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Language and Individual Differences

Language and Individual Differences.

Language and Individual DifferencesCompetencies Addressed in This AssignmentCompetency 1: Apply research findings to topics in human learning and cognition.Competency 2: Apply psychology theories and concepts to human learning and cognition.Competency 3: Describe the research methods used in the study of human learning and cognition.Competency 4: Analyze theory and research to solve problems and inform professional behavior in human learning and cognition.Competency 5: Communicate in a manner that is scholarly, professional, and consistent with expectations for professionals in the field of psychology.We study language in the context of how we think, read, and comprehend and derive meaning from words. But what about language from our social environment? A recent area of linguistic research is the study of language in a social context. From this perspective, language is examined in terms of how people communicate whether in person or on the Internet. People change their pronunciations, grammar, vocabulary, and styles of language for many different purposes. Given that, sociolinguists are curious about how a language is acquired and learned in the context of one’s gender, community and society. Some of these differences are related to biology. Others are related to the social environment and some differences are related to both, for example, do men and women speak different languages in our culture? Can misspelled words on a person’s Facebook wall hurt their employability?For this assignment, research either the language differences between men and women from a social context, or between one culture and another. Are there differences in their conversational, nonverbal, and cross-cultural styles of communicating? Analyze how knowledge gained from research about language differences can be used to solve problems in social and work settings.For this assignment, think about situations where you had to adjust your use of language to suit a particular context. How did you change the language? What did you say or do? Feel free to use an example from one of the activities in the course.In your written assignment:Describe examples of events or situations where you changed your language in response to a situation or people with whom you were speaking. Since these are personal examples, you may write in first person for this part. Use third person throughout the remainder of the work.Find at least three peer-reviewed research articles that help you understand language in a social context.Describe the theoretical foundation for each study, including the psychological concepts that the researchers are using.Summarize the research articles, including the research questions being asked in each study, the methods and measures, and the conclusions reached in each article.Address how the research findings on language apply in solving communication problems.Use the implications of the research to explain how people use language and how the knowledge can apply to personal and professional life. (Think about how this information can guide communication in social contexts).Describe one or more specific ways that the information can be applied in the workplace to guide and improve communications.To meet the criteria for the assignment, your paper should comprise 6–8 pages of content plus title and references pages. You should include a minimum of three scholarly sources. Strive to be as concise as possible and support your statements and analyses with references and citations from the three academic resources as well as any necessary scholarly resources.Be sure to review the Language and Research Scoring Guide to review the criteria upon which your assignment will be graded.
Language and Individual Differences

Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp An ambulatory surgery center is indication to the surgery that conducted without the need for overnight hospital stay. This term also recognized as outpatient surgery or same day surgery. This surgery in general not type of complicated surgery, it is simpler than the one which requiring hospitalization. This kind of ambulatory surgery is widely used in present time, where the cost of such surgery is low, simple and required less resources where for the inpatient it is essential to keep the patient in the hospital; that mean reserve bed for that patient in the hospital [1]. Another definition can be used here, that ambulatory surgery is “the performance of planned surgical procedure with the patient being discharged on the same day” [2]. The ambulatory surgery first found in 1909 by James Nicoll, a scottish surgeon, it was called by “day case surgery”. In 1912 Ralph Walter in the USA adopted this surgery type in the USA. It was unpopular until the 1960s and 1970s when the traditional surgeries became a bottleneck for most of the USA’s Hospitals, where keeping the patient on holding list and admitted them in the hospital became more expensive, in addition the availability of beds decreased. Walter Reed introduced the ambulatory surgery to USA’s hospital, since then patient manages improved significantly and rapidly with ensuring the patients’ fitness after discharge [2]. Ambulatory surgery form about 90% of all surgery performed nowadays in Canada and USA [6]. The day surgery can achieve high level of quality, cost effective and safe which lead to high level of patient satisfaction [6]. University of California at Los Angeles developed a hospital based on ambulatory surgery unit in 1962, then other units in the USA were opened in 1966 At Gorge Washington university, until big number of ambulatory surgery is opened now in the USA and Canada [7]. Several associations created to developed a strategies and plans to adopt and improve the ambulatory surgery, one of these association is the Federated Ambulatory Surgery Association (FASA), this association founded in the USA since 1974, another 12 national association formed and become member of the International Association for Ambulatory Surgery (IAAS) [8] The advantages from ambulatory surgery system are varied in type, some of these advantages related to patient and their family and some related to the hospitals and the healthcare system as whole. Those advantages for the patient that they will receive more attention from the healthcare team, because the ambulatory surgery designed to serve that patient [9]. The ambulatory patient will return home after receiving the treatment, so it is better to well manage the day surgery units and provide the patient with treatment which allowed them to continue recovering at their family home environment. Small mistakes that could happen for inpatient will not occur to the ambulatory surgery patient, like missing drug or shot or give different medicine for patient, because in the ambulatory surgery patient is always having everything in plan and no mistakes there [10]. Day surgery is better for children than inpatient surgery where the children will not be separated from their family for long time. The children will be less stressful and feel more comfortable because they can join back their family after that surgery finish [11]. In the European Charter of Children’s Rights states that “children should be admitted to hospital only if the care they require cannot be equally well provided at home or on a day basis” [12]. Other main important advantage is that scheduling for ambulatory surgery is much easier and less complicated for registration. Furthermore the day surgery will not be cancelled because an emergency admission likes what happen to inpatient surgery. The recovery period for ambulatory surgery patient is faster than inpatient, this allowing to patient to return to the normal life sooner [13]. For the hospital the benefit is more in way of management way where the efficient for providing surgery and the flow is less risky where everything is scheduled and prepared without facing cancelation, this offer more utilization for the facility and resources and give the patient more booking choice [14]. All healthcare organizations are having problem with budgets and limit funds and the patient demand also increased at the same time, the new treatment way for making same day surgery operation is cutting down the cost and reduce the demand for saving beds and resources for inpatient who waiting their surgery to place; while the ambulatory surgery patient receiving high quality and effective treatment those inpatient having shortage sometimes because limitation and long scheduling [8]. (b) Discuss their evolution in the United State. The first found of ambulatory surgery was between 1864 and 1921 by James Nicoll while his working in Sick Children’s Hospital and Dispensary in Glasgow, Scotland. Most of his operation was on special condition like phimosis, mastoid disease, cleft palate and spina bifida that all were done in daily basis, where the children received treatment within the same day. James Nicoll reported that 8988 paediatric cases were success in 1909 [2]. Since that time to 1948 nothing changed and the ambulatory surgery did not change in the way to adopting it, in 1984 British Medical Journal reported that surgeon allows a patient to leave hospital within 14 days of an intestinal operation [15]. The idea was adopt by different surgery around the world but none designed a unit for ambulatory surgery, until 1962 when a hospital build a unit at the University of California at Los Angeles, USA based on Nicoll’s concept [16]. Another unit opened within USA at George Washington University in 1966, after that in 1968 another unit designed in Providence, Rhode Island [17]. Reed and Ford both opened their Surgicenter in Phoenix, Arizona in 1969; it was the first similar idea to what Nicoll’s units was [7]. In period between 1970s and 1980s a large number of day units opened in Canada, the USA, the UK and Australia and started reporting in medical journals the benefits of having day surgery and the procedures and the way of adopting them. The key elements of those publications were the quality, cost effectiveness and safety of these ambulatory surgeries, and they published in different places like Orkand Corporation in the USA, the Royal College of Surgeons of England and the Audit Commission in the UK and the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons of Australia [18-22]. Different association started to form in order to organize the work of ambulatory surgery units and deliver the new technique and methods to other units and maximize the benefit of having ambulatory unit attached to the hospital and separate surgery unit. Their Main goal is to promote quality standard expansion, education and research in the field of ambulatory surgery centers. The first foundation was the Society for the Advancement of Freestanding Ambulatory Surgery Centers (FASC) which now known as Federated Ambulatory Surgery Association (FASA), that association founded in the USA in 1974. Another 12 American association decided to form in 1995, and all become members of the International Association of Ambulatory Surgery Centers (IAAS) [8]. (c). How do ambulatory surgery centers influence healthcare delivery? In healthcare delivery system it is important to provide the patient with the appropriate treatment according to his/her case with high quality and effectively. The inpatient facing some difficulties in booking a date and time for his/her surgery and sometime they need to stay in the hospital for recovery, this amount of load on the hospital may lead to some mistake in healthcare delivery process where mostly happened in medication is. This scenario cost the hospital a lot of resources and dollars in order to fixing them, this misleading in manage the inpatient, most likely, not found in ambulatory surgery patient. The amount of accuracy the treatment deliver is high, moreover the quality and efficiency also acceptable. According to the nurse who their ages averages between 41 year in the UK and 45 in the USA, the ambulatory surgery unit is more attractive to them, where they need more time to spent with their family and the needs for weekend and overnight will decreasing. With fixed schedules for surgery in ambulatory surgery unit it gives the opportunity for nursing to work overtime with more efficiency and effectiveness. The efficiency of nurses in surgery is important where it cannot reach the highest value in the normal inpatient surgery which may be taken over night or weekend. [8]. According to the cost of inpatient surgery compared to the ambulatory surgery it can be significantly different, usually for inpatient surgery reserving bed for patient is important without knowing the period of time that patient need for recovery and weekend and night staff is necessary, these two facts added cost to the hospital where if it is ambulatory surgery the need for hospitalization time will be reduced and night/weekend staff is not required. In the ambulatory surgery units the time and staff are used more intensively and effectively. The average unit cost savings of between 10% and 70% is documented in case of having ambulatory surgery rather than inpatient surgery [8, 18]. The improvement of patient throughput is one of the advantages of having day surgery unit [14], another benefit is to provide an enhanced patient service in a cost effective manner [8]. For Children most cases are performed in ambulatory surgery unit, it is rule, unless it is necessary to consider them as inpatient. This will reduce the stress on the patient and their parent’s also elder people will recover fast in their home after having one day treatment in the hospital. The way of deliver the treatment in that way will improve the patient satisfaction and improve the efficiency of the healthcare [12]. If we consider the study of patient turnaround time and length of stay, these two measurements are good indicator of how effective is the healthcare treatment was, less length of stay is the case where we have ambulatory surgery unit working and the aim is to reduce the time that spend between starting the triage until the patient discharge. The quality of treatment is also a case where we need to consider less variability of process and high patient satisfaction, less autonomy is the key point in the ambulatory surgery units where everything is schedule and designed in way to have best treatment without mistakes. The load inside the hospital to reserve beds and prepare the beds, is major problem in present time where the demand is increased, the ambulatory surgery unit has fixed amount of resources and can server special cases (minor surgery) more efficient and effective. Inpatient surgery may facing a case where their scheduled surgery may canceled because emergency case come, the other cases can also be seen where the operation is canceled because lack of resources. Either case cannot be found in the ambulatory surgery units. All these leads to better quality, resources effective, cost effective, more satisfaction, time utilization and decrease the demands. (d). Describe the factors that impact the establishment of an ambulatory surgery center. Two main factors should be considered in order to establish a successful ambulatory surgery unit: “It must provide operative service of high standards of quality and safety at least equal to those of inpatient care. It must be both patient and cost efficient such that it provide high levels of patient satisfaction and is financially sustainable.” [8] The ambulatory surgery centers usually formed from different facilities in the hospital, each facility has it unique characteristic and because of this uniqueness the ambulatory surgery units has to fulfilled these need. In general there are four categories of facility: Hospital integrated facility: in this type of facility the patients of ambulatory surgery are treated in partial or total through the inpatient units. Self-contained unit on hospital site: in such units the ambulatory surgery is performed in separate units, units build only for one day surgery and they are total separate from inpatient units. Freestanding self-contained units: those units look like the units which existed in the hospital. Physician’s office-based unit: this is a limited resource units it can operate small surgery. Several criterions can be used in designing the ambulatory surgery centers; one of these criterions is the surgical, there is wide range of procedures followed the surgery and attached to the operation. The resources needed and space for this kind of surgery is important factor effect establishing ambulatory surgery centers [8]. Other criterion is social, it is important criteria because the patient discharge to the environment, the social should be prepared for receiving patient and provides him/her with the suitable resources for recovering, and most of the cases the nurses asked the ambulatory surgery patient to keep the center updated to his/her status [8]. The patient age is another criterion affected the establishment of ambulatory surgery center, two ages range can benefits from ambulatory surgery centers the children and extreme ages [23]. Type of patient is also another factor, which patient is appropriate to considered as ambulatory surgery patient, if the patients need more attention they should be admitted as inpatient. (e). What are the challenges that hospitals face while implementing an ambulatory surgery center? Please (very briefly) describe them. As the demand on the ambulatory surgery increasing it is become necessary to discuss the challenges that facing the hospitals while implementing an ambulatory surgery center. It is important to identify these challenges and trying to control them to keep the quality and performance level high in the ambulatory surgery centers. Patient satisfaction is one of these difficulties that challenging the hospital to implementing the ambulatory surgery, it is hard to measure this amount of satisfaction and there is no certain baseline for this measure, but in general the patient is satisfied as long as that process goes as his/her expectation, which vary from patient to another according to their background and educations [24]. The productivity in the ambulatory surgery units can be measured using five types’ indicators [26]: Labor: because the nature of work in health care is based on labor, then the outcomes commonly represent service, with labor as input to the system the outcome could be clinic visits. Supplies: the output from this could be ambulatory surgery procedures. Equipment: Diagnostic tests are one of the possible outcomes. Facilities: that leads to home health and visits. Capital: Physical therapy treatments. One of the challenging is the ensuring employee motivation, with the amount of work they have in ambulatory surgery units the employee performance can be reduced by time, then the quality will be reduced because the employee is the key element here. In order to keep the employee as good as they could be, then one suggestion can be applying a Japanese management techniques “happy employee is a productive employee”. This idea has been discussed by Tabatabai in 1983 [27]. Another important terms is the motivation, the managers should provide the ambulatory surgery centers with a staff which motivate the employee during their works in that health care centers [26]. Improving the productivity of employee will not be separate from keeping the same level of quality or improving it, that is one of the challenges that facing the ambulatory surgery centers now days. The quality in the ambulatory surgery units should be taken from customers’ perspective, here the customers are both patient and physician; for example the waiting time from customers’ point of view is important and that duration should be very low. Scheduling is one of the problems in ambulatory surgery centers. All of the participants in health care (Patient, physician, and employee) should be prepared at the same time and processing the health care for same period of time, that is hard part to ensure the that load is distributed along the day, for some cases the maximum load at the morning and noon, but at midnight the load is less. Some engineering and system engineering tools and techniques are useful to solve this problem [26]. The number of outpatient and the patient in ambulatory is growing rapidly; the managers should manage the growing without direct them to another hospital or clinic is important strategy need very good management skills. That is one of difficulties that facing the ambulatory surgery centers. The challenging can be summarized as follow: Scheduling which can be happened because the numbers of patient is growing so fast and the need for good scheduling. Motivation: the employee performance is reducing while the number of patient is increasing and in the nearly future the needs for new strategy to motivate the employee. Patient satisfaction: with the number of patient increasing the number of different type of surgery in ambulatory surgery will increase. The need to standardized the procedure is growing. (f).Briefly illustrate the role of Industrial and Systems Engineering or Operations Management tools such as total quality management, process mapping, scheduling, etc., in establishing an effective and efficient ambulatory surgery center using at least two case studies or applications based on the literature. In the ambulatory surgery center the quality is essential rule to keep the performance and outcomes at acceptable level, also customer satisfaction is important in way to provide him/her with the wide range of treatment they required. At this step a continuous improvement and evaluation tools are the key element for ambulatory surgery centers to survive. A study suggested having a clinical indicators and acceptable thresholds that are relevant to daily practice, that will lead to easy measured and analyze the process parameters [25]. Modeling and simulation tool is good in way to provide the managers and the leader of ambulatory surgery units with virtual units where they can check the effect of increasing the demand on this type of surgery, where the most of hospital are looking to move their minors surgery to be done in separate units and leave the operation theater for the cases which need high attention and care. Enterprise-management tools, other useful tools to manage the ambulatory surgery units the idea is that units need to be managed as subsystem of the biggest system (Hospital). The interaction between hospital and ambulatory surgery units can provide these units and hospital with large amount of information of different cases and symptom that comes daily to the ambulatory surgery units and emergency department. In general industrial and system engineering tools can help the ambulatory surgery centers in different way, decrease the cost by decreasing the length of stay for patient: because most of the cases in the day surgery unit is normal and repeatable surgery (most of them are easy not complicated surgery) then the procedure can be standardized, this standardization will reduce the cost by removing the unnecessary process from the units. It is know that the nature of hospital is not same and there is high level of variation between different cases, this problem can be reduced in the ambulatory surgery centers. Any engineering and system tools or techniques can be very useful in ambulatory surgery centers, in mean of the capabilities of providing the patient with excellent treatment within short period of time, both will result to patient satisfaction and improving the patient recovery time after leaving the ambulatory surgery centers, and also reduce the cost on ambulatory surgery center by reducing the number of employee and resources needed, because the good engineering tools mean less waste and more efficiently for both employee and resources. It can be summarized into following points: Decreased salaries expense by reducing the staffing requirements. Greater patient satisfaction through reduced waiting times. Increases employee satisfaction because workload is evenly distributed and activity levels do not create a “hurry up and wait” environment. Increases physician satisfaction because operations are more efficient and patients are more satisfied. 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The construction of the great wall arose throughout the Warring States Period (403 to 221 BC). The Great Wall is a fortification alongside the northern and northwestern boundary of China, running from Shanhaiguan on the Gulf of Bohai on the east to the vicinity of Gaodai, Gansu Province, on the west, with an inner wall consecutively southward from the vicinity of Beijing almost to Handan. Shi Huangdi, first emperor of the Chin dynasty founded the biggest portion of the wall as a defense against raids by nomadic peoples. Organized work on the wall was begun about 221 BC, after Shi Huangdi had united China under his rule, and it was completed about 204 BC. Small segments of the wall were probably already in existence, but Shi Huangdi is thought to have had some nearly 1,200 miles of the wall erected during his reign. 300,000 men — several of them political prisoners whose bodies are thought to be buried in the wall (not essentially true) — were put to work joining the segments into one huge rampart of stone and earth. In later times, chiefly during the period of the Ming dynasty (AD 1368-1644), the Great Wall was fixed and extended by reinforcing it with cement and stone. The fortification finally reached a length of about 1,500 miles, ensuing the course of rivers instead of bridging them and conforming to the contours of the mountains and valleys in its path. The wall is built of earth and stone, faced with brick in the eastern parts. It is from 15 to 30 feet thick at the base (about 20 feet on the average) and tapers to some 12 feet at the top. The height averages 25 feet exclusive of the crenellated parapets. Watchtowers about 40 feet in height are placed at intervals of approximately 200 yards. Several hundred kilometers of the Great Wall remain intact in the eastern reaches. The amount of brick and stone working to construct the Great Wall might limit the earth with a barrier eight feet high. From the 6th to the 14th centuries, the wall proved to be an effective barrier against strong-minded invaders, who revealed that bribing the lookouts was their most effective weapon. The Chinese Emperors aided in this cause by failing to pay there army troops, usually a bad mistake. If you don’t pay your army, someone else will. Scholars guess that the Great Wall with all its divisions once stretched for 6,200 miles, from the Yalu River in the northern east to Xinjiang in the northwest. Today it measures 6,000 miles. The Great Wall has suffered serious damage from wind and water erosion, as well as man-made destruction. In the past it has been a treasure store of stone for many a poor farmer. Between 1870 and 1974, the 8th Route Army stationed at Gubeikou destroyed 9,840 feet of the wall to use the stone to erect some barracks. Later in 1979, the State ordered the same army group to tear down their barracks and rebuild the wall. In 226 the armies of the Chu Dynasty and the Qin dynasty met in a great final battle. The victor would get the prize of the richest and most technologically advanced nation of the world. The Qin Emperor needed to defend the country from the marauding bands of nomadic horsemen of the north. These bands of horsemen who raided the rich farmland came from the barren land of the north and were forced to become marauding nomads. It was a clash of farmers against warriors. The group would be difficult to defeat. The strength, stability and prosperity of the new empire were threatened by these marauding hordes. To preserve China’s borders the Qin set about building a huge defensive barrier in 221 BC. Wall building became the chief defensive strategy to repel the enemy from the north. This was in the age before gunpowder and cannons. The first Great Wall was a massive undertaking. It was the equivalent of building 30 of the great pyramids of Egypt. To build this great wall of 3,000 miles the Qin Emperor chose his most able general Ling Qia. He was given an army of over 300,000 men. They had to build roads, and the infrastructure as well as the wall. Much of the wall was built of beaten clay. Rock was not always available, so tamped earth became the first choice. Dirt was designated from at least four inches below the surface so seeds and grasses could not germinate and thus undermine the strength of the wall. Consuming first a form made of wood, earth was piled and was pounded into a layer of four inches thick. Following layers of this would produce a wall twenty feet high that would still be standing some 2,000 years later. The wall stretched from the borders of North Korea across the northern border to the far reaches in western China. In ten years they built a wall across the entire northern border of China in lands that included marshes, quicksand, deserts, and altitudes of 8,000 feet. They built twenty-five miles a month that is almost a mile a day. One section is across 60 miles of a mountain range. This section was built entirely of native stone with the flat face placed on the outside to face the enemy. This dry stonewall was built 20 feet high with 26-foot high beacon towers. The Qin army invented new weapons to exploit their advantage of their new wall. The most deadly of these was the crossbow that could hurl an arrow 250 yards with amazing accuracy. Other weapons included iron casting techniques to produce double edged swords which would not be known in the west for some 1,300 years later. The soft bronze swords of the enemy were no match for the double-edged iron swords of the Qin army. All of this was achieved at great economic and human costs. The emperor thought the wall would bring peace to the nation but the nation was weakened by the heavy cost of the construction. Ditches along the wall were filled with the corpses of workers who died building the wall. Deaths of wall workers are estimated to exceed one million. Some have claimed that the dead workers were entombed in the wall itself. Later investigations proved this untrue. Also decaying bodies would have weakened the structure and would not have been allowed. No society could sustain such a terrible burden. Taxation became heavier and heavier. Some 3,500,000 people were involved in the building of the Great Wall. That was 70% of the total population of China at that time. For each worker working on the wall, six were required to feed and support them. Construction of the Qin wall became the most loathed imperial plan in Chinese history. In 209 BC, Only a year after the death of the Qin Emperor, millions of laborers rose up and ended the tyranny and bloodshed of wall building. The Qin Dynasty had fallen, brought down by the building of the great wall. Within ten years much of the wall was a neglected ruin. Once again the northern border was at the mercy of the northern invaders. After three years of civil war in 206 BC the first Han Dynasty was formed under the Gao Di Emperor, Liu Bang. At first he attempted to appease the northern invaders with gifts and increased trade but peace was sporadic. A massive force of the Han army attacked the invaders and forced them back across the northern borders. To consolidate their victories they began to mark out their new extended borders. In many areas they simply restored the old Qin wall. In order to build walls in the desert of the west, new methods of construction had to be devised. Here the soil consists of a gravel of sand and small stones. They used alternating layers of red willows and the gravel and lots of tamping. This produced a wall that has survived for some 2,000 years. Using these techniques and hundreds of thousands of people, the Han were able to build the wall far into the Gobi desert. And where clay was used as a skin or coating it made the wall difficult to scale and protected it against the erosion of the weather. The Han leadership knew to have a strong frontier they not only needed to build a strong wall but they also needed crack troops to defend it. They developed a force of light cavalry that could foray into the enemy territory to check on the enemy movements in his own grounds. They had many victories against the Xiongnu. They then employed renegade Xiongnu horse masters to set up horse breeding stables and to train their troops in horsemanship. By the time of the sixth Han Emperor Wu Di some 66 years later, they had crushed the Xiongnu and the wall was extended some 300 miles into the Gobi Desert. The wall now extended across the principle trading routes and if you wished to trade with the Chinese you needed to enter through the gates in the wall. Around these gates towns were established and became the trade centers of the area. At most gates foreigners were not allowed to go past the gates so these became the portals of trade into China. One flawless example is the stunningly preserved Jade Gate. Built in 101 BC, it is 28 feet high and 66 feet square. Close by they built a fort for the Han soldiers defending the wall. This piece of the wall is 453 feet long, 115 feet wide and 23 feet high. The wall became more than a trade route and a barrier to keep out the enemy, it turned out to be vital for communications. Along its ramparts messages can be sent at incredible speeds from one end of the empire to the other. All along the northern border beacon towers were built every 15 to 30 miles. They formed a communication network, which ran from outposts deep into enemy territory to the ancient capital in the east. From these towers the Han troops used smoke by day and torches by night to send messages along the length of the wall. They burnt wood, and straw mixed with wolf dung, which produced rich black columns of smoke. Statutes firmly governed the code of these signals. One column of smoke indicated an impending attack by a force of less than 500. Two columns showed an attack by a force less than 3,000 and four columns indicated an attack by a force of up to 10,000.China would wait another 1,300 years before embarking on its greatest period of wall building. The Ming Dynasty built much of what remains today. They were driven by desperation to build the ultimate defense and lock the northern frontier once and for all. The Ming renovated the old Qin and Han walls and extended them. The Ming wall stretched some 4,500 miles from the Korean border at Dandong to the city of Jayuguan in the western desert. Today that fort is one of the most impressive, ornate, and sophisticated military constructions in the history of China. The Ming Dynasty came into power in 1368 inheriting a nation crushed by 100 years of rule by the Mongols. The mighty Genghis Khan had united these tribes in 1206 and had pushed their way through China. Ultimately they fell from within. A peasant revolt spelled the defeat of the Mongol empire. The leader of this revolt was Zhu Yangzhong who was installed as the first Ming Emperor. He immediately took up the challenge to begin building the great defense again. The enthusiasm in which the Ming emperors embraced this ambition was staggering. They built more wall than any other dynasty. The Ming wall was typically built with a stone facing over tamped inner clay. This wall was almost indestructible. The Ming bricks were a marvel of engineering holding up to a pressure of over 1000 pounds per square inch. The mortar was of super strength. The mortar was stronger than the bricks themselves. The puzzle of this super strength has now been solved. The mystery ingredient was rice flour. With innovations like these, the Ming was able to build spectacular monuments. A feature of the wall was water drainage systems that channeled the water to the Chinese side and withheld the water to the enemy side and thus inhibited plant growth and so denied cover to the attackers. Warning towers were built in enemy territory. These spurs were built out from the main wall and permitted the Chinese to attack the marauders from two sides. The armies were controlled from watchtowers that were built every 200 yards along the Ming walls. Locks and bolts secured the doors and windows from within creating a formidable fortress. From these towers the defenders could unleash arrows and spears from heavily protected slits. Later cannon were used. Having discovered gunpowder, the Ming was also the first to use hand grenades and mines. Stones were also pushed through special openings to create man made avalanches to crush the enemy. If the attackers succeeded in scaling the wall, the defenders could retreat to the guard towers. These guard towers were only accessible by retractable ladders.
Populations – Assessing Needs. Help me study for my Management class. I’m stuck and don’t understand.

A. DiversityDiscuss characteristics and aspects of diversity that could exist within populations of a rural community that do not exist in populations of an urban community? Consider demographics/characteristics of the population and available resources for health care. Please select a specific rural community to assess and include demographics, characteristics, health care needs, and resources within that community. 10 Points
B. Emerging TechnologiesChange is a challenge for communities as well as organizations. Analyze current and emerging technologies in health care experienced by populations in an urban community intended to support safety, efficiency in costs and or health outcomes. Identify one change in emerging technologies that has had an impact on healthcare. Example: HIT, Tele-Medicine, Robotics, Genomics, etc. This is an application exercise. Exemplar(s) are required. with resources that clearly articulate the value of the emerging technology. Use your knowledge of changes you have experienced, witnessed or researched through current literature. Reflect your thoughts. Discuss cost vs benefit to the community or patient population.
40 points
C. Needs Assessment and Strategic PlanningAssess needs of a rural population – either a community which you are familiar or a community you have researched. Identify a factor associated with socio/economic-cultural aspects that impact health and wellness. Recommend a strategic intervention that could be implemented by a nurse leader in a health care organization to improve health outcomes of the population. Be specific in identifying what can be initiated by a nursing leader or administrator.40 Points
* Organization of Paper
Consistency in accordance to APA & Administrative Report GuidelinesCorrect spelling, grammar, syntax. Include – Title Page; Intro. statement(s), headings, closing statement(s) and references (5 minimum). Word count: 500 – 1000. Synthesize information from resources, present information in your own words. Use direct quotes sparingly and only if there is power in a particular author’s words. In general direct quotes are not allowed in graduate work. However, as a nurse administrator, there are times you may need the power offered by an expert’s comment.
10 Points.
Populations – Assessing Needs

Strategies of Emirates Airlines Marketing Proposal

Strategies of Emirates Airlines Marketing Proposal. Abstract/Summary Emirates Airline is currently the largest airline company in the Middle East. This company was founded in the year 1985 (“Emirates Airline Profile”, 2012). The company is the “flagship and national airline of Dubai, United Arab Emirates” (“Emirates Airline Profile”, 2012, p.1). It is based outside the Dubai International Airport. Emirates Airline Company undertakes the operation of the four known longest flights across the globe and has “the largest order of A380 aircrafts” (“Emirates Airline Profile”, 2012). In the present day, this airline has more than one hundred destinations in over seventy nations across the world and has a fleet of over one hundred and eighty aircrafts (“The Emirates Story”, 2012). The company has been realizing constant expansion of its network even if it is fully owned by the state. Its growth has been realized through competition and not through state protection (“Emirates Airline Profile”, 2012). The company has been engaging in competition with the constantly increasing number of international airlines which capitalize on the “open-skies” policy that Dubai has put in place (“The Emirates Story”, 2012). The company’s success can be attributed to its effective marketing that enables it to win the competitive advantage and make profits (“The Emirates Story”, 2012). Putting place effective marketing strategies and methods have enabled the Emirates Airline Company to be very successful in the global market. Although the company has not been in business for a long time like most of its competitors, it has witnessed constant growth which has enabled it to become the leading airline in the Middle East and having destinations in all the continents of the world. Beginning from the time the company started its operations, it has been working hard to improve on its marketing in order to gain a higher market share. The company has been using its innovative power to come up with the best marketing strategies that have enabled it to grow. However, with the ever advancing technology and coming up of new challenges with each coming day, there is need for the company to continue being innovative and keep on improving its marketing strategies to ensure they become the world’s leading airline and be able to remain at the top. This research will aim at identifying any loopholes that may be in the marketing methods and strategies that have been put in place by Emirates Airline and how to bridge them. Bridging these loopholes or gaps in the strategies will enable this company to improve its performance beyond the present state in order to meet the ever increasing challenges in the market. Relevant objectives as well as research objectives have been set up in this proposal which will serve to guide this research project. Objectives To investigate the Emirates airline’s advertisement and marketing methods and strategies that enable it to gain competitive advantages. To examine how Emirate Airline’s marketing affects its global success. To identify the marketing changes that have occured in the company beginning from the time the company was established to the present. Project Outcomes Emirates Airline Advertisements and Marketing Methods and Strategies It has been found out that this company engages in aggressive advertisement in order to increase its market share (Marketing strategy and customer satisfaction, 2012). As a way to realize customer attraction to the highest level possible, the company advertises itself by using a number of slogans. The strategies employed by this company are aimed at ensuring that there has been exploitation of a number of issues concerning the business environment. Among these company’s branding slogans has been “Fly Emirates”. Emirates Airline Company has been offered a quite unique environment to market its business operations by Dubai. Some of the other slogans that have been used by the company in the course of time include “’the Finest in the Sky’, ‘Be Good to Yourself by Fly Emirates’, Fly Emirates – Keep Flying’, and ‘When was the last time you did something for yourself’” (Kumar 2012, p.1). Basing on the researches that have been conducted in the past about the use of the slogans by business organizations, it has been found out that some of the slogans used contribute quite positively towards the business performance by these organizations (Marketing strategy and customer satisfaction, 2012). It is pointed out that customers tend to abide by business slogans which seem to point out or deal with the needs that the company can meet (Marketing strategy and customer satisfaction, 2012). In the course of time, the Emirates Airline Company has been using the business slogans to hit back at other slogans used by the competitors which had exhibited themselves as being the best airline companies. Such business slogans as “’Be Good to yourself’ and ‘when was the last time you did something for yourself’ by the Emirates Airline ensure that customers feel treasured and cared for” (Marketing strategy and customer satisfaction, 2012, p.1). Just like most other airlines, Emirate Airline has engaged in diversifying the operations it carries out in various industries that are related. This approach has been used by the company in order to make sure that there is capitalizing on any other potential opportunity. It is reported that, in the past this company has utilized the “Flex-tracks program” with an intention of planning and fully optimizing the efficiency of a number of business routes as well as load factor (Marketing strategy and customer satisfaction, 2012). According to other reports, it has been found out that another strategy used by this company is the utilization of what is referred to as “tailored arrivals” and this strategy has been employed in putting the uplinks to aircrafts on route under control 9 Marketing strategy and customer satisfaction, 2012). For airline companies to bring up the level of their efficiencies of their operations, most of them in different parts of the world bring down the level of costs by making use of aircrafts like Boeing 777-3000ER. Such an aircraft makes use of one engine “to taxi aircraft engine thus increasing the efficiency of the whole process” (Marketing strategy and customer satisfaction, 2012, p.1). It is true to point out that the Emirates Airline Company has actually been able to put itself in a quite strategic position within the industry. The constant flourishing of the business market in Dubai and this nation’s constant cooperation with the rest of the world has gone on contributing towards Emirates airline’s improved performance. However, according to the researches that have been conducted, it has been clear that customer satisfaction levels in a large number of the airline companies have remained low (Marketing strategy and customer satisfaction, 2012). As a result of this, customers across the world have turned out to be “switchers”; moving their loyalties from one company to the other, on a constant basis. They move with a hope that they would possibly come across an honest company that they could trust. In the airlines industry, customer satisfaction involves making sure that the clients are given the services about which they have expectations of obtaining from the company on the basis of the price they pay for these services. This also involves making sure that clients arrive at their respective destinations via the shortest route available in the shortest time and at a minimum cost possible. Emirates Airline has been making efforts to capitalize on the existing opportunities and this company has been doing this by ensuring that it positions itself as the excellent global carrier since this airline by-passes some of the well-known hubs as it moves to various other destinations across the world (Marketing strategy and customer satisfaction, 2012) Another strategy that can be employed in order to realize customer satisfaction has involved finding out from the customers in a direct manner in order to be in a position of getting to know what the actual needs of these customers may be. The use of technology has as well been implemented to a high level to make sure there is integration of the needs of the customers into the business operations in the shortest time and at a lowest cost possible (Marketing strategy and customer satisfaction, 2012, p.1). A number of measures have been taken to make sure that there is receiving by the company’s management of the feedbacks that are given by the clients. These feedbacks may be in line with a number of issues that arise in the company which may be linked to the customer satisfaction either in a direct manner or an indirect one (Marketing strategy and customer satisfaction, 2012). As another strategy, this company engaged in launching a global campaign referred to as “Kids Go for Free” which has been very successful. Under this campaign the two parents can travel with two kids who are below the age 16 years without paying for them. A discount is also given to these families at the biggest shopping malls within Dubai (Emirates Airline, 2010). From this initiative, it can be seen that children are turning out to be most vital client groups in a number of industries. It is reported that the “Kids Go Free” promotion was quite successful in 2009 and served to attract more than twenty thousand travelers originating from seventy countries having Dubai as their destination. Basing on a particular survey in relation to this campaign, it was found that “the average family of four from Europe could save as much as 3000 pounds by taking advantage of the offer” (Bundhun, 2010). Other than the campaign enabling this company to increase its profitability, it also enabled the families to save large amounts of money. It is reported that, it was not only Emirates Airline that had knowledge about how important the kids market can be but an increasing number of companies also engaged in launching this campaign in order to increase their performance level as well the “customer awareness index” (McNeal, 1999). The campaign served in assisting Emirates Airline specifically and Dubai in general, to distinguish themselves as “cost-competitive alternative to other destinations” (Kotler, Bowen,Strategies of Emirates Airlines Marketing Proposal

Do Basketball Shooting Sleeves Really Help Improve Your Shooting Percentage?

best essay writers Do Basketball Shooting Sleeves Really Help Improve Your Shooting Percentage?. Abstract A basketball sleeve is worn by basketball players sometimes as an accessory or for the benefits of the compression. It extends from the biceps to the wrist and is made of nylon and spandex. I decided to find out whether basketball shooting sleeves really help improve your shooting percentage and efficiency. I needed a basketball court, but I wanted the experiment to go a little quicker, so I decided to use the Hoop Guru Swish 365 court in Hinckley, OH. They have The Gun 10k basketball shooting machine by Shoot-A-Way, which passes the ball back to the shooters after they shoot. There are eight shooting machines in the court. I used 14 test subjects for the experiment. For the experiment, I had each test subject shoot 25 free-throws with no sleeves, 25 with the sleeve on their dominant hand, 25 with the sleeve on their non-dominant hand, and 25 with both sleeves, so 100 free-throws in all. The results of the experiment were inconsistent. Some test subjects would get their best percentage using no sleeves, some would get their best using the sleeve on their dominant hand, etc. I then realized that shooting sleeves may help improve blood flow and reduce after game soreness, but it might just be that the player’s mind can trick them and make them feel that they are shooting good because of the sleeves. This is most likely an example of the placebo effect. My hypothesis was not supported by my data and results. Introduction Reason for Interest I love to play and watch basketball games. When I saw my favorite NBA players on TV and some kids on the opposite teams while playing with my travel basketball (AAU) team, wearing basketball shooting sleeves, I thought to myself, “Are they wearing shooting sleeves as a fashion statement or do shooting sleeves really help you in a basketball game?” That inspired me for my project, “Do Basketball Shooting Sleeves Improve Your Shooting Percentage?”. As a fan of basketball, I decided this would be a fun topic to research and experiment. Historical Background The first person to wear a shooting sleeve was NBA star, Allen Iverson. He began wearing it in the 2000-2001 NBA season because he had bursitis (inflammation of the bursa) in his elbow. He led his team, the Philadelphia 76ers, to the finals. They would lose to the talented Los Angeles Lakers, led by Kobe Bryant and Shaquille O’Neal, in a 4-1 series. Eventually, fans would start wearing sleeves as a fashion statement, and by 2008, the shooting sleeves were the most popular, non-apparel, items sold by the NBA. Long after Iverson’s elbow injury, he continued to wear his basketball sleeve. Many people believe it is the placebo effect, either Allen Iverson believes that the sleeve will prevent future injuries, or that it will make him play better because Iverson did have a phenomenal season when he started using the sleeve. The placebo effect is positive thinking of the person that makes the person feel better and confident and believes a treatment or procedure will work. Many basketball stars wear basketball sleeves in the NBA today, as if you watch a game you will see someone wearing a basketball shooting sleeve. Some examples of players who wear shooting sleeves are LeBron James, Russell Westbrook, Paul George, Kyrie Irving, and many others. Most people who wear sleeves would say that it helps them shoot better, which is why they are called shooting sleeves. In the end, we still do not have much proof to say whether shooting sleeves help you in the game. Scientific Background Most of the time, the reason athletes wear sleeves is for compression. Most athletes that wear a compression sleeve either said that the sleeve gives them confidence because it is stylish, or they wear it for compression purposes. Athletes from all sports wear these compression sleeves, whether they are leg sleeves, arm sleeves, or many more variants of the sleeves. People have been using compression sleeves that were originally intended to treat disorders relating to the veins like thrombosis for over 60 years. Compression sleeves used for sports are designed to squeeze blood vessels and open the blood vessels forcefully which helps lower your heart rate. Study shows that compression sleeves reduce muscle soreness. Overall, compression sleeves do prove to give you quicker recovery time and help your blood vessels move faster in your arm. They can also help if you have an elbow soreness. Shooting sleeves help to regulate the temperature in the arm, improve flexibility, and add compression to increase circulation. Some people like the feel of it and some people don’t. In conclusion, compression sleeves have a couple of medical benefits, and you would use it in a game if you like using it. Reason Proof Should be Done I was hoping if I can prove that basketball shooting sleeves really help improve your shooting efficiency, I can suggest all my teammates from my CYO (school) and AAU (travel) basketball teams to wear basketball shooting sleeves and thereby we all can shoot better, and our teams can become better basketball teams. How Information Can be Used The results of this experiment can be put to practical use by people to decide for themselves whether they want to use the shooting sleeves to their advantage or not. Experimental Problem, Need, or Question: Do basketball shooting sleeves increase one’s shooting percentage in basketball? Hypothesis or Design Statement: If I wear two basketball shooting sleeves, one on each hand, then I should have my highest possible basketball shooting percentage. Materials Two Elite Nike shooting sleeves Two CompressionZ arm compression sleeves Three Wilson NCAA basketballs The Gun 10k basketball shooting machine by Shoot-A-Way Hoop Guru’s Swish 365 gym in Hinckley, OH 10 test subjects Procedure Get your test subjects to consent for helping with the project Book a shooting session for one of the shooting machines in Hoop Guru, Hinckley at https://hinckley.swish365.com/book-a-shooting-session Use Hoop Guru’s Swish 365 gym for their shooting machines. Each test subject must shoot 25 free-throws with no sleeves, 25 with the sleeve on their dominant hand, 25 with the sleeve on the non-dominant hand, and 25 with both sleeves. Record the results. Repeat from step 1 for all the test subjects. Analyze the data. Observations During the experiment, I observed the results after each time the test subject used a different number of sleeves on their hands. Another qualitative observation I had was that the results of the experiment were very mixed and inconsistent. Some of my quantitative observations included measuring and recording the fraction of shots made by shots attempted and the percentage results. Also, I recorded how much shooting sleeves they were wearing, and I took pictures of the results after each set of 25 shots with a phone. The basketball shooting machines displayed the results after each of the 4 sets. Fig. 1. Graph of Shooting Percentage vs the number of shooting sleeves used by each test subject. Fig. 2. Graph of Average Shooting Percentage vs the number of shooting sleeves. Data Analysis The variable, which was the number of sleeves worn, did not make much of a difference. For each person, the results were different. One of the errors I did for some of my test subjects was that they were not warmed up. That would have changed the results. I should have let the test subjects take 10 to 20 free throws so they would be loose, warmed up, and ready to go. One uncontrolled event was that if the test subject was too short. On the Swish 365 basketball shooting machines, there was a net that surrounded the basketball hoop. It was a little high, so if you were short, you had to shoot with a high arc. For most of my test subjects it was fine, but there were one or two people that were short. The net could not be lowered. If I could have done this project differently, I would have researched a lot more on the science behind compression and compression sleeves. Also, I would have researched about how the compression sleeves helps with all sports. If I were to continue this project, I would have the test subjects shoot all around the court. Conclusion My hypothesis was that if I wear two basketball shooting sleeves, one on each hand, then I should have my highest possible basketball shooting percentage. My results do not support my hypothesis. My experimental results were mixed-some of my test subjects would get their highest shooting percentage with no sleeves, some would get their best with two sleeves, etc., on an average, there is no significant difference in their shooting percentages with sleeves or no sleeves. Shooting sleeves may help improve shooting posture, improve blood flow and reduce soreness. I think wearing a shooting sleeve might have psychological benefits on the person and it can also be a placebo effect on the player. It makes a player believe they can be better, so they become better and feel more confident. In order to become a good shooter and improve your shooting percentage, one must put in the time to practice under good coaching, instead of depending completely on shooting sleeves. The benefits that come with wearing shooting sleeves may help improve the player’s ability to shoot. In conclusion, no proof is shown that shooting sleeves help you improve basketball shooting efficiency. Credits Kishore Nalla-Bought the shooting sleeves and bought the membership for Swish 365 shooting machines. Sridevi Nalla-Taking pictures of the results at the court, booking a session for shooting machine and driving me to Hoop Guru when I needed to conduct the experiment. Nelson Schorr- (owner of Hoop Guru)-letting me, and my test subjects use the court for my experiment. All my test subjects-Aditya Nalla, Carlo Costanzo, Colin Southworth, Cooper Hughes, Owen Nance, Alex Hong, Evan Richter, Noah Gabric, Rafael Fini, Roman Fini, Matthew Muntean, Ben Thomas, Eli Skowronski and all their parents for giving consent to help with the project and driving them to Hoop Guru. References Aschwanden, Christie. Good to Go: What the Athlete in All of Us Can Learn from the Strange Science of Recovery. New York, N.Y: W.W. NortonDo Basketball Shooting Sleeves Really Help Improve Your Shooting Percentage?

Susan Case Study Vignette This essay will answer the 8 questions to evaluate Susan’s case study: Presenting Problem Susana

Susan Case Study Vignette This essay will answer the 8 questions to evaluate Susan’s case study: Presenting Problem Susana. Susan Case Study Vignette This essay will answer the 8 questions to evaluate Susan’s case study: Presenting Problem Susana twelve-year-old biracial female (Latina/Caucasian) who was referred for counseling services via the state child protection services (CPS). Susan engages in physical altercations with her peers on a daily basis, self-mutilates by cutting herself with safety pins, and reports feeling depressed. She also stated that she has difficulty sleeping at night and reported experimenting with alcohol and marijuana. Background Information Susan is the oldest child of six children in her family. She has twin sisters who are nine years of age, and three brothers ages six, four and two years of age. Susan’s mother is Latina and her father is Caucasian. Susan and her family are reportedly of a lower socio‐economic status. Susan’s mother works part time in a local grocery store as a check‐ out clerk and her father works as a stock manager at a large carpet company. Susan reported that her family “are barely making it” financially and that she often cannot have many of the material things that her female peers enjoy. A view of Susan’s social life reveals that Susan spends much time alone taking care of her siblings while her mother and father are at work. She reported that her father expects her to cook for the family and care for her mother who often complains of headaches due to her hypertension. She also reported hanging out with gang related friends whenever possible in order to drink alcohol, smoke marijuana and “have fun.” Susan attends a local public elementary school where she is reported to have progressively failing grades, particularly in math and reading. Additionally, Susan has been suspended from school on four separate occasions during this school year for physical altercations with classmates along with stealing their personal belongings. Additionally, Susan is not well liked by her peers at school due to her aggressive behavior Susan was psychiatrically hospitalized three months ago for a suicide attempt at which time she ingested some of her mother’s hypertension medication with the intention of killing herself. During Susan’s hospital stay, she complained of a burning sensation upon urinating and a vaginal discharge. Further testing revealed that Susan was suffering from a gonorrhea infection. Upon questioning, Susan reluctantly revealed that she had repeated sexual encounters with her father for the past four years. Hospital staff reported the disclosure to CPS. Following an investigation, CPS deemed the allegations as founded. Other than the gonorrhea, Susan’s physician reported that she is in good health. She was prescribed antibiotics for the gonorrhea and medication for the depression and sleeping problems. During counseling sessions, Susan stated that her mother is a very soft spoken, dependent woman who does just about everything her father tells her to do. On the other hand, Susan described her father as a “domineering bulldog” who is angry, drunk and violent most of the time. She stated that when her father drinks, he tells her how much he needs and depends on her. It Is During These Times That The Sexual Abuse occurs. Susan also stated that her father would frequently be at her mother in front of her and her siblings over trivial issues and then he would turn to Susan for consolation and support. She went on to state that she witnessed her mother and father having a “pretty bad fight” about five months ago to the extent that her mother suffered a head injury and had to be hospitalized. Susan stated that she tends to cut herself with a safety pin after her mother and father have a fight. She stated that the cutting helps her to“ feel alive again.” Susan has reported that she and her mother belong to a church, but her father does not believe in the Christian faith. Hence, she and her mother are seldom allowed to attend worship services. However, Susan stated that her mother has told her that their family problems are God’s will and that Susan should pray to be forgiven for fabricating the story about her father sexually abusing her. Susan describes her relationship with her mother as “two ships in the night” and that her mother pays more attention to her siblings than her. Susan stated that the sleep medication helps her a lot and she is now able to sleep through out the night. Questions to answer in Essay format: 1. Determine the developmental and cultural factors that are identified and need to be considered in Susan’s case. 2. Hypothesize how Susan’s mother’s cultural beliefs might have contributed to her response to Susan’s allegation of her father’s sexual abuse 3. Discuss how a therapist or case manager might address those beliefs. 4. Identify if Susan meets the criteria for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Acute Stress Disorder or Adjustment Disorder. 5. Is it possible that she may not meet the criteria for any disorder. 6. Provide a detailed rationale for your selection and/or position regarding Susan’s condition. 7. Describe the risks and benefits of mandated reporting in the Case of Susan. 8. Include any concern that may arise from your perspective Susan Case Study Vignette This essay will answer the 8 questions to evaluate Susan’s case study: Presenting Problem Susana

Man in the Mirror by Michael Jackson Research Paper

Man in the Mirror is one of the most popular songs by the late Michael Jackson. It addresses the theme of social change (Man in the Mirror). The change starts from an individual, who emphasizes on his or her call for change. The song was released in 1988. In 1991, it became an instant hit, becoming number 1 in rock music charts. Although the song was typified by very good messages, it was not the best in the “Bad” album. It was nominated for the record of the year at the Grammy Awards and, for two weeks, it remained at the top of the hottest 100. However, things were not good for the song in the United Kingdom. In fact, it only improved to the second most popular song in the nation after the death of Jackson. It also became the most downloaded song on iTunes, and about 1.3 million copies were purchased online, implying that a large number of people liked it across the world. The song was a departure from the style that had made Jackson famous in thriller and it did not focus on the musician and other characters like most of his previous works. It addresses a variety of world issues in a unique manner, unlike Bon Jovi’s We were not Born to Follow (Blake 114). Its images include the then president Ronald Reagan, civil rights heroes, such as Rosa Park, and video footages from the Iranian hostage crisis and KKK rallies. It also depicts Yoko Ono, John Lennon, South African activist Bishop Desmond Tutu, and Kennedy brothers, Hitler, and Gandhi (Man in the Mirror). Jackson wanted to show the world its best and worst sides so that each person could consider the change that he or she could bring about to impact the world at large. In other words, his intention was to use the song to inspire change all over the world, which is why he incorporated so many people and events that transcended geopolitical, sociocultural, and ideological borders (Schloss, Starr and Waterman 34). Glen and Garret did the composition of Man in the Mirror, although Jackson added some background vocals from Garret as well as the Andrea gospel choir, which gave the song a noticeable gospel feel. A G-Major and an AB3-C6 vocal range typify the song, while its tempo is 100bpn, and (Man in the Mirror). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Jackson and his producers concentrated on using the guitar and a synthesizer. Unlike traditional pop music, such as The Beatles and Rolling Stone, which predominantly used the guitar, this song is mostly a blend of instruments and synthesized music (Blake 110; Schloss et al. 78). There was probably little emphasis on the instruments since the song’s focus was on the message and the overall feel (Flory 140). It was meant to appeal to listeners’ deepest emotions, and there was no better way to do this than to use subtle and gentle instruments, and overt emotional vocals (Schloss et al. 65). It is claimed that the song displayed Jackson at his worst (Flory 140). It has been described as gentle and touching. According to many people, it has a gospel feel. It stands out among every good deed Jackson has done. Although he incidentally did not write it, he proceeded to give a personal commitment. This is demonstrated when he says that he would like the “man in the mirror” to change, which can only happen if there can be self-realization. The video was notable with regard to its departure from his traditional films since he is only seen in the last clip, wearing a distinctive red jacket, while a large crown was featured in the montage. However, it is ironic that in the last decade of his life, Jackson seemed to contradict nearly everything in the song. He was embroiled in numerous legal battles over sexual harassment, copyright issues, and drug addiction scandals. When examined in the context of his personal life, the song seems a simple and a sincere reflection that forced listeners to re-examine the relationship between the musician’s life and his music (Schloss et al. 102). Instead of embodying the self-improvement that he shows in the song, he seems to have gone the way of many other superstars who sing positivity, but wallow in drug addiction and other negative vices that ultimately destroy their lives and careers (Flory 136). During the Grammy Awards ceremony in 1996, Jackson performed a live extended version of the song. It is also important to note that Michael Jackson frequently performed it in dangerous world tours. He also performed in Brunei in the mid 1990s with the view of promoting unity among people from different ethnic groups. The event was known as “United We Stand”. During the Big Brother show in 2007, a contestant used it to rebuke several contestants who were bullying Shilpa Shetty, a Bollywood actor, and it was played in the house as an alarm the next morning, implying that it was a hit song. We will write a custom Research Paper on Man in the Mirror by Michael Jackson specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More I have lived most of my life in a diverse environment, and on some occasions experienced discrimination because of my race and gender. The song, therefore, appeals to me since it shows that we can always work together since each person tries to improve individually for the sake of humanity. In my opinion, one of the most important historical figures in the song is Mahatma Gandhi, who was an advocate for personal change. He believed that we should be the change we want to see in the world. Listening to the song, or watching the montages in the video, reminds me of the complex and even the evil world in which we live. People frequently harm each other for no tangible reasons, but in the same way, others have risked their lives to protect the weak and have dedicated their lives to making the world a better place for all of us. At the end of the day, it does not matter that one does not have power, influence or money, but the most important component of change is found free in all of us. The will and ability to change one’s mind about issues of politics, race, gender, and sexuality are all that the world needs to become a better place, and only a few songs have expressed this possibility better than Man in the Mirror. I am a firm believer that individual choices shape the world and not the other way round. As a result, the song will remain a timeless piece of art, both because of its ethereal feel and for its transcendent message. Works Cited Blake, David. “Between a Rock and a Popular Music Survey Course: Technological Frames and Historical Narratives in Rock Music.” Journal of Music History Pedagogy 5.1 (2014): 103-115. Print. Flory, Andrew. “Rock Narratives and Teaching Popular Music: Audiences and Critical Issues.” Journal of Music History Pedagogy 5.1 (2014): 135-142. Print. Man in the Mirror. Ex. Prod. Michael Jackson. New York, NY: MJJ Productions Inc. 1988. DVD. Schloss, Glenn, Larry Starr, and Christopher Waterman. Rock: Music, Culture, and Business. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 2012. Print.