). This increased shift of economic activity to finance and highly specialised zones has altered management within companies from an activity focussed on production to one that is financially focussed. The involvements of the complexity of transactions lead to the array of specialised services leading to the high densities and agglomeration economies. This continuous building of high rise office complexes accelerates land price triggering a competition for land. This process of agglomeration represents a phase in the formation and expansion of an industrial complex controlled by command functions and finance; whilst referring to benefits that accumulate when firms locate in “propinquity” to one another (Bingham

The Role Of Public Policy In Market Failure Economics Essay

When market fails, public policy may remedy the problem and increase efficiency. In connection to the above statement, discuss the implications of implementation of the different forms of public policy. Market failure is defined as a phenomenon in which the price system fails to operate efficiently, creating a problem for society. In economic term, we can say that Pareto optimality has not been reached. Vilfredo Pareto (1906) defined pareto optimality as a situation which happens when economic resources and output have been allocated in such a way that no-one can be made better off without sacrificing the well-being of at least one person. In other words, we can use the concept of market equilibrium to explain that market failures happen when there is too little or too many resources used in a production of goods or services. For example, the decision to build two schools and one library will only be taken if the marginal social benefit (MSB) exceeds the marginal social costs (MSC). In general, market failures occur due to imperfect competition in a country, the existence of externalities and public goods. Government can play an essential role to remedy these problems. Externality is the uncompensated impact of one person’s actions on the well-being of a bystander (Mankiw, 2007). There are two types of externalities, such as positive externality and negative externality. Education is a type of positive externality as it creates better educated leaders and decreases the crime rates in a country. While an example of negative externality would be air pollution from the cars or industries as it affect’s people’s breathing. Nowadays, some competitive markets may still fail to operate because they encounter externalities. Both buyers and suppliers have ignored their actions when deciding how much to demand and supply, therefore it eventually caused the market equilibrium inefficient. Imperfect competition economics the market situation that exists when one or more of the necessary conditions for perfect competition do not hold (Collins English Dictionary, 2003). It causes allocation of resource inefficient which results in market failure. This usually happens when there is no competition among both producers and consumers, and the producer can raise the price of a good or service at any amount they want, without having to worry about losing their customers. The firm overcharges the price of a good above its cost and reduce the production of a good and services. Unemployment rate eventually will increase as the firm doesn’t need to hire so many labours to produce so little goods. Therefore, we can say that market failures happen the resource is not allocated efficiently. In this case, government needs to remedy this problem to achieve efficiency. Several public policies will be implemented in order to overcome market failures. In general, public policy is defined as a system of laws, regulatory measures, courses of action, and funding priorities concerning a given topic (Kilpatrick, 2010). Examples of public policies such as price controls, corrective taxation, subsidies, and regulations could be taken to correct market failures. Government can use market based policies to overcome externalities, such as command and control policies, corrective taxes and subsidies. One of the command and control policies is legislation. Legislation can set standards that force firms to clean up their emission as a condition of remaining in business (Tucker, 2008). One of the advantages of setting regulation is that the firm doesn’t have to pay as compared to subsidy. Assuming legislation is implemented to correct the market failure of pollution by alloy industries. When suppliers are forced to follows to rules set by government, such as spending on appropriate equipment using the pollution-control, the supply curve will shift leftwards from S1 to S2. This is because an extra cost of the equipment spent by producers is added to the production cost of alloy. Therefore, legislation has caused market equilibrium to change from E1 to E2, causing the industry to operate efficiently. In this case, market failure of alloy industries can be avoided. In addition, negative externality could also be cured by levying tax on producers for each of the unit of goods sold. For example, let’s suppose that alloy factories produce pollution. For each unit of alloy produced, a certain amount of gasses and pollutants enter the atmospheres. It is no doubt that the government have the rights and ability to impose tax by collecting money from an individual, organisation or group and by subsidizing to the needy people. The graph above shows social cost of producing alloy without taxation. It can be seen that the marginal social costs is higher compared to marginal private cost and the equilibrium quantity of alloy, QMarket, is larger than the social optimal quantity, QOptimal. By using tax to solve a negative externality, it involves internalizing the costs as it allows buyers and sellers to take account of their external behaviours when making decisions. With the existence of taxation, alloy producers will tend to make a wiser decision on how much to supply because the tax would make them to pay for extra cost. Based on the graph above, we can see after the tax is set by government, it has affected the marginal private cost to increase. Therefore, alloy producers would produce the socially optimal quantity of alloy. However, the marginal private benefits will always be equal to marginal social benefit because there is no externalities affect the consumers. Besides, the government could remedy market failure by reducing market participants to internalize externality. In order to move the market equilibrium closer to the social optimum, positive externality could be cured using subsidy. For example, consider the market of AIDS vaccination. With subsidy, government would make payment for the consumers who want to get vaccinated. When consumers get to vaccine for free, they demand more. Therefore, the demand for AIDS vaccination will increase, shifting rightwards from D1 to D2. This will then make the equilibrium price and equilibrium quantity efficient where it will be achieved at E2. To sum up, government can internalize negative externality by taxing on a particular good and by subsidising to positive externality. There are two types of price controls in the market, which are price ceiling and price floors. Price ceiling can be defined as a legally set maximum price a seller can charge. Price floor can be defined as a legally set minimum price a seller can be paid. To prevent market failures, government will either set price ceiling or price floors, depending on what kind of situations happen in the market. An example of imposition of price ceiling would be rental control. For instance when government imposes rent ceiling, consumers will demand more because they realize that they can rent at a lower price. In contrast, supplier will supply lesser. This is because suppliers realize that they are not charging the same price as before causing them to drop out of the market. Here we can see that shortage will happen because quantity demanded exceeds quantity supplied. Therefore the suppliers must ration the scarce goods among the customers. The price of rental control will eventually cause supply and demand to meet therefore an equilibrium is formed. To sum up, when market failures happen, it is indeed important for government to implement different types of public policies to remedy it. Government could solve externalities by using tax and subsidy, and they could also use legislation to solve the market for vaccination. However in my opinion, not all public policies are effective. I would say taxation is the most crucial ones as compared to other public policies. Take subsidy for example, This is because it gives greater efficiency, and it also allows a greater flexibility. Therefore, with all these public policies, government’s revenue can be increased and the economic efficiency can be enhanced, therefore, market failures will be avoided.

Ethical behavior in business and life

java assignment help ETHICAL BEHAVIOR According to ( is a branch of philosophy that addresses questions about morality-that is, concepts such as good and bad, noble and ignoble, right and wrong, justice, and virtue. People are rewarded for their ethical performance at work places in the long run. I am agree with the statement that ethical behaviour will pay off inj the long run. Ethics are the values of the person about what is right or wrong. As it is also known as moral philosophy. Ethics include different branches depend on the behavior of the individual or organization. Ethics also has a lot of importance in the business field and in personal life both. Accordance of rupal jain, (Rupal, 2008) Ethics is important not only in business but in all aspects of life because it is the vital part and the foundation on which the society is build. In my own knowledge, Ethics has a great importance in both the work life and personal life of a person. I am in favour of this statement because we all experience it in everyday’s life. Ethics involves all the suppliers and consumers within the market , what is fair or unfair with them while trading practices. Every person in the business field of society may have different thinking about ethics at workplace and life. Because of it, many of the persons think that the use of ethical behaviour will pay off in the long run. As much knowledge I have about ethics, I think it all depends on the members of the organization or company that whether they respect everyone’s personal values or not. This happens at some places cause of ethics issues prevailing in business. According to the website (, Problems arouses because of the ethics in some of the business and these all come from the nature of the market. It arises from internal and industry practices like pricing lack or clarity in pricing,etc. But in my own opinion, I am not fully satisfied with the statement because issues about ethics at any business or workplace occurs because of the carelessness of the organization’s leader. If they select the members that respect each other’s ethical values, then this cannot happen at any workplace. Ethical behaviour of a person depends on the him/her that how he/she treats with the values of other person in the business? How much he/she cares about their values. Enron Corporation is a gas pipeline company that turned into a huge enterprise. In 2001, the company collapsed due to scandals and bad leadership. Basically, the reason why they failed was due to a set of values that employees had to agree to, but in fact executives were demonstrating a different set of values. Due to this miscommunication of values and other important facts, the company went bankrupt. This company collapsed because of ethical behaviours of the employers and they did not communicate effectively with each other. Ethical behaviour is worthwhile. Here is a good, positive , negative types of relationship between ethical behaviour and leadership effectiveness. Unethical behaviour is damaging on some levels. According to, at the societal level, unethical behaviour costs more than $20 billion each year and causes 30 percent of all business failure. The unethical behaviour of employees at Enron corporation costs many organizations and people who invested money in that company because of its collapse. Values and ethics are vitally important to effective leadership. People trust in leaders that they respect everyone. A broken promise or a lie to employers results in the loss of trust in leaders who becomes unethical. Also, people like us living in the society wants everyone to behave ethically because we all feel better when every individual behave ethically in the society. We all do this because to avoid the bad consequences that can happen if we behave unethically in the society. Person’s ethical behaviour depends on the situation as well. For example, if an unsupervised person experience the problem that he / she never faced may behave unethically. But people justify their unethical behaviour with the words, stories etc. According to John Akers, the former chairman of IBM, a society without the ethical behaviour cannot be economically competitive. This statement is satisfactory because ethics and competitiveness are inseparable. A society cannot compete for a long time and successfully without it because if they have no trust or believe in each other’s ability, then they can’t do anything for the welfare of the society. The greater mutual trust and confidence people have the greater is their economic strength. On the other hand, unethical behaviour is a risky in business. This may lead to disaster in the business. Business cannot survive for the long run or finally collapsed like Enron Corporation. Unethical behaviour may not destroy the business every time but it can cause damage to other people. As we see in our daily life that may of the people witnessed the unethical behaviour of workers at many work places which further leads to decrease in the productivity, job stability and profits. Workforce becomes unproductive because of unethical behaviour. People feel more satisfied, happy and safe lives if the leader of their society is ethical and respecting them. So, I think there is no need to bother with the ethics. Leader need to think whether his/her decision hurts anyone before taking it. Therefore, leader of any organization has responsibilities to customers, employees, society etc. and employees also have responsibilities for their organization. So it is the duty of the leaders that what they can do to make an ethical environment in their organizations. Many of the US companies have ethics codes to make a clear sense of ethics at work place. According to Don Hansen (Hanse), Attention to business ethics can also bring a significant benefits to a company. Companies with a strong code of ethics can create strong customer and employee loyalty. Also, companies like this who respect the people and see their benefit more than organization and value them are more competitive and more successful. As in today’s competitive world, a customer has a lot of choices to choose either to buy a single thing or lot because everyone tries to provide better environment to their employees and customers than any other companies selling the same product. It is just the “CUSTOMERS” who rules over the market and those companies are successful who values them with their ethical behaviour. Also the 1997 US studies and 2007 UK studies concerning with ethics and financial performance supported this statement. Customers automatically attract or join with the business where they seem to be valued and respected. Their ethical behaviour also develops trust between them because of which they can produce better than other competitors. With the ethical behaviour a leader develops a particular kind of trust within an organization that is extremely powerful and successful in business world. We can also use the example of cricket teams of different countries. They have the team spirit which is the main cause of their winnings, they respect each other and other countries, behave ethically. If they have no trust among them, they can never WIN. In the end of this question, according to my knowledge and research about ethics, it is clear that ethics are the inseparable part of each individual’s life and this is the thing we need to use in our daily life. All the positive factors of the world increases with the ethics and this leads to the world worth to live. We can make the world a better place to live with our ethical behaviour. We all feel safe, happy, better with this thing then what is the need to bother with ethics? We all need to accept each other’s values, respect them to run our life smoothly in today’s world. In spite of all this, ethics also have a much importance in business world. All the successful businesses going in this world now a days have code of ethics which influence every worker to behave ethically. Leaders can make themselves as a good example for the whole society with their ethical behave. I am agree with all the above statement about ethics and I also put my own views to support their views. Bibliography Cengage. (2009). ethics. Retrieved november 17, 2010, from

After working through the module by looking at the powerpoints from the textbook readings, the “hitchhiker guides” and looking Essay

After working through the module by looking at the powerpoints from the textbook readings, the “hitchhiker guides” and looking at the google slide presentation for Friday, please answer the following questions: (10 points) Why is assessment precision important? What are the shortcomings of assessments with weak validity evidence? How might assessments with poor reliability and validity evidence impact your teaching practice? What can you do to increase the reliability and validity of your assessment results? THEN Create a resource (concept map, diagram, infographic, definition table, etc) to help you remember reliability and validity terms that would help you or someone else remember the terms and use them in practice. Submit them here. (10 points)

University of the Cumberlands Raw Data Discussion

University of the Cumberlands Raw Data Discussion.

I’m working on a computer science discussion question and need an explanation to help me learn.

Discussion 1 (Chapter 3): Why are the original/raw data not readily usable by analytics tasks? What are the main data preprocessing steps? List and explain their importance in analytics.Your response should be 250-300 words. There must be at least one APA formatted reference (and APA in-text citation) to support the thoughts in the post. Do not use direct quotes, rather rephrase the author’s words and continue to use in-text citationsDiscussion 2 (Chapter 4): What are the privacy issues with data mining? Do you think they are substantiated?Your response should be 250-300 words. There must be at least one APA formatted reference (and APA in-text citation) to support the thoughts in the post. Do not use direct quotes, rather rephrase the author’s words and continue to use in-text citations.
University of the Cumberlands Raw Data Discussion