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Language Attitudes And Ideologies English Language Essay

In a contemporary society especially in a diverse country such as South Africa, language plays an important role in defining identity. As a result of the many diverse cultures, South Africans are exposed to a vast amount of different languages. These languages form part of identity and thus are accompanied by certain language ideologies and attitudes. Language ideology may be defined as “shared beliefs about language forms and practices embedded in social conflicts over power” (Volk and Angelova, 2007:177). Attitudes on the other hand are closely related to ideologies, and are described as learned reactions toward a person or situation (Steinberg, 2007). This essay aims to research the effects of a multilingual university (UWC) community on language use and ideology. It will also provide reasons for these effects and how attitudes relate to language ideology. To begin the study my research population consisted of a UWC male student, age twenty five and his first language is Setswana. In order to conduct the research I first posed a question to this student. The question was as follows; Given that you have been at UWC for at least two years, what effect is your membership of a multilingual university community having on your language use and ideology? The student answered that being at UWC has changed his ideology of different languages, because of the diverse language speakers and the formation of strong friendships he has been forced to become familiar with other languages. I then used this response as a framework to begin the research. As this is a qualitative research study I have made use of the survey-questionnaire method to gather my data. I have particularly applied the Linkert Scale style questionnaire that consists of statements and of which the participant’s answers are among the following; strongly agree/ agree/ unsure/disagree/strongly disagree. The participant would then provide the reasons for their answers. The statements on the Linkert Scale questionnaire were as follows: I am happy with English as the main medium of instruction at UWC I would be more successful in my academic studies if my home/first language could be used in lectures and tutorials The other languages are sufficiently developed for use at tertiary level, and should not only be used for informal communication It’s a good thing that we have a common language here at UWC to help us communicate across linguistic boundaries I’m pleased that I’ve picked up some words and expressions in other languages here at UWC The other part of the questionnaire asked for “reasons for answers” and provided writing space for the student’s response. In this case the student then provided reasons for his response to the above statements which made up the full data which I have made use of in this essay. The findings consisted of the responses to the above statements and the reasons for the response. The participant’s response to statement one was that he strongly agrees with English being a medium of instruction at UWC. His reason for his response was as follows “Since different students come from different backgrounds/cultures and languages it’s only fair to have English as a lingua Franca common to all”. Thus in this case I have found that the participant feels that English is a language spoken by all students at UWC. He also suggests that it is fair to have English as a medium of instruction, because all students at UWC share the common understanding of English whether it be a first, second or third language acquisition. This explains English as a lingua franca, ‘the term lingua franca describes a language serving as a regular means of communication between different linguistic groups in a multilingual speech community’ Holmes (1997:86). The participant in this case is happy with the fact that English is used as a medium of instruction. The student’s response to statement two was that he disagrees that he would be more successful academically if his first language was a medium of instruction. The student’s reason for this is as follows “No, I am more competent in English than my mother tongue when it comes to reading and writing as I last stopped using my first language for reading and writing in standard 3”. It is clear, judging by the participant’s response, that he has lost proficiency in his first language in reading and writing due to being educated in English for so long. As a result of being educated in English for such a long time the student seems to feel more competent with English. This evidence gives rise to the notion that English may be the predominant language for educating a multilingual society due to its global recognition. The participant’s response to statement three was that he strongly disagrees with the assumption that, other languages are sufficiently developed for use at tertiary level and should not only be used for informal communication. The student’s reason for this is “When it comes to Afrikaans and Xhosa I understand because these are the languages predominantly spoken in the Western Cape, but if it’s other languages it would not be fair to the other 11 official languages which are not used in tertiary education”. The student in this instance feels as that English, Afrikaans and Xhosa are the only three languages developed at tertiary level as there is predominance in the amount of speakers of these languages. However, the participant disagrees that other languages should be used as a medium of instruction at tertiary level because it would be unfair to those who cannot understand the language. The student also feels that should one language, other than English/Afrikaans or Xhosa, be used as a medium of instruction at tertiary level it would be unfair to the other eleven official languages that are not used in this way. The student’s answer to statement four was that he strongly agrees that it’s a good thing that we have a common language at UWC to communicate across linguistic boundaries. The student’s reason for this is as follows; “If it wasn’t for English as a lingua franca we would all be lost unless we share a 1st language, So it very good that we have a lingua franca as we connect/communicate well”. In this case it is evident that the participant feels generally pleased that there is a language that can break through linguistic boundaries. The student in this case feels that English has the power to do so as a result of its wide range of speakers. It is also clear that the student agrees that English as a lingua franca helps us to communicate with other students from different linguistic backgrounds. The last statement the partaker responded that he agrees that he is pleased he has picked up some words and expressions in other languages. His reason for this is “Yes I am this helps to communicate better with student who I do not share the same 1st language with, helps to build friendships and more, it brings people together”. With regard to this response it seems that the student is pleased that he is able to pick up words form other languages that help to form relationships. To conclude the findings it is apparent that language attitudes form part of ideologies. Judging by the data I have gathered the participant provided insight of his attitude toward different languages especially English. It is obvious that English is a medium of instruction that the participant is pleased with as he would not have chosen UWC as an institution for higher education if this was not the case. The participant thus has a positive attitude towards English and the ideology (shared beliefs of language forms and practices) that English is a lingua franca common to all, increases this positive attitude. In this instance it brings to mind the assumption that we attain our attitudes from our ideologies. In essence it is apparent that our ideologies influence our attitudes toward various languages and it is these components that constitute as part of our identity. Language thus forms part of identity and in a modernised multilingual society the choice of identity is open to all. To elaborate one can side with the post-modern researchers who suggest that “Post-modern accounts of identity have reacted against traditional and essentialist views by proposing an almost unlimited range of identity choices” (Wallace, 2008:61). We as South Africans may be faced with the challenge of the battle between predominant and minor languages in a diverse country that consists of many different languages. Yet it is still astonishing to see that an institution such as UWC is able to bring people together even if it is through the use of English as a medium of instruction.
Adult Development and Aging. I’m stuck on a Psychology question and need an explanation.

Topic 1 – Development Forces and Successful Aging Survey and Research
Directions: In 250-500 words, answer the following questions regarding life-span perspectives and successful aging. You must use three resources; your textbook can be counted as one. Include in-text citations in your responses, with proper APA formatted reference list at the end of the questions.

Discuss the major developmental forces (biological, psychological, sociocultural, and life cycle) that influence emerging, middle and late adulthood.Share specific examples for each force, being sure to connect your thoughts directly to research.
Describe the current research methods for studying adult aging.Discuss the main approaches for measuring behavior, including strengths and weaknesses for each.
Provide a summary of a current research study (within the last 5 years) on the aging adult population and choose a theoretical perspective to explain why the research aligns (or doesn’t) with what the theory claims.What may be some reasons for this?

Adult Development and Aging

Who are the Mongols? They are a tribe that has variety of groups, nowadays they spread into China, Mongolia, and Russia. In the past they were great invaders that controlled Europe and Asia. The name Mongol appeared in Tang Dynasty in the 8th century as an invading tribe They became more powerful after the fall of Liao Dynasty (1125). Later the Tatars and Jin Dynasty weakened them. Where did the Mongols live? It is the dwelling place for the Mongolians and Turkic, it is similar to tents, but has thick wall. It is not stable, however, it can be assembled again transported easily, such as transported by camels to be rebuilt in other places. The Founder of the Mongol Empire: Genghis Khan He was the founder of the Mongol Empire in 1206 and invaded Europe and Asia. He improved writing system, brought religion, and made a unified empire. Before he died, he split his empire for his sons and grandsons. Mongol Conquest The Mongols conquest was throughout the early 13th Century, throughout Europe and Asia. They might began their conquest because less people traded with them and began to trade with Jin and Xia Dynasty. Another reason is that Genghis Khan believed that it was God’s mission. Central Asia After the unification, Genghis Khan started to expand his empire starting from the Khwarezmid Empire or Iran. The population in Islamic Central Asia and northern Iran was decreased because each Mongolian soldier was required to kill a certain number of person, such as 24. Europe The Mongols started the invasion in Rus, the Battle of the Kalka River in 1223 between the scouts. Over 1237-1240, they destroyed all the cities in Europe except Novgorod and Pskov. The evidence was the journey wrote by the Giovanni de Plano Carpini, the envoy of the Pope. Middle East They invaded Iran, Iraq, Syria, and parts of Turkey, later they also went to Gaza into Palestine in 1260-1300. The Battle of Baghdad and the Battle of Ain Jalut occurred and the Muslims were the first ones to be able to stop the Mongol force at Ain Jalut. East Asia They invaded China, which later they set the Yuan Dynasty, Japan, Vietnam, and Korea. When they invaded Korea, Korea was forced to be the vassal and becoming an ally of Yuan Dynasty in the future. The Founder of the Yuan Dynasty: Kublai Khan He was the 5th great khan of the Mongol Empire and grandson of Genghis Khan. He found Yuan Dynasty in 1271 and the Mongols ruled China since then. He died at the age of 72 due to his conflicts and sadness in the empire. Marco Polo and Kublai Khan Marco Polo met Kublai Khan and became a confidant for him from 1214-1294, as well as official. Kublai Khan liked him, he requested Marco to tell him about the world. As a reward, he gave Marco and his brother the “gerege” (the golden tablet) to protect them. Yuan Dynasty, the End of the Mongol Empire It was in between the Song and Ming Dynasty (1271-1368) Kublai Khan maintained the Chinese government during this dynasty, or absolute monarchy. Later the dynasty had a famine and conflicts between people, and the Chinese overthrown them and became the Ming Dynasty. Use of 3-4 Horses Each soldier will have 3-4 horses because they can travel for a long period of time without resting of the horse. They would switch horses throughout their traveling. Using this advantage, each soldier can scout easily and observe the routes. Cavalry Archers 60% of the Mongols were archers that ride horses, they were very light and could maneuver. Mongolian horses were used, they were strong and sturdy. The Mongols also used stirrups to make the archers shoot arrows in any directions. Breaking Tribal Connection In the past, many tribes were fighting each other such as Naimans, Merkits, Tatars, and Keraites and they often causes blood feuds. When Genghis Khan had new soldiers that came from those tribes, he set leaders to divide them and cut the heritage connections to prevent conflicts. Biological Warfare Infected Mongolians were thrown using catapults over the Crimean walls. The plague spread inside Crimea and spread to Sicily, North Africa, Southern Italy, and Europe in 1348, or the famous Black Death. They thought that the stench killed them, but it was actually the plague. Mongol Bow It was constructed by many types of material, or Composite bow. This type of bow was used during Genghis Khan’s reign and could shoot in a far distance with great accuracy. Range of the Bow In Siberia, there is a stone that was inscribed says that in the time after Genghis Khan’s conquest of East Turkestan, Genghis Khan’s nephew shot a target at 536 meters. In a novel “Khökh Sudar”, it describes 5 Mongolian soldiers hitting the target for 3 times using the bow at about 500 meters. The Kharash When a city surrender to the Mongols, the Mongols would gather the people in the city out and force them to be “human shields”. They would push them in front of the army and let them take arrows and other attacks. This tactic can also feared the other enemies of the Mongols. Flanking The Mongols would set leaders and let them split the army into groups, about 10 – 10,000 troops per group. They would flank their enemy from the sides using the groups of troops, such as 500 to right side and 500 to left side. Encirclement This tactic was used to prevent the escaping of the people in the city they’re fighting with. Basically, they would surround the city from both side, and support each other. If they fail, they would flee, choosing to save the soldiers, and study the opponent for the next time’s attack. Feigned Retreat The Mongols would “pretend” to retreat and lure the enemy into the position where they have advantage. If they used this tactic once, they would wait for days or weeks to trick the enemy that they were really defeated, then they would attack the enemy later.
Film Analysis of ” Run Lola Run”.

After watching the movie, combine the content in the textbook and then writing an essay The only secondary sources allowed to support your answers isthe essays in our textbook, Film Analysis: A Norton Reade Double space – Font size 12 – Film analysis of the sequence in Run Lola Run (Tom Tykwer, 1998) screened several times in class (10:31 to 14:30). 1½ to 2 pages max. (160 Points)Tykwer’s way of filming this sequence is very expressive and creates particular meanings and effects that add to the story.Examine and analyze the use of and effects produced by two or maximum three specific film techniques in the sequence.Whichever film techniques you choose to concentrate on, first briefly describe their use in the scenes, and then explain the effect(s) they produce, the meaning(s) they create and convey.Select specific techniques, not a group of film techniques. For example: pan shot, low-angle shot, lighting, composition, etc (not “cinematography” or “mise-en-scène”). They can be 2 or 3 techniques used separately at different moments in the scenes, or 2 or 3 techniques used in combination to create particular meanings or effects.
Film Analysis of ” Run Lola Run”

Chemistry homework help

Chemistry homework help. 1. A federal unemployment tax is levied on:A) employees only.B) both employers and employees.C) employers only.D) government employers only.E) no one.2.For FUTA purposes, an employer can be any one of the following except:A) an individual.B) a partnership.C) a trust.D) a corporation.E) All of these can be employers.3.Included under the definition of employees for FUTA purposes are:A) independent contractors.B) insurance agents paid solely on commission.C) student nurses.D) officers of a corporation.E) members of partnerships.4.Which of the following is not a factor considered in determining coverage of interstate employees?A) Location of base of operationsB) Place where work is localizedC) Location of company’s payroll departmentD) Location of employee’s residenceE) Location of place from which operations are controlled5.An aspect of the interstate reciprocal arrangement concerns:A) the status of Americans working overseas.B) the taxability of dismissal payments.C) the determination of an employer’s experience rating.D) the transfer of an employee from one state to another during the year.E) none of these.6.Which of the following types of payments are not taxable wages for federal unemployment tax?A) Retirement payB) Cash prizes and awards for doing outstanding workC) Dismissal payD) Bonuses as remuneration for servicesE) Payment under a guaranteed annual wage plan7.Which of the following payments are taxable payments for federal unemployment tax?A) Christmas gifts, excluding noncash gifts of nominal valueB) Caddy feesC) Courtesy discounts to employees and their familiesD) Workers’ compensation paymentsE) Value of meals and lodging furnished employees for the convenience of the employer8.If the employer is tardy in paying the state contributions, the credit against the federal tax is limited to what percent of the late payments that would have been allowed as a credit if the contributions had been paid on time?A) 6.2B) 90C) 5.13D) 20E) 09.Which of the following provides for a reduction in the employer’s state unemployment tax rate based on the employer’s experience with the risk of unemployment?A) Voluntary contributionB) Title XII advancesC) Pooled-fund lawsD) Experience-rating planE) None of these10.Voluntary contributions to a state’s unemployment department are:A) allowed in all states.B) designed to increase an employer’s reserve account in order to lower the employer’s contribution rate.C) capable of being paid at any time with no time limit.D) returned to the employer at the end of the following year.E) sent directly to the IRS.11.If the employer has made timely deposits that pay the FUTA tax liability in full, the filing of Form 940 can be delayed until:A) December 31.B) February 15.C) February 10.D) February 1.E) March 31.12.The person who is not an authorized signer of Form 940 is:A) the individual, if a sole proprietorship.B) the accountant from the company’s independent auditing firm.C) the president, if a corporation.D) a fiduciary, if a trust.E) All of these are authorized signers.13.When making a deposit of FUTA taxes, the employer must make the deposit by the:A) end of the month after the quarter.B) 15th of the month after the quarter.C) 10th of the month after the quarter.D) same day of the FICA and FIT deposits.14.An employer must deposit the quarterly FUTA tax liability if the liability is more than:A) $3,000.B) $500.C) $1,000.D) $1.E) $100.15.In order to avoid a credit reduction for Title XII advances, a state must repay the loans by:A) the end of the year of the loans.B) the end of the year the credit reduction is scheduled to take effect.C) the end of the third year after the year of the loans.D) November 10 of the year the credit reduction is scheduled to take effect.E) June 30 of the year after the loans.Chemistry homework help

MGT 311 Saudi Electronic University Operation Management Questions

research paper help MGT 311 Saudi Electronic University Operation Management Questions.

7178Assignment Question(s):1) Describe the nature of operations management in the following organizations. In doing this:a) Describe the operation process of the production system ( input, transformation and output). b) Identify operations decisions (process, quality, capacity, inventory and supply chain).word count maximum:500)A Plastic manufacturingAn external accountant office 2) Take a tour of the Woodart factory answer the following questions:a) Describe the process used?b) What alternative process can be used in Woodart factory? (word count maximum: 100)Guidelines for the assignment:Use font Times New Roman, 12 font sizeEnsure that you follow the APA style in your project and references.Plagiarism is forbidden
MGT 311 Saudi Electronic University Operation Management Questions

Concept of nationalism and its key elements

The concepts of a nation in which individuals are left open the idea identifying with a territory calling it their identity gave way for the concept of nationalism. Nationalism in its context makes people conscious of the fact that they belong to a nation. This coupled with sentiments of security looking for advancement of the nation will enable visualise nationalism as the whole process of forming and maintaining nations or nation. [1] Like Marx and Engels agreed with the theory of ideology as a system of beliefs that falsely stimulates the awareness of workers under an economic system established on private ownership of capital, Nationalism employs the concept of nation to achieve its political objectives thus serving as a political ideology. Whether nationalism depicts an ideology in the sense that it can be seen as a political movement or a collective sentiment of shared identity or a form of loyalty or attachment to the state or a process of nation-building or a set of symbols and myths expressed through a common language or a proactive sentiment and behaviour towards protecting and enhancing the nation’s cultural heritage, it still has its philosophies centred around the visual modalities of psychological impacts in a community to the end that the nation is believed to be the vault for supreme loyalty [2] . Nation in this context is referred to as a “large social group integrated by a combination of various kinds of objective relationships which includes economic, political, linguistic, cultural, religious, geographical, historical, and their subjective reflection in collective consciousness” [3] In harmony with its own system of beliefs, Nationalism assumes that in an international pluralism perspective the world is naturally divided into different distinct existence called ‘nations’, each with its own indigenous right to exist, self-rule and be free from foreign encroachment. Although nationalism is perceived to lack political content rather encompasses national identity [4] it assumes that in light of politics being legally authorized, the nation is the ultimate source of political power for the person who rules it. It further supports that each nation has the right to determine it one’s own fate and to embark on its course of action without compulsion [5] . No wonder Breuilly referred to Nationalism as “political movements seeking or exercising state power and justifying such actions with nationalist arguments.” [6] Taking a close look at how famous individuals define nationalism and comparing views, Handler, described “Nationalism in an anthropologic perspective as an ideology about individuated being. It is an ideology concerned with boundedness, continuity, and homogeneity encompassing diversity. It is an ideology in which social reality, conceived in terms of nationhood, is endowed with the reality of natural things” [7] while Breuilly from a historical perspective relates nationalism with political movements seeking or exercising state power. [8] Accepting that there are normative differences between nationalist movements does not put in plain words why nationalism has taken such different forms in different societies. Therefore approaching this from an analytical angle will better explain the issue through classifying these dissimilarities. Beginning with the class of nationalism that absorbs or incorporates culturally distinctive territories in a given state, this State-building type of nationalism which emerged as a result of the premeditated efforts of key leaders who turned a multicultural population into a population of uniform culture is exemplified in the period between the sixteenth and twentieth century when the leaders of England and France attempted to promote the growth of homogeneity by causing populations with distinct cultures in the Celtic regions to assimilate to their own culture. But in as much as this type of nationalism tends to focus primarily on culture, the underlying principle is often motivated by the effects of economic geography on the controlling influence of the state. Conversely, key rulers of a certain culture can unify their country by expelling or exterminating populations of unfamiliar culture. In order to understand the general inclusive concept of nationalism as an ideology, a system of assumptions and standards that warrants the term and gives it meaning needs to be examined. This is why Michael Freeden logically laid out various key elements of the core structure of nationalism which in turn assists in constructing ideas that argue about and deliberate on the ideology and its application. Topping the list is “the prioritisation of a particular group – the nation – as a key constituting and identifying framework for human beings and their practices”. Followed by, “a positive valorisation is assigned to one’s own nation, granting it specific claims over the conduct of its members”. Thirdly, “the desire to give politico-institutional expression to the first two core concepts”. Fourthly, “the space and time are considered to be crucial determinants of social identity” and lastly, “‘a sense of belonging and membership in which sentiment and emotion play an important role”. [9] Taking a critical look at the first element of nationalism, notice that nation in this context does not need any particular format to be clearly expressed because it might be envisaged as an entity of the same kind or with different and diverse ethnic, religious, or political backgrounds. Yet, regardless of this imagination, the state of being a nation will always inhibit other modes of categorising the humanity of a particular nation. In light of the above, recognizing that liberal nationalism adopts the existence of entities with the sources of identity and illiberal nationalism incorporates other areas under nationality, therefore in a similar way, the outcome of these nationalist classifications may either be affected equally or given support, the possible ways of assigning political ‘community’ in different categories will be reached. In the Functional aspect of this classification, people often identify with functional rather than territorial groups. This was why Marx, applied his awareness of this belief when he said: “Workers of the world unite!” [10] , a request for workers all over to become unified against the unfair conditions they shared, irrespective of their nationalities. While the second method is focused on religion which ascertains and sets off loyalties that hardly lean on territorial location or boundaries. In many cases a factor of time and uncontrollable conditions can dramatically change religion as well as gender and class. The third method revolves around regionally and globally. Having looked at the first key element of the core structure of nationalism, let us examine the second element which explains a nation that identifies with a pluralistic community where members with different ethnic, religious, or political backgrounds exist has slim chances to establish or make certain broad principles or rules centred on its expectations on the behavioural attributes of its members. Conversely, a nation that identifies with a uniform type of homogenous culture has the tendency to control its members. While valorisation in this context includes all spheres of “loyalty demands” and “superiority claims” there is no definite vital link between racism and nationalism. And even though this statement clearly connected with the former parliamentary government of Europe, for instance, the victory of National Front Fascist, Jean-Marie Le Pen in becoming one of the final two candidates to settle a tied election by running for the French presidency in 2002, the reverse was the case for liberal classes of nationalism belonging to the era of colonies becoming independent from the country that used to control them. [11] Avner made a very important point concerning the forth element of nationalism that over the years, people give emotional attachment to their land [12] . For instance scenarios likened to Africans seeing themselves as sons of their motherland (nation). This depicts a broad view of the concept of nationalism which refers to its land boundaries, people living within the territory; history of people of the land as well as their culture and traditions usually makes people have a sense of belonging to the nation. CONCLUSION: After minutely examining the various subjective explanations of the meaning of nationalism both in an ideological perspective and with reference to nation, it is obvious that nationalism is a multilateral and powerful political ideology. Despite the fact that there are normative differences between nationalist movements, in a conclusive way, the elements of nationalism that served in constructing ideas that argue about and deliberate on the ideology and its significance.

International Development homework help

International Development homework help. This is a paper that is focusing on the Jackson Turner significance of the Frontier in American history . The paper also provides additional information to use in writing the assignment paper.,Jackson Turner significance of the Frontier in American history,Background If we were studying American history about a century ago. The movement of Americans westward would be the defining theme of the course. In 1893, Fredrick Jackson Turner, then a historian at the University of Wisconsin, published an essay called, “The Significance of the Frontier in American History.” In this essay, Turner argued that the ability to move west had not only enlarged the American nation, but also created the American spirit and character. That is, Turner argue that what separated Americans. (note here that Turner meant white, European-descended Americans) from their forefathers across the Atlantic was the frontier spirit that not only create a resilient character, but instilled in Americans a democratic spirit.,In other words, Turner suggested that without the west and westward expansion, there would be no defining American characteristics. More recently, historians have noted the implicit biases that shaped Turner’s thesis and have, for the most part, overturned his ideas. However, Turner’s vision of the Wild West and its influence on the American spirit still dominates the popular American imagination. Also, even some historical depictions! Read the link [,,],In a way, this week’s discussions asks you to consider the moment when Turner was writing, the 1890s. Also, the popular American perception of the west at the time. Question This week, I want you post a response to the following statement in the form of an argument either for or against. Before you begin writing, I would highly suggest you take a look at this list of 8 Argumentative-Writing Styles (,,). While 6 of the 8 styles might work in other essays. When arguing history, you should only rely on styles 1 and 2!,Attachments,Click Here To Download,International Development homework help