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Landuse/landcover dynamics of Abuja FCT, Nigeria

ABSTRACT This study is about the Landuse/Landcover Dynamics of Abuja FCT, Nigeria. Abuja, the Federal Capital of Nigeria is a new, fast developing settlement area. As the City becomes more urban, the farmlands are reducing along with some landcover changes. Am using Landsat ETM images from 1987 and 2006 to show the different changes that has taken place within these periods due to population growth, increase in socio-economic activity, urban planning, environmental forces etc. INTRODUCTION Remote sensing has been an important component of urban and regional planning for long and has been used for many applications ranging from rural-urban change detection, deforestation, mineral exploration, vegetation changes, climate changes etc. The need for an accurate, relevant and detail and current information on the Earth’s land use and land cover dynamics is increasing and despite advances in satellite image technology, computer assisted image classification is still unable to produce accurate landuse /landcover maps and statistics. (Lo and Choi, 2004). A significant component of change detection methods using remote sensing is related to the characterization of both natural and urban ecosystem. Barnsley et al. (2001: p. 116) refer to land cover as “the physical materials on the surface of a given parcel of land (e.g. grass, concrete, tarmac, water),” and land use as “the human activity that takes place on, or makes use of that land (e.g. residential, commercial, industrial)”. Land use can consist of varied land covers, (i.e. a mosaic of biogeophysical materials found on the land surface). (Treitz et al. 2004) Remote sensing data record the spectral properties of surface materials, and hence, are more closely related to land cover than to Landuse which constitute a mixture of social, cultural, economic policy factors, which have little physical importance with respect to reflectance properties, and hence has a little relationship to remote sensing. Land use cannot be measured directly by remote sensing, but rather requires visual interpretation or sophisticated image processing. (Treitz et al. 2004) Information acquired from remote sensing data has often been used to help in Policy and decision making, resource management and planning, thereby providing insight into land-cover /land-use patterns, and trends .There has been a change in scale in the way in which remote sensing technologies, and analysis methods are being used to map out how land-cover and land-use change both at local, landscape, regional and continental scales that this days remote sensing images from satellite and airborne platforms provide digital data at scales of observation that meet various mapping criteria for characterizing different land covers. Land cover /land use can be mapped operationally now with satellites which provide high spatial detail thereby great scales of information as compared to aerial photographs. High spatial detail local- to landscape-scale analysis has great potential because satellites currently provide scales of information comparable to aerial photographs. For change to be detected between the different dates without error, a consistent atmosphere between dates must be modelled so that variations in atmospheric depth (i.e visibility) do not influence surface reflectance to the extent that land-cover change is detected with mistakes. (Treitz et al. 2004) A lot of study has been done on Landuse/landcover change by different people (Knorn et al, 2009, Erickson D.L, 1995, Mesev et al. 1997, Moller-Jensen.1997, Pauleit et al 2005, Poudevigne 1997, Rembold et al. 2000, Senay G.B and R.L. Elliott. 2000, Song et al. 2001). All these studies using very different tools and approach have pointed out different causes and effects of landuse/landcover dynamics. METHOD STUDY AREA The study area, Abuja the federal capital territory of Nigeria is situated within the geographic coordinates of Latitude: 09 10′ 00″ N and Longitude: 007 11′ 00″ E. It is located in the centre of Nigeria. Abuja was built mainly in the 1980s and officially became Nigeria’s capital on 12 December 1991. It has an area coverage of 713km2(275.3sqmi) and density of 1,091.9/km2(2,828/sqmi). As of the 2006 census, the city is said to have a population of 778,567. REMOTE SENSING IMAGE DATA The images used in this analysis were gotten from remote sensing centre in Nigeria. The images are landsat Tm image acquired in 1987 and Landsat ETM image acquired 2006. LANDSAT-1 was the first satellite (EOS), to be launched in the world. It was launched in 1972 in UnitedStates. Its excellent ability to observe the earth far from space made it important for use in different remote sensing applications. Following LANDSAT-1, LANDSAT-2, 3, 4, 5, and 7(currently operated as a primary satellite) were launched. IMAGE PROCESSING. These involves those operations that are normally required before the main analysis and extraction of information from the image and are grouped into two classes namely the radiometric and geometric corrections. Radiometric corrections include correcting the data for sensor irregularities and atmospheric noise, so that the data represent accurately the reflected radiation measured by the sensor. In geometric corrections variations in geometric distortions due to sensor-Earth conversion of the data (measured by the remote sensor) into real world coordinates on the Earth’s surface is carried out. Image processing helps in image preprocessing, enhancement, transformation, classification and analysis. CLASSIFICATION. Classification helps in categorizing and organizing the information deduced from the images. Before going into proper classifying, it is necessary to carry out image enhancement, false colour composition (in different band) and contrast stretching, which helps inmaking the different features appear clearly thereby help greatly in making visual interpretation easy and clear to seeS and distinguish the images in false colour (band 4:3:2). Classification of landcover is done through digital image classification by using the spectral information represented by the digital numbers in one or more spectral bands, and classify each pixel based on its spectral property and assigning class to the image. In this analysis two approaches to image classification was used. The per- pixel unsupervised classification and object-oriented supervised classification. UNSUPERVISED CLASSIFICATION. These classification creates a thematic raster layer from remotely sensed image by allowing the software identify statistical pattern in the data without using any real ground data. (Lillesand et al. 2008). SURPERVISED CLASSIFICATION In supervised classification requires that the analyst is familiar with the geographical area and the different surface cover types in that area. Which means the analyst is supervising the classification by categorizing the correct landcover with the correct associated pixel value. The objects within range were classified using 3 criteria, the segmentation performance to delineate urban object, the classification method performance on the fuzzy logical concepts and capability to create hierarchical link of landcover/landuse classes CHANGE DETECTION. In change detection, Images from earlier years are compared to recent images, to tangibly measure the differences in the sizes and extents of the loss or reduction or in some cases increase in any landcover class. Data from a variety of sources are used to provide complementary information. In this analysis, landsat image of 1987 and that of 2006 was compared to deduce the different changes that have taken place within that time frame between the years. ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION. From what we can see from the images in fig 8 and table 7, the green colour shows increasing about 10% or more while the Red colour shows decreasing of about 10% or more. We can see that the there is an increase in change in most of the landcover class with very little decrease (waterbody) observed. A lot of change has taken place as can be seen from the various images Urbanisation has the highest increase due to developmental changes because Abuja is Fast growing and developing. The vegetation is decreasing too and some of the rocky soil has reduced and some of the bare and rocky ground had some increased urban development.
Intensive Case Management: How effective is this approach for welfare recipients in obtaining self-sufficiency?.

Graduate research proposal: no more than 8-10 pgs including
cover & references1st pg: title2 section: Set Aim – Problems or Objectives – 1 page long
stating why this research is being proposed3rd section: Literature review – using 3 articles which provides
the historical research on intensive case management (ICM) used with welfare
recipients becoming self-sufficient. How is theory associated with the
effectiveness of the intervention (intensive case management) and barriers to
employment? Why is it important? I will upload relevant
articles4th section: Conceptual Framework – using a biopsychosocial
theory to support argument: there are multiple determining factors causing
welfare recipients to remain reliant on cash assistance. I will upload
the article used as a reference to support hypothesis5th section: Measurement – which tool will be used to collect
the data: Using an economic self-sufficiency tool to provide the
sampling. What is the design of the sampling and will be used to provide
support for the effectiveness of ICM with welfare recipients?6th sections: Conclusion – how does the proposal support the
research question?I will upload all relevant articles, my own draft/outline,
notes, suggested links for gathering additional informationHere are the articles not able to upload:1. Impact of intensive case management on child welfare system involvement for substance-dependent parenting women on public assistance authors: s. dauber, c. neighbors, c. dasaro, a. riordan, j. morgenstern2. Effectiveness of Intensive Case Management for Substance-Dependent Women Recieving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families authors: j. morgenstern, k. blanchard, b. mccrady, 3. Linking Program Implementation and Effectiveness: Lessons from a Pooled Sample of Welfare to Work Experiments authors: h. bloom, c. hill, j. riccio4. Mental Health Barriers to Employment for TANF Recipients author: l. stromwall5. The Cost-Effectiveness of Welfare-to-Work Programs: A Meta-Analysis authors: d. greenberg, a. cebulla6. Report: Moving People from Welfare to Work: Lessons from the National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies author: G. Hamilton7. Economic Self-Sufficiency: It’s Not Just Money authors: e. gowdy, s. pearlmutter8. Measurement Scale: Economic Self-Sufficiency Scale
Intensive Case Management: How effective is this approach for welfare recipients in obtaining self-sufficiency?

Information on Using SPSS

The opportunity arose to take part in The Introduction to SPSS tutorial, as this is a core POD within the research pillar of NGM I enrolled to take part. In addition, the ability to use this piece of statistical analysis software will be of benefit to me in completing other research POD’s, within my practicum and in my future career. In preparation for the tutorial I conducted some research on SPSS. My research concluded that SPSS stands for Statistical Package for Social Sciences and it is a prominent statistical analysis software package, due to its easy to use graphical user interface (GUI). SPSS was first developed in 1968 by Norman Nie, Tex Hull and Dale Bent at Stanford University and it has been widely used in industry and university research (Sawilowsky, 2007). It is a Windows based program that facilitates data entry and analysis and can be used to create tables and graphs. It can handle large amounts of data and can perform a multitude of analyses (IBM Analytics, 2016). It is frequently used within the Social Sciences and in the business fields, therefore, understanding this program should serve me well in the future. SPSS has the same general look a feel as most other Windows programmes, additionally, all procedures and functions are executed by a simple point-and-click. One must often navigate through the different layers of menu items before finding the required option. The SPSS screen displays two viewing modes; a data entry screen where entered or imported data is displayed. The second view is variable view where the properties of the individual variables can be seen: including name, variable type, variable length, label etc. SPSS allows for the simply importation of excel files. It also includes a number of the fundamental windows properties such as cut, copy, paste, find – making it easy for new users to gain an understanding of the system, particularly if one has experience using MS Office tools. An extensive range of data analysis functions can be performed using the tool, including hypothesis testing, frequencies, crosstabs, T-test, ANOVA, correlation, cluster analysis, factor analysis, discriminant analysis, missing value analysis and time series forecasting. As previously mentioned these functions are point and click automated, one can simply select the relevant variables, and SPSS will do the rest. Whilst the tutorial provided a good overview of SPSS and its functionality, time restrictions limited our ability to cover some of the more intricate elements of the underlying principles and code. To further my learning and understanding I have chosen to research some of those elements as part of my reflection and to enable me to better use the software in practice. 2.1 Variables and Cases Within statistical analysis data is a collection of different pieces of information or facts, called variables. A variable is an identifiable piece of data containing one or more values, they can take the form of a numbers or text (can be converted into number). For example, we could potentially have an age variable for each respondent or individual observation, these are cases – could be people, but could also be counties, organisations, countries, etc. Best practice states that variables should be contained in columns and observations in rows. In addition, the first row should be column headings and each dataset should contain at least one identifier (Torres-Reyna, 2011). 4 Table 1 Defining Variables (Source: Manchester Metropolitan University, 2008) 2.2 Values and Missing Values Value labels are used to define the coding system for individual variables. Occasionally questions may be left unanswered – through carelessness, unwillingness to provide the desired information or an inability to answer the question on the part of the respondent. In addition, some questions may not be relevant to individual respondents. Within SPSS values that are specified as user-missing are flagged for special treatment and are excluded from most calculations (IBM Knowledge Centre, 2016). 2.3 Measure in SPSS Figure 1Data Types (Source: Adapted from Garth, 2008) The last column needing to be defined is ‘Measure’. Here you must decide if a variable is Nominal, Ordinal or Scale. A Nominal (sometimes also called categorical) variable is one whose values vary in categories. It is not possible to rank the categories created. e.g. Gender varies in that an individual is either categorised as “male” or “female”. An Ordinal variable is one where it is possible to rank the categories or put them in an order. The intervals between the categories used are not defined. e.g. preference by an individual could be ranked: dislike a lot dislike neither dislike or like like like a lot Scale variables: An Interval variable is one where the measurement scale uses the same interval between one measurement and the next (but the zero point is arbitrary). e.g. Temperature is measured so that the interval between 19 degrees and 20 degrees is the same as the interval between 20 degrees and 21 degrees. The zero point on the Centigrade scale of measurement is arbitrarily set (freezing point of water) and does not mean there is “no temperature”. A Ratio variable is the same as an interval variable but there is a true zero point. For example, height is a ratio variable, as a value of zero centimeters means there really is “no height” .

HE551 PU Global Student Development Theories English Essay Help

essay writer free HE551 PU Global Student Development Theories English Essay Help.

Reflection can be a powerful
tool for learning. Thinking back on what you have learned and how you
can apply it to future problems helps solidify your learning and connect
it to other things you already know.Throughout this course you
have reviewed a great number of student development theories. You have
discussed their limitations and applicability (or lack thereof) to
differing racial, ethnic, and cultural groups. You have also had the
opportunity to apply the theory to a character in a novel and to case
study situations. As you reflect back on the course, and on student
development theory in general, answer the following questions:What is one thing that you understand now about student development that you did not understand when you began the course?Do you have one “favorite” theorist? Why or why not?Did
you find that you struggled with one particular theory or theorist? Was
it the material or the ideals of the theory that made you struggle?As
you think about using student development theory as a Student Affairs
professional, what do you think will be the greatest challenges? What do
you think will come easily?As you think about your next
course, what excites you most? Do you think student development theory
will help you in your next course? Explain your answer.
HE551 PU Global Student Development Theories English Essay Help

Adventure tourism and development: Conservation or exploitation Term Paper

Introduction Adventure tourism or eco-tourism is a type of tourism which involves exploration and recreation activities. The destination of travel is usually exotic and remote with extremely hostile environment. The tourist has the opportunity to engage with nature through physical activities such as mountaineering, bungee jumping, rafting and rock climbing among others. Adventure tourism is common in Nepal, and the main activities are mountain climbing, trekking and river-running. The tourist can also have an opportunity to meet with the people of that community, therefore, cultural exchange (Buckley, 2006). The activities of adventure tourism have both positive and negative effects on the environment and social life of the habitat. The impact on the environment and community directly affect the development of tourism globally. Therefore, for sustainable development of tourism, it is essential to know the impacts of adventure tourism to the environment and community. This will help in planning and management of tourism, to be able to reach targeted development goals. Advantages of adventure tourism The impact of adventure tourism is mainly caused by the development projects and the tourists who visit the area. Easy to develop The cost of starting up a recreational centre for adventure tourism is relatively low as compared to the other types of tourism. Therefore, it is easy for one to set up in any economic region and can be set up by a local or foreign investor. Job Opportunities The rise of the tourism industry in any area creates job opportunities for locals and foreigners. The jobs are created as a result of the development projects which may need both experts and casual laborers. They also employ local guides, use of local transport and local supplies among others. Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Environmental Awareness Adventure tourism is has become common in protected areas and, therefore, the entrepreneurs should encourage the tourists to practice responsible tourism. The providers of adventure tourism take part in raising awareness on ways of protecting the environment. Improved education and health facilities As a result of availability of jobs and economic development, community is able to create education and health facilities. At the same time, the tourists get knowledge about the beauty and natural phenomena. This can make them ambassadors who will fight for the protection and supporters for the conservation activities in the visited regions. Better Land Management In a community where adventure tourism is practiced there is a possibility of good land usage because people have knowledge on the benefits of land. Giving Back to Communities The tourism industry participates in activities of the community through funding the cultural and social events. The customers also give back to the community by buying souvenirs after their visit. Economic development The constant arrival of tourists in a community helps improve the economy of that community. For example, in the arctic the tourists help to boost the economy and reduce the over reliance on natural resources (Snyder, 2007). Disadvantages of adventure tourism Besides the positive impacts of adventure tourism it also has negative impacts on both the community and the environment. The development through tourism causes impacts which may be particularly harmful to the region and its environment, for example, pollution from the hotel industry, construction activities and tourist activities. Economic impact: the cost of responding to environmental effects is usually high for the community. For example, oil spill and lack of equipment to deal with emergencies such as fire. Social impact: During the peak season of tourism, the community’s social norms are affected. The dominant presence of tourists during this season alters the roles and functions of the local institutions such as education and religious. This causes a disruption in the community. Cultural impacts: The natural environment and traditional lifestyle are affected by the effects of tourism, therefore, fewer tourists hence economies of scale. The loss of artifacts which are later sold to international markets cause loss of cultural heritage. Environmental effect: The tourists, for example, in Nepal may litter the environment with plastic bottles and tissues, which is supposed, to be protected and the pollution of water from the waste from hotels. For example, in Nepal firewood is used as a source of fuel for cooking. The effect of cutting trees causes soil erosion and extreme floods (Boniface

St. Peter’s Basilica by Gian Lorenzo Bernini Research Paper

The St. Peter’s Basilica is a catholic church which has been revived with the influence of classical models present between 14th and 16th centuries (McCurry, 58). Contrary to what many people believe, the church is not a cathedral. The basilica has been the recipient of many Christian worshipers from all over the world since 4th century. Pilgrims have traveled from countries like Japan and Greenland to worship there (McCurry, 60). Others have just come to adore the architectural expertise evident from the building which has immense history. It is located right in the middle of the Vatican City in Italy. The Vatican City is the smallest country in the world and has been dedicated to catholic worship. Its interior is larger than any other Christian church in the world, and most Catholics regard the church as the holiest place on earth. Others believe that the church is special in the eyes of God. Catholics view it as the supreme church or the father of all churches. According to history, the church was initially intended to be the burial site for saints with the name Peter. Therefore, Peter (the Jesus’ disciple and the first pope) is believed to have been buried at a place which the basilica was built. It is believed that his burial place is just beneath the altar in the church although the exact location has never been proven yet. Afterwards, popes have been buried in this church since the era of pioneering Christians (McCurry, 80). The church is an outstanding piece of architectural work and even some regard it as the greatest structure in the modern history. It has a dome centrally placed on top of it which forms a prominent part of the city’s skyline. The dome is one of the largest in the world and is placed at the center of the basilica; therefore, it occupies a lot of space. The basilica is shaped in the form of a Latin cross which has one elongated side. The initial building was still in form of a cross but all the sides were equal. The interior is enormous decorated with limestone, thin covering of gold, sculptures and designs standing out from the wall surfaces. There are various tombs belonging to popes, but the major attraction is the ceremonial canopy over the altar which was designed by Michelangelo (McCurry, 81). The initial St. Peter’s Basilica was built in the middle years of the 4th century by the Emperor Constantine; who was trying to convert the whole Roman Empire citizens to Christians. The church had a basic cross shape with a large semi-circular recess with a domed roof at the part near the altar reserved for the clergy. Its length was 341 feet and like many other churches at that time, the entrance was on the eastern side. Nowadays, that church is called Old St. Peter’s Basilica to differentiate it from the present one (McCurry, 84). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The church was in bad condition nearing the end of 15th century and needed major repairs. The first notable pope to make effort to repair it was Pope Nicholas the fifth. He gave special instructions to three architects to come up with a plan to repair or do an extreme makeover. However, he died before anything could have been done although the Colosseum had been demolished. The building of the Basilica continued from the proceeding Pope Julius the 2nd to Pope Innocent the 10th. The building was mainly funded by fund-raisings in a very strange way. People were offered indulgence in return for their contributions. This method brought a lot of controversies that it formed the basis of the emergence of Protestants (McCurry, 85). One of the designers of this basilica was Gian Lorenzo Bernini. Bernini was among the top sculptors of his time; therefore, he was able to earn a commission in the designing of the church. He was the one who designed the Piazza San Pietro that is found at the front of the church. The Pizza San Pietro is one his groundbreaking piece of art work to this day. He was also responsible for designing the interior of the church giving it its smooth finish (Posner, 26). Gian Lorenzo Bernini was an Italian who majored in sculptures and a great enthusiast of artistic expressions. Other than creating sculptors, he also painted and wrote stage plays while in Rome. Bernini had the talent of making limestone sculptors have a storyline with such great reality; that was a shock to many people. With such talent, he was able to rise in the ranks of the greatest sculptors, even defeating Alessandro Algardi. In fact, he was able to produce artworks that combined various forms of art as demonstrated by the interior of the basilica. Bernini was a deeply religious person, and that is evident from his works. He was using light figuratively to give an insight on his thoughts regarding religion. He made sure that the hidden light brought out the theatrical moment of the sculpture’s storyline (Posner, 27). Bernini was the son of Pietro and Angelica who lived in Naples until Bernini turned 7. When he was seven, he and his father re-located to Rome. His father was also a sculptor who was involved in the high profile projects in Italy. His talent was immediately recognized by Pope Paul the fifth and immediately, Pope’s nephew started sponsoring his projects. He received much of his inspiration from sculptures made by Hellenistic. Under the sponsorship of Cardinal Borghese, the Pope’s nephew, he was able to rise through the ranks. Some of the works he did for the Cardinal was “The Goat Amalthea” and a couple of head, shoulder and chest sculptures like the “Damned Soul”. In his early twenties, he finished the Pope’s bust. Most of these works were secular and not religious at all. Being a high profile sculptor, Bernini was never short of funds. He was highly paid and his fame had spread even to France. In fact when he went to France, he was idolized by most of the French artists (Posner, 29). We will write a custom Research Paper on St. Peter’s Basilica by Gian Lorenzo Bernini specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More After Maffeo Barberini was made Pope, he adopted the name Urban the eighth and he was very close to Bernini. He himself was an art lover and he had urged Bernini to concentrate on sculptures when he was young. Urban had great plans to do a complete make over of the Catholicism through arts. The most significant work that was done under the pope was the designing of Baldachin which was headed by Bernini. The baldachin was to be located on St. Peters grave (Posner, 33). The initial plan required the angels, which are presently on the pillars, to clutch a trailing plant but, Bernini swiftly altered it so that the angels appeared as they do today. The building of the Baldacchino was such a daunting task; its 94 feet 3 inches tall and 94 tons. It had the expenses of approximately 10% of the Church’s earnings of 1624. During the construction, the major setback was that the bronze was not an adequate. Pope Urban travelled to the ancient temple of traditional gods to take the bronze from the veranda. While there, he took more than enough such that the left over metal casted 81 canons. In molding the pillars, Bernini used the ‘Lost Wax Process’ which was clever, although, he got unfavorable opinions from some architects for combining art and simple replication (Posner, 40). Even before the Baldacchino project was over, he was reassigned to design and oversee the renovation of St. Peters Basilica. The first thing he designed was a container for holding holy relics which was actually St. Peter’s Chair. The reliquary was later redesigned under the proceeding pope. The new one depicts 8 saints gripping a bronze container that had a chair. The saint’s fingers hold the edges of the container to show how Christianity can be strong under the leadership of the pope. It means that the authority of pope is beyond other earthly spiritual beings, which was odd since the Popes only ruled a small part of Rome. Like in his previous project, Bernini’s message remains the same; the authenticity of the Pope leadership (Posner, 47). Bernini’s concluding major contribution to St. Peter’s Basilica was requested by Pope Alexander; Pope Alexander’s grave. It would also the last major task done at St. Peter’s. Bernini was now 81, and he only engraved the hands and head of Alexander’s form, and he supervised the rest of the work to the end. There was only one area left to construct the grave, and it was smaller than expected since there was a huge door at the center. Bernini cleverly included the door as a part of the grave. The door appeared as if it was a way to the life after. Alexander’s statue is decorated with a veil, and he appears to be kneeling praying that his spirit gains victory over death (Posner, 50). In conclusion, all of the work that Bernini was involved in during the make over of St. Peter’s Basilica, bared a single theme; the confirmation of Pope’s power in the world and in heaven. Not sure if you can write a paper on St. Peter’s Basilica by Gian Lorenzo Bernini by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It has been known that Rome was a city of immense corruption, but that changed in the 17th century. Urban made a resolution to revive the profligacy of arts in religion. Pope Urban the eighth made use of the chance he got to use combined forms of art to depict the Papal authenticity. He was able to bring back the Papacy to a point of esteem status. This is the very reason he selected an artist who was able to combine different forms of arts like painting and sculpture; Gian Lorenzo Bernini. Bernini was able to bring out the political plan of the Papacy via the construction of St. Peter’s Basilica. Through the church, he was able to encourage the viewers to have more trust in the popes. Gian Lorenzo Bernini was indeed a skilled sculptor, since he was able to describe the creative styles of the ornate (Posner, 56). Despite of the Basilica making quite a landmark, it did not in the people’s heart eventually. The Roman Catholic soon lost grip of the people due to the mixture of Roman ancient religion and Christianity. Thus, there was the emergence of the Protestants. Although the basilica has spiritual significant to staunch Catholics, the rest of the world views it as a great piece of architectural work (Posner, 56). Works Cited McCurry, Steve. “St. Peter’s Basilica.” Christianity 12.5 (2002): 58-89. Print Posner, Nick. “Gian Lorenzo Bernini.” Sixteenth Century Artist 34.7 (1997): 24-56. Print